Sample records for piper betle leaves

  1. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

    PubMed Central

    RAHIM, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; THURAIRAJAH, Nalina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. Material and Methods S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. Results It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm2 glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. Conclusion The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved. PMID:21552715

  2. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

  3. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    ALAM, BADRUL; MAJUMDER, RAJIB; AKTER, SHAHINA; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05). Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in the extract-treated mice compared with the EAC control mice. MPBL and EPBL treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05) and restored GSH, SOD and CAT levels towards normal compared with the EAC control. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that Piper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential. PMID:25624910

  4. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  5. Piper betle-mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punuri, Jayasekhar Babu; Sharma, Pragya; Sibyala, Saranya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-08-01

    Here, we report the novel use of the ethonolic leaf extract of Piper betle for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. The successful formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, and different parameters such as leaf extract concentration (2%), gold salt concentration (0.5 mM), and time (18 s) were optimized. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized with different biophysical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM experiments showed that nanoparticles were of various shapes and sizes ranging from 10 to 35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that AuNPs were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group -NH2, carbonyl group, -OH groups, and other stabilizing functional groups. EDX showed the presence of the elements on the surface of the AuNPs. FT-IR and EDX together confirmed the presence of biomolecules bounded on the AuNPs. Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was tested on HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and they were found to be nontoxic, indicating their biocompatibility. Thus, synthesized AuNPs have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  7. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

  8. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg?mL?1; (iii) 3 mg?mL?1; and (iv) 6 mg?mL?1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)?mL?1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  9. Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats

    PubMed Central

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Ruban, Vasanthakumar Vasantha; Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Anandhi, Ramalingam; Thomas, Philip A.; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a dominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the putative antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were evaluated in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 (300?mg/kg?b.wt) in Wistar rats. Saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats revealed significantly higher mean blood/serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and of serum hepatic marker enzymes; in addition, significantly lower mean serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly lower mean activities of enzymatic antioxidants and nonenzymatic antioxidants were noted in hepatic tissue samples from saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats, compared to controls. However, in hypercholesterolemic rats receiving the Piper betle extract (500?mg/kg?b.wt) or eugenol (5?mg/kg?b.wt) for seven days orally, all these parameters were significantly better than those in saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. The hypercholesterolemia-ameliorating effect was better defined in eugenol-treated than in Piper betle extract-treated rats, being as effective as that of the standard lipid-lowering drug, lovastatin (10?mg/kg?b.wt). These results suggest that eugenol, an active constituent of the Piper betle extract, possesses antihypercholesterolemic and other activities in experimental hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. PMID:24523820

  10. Piper betle induces phase I & II genes through Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from wild type and Nrf2 knockout cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a primary transcription factor, protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating a number of antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Dietary components such as sulforaphane in broccoli and quercetin in onions have been shown to be inducers of Nrf2. Piper betle (PB) grows well in tropical climate and the leaves are used in a number of traditional remedies for the treatment of stomach ailments and infections among Asians. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of Piper betle (PB) leaves extract in Nrf2 signaling pathway by using 2 types of cells; mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (N0) mice. Methods WT and N0 cells were treated with 5 and 10 ?g/ml of PB for 10 and 12-h for the determination of nuclear translocation of Nrf2 protein. Luciferase reporter gene activity was performed to evaluate the antioxidant response element (ARE)-induction by PB. Real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted on both WT and N0 cells after PB treatment for the determination of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and heme-oxygenase (HO-1)], phase I oxidoreductase enzymes [NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)] and phase II detoxifying enzyme [glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 by PB in WT cells was better after 10 h incubation compared to 12 h. Real time PCR and Western blot analysis showed increased expressions of Nrf2, NQO1 and GSTA1 genes with corresponding increases in glutathione, NQO1 and HO-1 proteins in WT cells. Reporter gene ARE was stimulated by PB as shown by ARE/luciferase assay. Interestingly, PB induced SOD1 gene and protein expressions in N0 cells but not in WT cells. Conclusion The results of this study confirmed that PB activated Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway which subsequently induced some phase I oxidoreductase, phase II detoxifying and antioxidant genes expression via ARE reporter gene involved in the Nrf2 pathway with the exception of SOD1 which may not be dependent on this pathway. PMID:24559113

  11. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Milton Prabu, S.; Muthumani, M.; Shagirtha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

  12. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  13. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  14. Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1) in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) Species

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Nur Alyaa; Jamaludin, Nor Hazwani; Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 106?cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37?°C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C). Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6?mg/mL for 24?h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1?mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product. PMID:23853657

  15. Rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper (Piper guineense) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, Laura C; Ekechi, Constance A

    2014-01-01

    The rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper leaves were investigated at hydration temperatures of 28, 60, 70, and 80°C. Four treatments were given to the leaves: blanched and sun dried, unblanched and sun dried, blanched and shade dried, and unblanched and shade dried. The hydration process of the dehydrated leaves was adequately described by the Peleg's equation. As the hydration temperature increased from 28 to 70°C, there was a significant decrease in the Peleg's constant K1, while for most of the leaves the Peleg's constant K2 varied with temperature. Rehydration ratio values ranged from 3.75 in blanched shade dried leaves to 4.26 in unblanched sun dried leaves with the unblanched leaves generally exhibiting higher ratios than the blanched leaves. PMID:25493183

  16. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Paula Araújo; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; Sousa, Ilza Maria de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in anticancer drug discovery field, the worldwide cancer incidence is remarkable, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on both cancer cell and its microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including inflammation. Nowadays, almost 75% of the anticancer agents used in chemotherapy are derived from natural products, and plants are an important source of new promising therapies. Continuing our research on Piper umbellatum species, here we describe the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models) activities of a standardized dichloromethane extract (SDE) from P. umbellatum leaves, containing 23.9% of 4-nerolidylcatechol. SDE showed in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity, reducing Ehrlich solid tumor growth by 38.7 and 52.2% when doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg, respectively, were administered daily by oral route. Daily treatments did not produce signals of toxicity. SDE also reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced inflammation models, suggesting that the anticancer activity of SDE from Piper umbellatum leaves could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings highlight P. umbellatum as a source of compounds against cancer and inflammation. PMID:25713595

  17. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Paula Araújo; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; Sousa, Ilza Maria de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in anticancer drug discovery field, the worldwide cancer incidence is remarkable, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on both cancer cell and its microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including inflammation. Nowadays, almost 75% of the anticancer agents used in chemotherapy are derived from natural products, and plants are an important source of new promising therapies. Continuing our research on Piper umbellatum species, here we describe the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models) activities of a standardized dichloromethane extract (SDE) from P. umbellatum leaves, containing 23.9% of 4-nerolidylcatechol. SDE showed in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity, reducing Ehrlich solid tumor growth by 38.7 and 52.2% when doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg, respectively, were administered daily by oral route. Daily treatments did not produce signals of toxicity. SDE also reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced inflammation models, suggesting that the anticancer activity of SDE from Piper umbellatum leaves could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings highlight P. umbellatum as a source of compounds against cancer and inflammation. PMID:25713595

  18. Eupomatenoid-5 Isolated from Leaves of Piper regnellii Induces Apoptosis in Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Francielle Pelegrin; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Silva, Sueli de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania spp. are protozoa responsible for leishmaniasis, a neglected disease that kills up to 50,000 people every year. Current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their poor efficacy and safety and increased drug resistance. An urgent need exists to find new and more affordable drugs. Our previous study demonstrated the antileishmanial activity of eupomatenoid-5, a neolignan obtained from leaves of Piper regnellii var. pallescens. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mode of action of eupomatenoid-5 against L. amazonensis. We used biochemical and morphological techniques and demonstrated that eupomatenoid-5 induced cell death in L. amazonensis promastigotes, sharing some phenotypic features observed in metazoan apoptosis, including increased reactive oxygen species production, hypopolarization of mitochondrial potential, phosphatidylserine exposure, decreased cell volume, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. PMID:23573160

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  20. Identification of Piper yellow mottle virus, a mealybug-transmitted badnavirus infecting Piper spp. in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. L. Lockhart; Kittisak Kiratiya-Angul; P. Jones; Lily Eng; Padmini De Silva; N. E. Olszewski; Nikki Lockhart; Nuanchan Deema; J. Sangalang

    1997-01-01

    A previously undescribed badnavirus was found to be a causal agent of a disease of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and was also associated with a disease of betelvine (P. betle) in Thailand. Disease symptoms included chlorotic mottling, chlorosis, vein-clearing, leaf distortion, reduced plant vigor and poor fruit set. The virus, named Piper

  1. Spatial influence on the important volatile oils of Piper nigrum leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Utpala Parthasarathy; G. R. Asish; T. J. Zachariah; K. V. Saji; Johnson K. George; K. Jayarajan; P. A. Mathew; V. A. Parthasarathy

    Piper nigrum L. is found in a vast altitudinal diversity, and shows great adaptability to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions, which leads to inter-species diver- sity. P. nigrum collected from the Western Ghats of Karnataka and Kerala were studied for the leaf vola- tile oil with the help of gas chromatography and the results are plotted in

  2. EFFECTS OF FIXED BED DRYING ON THE YIELD AND COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM LONG PEPPER (Piper hispidinervium C. DC.) LEAVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazareno P. Braga?; Marco A. Cremasco?; Rita C. C. R. Valle

    Piper hispidinervium C.DC. (Piperaceae) is popularly known as long pepper. It grows in degraded areas of natural fields in the State of Acre, Brazil. Its leaves contain 3 to 4% of essential oil rich in safrole, within the range 90 to 94%. In the chemical industry, safrole is an important raw material, mainly due to two of its derivatives: heliotropin,

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Antidermatophytic Bioactive Molecules from Piper longum L. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayshree; Jha, D K; Policegoudra, R S; Mazumder, Afjal Hussain; Das, Mrinmoy; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L

    2012-12-01

    Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) commonly known as "long pepper" is a well known medicinal plant in ayurveda. Different parts of this plant, such as root, seed, fruit, whole plant etc. are used traditionally in various ailments. Here we have investigated the antidermatophytic activity of sequentially extracted petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts from P. longum leaf against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, Microsporum fulvum and M. gypseum. Better activity of chloroform and methanol extracts was observed. The chloroform extract was selected for further study and the MIC value was recorded as 5.0 mg ml(-1) against the test organisms. In the chloroform extract, tannins and phenolic compounds were detected. Further activity-guided fractionation of chloroform extract by silica gel column chromatography yielded nine major fractions. Among these, fraction-1, 4, 5 and 7 showed higher antidermatophytic activity. Fraction-4 on further purification by repeated column chromatography yielded a potential antidermatophytic fraction showing MIC value of 0.625 mg ml(-1) against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum as determined by broth microdilution method. The major compounds were identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (C24H38O4] (41.45 %), 2,2-dimethoxybutane (C6H14O2] (13.6 %) and ?-myrcene (C10H16) (6.75 %) based on GC-MS data. PMID:24293721

  4. Piperidine alkaloids from Piper methysticum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Dragull; Wesley Y. Yoshida; Chung-Shih Tang

    2003-01-01

    Pipermethystine (1), 3?,4?-epoxy-5?-pipermethystine (2) and awaine (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of kava (Piper methysticum G. Forster, Piperaceae) and identified by HRMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. 1 was concentrated in the stem peelings and leaves. 2 and 3 are new alkaloids with 2 found only in cv. Isa among the 11 cultivars examined, and 3 occurred primarily in

  5. Actividad antifúngica in vitro de extractos crudos de Piper tuberculatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahyda G. F. Palacios; Guillermo E. Delgado; Mario C. Moreno; Massuo J. Kato; Consuelo Rojas

    Piper tuberculatum Jacq. (Piperaceae) is used in traditional Peruvian medicine as anti-inflammatory and disin - fectant of wounds in humans and domestic animals. This species contains amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. The aim of this work was to investigate antifungal activity of crude extracts from the spikes, leaves and stems of wild plants extracted with CH 2

  6. Cenocladamide, a dihydropyridone alkaloid from Piper Craig D. Dodsona,

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Lee

    Cenocladamide, a dihydropyridone alkaloid from Piper cenocladum Craig D. Dodsona, *, Lee A. Dyera alkaloid, cenocladamide, and a derivative of piplartine, 4'-desmethylpiplartine were isolated along cenocladum; Piperaceae; Leaves; Dihydropyridone alkaloids; N-(3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoyl)-D3 -pyridin-2-one

  7. Antimycobacterial compounds from Piper sanctum.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rachel; Morales, Iliana; Pérez, Olga; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Acevedo, Laura; Enriquez-Mendoza, Isolda; Bye, Robert; Franzblau, Scott; Timmermann, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    Bioassay-guided chromatographic separation of the antimycobacterial extract of the leaves of Piper sanctum afforded 14 new compounds, identified as 2-oxo-12-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)dodecane (1), 2-oxo-14-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)tetradecane (2), 2-oxo-16-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)hexadecane (3), 2-oxo-18-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)octadecane (4), 2-oxo-14-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-trans-13-tetradecene (5), 2-oxo-16-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-trans-15-hexadecene (6), 2-oxo-18-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-trans-17-octadecene (7), 2-oxo-16-phenyl-trans-3-hexadecene (8), methyl [6-(10-phenyldecanyl)tetrahydropyran-2-yl]acetate (9), methyl 2-(6-tridecyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)acetate (10), methyl 2-(5-tetradecyltetrahydro-2-furanyl)acetate (11), 2-oxo-14-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-trans-3-tetradecene (12), 2-oxo-16-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-trans-3-hexadecene (13), and 2-oxo-16-phenyl-3-hexadecane (14). In addition, p-eugenol (15), methyleugenol (16), Z-piperolide (17), demethoxyyangonin (18), 5,6-dehydro-7,8-dihydromethysticin (19), cepharanone B (20), piperolactam A (21), cepharadione B (22), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (23), and N-trans-(p-coumaroyl)tyramine (24) were obtained from the anti-TBC stem extract of the plant. GC-MS and HPLC analyses of the essential oils of the leaves and stem revealed that safrol (25) was the major component of the oils. Compounds 2, 3, 6, 18-21, and 24 inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis when tested by the MABA assay, with MIC values ranging from 4 to 64 microg/mL. PMID:15620234

  8. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Tucker, C.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-pointed telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.

  9. Antifungal compounds from Piper species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...

  10. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...December 3, 1979. Also, the type certificate data sheet (TCDS) did not clearly distinguish the serial numbers for the Models...with Piper Aircraft, Inc. to clarify the serial numbers in the TCDS. Relevant Service Information We reviewed Piper Aircraft...

  11. Anti-tuberculosis neolignans from Piper regnellii.

    PubMed

    Scodro, R B L; Pires, C T A; Carrara, V S; Lemos, C O T; Cardozo-Filho, L; Souza, V A; Corrêa, A G; Siqueira, V L D; Lonardoni, M V C; Cardoso, R F; Cortez, D A G

    2013-05-15

    The present study determined the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activities of supercritical CO2 extracts, neolignans eupomatenoid-5 (1), conocarpan (4) and eupomatenoid-3 (7) and their derivatives (2, 3, 5, 6, and 8) from Piper regnellii, as well as their cytotoxicities. The supercritical CO2 extract from leaves was purified by chromatographic methods, yielding compounds (1), (4) and (7), which were identified by (1)H NMR and comparison with literature data. Anti-M. tuberculosis activity (H37Rv and clinical isolates) was evaluated using a resazurin microtiter assay plate (REMA) to determine the MIC. The cytotoxicity assay was carried out in macrophages J774G.8 by sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. The supercritical CO2 extracts from leaves and stems, and compound (4) showed activity against M. tuberculosis (MIC 15.6 ?g/ml). Compound (1) showed the best activity (MIC 1.9 ?g/ml), with good SI. Compounds (7) and (8) showed low activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The derivative compounds did not show increased anti-M. tuberculosis activity. This is the first report, to our knowledge, to describe neolignans from P. regnellii with activity against M. tuberculosis, and compound (1) is a potential candidate for future antituberculosis drugs. PMID:23474218

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel. PMID:20046756

  13. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission. I will describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the project.

  14. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Results Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50?=?6.4?±?0.8 ?g/mL, FRAP - 5717.8?±?537.6 ?mol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5?±?106.8 ?g TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1?±?4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4?±?4.4 ?g/mL, FRAP - 1022.2?±?235.7 ?mol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0?±?22.3 ?g TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5?±?15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r?=?0.972), reducing power (r?=?0.981) and cytoprotective activity (r?=?0.682). Conclusions The betel quid has higher TPC, and antioxidant and cytoprotective activities than betel quid with calcium hydroxide. The quinic acid in betel quid may play an important role in the oral health protection. PMID:24330738

  15. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  16. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne polarimeter that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background to search for evidence for inflation. PIPER will observe more than half of the sky in four frequency bands from 200 to 600 GHz with a beam size of 21 arcminutes at the lowest frequency. PIPER simultaneously measures all four Stokes parameters using four co-aligned 32 by 40 element planar bolometer arrays. We give an instrument overview and report on the current status of the instrument.

  17. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3?,3?-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

  18. Heterologous Expression of BetL, a Betaine Uptake System, Enhances the Stress Tolerance of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien M. Sheehan; Roy D. Sleator; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Colin Hill

    2006-01-01

    Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving the technological robustness of what are often process-sensitive cultures is an important biological goal. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to direct the heterologous expression of the listerial betaine uptake system BetL in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118. Following nisin induction, strains expressing betL exhibited a significant increase

  19. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIPER combines cold (1.5 K) optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V parameters at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz (wavelengths 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns) covering 85% of the sky. We describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the mission.

  20. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a ba1loon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIPER will measure the CMB polarization at 4 frequencies (l per flight) using a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 by 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive.

  1. Piperdardine, a piperidine alkaloid from Piper tuberculatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Xavier De Araujo-Junior; Emidio V. L. Da-Cunha; Maria Célia De O. Chaves; Alexander I. Gray

    1997-01-01

    A new piperidine alkaloid 1-[7-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2, 4-heptadienyl]piperidine, piperdardine, was isolated from hexane and chloroform extracts of Piper tuberculatum var. tuberculatum. A combination of 1D and 2D NMR, together with other spectroscopic methods, led to the unambiguous assignments of all protons and carbons of the molecule.

  2. Hepatitis induced by Kava ( Piper methysticum rhizoma)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Stickel; Hans-Martin Baumüller; Karlheinz Seitz; Dimitrios Vasilakis; Gerhard Seitz; Helmut K Seitz; Detlef Schuppan

    2003-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Botanical drugs are widely used and often contain highly active compounds. Kava root (Piper methysticum rhizoma), used frequently in Europe as a remedy against anxiety, contains kavapyrones with sedative effects. Seven case reports suggested the development of hepatitis after the intake of Kava.Methods: We analyzed 29 novel cases of hepatitis along with Kava ingestion which occurred between 1990 and

  3. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-07-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0:2 on 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales ? =~0:6° to 90°, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0:007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32x40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 mK. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variable- delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I; Q;U; V ) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  4. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  5. Differential induction of chitinase in Piper colubrinum in response to inoculation with Phytophthora capsici, the cause of foot rot in black pepper

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep Varma, R.; Johnson George, K.; Balaji, S.; Parthasarathy, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant chitinases have been of particular interest since they are known to be induced upon pathogen invasion. Inoculation of Piper colubrinum leaves with the foot rot fungus, Phytophthora capsici leads to increase in chitinase activity. A marked increase in chitinase activity in the inoculated leaves was observed, with the maximum activity after 60 h of inoculation and gradually decreased thereafter. Older leaves showed more chitinase activity than young leaves. The level of chitinase in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) upon inoculation was found to be substantially high when compared to P. colubrinum. RT–PCR using chitinase specific primers revealed differential accumulation of mRNA in P. colubrinum leaves inoculated with P. capsici. However, hyphal extension assays revealed no obvious differences in the ability of the protein extracts to inhibit growth of P. capsici in vitro. PMID:23961037

  6. Anticancer principles from medicinal piper ( hú ji?o) plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper ( Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  7. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the polarized imprint of gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. The discovery of such a signal would provide direct evidence for inflation, and its characterization would provide a means to explore energy scales orders of magnitude larger than any conceivable particle accelerator. PIPER will consist of two cryogenic telescopes-one for each of the Q and U Stokes parameters. Each will use a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) as its first element. This architecture is designed to minimize both T->B and E->B systematics. The detectors will be four 32x40 arrays of BUG detectors, utilizing transition-edge sensors and time-domain multiplexing. Each flight will observe approximately 25% of the sky at a single frequency. Additional flights will increase the frequency coverage.

  8. SPECTRUM Summer Internship, Piper Communications Piper Communications is in need of two summer interns to staff and

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    SPECTRUM Summer Internship, Piper Communications Piper at SPECTRUM Tuesday-Friday, 12:30-6:30pm, some Saturday's 9:30am-3:30pm and the potential phones and television/DVD players About SPECTRUM: SPECTRUM's interactive exhibit

  9. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jackson, Michael L.; Jah, Muzariatu A.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kogut, Alan J.; Lowe, Luke; McCullagh, Nuala; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is it balloon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (C-N-113). Each flight will be configured for a single frequency, but in order to aid in the removal of the polarized foreground signal due to Galactic dust, the filters will be changed between flights. In this way, the CMB polarization at a total of four different frequencies (200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz) will be, measured on large angular scales. PIPER consists of a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 x 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the linear Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive. There are several advantages to this architecture. First, by modulating at the front of the optics, instrumental polarization is unmodulated and is therefore cleanly separated from source polarization. Second, by implementing this system with the appropriate symmetry, systematic effects can be further mitigated. In the PIPER design, many of the. systematics are manifest in the unmeasured linear Stokes parameter for each telescope and this can be separated from the desired signal. Finally, the modulation cycle never mixes the Q and U linear Stokes parameters, and thus residuals in the modulation do not twist the observed polarization vector. This is advantageous because measuring the angle of linear polarization is critical for separating the inflationary signal from other polarized components.

  10. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper septuplinervium and P. subtomentosum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Ávila Murilloa, Mónica Constanza; Cuca Suareza, Luis Enrique; Cerón Salamanca, Jairo Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils of Piper subtomentosum (leaves and inflorescences) and Piper septuplinervium (aerial parts) were analyzed by GC-MS; sixty-three compounds were determined, representing 92.0%, 86.9 %, and 91.8 % of the total relative oil composition of the leaves, inflorescences, and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant component in the aerial parts and inflorescence oils was ?-pinene (27.3%, 21.0%, respectively), and ?-cadinene was the main component of the leaf oil. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils were determined on the Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae; the essential oil from the aerial parts of P. septuplinervium was the most active against insect pests (LC50= 9.4 ?L/L of air). Statistical analysis by direct Pearson correlation showed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oils was primarily due to camphene and ?- and ?-pinene. The effect of the oils on the insect life cycle was also evaluated, and in some cases, a delay in growth and inhibition of the oviposition in the females were observed. PMID:25522553

  11. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...INFORMATION CONTACT: Hector Hernandez, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Atlanta Aircraft...service difficulty report (SDR) database shows that certain Piper models have...this AD, contact Hector Hernandez, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Atlanta ACO,...

  12. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...Information The 2011 safety event prompted us to review the Piper Aircraft, Inc. service...flight of civil aircraft in air commerce...finds necessary for safety in air commerce...transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety,...

  13. Analysis of amide compounds in different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl by high-performance liquid chromatographic

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel R.; Brenzan, Mislaine A.; Kambara, Lauro M.; Cortez, Lucia E. R.; Cortez, Diógenes A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Piper ovatum (Piperaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations and as an analgesic. Previous studies have showed important biological activities of the extracts and amides from P. ovatum leaves. Objective: In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of the amides in different parts of Piper ovatum. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Metasil ODS column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5?m) at room temperature. HPLC conditions were as follows: acetonitrile (A), and water (B), 1.0% acetic acid. The gradient elution used was 0–30 min, 0-60% A; 30–40 min, 60% A. Flow rate used was 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. Results: The validation using piperlonguminine, as the standard, demonstrated that the method shows linearity (linear correlation coefficient = 0.998), precision (relative standard deviation <5%) and accuracy (mean recovery = 103.78%) in the concentration range 31.25 – 500?g/mL. The limit of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 4.03?g/mL, respectively. This method allowed the identification and quantification of piperlonguminine and piperovatine in the hydroethanolic extracts of P. ovatum obtained from the leaves, stems and roots. All the extracts showed the same chromatographic profile. The leaves and roots contained the highest concentrations of piperlonguminine and the stems and leaves showed the most concentrations of piperovatine. Conclusion: This HPLC method is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of amides in extracts of Piper ovatum and phytopharmaceuticals containing this herb. PMID:24174818

  14. LEAVE POLICIES LEAVE REPORTING

    E-print Network

    absent from work. Leave should be submitted electronically at http fax or e-mail to CEMML Human Resources. These forms are also available on the CEMML website at http to inaccuracy in amount paid. A current leave balance report may be requested at any time at http

  15. Piper nigrum and piperine: an update.

    PubMed

    Meghwal, Murlidhar; Goswami, T K

    2013-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a very widely used spice, known for its pungent constituent piperine. However, in addition to its culinary uses, pepper has important medicinal and preservative properties, and, more recently, piperine has been shown to have fundamental effects on p-glycoprotein and many enzyme systems, leading to biotransformative effects including chemoprevention, detoxification, and enhancement of the absorption and bioavailability of herbal and conventional drugs. Based on modern cell, animal, and human studies, piperine has been found to have immunomodulatory, anti-oxidant, anti-asthmatic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anti-amoebic properties. In this review, the chemical constituents, biological activities, effects of processing, and future potential of black pepper and piperine have been discussed thoroughly. PMID:23625885

  16. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

    2012-06-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), ?-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and ?-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 ?l/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 ?l/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, ?-humulene and ?-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to ?-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed. PMID:22415244

  17. Derivatives of pheophorbide-a and pheophorbide-b from photocytotoxic Piper penangense extract.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, Fadzly Adzhar; Shaari, Khozirah; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Lajis, Nordin Haji; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2011-03-01

    In our screening program for new photosensitizers from Malaysian biodiversity for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer, MeOH extracts of ten terrestrial plants from Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia, were tested. In a short-term 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 20 ?g/ml each of these extracts were incubated in a pro-myelocytic leukemia cell-line, HL60, with or without irradiation with 9.6 J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light. Three samples, Labisia longistyla, Dichroa febrifuga, and Piper penangense, were photocytotoxic by having at least twofold lower cell viability when irradiated compared to the unirradiated assay. The extract of the leaves of Piper penangense, a shrub belonging to the family Piperaceae and widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions in the world, was subsequently subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using standard chromatography methods. Eight derivatives of pheophorbide-a and -b were identified from the fractions that exhibited strong photocytotoxicity. By spectroscopic analysis, these compounds were identified as pheophorbide-a methyl ester (1), (R,S)-13(2) -hydroxypheophorbide-a methyl ester (2 and 3), pheophorbide-b methyl ester (4), 13(2) -hydroxypheophorbide-b methyl ester (5), 15(2) -hydroxylactone pheophorbide-a methyl ester (6), 15(2) -methoxylactone pheophorbide-a methyl ester (7), 15(2) -methoxylactone pheophorbide-b methyl ester (8). PMID:21404433

  18. Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum in rainforests of

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum.S.A. Abstract. 1. Caterpillar assemblages feeding on two alien plants, Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum, were alien Piper increased with its host range from 3% for the species feeding on a single plant family to 92

  19. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

    PubMed Central

    Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Baciquete, Tatiane da Fonseca; Vieira, Jennifer Alexandra Castanho; Bressan, Jaqueline; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Jesus, Douglas Rossi; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2014-01-01

    Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG) and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP) in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl?, and HCO3? were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30?mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3? excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses. PMID:25101133

  20. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Eric. J.; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date. PMID:24596490

  1. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date. PMID:24596490

  2. Antiparasitic activity of prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-03-01

    Fractionation of dichloromethane extracts from the leaves of Piper heterophyllum and P. aduncum afforded three prenylated hydroxybenzoic acids, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-13-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-14-hydroxy-3,7,15-trimethyl-2,6,10,15-hexadecatetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with the known compounds, 4,5-dihydroxy-3-(E,E,E-11-formyl-3,7,15-trimethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid (arieianal), 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(E,E,E-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)benzoic acid, 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and comparison with data reported in the literature. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the compounds as racemates. The antiparasitic activity of the compounds were tested against three strains of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium falciparum. The results showed that 3-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-4-methoxy-benzoic acid exhibited potent and selective activity against L. braziliensis (IC(50) 6.5 microg/ml), higher that pentamidine used as control. Moreover, 3-[(2E,6E,10E)-11-carboxy-3,7,15-trimethyl- 2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraenyl)-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butenyl)-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzoic acid showed moderate antiplasmodial (IC(50) 3.2 microg/ml) and trypanocidal (16.5 microg/ml) activities, respectively. PMID:19361822

  3. Estrutura genética e sistema de acasalamento de Piper hispidinervum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lúcia Helena de Oliveira Wadt; Paulo Yoshio Kageyama

    2004-01-01

    Long pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.) is a small tree with high commercial value found in areas under anthropic influence in the State of Acre, Brazil. The genetic structure and mating system of P. hispidinervum were evaluated using RAPD markers. The genetic diversity within and between natural populations were evaluated in 13 populations in the Basin Acre River - Western

  4. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ...already placed on an airplane's wing root, is not at...Action Labor cost Parts cost product operators...authority citation for part 39 continues to...currently placed on an airplane's wing root, are not...either a Piper part number...

  5. Child Sacrifice: Black America's Price of Paying the Media Piper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange, Carolyn M.; George, Amiso M.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the sacrifice of African American children to the broadcast media and video games in terms of the players ("media pipers"), the messages ("piping"), and the consequences to children. Proposes some solutions for the problems associated with excessive television viewing and undesirable programming. (SLD)

  6. Antioxidant activity of combined ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba and Piper longum Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Vasuki; Hari, Rajeswary; Pandian, Samudram; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    The in-vitro free radical scavenging efficacy of the combined ethanolic Biherbal extract (BHE) from equal quantities of the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum was investigated. This was compared with its individual preparation of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EAE) and ethanolic extract of Piper longum (PLE). The 1, 1, diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power from BHE, EAE, and PLE were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined. The results revealed that BHE has notable activity in quenching of DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals when compared to its individual preparation of EAE and PLE. The BHE at 1000?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of DPPH (88.75%) super oxide (84.78%) nitric oxide (89.02%) and hydroxyl (82.82%) against the scavenging of EAE and PLE which showed DPPH (81.77%,83.54%) super oxide (79.88 ± 1.84, 80.88 ± 1.44%) nitric-oxide (76.14 ± 1.80, 77.2 ± 1.18%) and hydroxyl (79.86%, 74.64%) radicals respectively at the same concentration. A linear correlation between BHE and reducing power was also observed. The quantitative estimation of the extract revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The results of this study strongly indicate that the BHE has more potent antioxidant potential action than its individual preparation EAE or PLE. PMID:22718673

  7. A background color scheme for piper plots to spatially visualize hydrochemical patterns.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Luk

    2014-01-01

    The combination of ternary diagrams of cations and anions with a central diamond graph make the Piper plot very useful in visualizing groundwater chemistry datasets. One of the major drawbacks is that it is hard to link spatial attributes of the dataset to the plot. In this study, we propose a background color scheme of the Piper plot so that spatial representations of these data can be colored according to their location in the Piper plot. The color scheme is chosen to have maximum resolution while still being perceptually uniform. The linking between Piper plot and maps through this color scheme allows the interpretation of the trends and processes deduced from the Piper plot in terms of the location in the aquifer, the geology, and the groundwater flow dynamics. The colored Piper plot is applied to a groundwater quality dataset of the Condamine Alluvium in Queensland, Australia. PMID:24102292

  8. In vitro micropropagation of Piper longum – an important medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Soniya; M. R. Das

    2002-01-01

    Efficient and rapid tissue culture systems were developed for Piper longum, an important medicinal plant, through shoot tip multiplication and direct regeneration. Multiple shoots were induced from shoot tips cultured on agar-based Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 4.44–22.19 µM benzyladenine (BA) and 4.64–13.9 µM kinetin (K). Maximum number of shoots were induced with 8.9 µM BA and 4.64 µM

  9. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid from Piper multiplinervium.

    PubMed

    Malami, Ibrahim; Gibbons, Simon; Malkinson, John P

    2014-03-01

    3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid is an antibacterial agent isolated from the leaves of Piper multiplinervium. This compound has activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. This research aimed to synthesize a natural antibacterial compound and its analogs. The synthesis of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid consists of three steps: straightforward synthesis involving protection of phenolic hydroxyl group, coupling of suitable isoprenyl chain to the protected aromatic ring at ortho position followed by carboxylation with concomitant deprotection to give the derivatives of the salicylic acid. All the three prenylated compounds synthesized were found to exhibit spectrum of activity against S. aureus (ATCC) having MIC: 5.84×10(-3), 41.46×10(-2) and 6.19×10(-1) ?mol/ml respectively. The compounds also displayed activity against resistance strain of S. aureus (SA1119B) having MIC: 5.84×10(-3), 7.29×10(-3) and 3.09×10(-1) ?mol/ml respectively. This synthesis has been achieved and accomplished with the confirmation of it structure to that of the original natural product, thus producing the first synthesis of the natural product and providing the first synthesis of its analogs with 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid having biological activity higher than that of the original natural product. PMID:24444894

  10. The public inquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, L.W.D.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reviews the causes and results of the Piper Alpha platform disaster and makes recommendations to prevent the reoccurrence of such an event. The author headed the public inquiry into this disaster. As a result he recommends that the safety regulations with regard to offshore operations be completely rewritten to allow for more site-specific and flexible application of safety system designs. Although the paper makes some other specific recommendations on safety systems, the secondary thrust of the paper is on developing more workable evacuation, escape, and rescue plans.

  11. 76 FR 29176 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23...life limits for safety-critical nose...flight of civil aircraft in air commerce...finds necessary for safety in air commerce...transportation, Aircraft, Aviation safety, Safety....

  12. Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and olfactometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopold Jirovetz; Gerhard Buchbauer; Martin Benoit Ngassoum; Margit Geissler

    2002-01-01

    The investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and black and white “Ashanti pepper” (Piper guineense) from Cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. By

  13. Piper sarmentosum enhances fracture healing in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats: a radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit; Fadzilah, Fazalina Mohd; Majedah Idrus Alhabshi, Sharifah; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic fractures are common during osteoporotic states. Piper sarmentosum extract is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVES: To observe the radiological changes in fracture calluses following administration of a Piper sarmentosum extract during an estrogen-deficient state. METHODS: A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) the sham-operated group; (ii) the ovariectomized-control group; (iii) the ovariectomized + estrogen-replacement therapy (ovariectomized-control + estrogen replacement therapy) group, which was supplemented with estrogen (100 µg/kg/day); and (iv) the ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum (ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum) group, which was supplemented with a water-based Piper sarmentosum extract (125 mg/kg). Six weeks after an ovariectomy, the right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis, and a K-wire was inserted. Each group of rats received their respective treatment for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, the right femora were subjected to radiological assessment. RESULTS: The mean axial callus volume was significantly higher in the ovariectomized-control group (68.2±11.74 mm3) than in the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups (20.4±4.05, 22.4±4.14 and 17.5±3.68 mm3, respectively). The median callus scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups had median (range, minimum - maximum value) as 1.0 (0 - 2), 1.0 (1 - 2) and 1.0 (1 - 2), respectively, which were significantly lower than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (2 - 3). The median fracture scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups were 3.0 (3 - 4), 3.0 (2 - 3) and 3.0 (2 - 3), respectively, which were significantly higher than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (1 - 2) (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The Piper sarmentosum extract improved fracture healing, as assessed by the reduced callus volumes and reduced callus scores. This extract is beneficial for fractures in osteoporotic states. PMID:21789393

  14. Anticholinesterase and Antityrosinase Activities of Ten Piper Species from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Hashim, Nur Athirah; Ahmad, Farediah; Heng Yen, Khong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antityrosinase activities of extracts from ten Piper species namely; P. caninum, P. lanatum, P. abbreviatum, P. aborescens, P. porphyrophyllum, P. erecticaule, P. ribesioides, P. miniatum, P. stylosum, and P. majusculum. Methods: Anticholinesterase and antityrosinase activities were evaluated against in vitro Ellman spectroscopy method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. Results: The EtOAc extract of P. erecticaule showed the highest AChE and BChE inhibitory with 22.9% and 70.9% inhibition, respectively. In antityrosinase activity, all extracts of P. porphyrophyllum showed the highest inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase, compared to standard, kojic acid. Conclusion: This study showed that P. erecticaule and P. porphyrophyllum have potential AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibition activities. The respective extracts can be explored further for the development of novel lead as AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibitors in therapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25671185

  15. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their antiparasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ninoska; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Giménez, Alberto; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Bourdy, Genevieve; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2008-09-01

    Piper glabratum and P. acutifolium were analyzed for their content of main secondary constituents, affording nine new benzoic acid derivatives (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 10-13), in addition to four known compounds (3, 6, 8, and 9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Riguera ester reactions and optical rotation measurements established the new compounds as racemates. In the search for antiparasitic agents, the compounds were evaluated in vitro against the promastigote forms of Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum. Among the evaluated compounds, methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate (7) exhibited leishmanicidal effect (IC50 13.8-18.5 microg/mL) against the three Leishmania strains used, and methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutenyl)benzoate (1), methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-butenyl)benzoate (3), and methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl) benzoate (7) showed significant trypanocidal activity, with IC50 values of 16.4, 15.6, and 18.5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:18712933

  16. New free radical scavenging neolignans from fruits of Piper attenuatum

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S. Divya; Siva, Bandi; Poornima, B.; Kumar, D. Anand; Tiwari, Ashok K.; Ramesh, U.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to study and identify free radicals scavenging and antihyperglycemic principles in fruit of Piper attenuatum. Materials and Methods: Bioassay guided identification of extracts possessing potent free radical scavenging activity, and isolation of compounds was done. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum possessing potent radical scavenging activity was also evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Results: Nine neolignans namely, denudatin B (1), iso-4’, 5’-dimethoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy-2’-oxo-?3’,5’,8’-8.1’-lignan (2), lancifolin D (3), denudatin A (4), wallichinin (5), piperenone (6), lancifolin C (7), 2-oxo-piperol B (8), piperkadsin A (9) and a crotepoxide (10) was identified in Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum. Neolignans (1-9) displayed potent 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and piperkadsin A (9) also displayed 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Analysis of structure-activity relationship revealed that presence of furan ring and methoxy groups is an important criterion to influence 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging potentials. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum fruit could not display antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Conclusion: Neolignans present in P. attenuatum fruits are potent free radical scavengers and this is the first report identifying these compounds and activities in this fruit.

  17. Antifungal and antioxidant pyrrole derivative from Piper pedicellatum.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Dutta, Partha P; Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Bora, Jayanta

    2013-10-01

    In continuation of our search for efficient pest control natural products from the flora of the South Eastern Sub-Himalayan biodiversity region, we have investigated wild edible Piper pedicellatum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India against five important plant pathogenic fungi through an activity guided method, and a new compound, pedicellamide, was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic studies and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The compound exhibited antifungal activities against the phytopathogenic fungal organisms Rhizoctonia solani (MIC 38.4 +/- 1.6 microg/mL), Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 29.7 +/- 0.8 microg/mL), Aspergillus niger (MIC 48.6 +/- 0.7 microg/mL), Puccinia gramini (MIC 46.8 +/- 1.4 microg/mL) and Curvularia lunata (MIC 49.1 +/- 0.1 microg/mL). Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the compound was estimated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay and found to be 2.87 +/- 0.20, 2.19 +/- 0.13 and 3.96 +/- 0.17 VCEAC (microM/g), respectively. PMID:24354199

  18. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-01-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  19. Piper and Vismia Species from Colombian Amazonia Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Leandro J.; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M. Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M. Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:25558904

  20. Antioxidant, anti-TB activities, phenolic and amide contents of standardised extracts of Piper sarmentosum Roxb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hussain; Z. Ismail; A. Sadikun; P. Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol and aqueous extracts of the different parts of Piper sarmentosum were analysed by HPLC for marker compounds to standardise these extracts. The standardised extracts were investigated for antioxidant activity (?-carotene linoleate model and DPPH model), anti-TB activity (microplate tetrazolium assay), and estimation of total phenolic and amide contents. The extracts of the different parts exhibited different antioxidant activity, phenolic

  1. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  2. Micropropagation of black pepper ( Piper nigrum Linn.) through shoot tip cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Philip; Dominic Joseph; G. S. Triggs; N. M. Dickinson

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The morphogenetic potential of shoot tip explants of black pepper (Piper nigrum) was investigated and an effective multiple-shoot propagation method is described. Various combinations of media, growth regulators and sterilization treatments were compared. Problems with establishment in tissue culture sometimes occurred, probably caused by endogenous pathogens associated with tissue exudates. The best establishment and proliferation of shoot tip explants was

  3. High-frequency plant regeneration through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ramakrishnan Nair; S. Dutta Gupta

    2006-01-01

    A high-frequency plantlet regeneration protocol was developed for black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. Secondary embryos formed from the radicular end of the primary somatic embryos which were originally derived from micropylar tissues of germinating seeds on growth regulator-free SH medium in the absence of light. The process of secondary embryogenesis continued in a cyclic manner

  4. Identification of factors determining kavalactone content and chemotype in Kava ( Piper methysticum Forst. f.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Siméoni; Vincent Lebot

    2002-01-01

    This study presents results of field experiments conducted to identify factors determining kavalactone content and chemotype in Piper methysticum. The following factors have been studied: (1) the geographical direction of the roots on the plant, (2) the geographical location of the plant, (3) its age, and (4) its organ (roots, stumps, or basal stems). Overall, 185 samples were analysed by

  5. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with Kava ( Piper methysticum Forst. f.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Anke; Iqbal Ramzan

    2004-01-01

    Kava kava, a beverage or extract prepared from the rhizome of the kava plant (Piper methysticum Forst. f.), was used for many centuries as a traditional beverage in the Pacific Islands. During the past few decades, kava has also gained popularity in Western countries as well, due to its anxiolytic and sedative properties. However, in recent years, kava has been

  6. A review of Piper spp. (Piperaceae) phytochemistry, insecticidal activity and mode of action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Scott; Helen R. Jensen; Bernard J. R. Philogène; John T. Arnason

    2008-01-01

    The tropical plant family Piperaceae has provided many past and present civilizations with a source of diverse medicines and food grade spice. The secondary plant compounds that produce these desired qualities function also as chemical defenses for many species in the genus Piper. The compounds with the greatest insecticidal activity are the piperamides. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of

  7. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 145 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  8. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  9. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:25558904

  10. PIPER: An FFT-Based Protein Docking Program with Pairwise Potentials

    E-print Network

    Vajda, Sandor

    PIPER: An FFT-Based Protein Docking Program with Pairwise Potentials Dima Kozakov,1 Ryan Brenke,2 Transform (FFT) correlation approach to protein­protein docking can evaluate the energies of billions written as the sum of a few correlation functions, and solving the problem by repeated FFT calculations

  11. Improved exposure characterization with robotic (PIPER) sampling and association with children's respiratory symptoms, asthma and eczema.

    PubMed

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L

    2014-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol PM, a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study was to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate matter through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Seventy-five households with children between 3 and 59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information, and responses to a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC), and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze ("recent" (<1 year) and "ever"), cough, asthma and eczema was evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (odds ratio=4.2; 95% confidence interval 0.7-24.0), was compared with measurements by SIM (odds ratio=0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.2-2.6). Measurements of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze compared with measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide useful insights into early childhood exposures related to the etiology of childhood illnesses associated with inhalation exposures. PMID:24802555

  12. Improved Exposure Characterization with Robotic (PIPER) Sampling and Association with Children's Respiratory Symptoms, Asthma and Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol particulate matter a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study is to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Methods Seventy-five households with children between 3-59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information and a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze [’recent’ (<1 year) and ’ever’], cough, asthma, and eczema were evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (Odds Ratio = 4.2; 95% Confidence Interval 0.7 – 24.0) was compared to measurements by SIM (Odds Ratio = 0.7; 95% Confidence Interval 0.2 – 2.6). Conclusions Measurement of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze than measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide useful insights into early childhood exposures related to the etiology of childhood illnesses associated with inhalation exposures. PMID:24802555

  13. Bioefficacy of methanolic root extract of Piper longum L. against isolated strains of Keratinophilic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Prassanna, Kodagikere Palakshappa; Naika, Raja; Ganapathy, Pasura Subbaiah Sujan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 9 species belonging to 3 genera of keratinophillic fungi were recovered from twelve soil samples collected from different sites in shivamogga using the hair-baiting technique. Most of the fungal species isolated are known to be agents of human and animal infection. The methanolic root extract of Piper longum was evaluated for antifungal activity against the isolated strains to determine the active. It was observed that the extract was effective in inhibiting species with zone of inhibition ranging between 3 mm and 11 mm but the extract showed no zone of inhibition for Chrysosporium keratirophilum. The results indicate that the methanolic root extract of Piper longum might be exploited as natural drug for the treatment of several infection caused by these organisms PMID:24826023

  14. Bioefficacy of methanolic root extract of Piper longum L. against isolated strains of Keratinophilic fungi.

    PubMed

    Prassanna, Kodagikere Palakshappa; Naika, Raja; Ganapathy, Pasura Subbaiah Sujan

    2011-09-01

    A total of 9 species belonging to 3 genera of keratinophillic fungi were recovered from twelve soil samples collected from different sites in shivamogga using the hair-baiting technique. Most of the fungal species isolated are known to be agents of human and animal infection. The methanolic root extract of Piper longum was evaluated for antifungal activity against the isolated strains to determine the active. It was observed that the extract was effective in inhibiting species with zone of inhibition ranging between 3 mm and 11 mm but the extract showed no zone of inhibition for Chrysosporium keratirophilum. The results indicate that the methanolic root extract of Piper longum might be exploited as natural drug for the treatment of several infection caused by these organisms. PMID:24826023

  15. Studies on the genus Piper. Part IV. Long peppers of Indian commerce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. K. Atal; J. N. Ojha

    1965-01-01

    Summary  A review of the literature on the history, uses, and chemical constituents of long pepper is presented. The long peppers of\\u000a Indian commerce are derived from five different species of the genusPiper. Data concerning the geographical sources, cultivation, collection and commerce of each is presented. Distinguishing features\\u000a of the fruits derived from the several species are described. Substantial quantities of

  16. Effect of ?-irradiation on antioxidant activity of black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan Suhaj; Jana Rácová; Martin Polovka; Vlasta Brezová

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and EPR investigations of irradiated ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) were evaluated. The black pepper was exposed to ?-irradiation at doses from 5 to 30 kGy. The effect of irradiation on antioxidant properties of black pepper extracts was investigated by radical-scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, by determination of reducing power and content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances.

  17. "Operation Pied Piper": a psychoanalytic narrative of authority in a time of war.

    PubMed

    Farley, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The evacuation of British children during World War II is read alongside the legend of the "Pied Piper" after which the mass migration was officially named. While virtually every British account of World War II makes mention of the evacuation, most are silent on the question of its ominous title: "Operation Pied Piper." This paper traces the legend's key theme - on influencing and being influenced - as it surfaces in the writing of one child analyst and one social worker charged with the responsibility of leading a family of five hostels for British youth. At a time when Hitler's deadly regime reached unprecedented heights across the Channel, the legend of the "Pied Piper" becomes a highly suggestive metaphor for thinking about D. W. Winnicott and Clare Britton's writing on what authority could mean in the face of leadership gone terribly wrong. Quite another, profoundly intimate loss of leadership haunts their words as well: Sigmund Freud, in exile from Hitler's Europe and leader of the psychoanalytic movement, died in London just weeks after the first wave of Blitz evacuations. It is in this context that Winnicott and Britton articulated a theory of authority that could address the losses of history without at the same time demanding the loss of the mind. PMID:22737729

  18. Describing Oak Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Museum of Natural History

    2001-01-01

    Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

  19. Look at Those Leaves!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-02-14

    This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.

  20. Donated Leave ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    absence from work due to the donation of an organ (which shall include, for example, the donation of bone resulting from a serious health condition or injury, or donation of an organ. 2. When the DepartmentDonated Leave 1 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 7/9/2010 DONATED LEAVE PROGRAM DONATED LEAVE PROCEDURES

  1. Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155

    E-print Network

    Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean as spillover turbidites. Within the "Amachron" units scheme (Flood, Piper, Klaus, et al., 1995), Subunit IIA is within the Amazon Channel system, the most recently active portion of the Amazon Fan, and is latest

  2. Antibacterial activity of extract, fractions and four compounds extracted from Piper solmsianum C. DC. VAR. solmsianum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Marina P; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Silva, Rosi Z; Yunes, Rosendo A; Monache, Franco D; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    2007-01-01

    Piper solmsianum C. DC. var. solmsianum (Piperaceae) is a shrub commonly found in areas with wet tropical soils. Other Piper species have been used in folk medicine as antitumoral and antiseptic agents. We studied the crude methanolic extract, some organic fractions and compounds isolated from this plant for possible antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bioautographic assays disclosed three inhibition zones. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined showing excellent activity, particularly against the Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Streptococcus agalactiae). It appears that the antimicrobial activity of Piper solmsianum is related mainly to the presence of conocarpan and eupomatenoid-5 (neolignans). However another, as yet unidentified, active compound could also be extracted from the plant. PMID:17542481

  3. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper porphyrophyllum (Fam. Piperaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farediah Ahmad; Emrizal; Hasnah M. Sirat; Fadzureena Jamaludin; Nik Musa’adah Mustapha; Rasadah M. Ali; Dayar Arbain; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein

    The crude extracts and isolated compounds of Piper porphyrophyllum (Piperaceae) were evaluated for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The ethyl acetate extract and 3?,4?,5,7-tetramethoxyflavone exhibited the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus giving values of MIC=62.5 and 250?g\\/mL, respectively. 5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone and 4?,5-dihydroxy-3?,7-dimethoxyflavone were active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, both with MIC value 125?g\\/mL. The hexane extract and 4?,5-dihydroxy-3?,7-dimethoxyflavone gave the highest anti-inflammatory activity

  4. Types of Oak Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

  5. Amygdalin in Prunus leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank S. Santamour

    1998-01-01

    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin was found for the first time in the leaves of mature trees of several Prunus taxa: P. serotina and P. virginiana cv. Schubert of subg. Padus and P. ilicifolia and P. lyonii of subg. Laurocerasus. Leaves of other taxa in both subgenera contained only the monoglucoside prunasin. Amygdalin production was inherited in hybrids between P. padus

  6. The complete genome sequence of Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV).

    PubMed

    Hany, U; Adams, I P; Glover, R; Bhat, A I; Boonham, N

    2014-02-01

    This study reports the first complete genome sequence of Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV, KC808712) identified in black pepper. The genome is 7,622 nucleotides long, possessing four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1, ORF2 and ORF4 of PYMoV are reported as hypothetical proteins of unknown function with a predicted molecular mass of 15.7, 17.1 and 17.9 kDa, respectively. ORF3 of PYMoV encodes a polyprotein of 218.6 kDa and consists of a viral movement protein (MP), trimeric dUTPase, zinc finger, retropepsin, RT-LTR, and RNAse H. Detailed PYMoV genome analysis confirmed that it is a member of the family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus. Fragments of two additional novel sequences resembling those found in members of the family Caulimoviridae were also identified in the black pepper sample, and the viruses from which they were derived were tentatively named Piper DNA virus 1 and 2. PMID:24005374

  7. Multidrug resistance-selective antiproliferative activity of Piper amide alkaloids and synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Goto, Masuo; Wang, Li-Ting; Hsieh, Kan-Yen; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Tang, Gui-Hua; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-10-15

    Twenty-five amide alkaloids (1-25) from Piper boehmeriifolium and 10 synthetic amide alkaloid derivatives (39-48) were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against eight human tumor cell lines, including chemosensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. The results suggested tumor type-selectivity. 1-[7-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)heptanoyl]piperidine (46) exhibited the best inhibitory activity (IC50=4.94 ?M) against the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing KBvin MDR sub-line, while it and all other tested compounds, except 9, were inactive (IC50 >40 ?M) against MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) indicated that (i) 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl substitution is critical for selectivity against KBvin, (ii) the 4-methoxy group in this pattern is crucial for antiproliferative activity, (iii) double bonds in the side chain are not needed for activity, and (iv), in arylalkenylacyl amide alkaloids, replacement of an isobutylamino group with pyrrolidin-1-yl or piperidin-1-yl significantly improved activity. Further study on Piper amides is warranted, particularly whether side chain length affects the ability to overcome the MDR cancer phenotype. PMID:25241925

  8. Fungicidal activity of pipernonaline, a piperidine alkaloid derived from long pepper, Piper longum L., against phytopathogenic fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Eun Lee; Byeoung-Soo Park; Moo-Key Kim; Won-Sik Choi; Heung-Tae Kim; Kwang-Yun Cho; Sang-Guei Lee; Hoi-Seon Lee

    2001-01-01

    Fungicidal activity of Piper longum L. fruit-derived materials toward six phytopathogenic fungi, Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cineria, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita, and Erysiphe graminis, was tested using a whole plant method in vivo. It was compared with synthetic fungicides (chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid and mancozeb) and four commercially available compounds (eugenol, piperine, piperlongumine, and piperettine) derived from P. longum. The response

  9. TPad Fire: Surface Haptic Tablet Joe Mullenbach, Craig Shultz, Anne Marie Piper, Michael Peshkin, J. Edward Colgate

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    TPad Fire: Surface Haptic Tablet Joe Mullenbach, Craig Shultz, Anne Marie Piper, Michael Peshkin, J a variable friction surface and a tablet comput- er. The device is designed to enable research and design as example programs, are posted online at http://nxr.northwestern.edu/tpad-tablet. Author Keywords Surface

  10. STAFF REQUEST FOR PARENTAL LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    . Parental Leave will consist of any form of leave the employee has accrued and earned as well as leaveSTAFF REQUEST FOR PARENTAL LEAVE PART I: To be completed by the Employee Name: Empl ID #: Date and understand the Parental Leave Policy. Employee's Signature: ______________________________ Date

  11. MILITARY LEAVE WORKSHEET PERSONAL INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    will not be credited any sick nor family and personal leave while I am on leave without pay. I want to retain all my sick and family and personal leave balance. I know my balances lapse on January 9th each year. I want to use all my family and personal leave balance before going on military leave without pay. I know I may

  12. CATASTROPHIC LEAVE DONATION REQUEST

    E-print Network

    Eirinaki, Magdalini

    to care for an incapacitated immediate family member, has exhausted or will soon exhaust their own accrued leave credits, and is totally incapacitated from work. · Under the CLD Program, eligible employees may

  13. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  14. Different plants produce different leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-30

    Plants produce leaves to gather sunlight and exchange gases in the environment around them. Plants produce leaves unique to that particular plant species. Leaves can have many different shapes, sizes, and colors.

  15. Describing Oak Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students examine drawings of oak leaves and figure out how to classify and identify them. The printable six-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about classification and its importance to scientists, drawings of 12 different oak leaves, and a worksheet that includes step-by-step directions and areas for recording answers.

  16. Leaves and Air Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

  17. Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155

    E-print Network

    Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean foraminiferal ooze and hemipelagic clay of latest Wisconsin age (Damuth and Embley, 1981). During Ocean Drilling

  18. Histological Changes in the Fracture Callus Following the Administration of Water Extract of Piper Sarmentosum (Daun Kadok) in Estrogen-Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Das, Srijit; Ali, Aishah Mohd; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj

    2011-01-01

    Background: The fracture healing is impaired in osteoporosis. Piper sarmentosum is a plant, which contains potent antioxidant, naringenin that may enhance fracture healing. The present histological study aimed to determine the effects of water extract of Piper sarmentosum on the late phase of fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. Methods: Twenty four female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 gm) were obtained. Six rats underwent sham operation and the rest were ovariectomized. Six weeks post-ovariectomy all the rats were fractured at the mid-diaphysis of the right femur and a K-wire was inserted for internal fixation. The sham group was given vehicle (normal saline) and the ovariectomized group was randomly subdivided into three groups: (i) ovariectomized-control group supplemented with vehicle; (ii) ovariectomized+estrogen replacement therapy group treated with estrogen (100 µg/kg/day) and (iii) ovariectomized+Piper sarmentosum group treated with Piper sarmentosum water extract (125 mg/kg). Following six weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the right femora were harvested for histological assessment of fracture callus. Results: The ovariectomized-control group showed a significant delay in fracture healing compared to the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups. The median callus score for the ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum group was 4.50 (range, 4-5), which was significantly higher than the median callus score 3.50 (range, 3-4) for the ovariectomized-control group (P=0.019). However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the callus score among the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups groups. Conclusion: Treatment with water extract of Piper sarmentosum proved beneficial in the fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. PMID:23115413

  19. Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155

    E-print Network

    chronology for the last 250 k.y. was established (Flood, Piper, Klaus, et al., 1995), and it became obviousFlood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean ABSTRACT Three holes of 200 to 300 m in length (Holes 938A, 940A, and 942A) drilled during Ocean Drilling

  20. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. PMID:23791964

  1. Isolation and characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in Piper solmsianum (piperaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Nídia C.; Lima, Paula F.; Priolli, Regina H. G.; Kato, Massuo J.; Colombo, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nine microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) loci were characterized for natural populations of Piper solmsianum, a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites, and analyzed to assess the levels of genetic diversity in this species. • Methods and Results: Based on an enriched library using the oligonucleotides (CT)8 and (GT)8, a total of 19 pairs of SSR primers were designed and nine of them were highly polymorphic after screening of 37 specimens from two populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six while the observed heterozygosity for polymorphic loci ranged from 0.000 to 0.875. • Conclusions: The SSR regions characterized were informative, and the genetic markers will be useful to assess the genetic diversity and gene flow in populations of P. solmsianum. PMID:25202616

  2. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronaut Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Waiting at left are Astronauts Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper and Steven W. Lindsey. Mrs. Clinton and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  3. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronauts (from left) Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. She and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  4. Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn. Essential Oil (Fam:Piperaceae) against Periplaneta americana (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ling A, I; Sulaiman, S; Othman, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of Piper aduncum essential oil was evaluated against Periplaneta americana adults and nymphs in the laboratory. Methods: The plant essential oil at varying concentrations ranging between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm were placed inside glass beakers, rolled horizontally to ensure the essential oil covers all sides of the beakers and exposed to adults and nymphs of P. americana. Resigen (R) 1ppm was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. The LT50 and LT90 was obtained using Log Probit programme. Results: Exposure of essential oil to females P. americana at concentrations between 10,000 to 80,000 ppm indicated the LT50 and LT90 values between 5.31 h–189.19 h and 14.90 h–2105.31 h, respectively. Treatment with the same concentrations against males P. americana ,the LT50 and LT90 were 2.08 h–181.73 h and 5.4 h–8460.51 h, respectively. Treatment against the nymphal stage with the same range of concentrations indicated the LT50 and LT 90 of 4.68 h–381.02 h and 28.71 h–5313.36 h, respectively.The nymphs and males were more susceptible than the females cockroaches. Treatment with Resigen (R) at 1ppm indicated much lower LT 50 and LT 90 values of 2.54 h–9.47 h for the females, 1.47 h–4.22 h for the males and 4.69 h–8.92 h for the nymphs.The negative control indicated no mortality for all stages of the cockroach. Conclusion: Piper aduncum essential oil can be used as an alternative natural product for controlling the cockroach Peripatetic americana. PMID:22808375

  5. Leave Request (Intra-office)

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    am entitled, and I may read more about my FMLA rights at http://www.hr.uga.edu/family Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA) covered event. Yes No Date(s) Times Date(s) Times Account number from using paid leave will run concurrently with any Family & Medical and Leave Act (FMLA) leave to which I

  6. Paper Chromatography with Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2010-01-01

    In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

  7. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  8. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  9. FMLA: Family & Medical FLA: Family Leave Act

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    FMLA: Family & Medical Leave Act FLA: Family Leave Act DVL: Domestic Violence Leave Faculty Sick Leave FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Who is · Faculty (9 month calendar weeks during one academic year (26 calendar weeks if eligible for "Service Member Family Leave

  10. Inhibitory effect of essential oils of Allium sativum and Piper longum on spontaneous muscular activity of liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thakur Uttam Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Surendra Kumar Tandan; Santosh Kumar Mishra

    2009-01-01

    Effects of essential oil of Allium sativum (garlic) and Piper longum (Indian long pepper) were evaluated on muscular activity of whole Fasciola gigantica and its strip preparation. The whole flukes and longitudinal strip preparations of the flukes were isometrically mounted to record the spontaneous muscular activity (SMA) and to evaluate effects of cumulative doses (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0mg\\/ml) of

  11. Detection and characterization of the phytoplasma associated with a phyllody disease of black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Bhat; R. Madhubala; P. S. Hareesh; M. Anandaraj

    2006-01-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the phytoplasma was detected in black pepper (Piper nigrum) with phyllody symptoms in India. A 1.20kb DNA fragment encoding the portion of phytoplasma 16S rDNA consistently amplified by nested PCR was cloned and sequenced. The sequenced region contained 1230 nucleotides. Sequence analyses showed that the gene was most closely related to members of aster yellows

  12. Efficacy of Piper guineense (Schum & Thonn) seed extract against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) as influenced by different extraction solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elechi F. Asawalam; Steve O. Emosairue; Friday Ekeleme; Roland Wokocha

    2007-01-01

    The seed extract of black pepper Piper guineense Schum & Thonn was evaluated for its biological activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky at 30°C, 65 ± 2% R.H and 12:12-h light:dark regimes in the laboratory. The different solvents used for the extraction were acetone, ethanol, n-hexane, petroleum ether (60:80) and distilled water at 0.3% dosage level. The acetone extract had

  13. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the ?-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that ?-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis. PMID:25375334

  14. Development and In-home Testing of the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Shalat, Stuart L.; Stambler, Adam A.; Wang, Zuocheng; Mainelis, Gediminas; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Hernandez, Marta; Lioy, Paul J.; Black, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Exposure and dose estimation are essential to understanding the etiology of environmentally linked childhood diseases. The behavior of resuspended particulate matter (PM) suggests that stationary measurements may underestimate household exposures in young children (ages 6 to 36 months). Because of the size and weight of the sampling equipment, use of personal samplers in this age group is either difficult or impossible. The Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) sampler has been developed to provide a surrogate method to ascertain personal exposures to PM for this age group. As part of a study of childhood asthma, 55 homes in central New Jersey were tested. Simultaneous sampling for inhalable PM using stationary (110 cm height) and PIPER mobile sampler were carried out. In homes with bare floors (N=21), the absolute difference was 3.9 ?g/m3 (S.E. = 3.01; p = 0.217) and relative difference (PIPER/Stationary) was 1.12 (linearized S.E. = 0.11). On carpets (N=34), the absolute difference was 54.1 ?g/m3 (S.E. = 13.50; p = 0.0003), and the relative difference was 2.30 (linearized S.E. = 0.34). The results confirm the importance of understanding the personal dust cloud caused by children’s activity in a room, particularly when rugs or carpets are present. PMID:21351766

  15. Classify the trees/Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Walsh

    This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

  16. Family and Medical Leave Act

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CARING FOR A CHILD: FAMILY & MEDICAL LEAVE ACT If your child's heart condition is serious and ... in the hospital, the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 requires that covered employers provide up ...

  17. Complete plastid genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, and Piper: implications for the phylogenetic relationships of magnoliids

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengqiu; Penaflor, Cynthia; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Leebens-Mack, James; Carlson, John E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2006-01-01

    Background The magnoliids with four orders, 19 families, and 8,500 species represent one of the largest clades of early diverging angiosperms. Although several recent angiosperm phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence resulted in phylogenetic reconstructions supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. We sequenced the plastid genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other angiosperm plastid genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids and to examine patterns of variation of GC content. Results The Drimys, Liriodendron, and Piper plastid genomes are very similar in size at 160,604, 159,886 bp, and 160,624 bp, respectively. Gene content and order are nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm plastid genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34–39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions. Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and likelihood methods and sequences of 61 protein-coding genes provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. Strong support is reported for monocots and eudicots as sister clades with magnoliids diverging before the monocot-eudicot split. The trees also provided moderate or strong support for the position of Amborella as sister to a clade including all other angiosperms. Conclusion Evolutionary comparisons of three new magnoliid plastid genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genomes, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots. PMID:17020608

  18. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 ?g mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 ?g mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 ?g mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 ?g mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells in vitro. PMID:19257877

  19. Judy Holoviak Leaves AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Judy C. Holoviak, AGU director of publications, leaves AGU on 6 May 2009. Her nearly 45-year career at AGU was recognized when she received the 2008 Edward A. Flinn III Award (see Eos, 89(52), 546, 2008). During her tenure, the journals program grew from 803 articles published per year to an average of 22 articles published per day (about 5670 per year); Eos grew from a quarterly journal (under the title of Transactions, American Geophysical Union) to a monthly magazine, and then to a weekly newspaper; and AGU became recognized as a leader in electronic publication.

  20. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  1. Paralytic effect of alcoholic extract of Allium sativum and Piper longum on liver amphistome, Gigantocotyle explanatum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T.U.; Kumar, D.; Tandan, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of alcoholic extract of Allium sativum and Piper longum on the muscular activity of a parasitic amphistome, Gigantocotyle explanatum. Materials and Methods: Amphistomes were isometrically mounted to record the spontaneous muscular activity by using Chart 4 software program (Power Lab, AD Instruments, Australia) and to examine the effects of cumulative doses (100, 300, 1000, and 3000 ?g/ml) of the plant extracts on the amplitude (g), frequency (per 10 min), and baseline tension (g) of the spontaneous muscular activity of the amphistome. Results: Alcoholic extract of A. sativum produced significant reduction in the frequency and amplitude of contractile activity of the amphistome at 1000 and 3000 ?g/ml bath concentrations. Complete paralysis of the amphistome was observed after 15 min of addition of 3000 ?g/ml concentration. Alcoholic extract of P. longum also caused paralysis following 15-20 min exposure of the amphistome to 3000 ?g/ml concentration. In both the cases the amphistomes did not recover from paralysis following 2-3 washes. Conclusion: The observations demonstrate the paralytic effect of alcoholic extract of A. sativum and P. longum on G. explanatum. PMID:21279168

  2. Antitumour efficacy of Piper tuberculatum and piplartine based on the hollow fiber assay.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Daniel P; Ferreira, Paulo Michel P; Machado, Camila Maria L; de Aquino, Nayara C; Silveira, Edilberto R; Chammas, Roger; Pessoa, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Piper tuberculatum, popularly known in Brazil as "jaborandi falso" and "pimenta darta", is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases. In this study, the in vivo hollow fiber assay was used to investigate the antitumour efficacy of the crude extract and piplartine obtained from P. tuberculatum roots. Human glioblastoma (SF-295) and colon carcinoma (HCT-8) cell lines were used. In vitro cytotoxicity was assayed by the MTT assay. In the hollow fiber assay, nude mice implanted with tumour cells in hollow fibers were treated for four consecutive days via the intraperitoneal route, and tumour cell populations were assessed by the MTT assay. Both the crude extract and piplartine displayed cytotoxicity. In the hollow fiber assay, tumour growth inhibition rates were 24.6-54.8?% for the crude extract and 33.7-62.2?% for piplartine. No signal of toxicity was noticed. In conclusion, the crude extract and piplartine obtained from P. tuberculatum roots displayed in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy. PMID:25519832

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67?g/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. PMID:24268240

  4. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (?40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions. PMID:23498196

  5. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  6. The tumor promoting effect of lime-piper betel quid in JB6 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Hsun; Chou, Fen-Pi; Huang, Hui-Pei; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Chou, Ming-Yung; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2003-11-01

    Betel quid chewing is a general behavior in Taiwan, India, southeastern Asian and South Africa. In this study, microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) showed that the extract of lime-piper betel quid (LPB) (1.0-20 mg/ml) was toxic to JB6 cells. Cells exposed of LPB (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) for 7 days resulted in changes in cytomorphology with characteristics of carcinogenesis. With a long-term treatment (approximately 30 days) of low doses of LPB (1, 5, 10 microg/ml), the production of H2O2 and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were increased in JB6 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed a decrease in the G1 phase and an accumulation in the S phase 48 h after LPB treatment. When treating with 0.5 mg/ml LPB for 15 days as a promoter, type III foci were formed in the JB6 culture. These results demonstrated the tumor promotional effect of LPB in JB6 cells. PMID:12962998

  7. The tumorigenic characteristics of lime-piper betel quid-transformed JB6 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2004-03-01

    Betel quid chewing is a general oral habit in Taiwan, India, southeastern Asian and South Africa with or without the additive of tobacco, alcohol or lime. In this study, the tumor-promoting neoplastic transformation effect of Lime-Piper betel quid (LPB) was examined on JB6 cells. The treatment of LPB at a high dose (1.0 mg/ml) for over 5 days or at lower doses (0.1, 0.5 mg/ml) for over 15 days induced the formation of transformed foci. The transformed cells showed the characteristics of colony formation in soft agar, higher growth rate and multilayer on culture dish. A two-fold induction of the protein levels of c-fos and c-jun proto-oncogenes was observed in the cells from the 50th passage (Cl1/p50, Cl2/p50 and Cl3/p50), suggesting that LPB-transformed cells were oncogenic. In addition, the LPB-transformed cells possessed an elevated level of c-Myc and an increased cell population distributed in the S phase of the cell cycle. These results demonstrated the promotion effect of LPB and indicate that it could be a tumor promoter. PMID:14576975

  8. Bioassay-guided isolation of constituents of Piper sarmentosum using a mitochondrial transmembrane potential assay.

    PubMed

    Pan, Li; Matthew, Susan; Lantvit, Daniel D; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Soejarto, Djaja D; Swanson, Steven M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2011-10-28

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum collected in Vietnam, monitored by a mitochondrial transmembrane potential assay using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This led to the isolation of four new C-benzylated dihydroflavones, sarmentosumins A-D (1-4), as well as 14 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Among these compounds, 1-4 as well as five known C-benzylated dihydroflavones (5-9) and a piperamide, pipercallosine (11), were found to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells by moderately reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m), with ED50 values ranging from 1.6 to 13.6 ?M. Furthermore, 7-methoxydichamanetin (8) and pinocembrin (10) exhibited proteasome inhibitory activities in a human 20S proteasome bioassay with IC50 values of 3.45±0.18 and 2.87±0.26 ?M, respectively. This is the first time that C-benzylated dihydroflavones have been reported to demonstrate an apoptotic effect associated with disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. PMID:21973101

  9. MHPT.BAS: a computer program for modified Hill Piper diagram for classification of ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Srinivasa

    1998-12-01

    The Hill-Piper diagram is a widely used trilinear diagram to represent the chemical composition of natural waters, which aids the interpretation of the genesis of the chemical character of the groundwater in an aquifer. Handa extended this diagram by combining it with a modified U.S. Salinity Research Laboratory diagram, representing salinity by a single point in an extended diamond field instead of a circle, whose diameter is equivalent to its total dissolved solids. This modified diagram can also be used to determine the suitability of water for irrigation purpose. The code MHPT.BAS is written in BASIC. It gives either descriptive or graphic output, or both. For descriptive output, the program takes about 2 s to classify the data of 1000 water samples if it runs on Pentium under WINDOWS 95 and for the same data the program takes about 15 s if it runs under MSDOS. The graphic output can be obtained on dot matrix, inkjet or laser printers. The use of the program is demonstrated with a case study of the lower Vamsadhara river basin.

  10. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper. PMID:19456163

  11. Variability in essential-oil composition of Piper marginatum sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; da Silva, Milton Helio L; da Silva, João Domingos; Bastos, Cleber N; Sousa, Pergentino José C; Guimarães, Elsie F; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2008-01-01

    This paper contains data on the chemical composition of the essential oils of 22 leaf samples of Piper marginatum Jacq. collected in different areas and ecosystems of the brazilian Amazon, as well as an overview of the available literature. The species presents a large synonymy based on their different leaf characteristics and distinct scents where some of them smell like anise or very close compounds. By GC, GC/MS, and cluster analysis, we identified seven chemotypes for the leaf oils. The main components found in chemotype I were safrole (1) and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2). The chemotype II was dominated by 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2) and p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (10). The major compounds identified in chemotype III were 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2), myristicin (3), (E)-beta-ocimene (11), and gamma-terpinene (12). In the chemotype IV, the principal constituents were beta-caryophyllene (13), alpha-copaene (14), and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2). The chemotype V was dominated by (E)-isoosmorhizole (6), (E)-anethole (8), and isoosmorhizole (7). The main compounds found in the chemotype VI were 2-methoxy-4,5-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (4), methoxy-4,5-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone isomer 5, and (E)-isoosmorhizole (6). The major constituents in chemotype VII were beta-caryophyllene (13), bicyclogermacrene (15), and (E)-asarone (9). PMID:18205123

  12. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...leave shall not exceed seven (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall not exceed a total of twelve (12) days, and leave may be granted for all...

  13. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along monocot leaf blades, except at the leaf tip and giving the uncertainties on measurements and model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed differences between C3 and C4 plants reflect more mesophyll tortuosity rather than leaf length or interveinal distance. Using measurements of non-steady-state, spatially varying leaf water enrichment we show that spatial patterns are in steady state around midday only, just as observed for bulk leaf water, but can be easily up-scaled to the whole leaf level, independent of the degree of heterogeneity. This together suggests that regardless of the heterogeneity of leaf water enrichment, it is appropriate to take simple models of leaf water enrichment weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux for applications involving leaf water isotope enrichment. References Cuntz M, Ogée J, Farquhar GD, Peylin P & Cernusak LA (2007) Modelling advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 892-909 Farquhar GD & Cernusak LA (2005) On the isotopic composition of leaf water in the non-steady state, Functional Plant Biology 32, 293-303 Ogée J, Cuntz M, Peylin P & Bariac T (2007) Non-steady-state, non-uniform transpiration rate and leaf anatomy effects on the progressive stable isotope enrichment of leaf water along monocot leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 367-387

  14. Cassava leaves as human food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Lancaster; J. E. Brooks

    1983-01-01

    The use of cassava leaves as human food is reviewed and their value as a source of protein and vitamins for supplementing\\u000a predominantly starchy diets reemphasized. The problem of the toxicity of the leaves is considered, and the effects on both\\u000a nutritive value and toxicity of the traditional methods of preparing the leaves, such as drying, pounding, and long periods

  15. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Owens, Daniel K.; Watson, Susan B.; Asolkar, Ratnakar N.; Boddy, Louis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid). However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 ?M or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 ?M sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II (PSII) on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 ?M. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to be a complex process associated with multiple mechanisms of action.

  16. Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazillah

    2011-01-01

    In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg?1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77?ng?mL?1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL?1, Tmax 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19770264

  17. PAYROLL/PERSONNEL SABBATICAL LEAVE / SPECIAL LEAVE OF ABSENCE

    E-print Network

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    2. EMPLOYEE ID NO. 3. DATE PREPARED MO DY YR 4. NAME (Last, First, Middle Initial) 5. PERSONNEL PROGRAM ACADEMIC STAFF 6. ADDRESS WHILE ON LEAVE 7. DEPARTMENT (TO CHANGE W-2 OR CHECK ADDRESS--USE UPAY OF LEAVE BEGIN DATE RETURN DATE 11. ACADEMIC YEAR SERVICE SEMESTER AFFECTED SUM FALL SPR MO DY YR MO DY YR

  18. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, ??,?-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids. PMID:25660876

  19. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Wan Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2014-12-01

    The study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of three Piper species: Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum, all from Malaysia. GC and GC/MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences between these oils. GC and GC-MS analysis of P. abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum oils resulted in the identification of 33, 35 and 39 components, representing 70.5%, 63.4% and 78.2% of the components, respectively. The major components of P. abbreviatum oil were spathulenol (11.2%), (E)-nerolidol (8.5%) and ?-caryophyllene (7.8%), whereas P. erecticaule oil mainly contained ?-caryophyllene (5.7%) and spathulenol (5.1%). Borneol (7.5%), ?-caryophyllene (6.6%) and ?-amorphene (5.6%) were the most abundant components in P. lanatum oil. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution method against nine microorganisms. All of the essential oils displayed weak activity towards Gram-positive bacteria with MIC values in the range 250-500 ?g/mL. P. erecticaule oil showed the best activity on Aspergillus niger (MIC 31.3 ?g/mL), followed by P. lanatum oil (MIC 62.5 ?g/mL). This study demonstrated that the essential oils have potential as antimicrobial agents and may be useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:25632488

  20. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.

  1. See the Colors in Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-22

    Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

  2. Oranges - Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Five orange blossoms against a backdrop of citrus leaves and a mature orange produced by the previous year's blossoms. One blossom has already been pollinated and has lost its surrounding petals leaving the pistil isolated. Photograph taken March 15-16, 2008....

  3. FAMILY-RELATED LEAVE POLICIES

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW-MADISON FAMILY-RELATED LEAVE POLICIES FOR FACULTY, ACADEMIC STAFF AND LIMITED APPOINTEES Office://www.ohr.wisc.edu/polproced/fambroch.pdf #12;Table of Contents Introduction 1 Caring for Ill Family Members 2 Paid leave for Birth or Adoption with the difficulty of balancing the needs of family with the needs of work. Childbirth, adoption, child care

  4. Características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento na produção de sementes sintéticas de pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo da Silva Guedes; Frederico Henrique da Silva Costa; Jonny Everson Scherwinski Pereira

    2007-01-01

    RESUMO - A pimenta-longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.) é um arbusto da família Piperaceae, nativa da região amazônica, que vem despertando o interesse das indústrias de cosméticos e bioinseticidas pelo alto teor de safrol, óleo essencial extraído das folhas e talos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de características físicas e nutricionais da matriz de encapsulamento durante a

  5. Efeito da adubação nitrogenada, em diferentes densidades de plantio, na produção de biomassa de Pimenta Longa (Piper hispidinervum C.DC.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Guilherme Salvador Wadti; Edson Patto Pachecoii

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of different stands and nitrogen doses in the dry matter production of the Long Pepper (Piper hispidinervum C. DC.). The study was installed in the Ultisol, in Rio Branco, AC. in randomized blocks with subdivided plots design, with three replications. After one year, the plants were cutting to uniform them

  6. DIAGNÓSTICO DA AMBIÊNCIA ORGANIZACIONAL DA COMUNIDADE DE PRODUTORES DE PIMENTA LONGA (PIPER HISPIDINERVUM) UNIÃO DA LINHA SEIS DO PROJETO DE COLONIZAÇÃO HUMAITÁ EM PORTO ACRE – AC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solange Maria Chalub Bandeira Teixeira; Lucas Araujo Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o resultado parcial de uma pesquisa maior sobre a avaliação ambiental e sócio-econômica da produção de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum) de uma comunidade de produtores de um projeto de colonização do INCRA. Trata-se da sistematização do que foi levantado em campo, através de pesquisa realizada com 10 (dez) produtores rurais, pertencentes a uma associação de produtores do

  7. Effect of heat processing of spices on the concentrations of their bioactive principles: Turmeric ( Curcuma longa), red pepper ( Capsicum annuum) and black pepper ( Piper nigrum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Suresh; H. Manjunatha; Krishnapura Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Studies were made to examine the loss of curcumin, capsaicin and piperine, the active principles of turmeric (Curcuma longa), red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and black pepper (Piper nigrum), respectively, as a result of subjecting the spices to domestic cooking processes. This involved heat treatment of each of these spices by: (i) boiling for 10min, (ii) boiling for 20min and (iii)

  8. Effects of Oxazepam and an Extract of Kava Roots (Piper methysticum) on Event-Related Potentials in a Word Recognition Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. F. Münte; H. J. Heinze; M. Matzke; J. Steitz

    1993-01-01

    Twelve healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind crossover study to assess the effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots (Piper methysticum) on behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a recognition memory task. The subjects’ task was to identify within a list of visually presented words those that were shown for the first time and those that were

  9. Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155

    E-print Network

    Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean-grained sands deposited at the downstream ends of channels (Flood et al., 1995). Levee deposits form fining interglacial calcareous clay. Within the latest Pleistocene levee complex, major shifts in the posi- tion

  10. Invasive competitor and native seed predators contribute to rarity of the narrow endemic Astragalus sinuatus Piper.

    PubMed

    Combs, Julie K; Reichard, Sarah H; Groom, Martha J; Wilderman, David L; Camp, Pamela A

    2011-10-01

    The conservation of rare plant species hinges on our ability to identify the underlying mechanisms that limit rare plant populations. Theory on rarity suggests that both predispersal seed predation and competition can be important mechanisms influencing abundance and/or distribution of rare plant populations. Yet few studies have tested these interactions, and those that have evaluated each mechanism independently. Astragalus sinuatus Piper (Whited's milkvetch) is a narrow endemic plant species restricted to eight populations within a 10-km2 area in eastern Washington. We used experimental and observational methods to test the effects of native insect predispersal seed predators and an invasive grass (Bromus tectorum L. [cheatgrass]) on seed set and population density of A. sinuatus. We quantified per capita seed production and pod predation rates across four sites and among four years. Seed predation rates were high across four sites (66-82%) and all years (65-82%). Experimental reduction of predispersal seed predators significantly increased per capita seed set of A. sinuatus (164-345%) at two experimental sites. Concurrently, two seed addition experiments demonstrated the effect of seed loss and presence of B. tectorum on seedling recruitment and establishment of A. sinuatus over four growing seasons. In the first seed addition experiment, we found no difference in recruitment and establishment between low (40) and high (120) seed addition levels. In the second addition experiment (one level of addition; 40 seeds), we found that recruitment and survivorship increased 200% in plots where B. tectorum was removed compared to plots where B. tectorum was present. Thus, seed addition had no impact in the presence of B. tectorum; conversely, in the absence of B. tectorum, seed addition was highly effective at increasing population numbers. Results suggest that, in areas where B. tectorum is present, recruitment is site limited, and it is seed limited when B. tectorum is absent. We recommend that managers reduce B. tectorum in an effort to increase population growth of A. sinuatus; in areas where B. tectorum is absent, short-term reduction of insect predators should be considered as a strategy to increase population growth of this rare species. PMID:22073639

  11. PROCEDURES FOR EMPLOYEE LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    receives donated leave. The employee donating leave as well as the recipient must complete the RequestPROCEDURES FOR EMPLOYEE LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM The Employee Leave Donation Policy is in Section VII employees. Employees with a serious and prolonged medical condition may receive donated leave from UMBC

  12. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  13. Leaving Your Child Home Alone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kitchen the smoke alarm goes off there's a tornado or other severe weather a stranger comes to ... addition, leave flashlights in an accessible place in case of a power outage. Post important phone numbers — ...

  14. Special Leave Scenarios Scenario Special

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    ) ­ not medically required You have a dentist or GP appointment Not recorded* Dentist and GP appointments should and the amount of special leave should be at your manager's discretion eg funeral attendance. *Dentist and GP

  15. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

  16. Flavokawains B and C, melanogenesis inhibitors, isolated from the root of Piper methysticum and synthesis of analogs.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hye-Jin; Lee, Chang Seok; Choi, Janggyoo; Hong, Yong Deog; Shin, Song Seok; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, John Hwan; Lee, Seokyong; Yoon, Kee Dong; Ko, Jaeyoung

    2015-02-15

    The ethanolic extract of the root of Piper methysticum was found to inhibit melanogenesis in MSH-activated B16 melanoma cells. Flavokawains B and C were isolated from this extract based on their anti-melanogenesis activity and found to inhibit melanogenesis with IC50 values of 7.7?M and 6.9?M, respectively. Flavokawain analogs were synthesized through a Claisen-Schmidt condensation of their corresponding acetophenones and benzaldehydes and were evaluated in terms of their tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-melanogenesis activities. Compound 1b was the most potent of these with an IC50 value of 2.3?M in melanogenesis inhibition assays using MSH-activated B16 melanoma cells. PMID:25597012

  17. Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Ismat; Waheed, Shahida; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain

    2012-05-01

    Three important medicinal fruits generally used by the people of Pakistan for the treatment of different diseases have been studied for their mineral contents. Twenty-two major and minor trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were identified in Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) and Piper cubeba L. (cubeb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The studied medicinal herbs are a good source of the essential elements while toxic elements are found in trace amounts. K is detected as a major element in pomegranate, jujube and cubeb with respective values of 1.20%, 1.18% and 2.01%. Pomegranate has significant concentrations of Na, Zn, Cr and Se; jujube has high Cl, Zn, Mn and Co contents while cubeb is a good source of K and Fe. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of mineral elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal herbs. PMID:22017565

  18. Exoproteome and Secretome Derived Broad Spectrum Novel Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Vibrio cholerae Targeted by Piper betel Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Síntia; Thiago Jucá Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species. PMID:23382822

  19. Strong spatial genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?

    PubMed Central

    Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E

    2011-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or strongly outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed strong genetic structure at both fine- and large-spatial scales. Over short distances (200–750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.11–0.46, P < 0.05), with values of spatial genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.03–0.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus. PMID:22393518

  20. Department of Genetics Leave Policy Annual Leave = Annual leave is granted to an employee for rest and relaxation and to

    E-print Network

    Department of Genetics Leave Policy Annual Leave = Annual leave is granted to an employee for rest be approved by the employee's supervisor. It is essential to discuss any planned absence with your supervisor well in advance so that the timing of leave can be coordinated with the work requirements of your area

  1. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN PARENTAL LEAVE PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Levi, Ran

    UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN PARENTAL LEAVE PROCEDURE 1 WHAT IS PARENTAL LEAVE? Parental leave is a right: .................................................................................. 3 Employee Declaration I have read the University of Aberdeen's Parental Leave Procedure: ................................ Please forward a signed copy of this application form to Human Resources. Approved by the University

  2. Unpaid Leave Policy 6.45

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    this requirement in workers' compensation, short-term disability and long-term disability cases. Medical leave must/01/1973 Edited: 04/15/2014 Faculty and staff may request an unpaid leave for personal, professional or medical unpaid family and medical leave falls under this policy. A leave implies that the same or similar

  3. Parental Leave Guidelines.doc PARENTAL LEAVE GUIDELINES

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Sriram

    for a child's welfare. Parents can use it to spend time with their children and balance the demands of work Parental leave is not intended to cover emergencies involving children, which is covered by different who has acquired parental responsibility for a child under 5 years (under the Children's Act

  4. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  5. Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

    2005-10-01

    Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

  6. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  7. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  8. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  9. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  10. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  11. APPLICATION FOR FACULTY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    : ______________________________________________________________ Specify other awards, grants, or fellowships (include amounts) which may be available to supplementAPPLICATION FOR FACULTY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE NAME the faculty member's responsibilities while on leave. Include teaching and graduate student support. · Letter

  12. Detection of flavokavins (A, B, C) in cultivars of kava (Piper methysticum) using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC).

    PubMed

    Lebot, V; Do, T K T; Legendre, L

    2014-05-15

    Kava (Piper methysticum) is used to prepare the traditional beverage of the Pacific islands. In Europe, kava has been suspected to cause hepatoxicity with flavokavin B (FKB) considered as a possible factor. The present study describes an HPTLC protocol for rapid screening of samples. The objectives are: to detect the presence of flavokavins in extracts and to compare the FKB levels in different cultivars. Overall, 172 samples originating from four cultivars groups (noble, medicinal, two-days and wichmannii), were analysed. Results indicate that the ratio FKB/kavalactones is much higher in two-days (0.39) and wichmannii (0.32) compared to nobles (0.09) and medicinal cultivars (0.10). For each group, the ratios flavokavins/kavalactones do not change significantly between roots, stumps or basal stems and among clones, indicating that they are genetically controlled. This protocol has good accuracy and is cost efficient for routine analysis. We discuss how it could be used for quality control. PMID:24423570

  13. Manager's Guide for Family Leave Transitions

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    ), allowing for issues and questions to be addressed well before the employee's leave begins. · Familiarize an employee prepare for leave and the transition back to work are also critical to that employee's retention process about two months before the employee goes on leave (or at a time you and the employee agree to

  14. A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

    2012-06-01

    This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

  15. Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, James

    1986-01-01

    “Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!” Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care. PMID:21267231

  16. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. PMID:24060214

  18. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  19. A flight investigation of the ultra-deep-stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radiocontrolled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ultradeep stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radio controlled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk aircraft was investigated. It was shown that the full scale PA38 is a suitable aircraft for conducting ultradeep stall research. Spin recovery was accomplished satisfactorily by entry to the ultradeep stall mode, followed by the exit from the ultradeep stall mode. It is concluded that since the PA38 has excellent spin recovery characteristics using normal recovery techniques (opposite rudder and forward control colum pressure), recovery using ultradeep stall would be beneficial only if the pilot suffered from disorientation.

  20. Effect of different in vitro culture extracts of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on toxic metabolites-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of different in vitro cultures (callus, in vitro shoots) and commercially available peppercorn extract was investigated for its activity against toxic metabolite-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). These in vitro cultures were extracted with ethanol, hexane, and chloroform, and the antipathogenic activity was determined by well-diffusion method. Hexane extract of callus showed 22 mm zone of inhibition against B. cereus, 23 mm against S. aureus, while regenerated shoots and seeds have shown 24.3 and 26 mm zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of regenerated Piper shoots have shown 25 mm activity against S. aureus, 21 mm against B. cereus, and 16 mm in the case of C. albicans in comparison with standard antibiotics. Peppercorn extracts in chloroform and ethanol had shown activities against B. cereus (23.6 mm) and B. subtilis (23.5 mm). During in vitro organogenesis and morphogenesis, cells and tissues produced a comparable phytochemicals profile like mother plant. Morphogenesis is critically controlled by the application of exogenous plant-growth regulators. Such addition alters the hormonal transduction pathways, and cells under in vitro conditions regenerate tissues, which are dependant on the physiological state of cells, and finally enhance the production of secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the antimicrobial potential of in vitro regenerated tissues and peppercorn with standard antibiotics. In conclusion, most of the extracts showed pronounced activities against all the pathogenic microbes. This is a preliminary work, and the minimum inhibitory concentration values needs to be further explored. Regenerated tissues of P. nigrum are a good source of biologically active metabolites for antimicrobial activities, and callus culture presented itself as a good candidate for such activities. PMID:24193053

  1. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Onyango Arot Manguro; Peter Lemmen

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2?,3?-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2?-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2?-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-?-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[?-glucosyl-(1???2)]-[?-rhamnosyl-(1???6)]-?-glucoside-7-O-?-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[?-rhamnosyl-(1???2)]-[?-rhamnosyl-(1???4)]-?-glucoside-7-O-?-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-?-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-?-rhamnosyl-(1???2)-?-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-?-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-?-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside. Their structures were

  2. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). 825.310 Section 825.310 Labor Regulations...for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). (a) Required information from health care...

  3. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  4. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

  5. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  6. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, andPiper: Implications for the phylogeny of magnoliids and the evolution ofGC content

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqiu, C.; Penaflor, C.; Kuehl, J.V.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Carlson, J.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Boore, J.L.; Jansen, R.K.

    2006-06-01

    The magnoliids represent the largest basal angiosperm clade with four orders, 19 families and 8,500 species. Although several recent angiosperm molecular phylogenies have supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence has resulted in phylogenies supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. This is one of the most important remaining issues concerning relationships among basal angiosperms. We sequenced the chloroplast genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other completed angiosperm chloroplast genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids. The Drimys and Piper chloroplast genomes are nearly identical in size at 160,606 and 160,624 bp, respectively. The genomes include a pair of inverted repeats of 26,649 bp (Drimys) and 27,039 (Piper), separated by a small single copy region of 18,621 (Drimys) and 18,878 (Piper) and a large single copy region of 88,685 bp (Drimys) and 87,666 bp (Piper). The gene order of both taxa is nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Comparisons of angiosperm chloroplast genomes indicate that GC content is not uniformly distributed across the genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34-39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions (both intergenic spacers and introns). Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Across the genome, GC content is highest in the inverted repeat due to the presence of rRNA genes and lowest in the small single copy region where most NADH genes are located. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes. Trees from both analyses provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. The phylogenies also provided moderate to strong support for the basal position of Amborella, and a sister relationship of magnoliids to a clade that includes monocots and eudicots. The complete sequences of three magnoliid chloroplast genomes provide new data from the largest basal angiosperm clade. Evolutionary comparisons of these new genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genome, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots.

  7. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

  9. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

  10. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

  11. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

  12. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

  13. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

  15. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

  16. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for periods of severe morning sickness. An example of an employee taking leave on a reduced leave schedule is an employee who is recovering from a...

  17. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  18. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    PubMed

    Pabuçcuo?lu, A; Kivçak, B; Ba?, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724

  19. Leaving Care in England: A Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehal, Nina; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses changes in leaving care in England and Wales, based on a survey of young people leaving the care of social service departments that examined diversity of care leavers; care careers; age at independence; living out of care; and after-care support. Summarizes key policy and practice issues, and outlines new directions for practice and…

  20. The Piper Fatigue Scale-12 (PFS-12): Psychometric Findings and Item Reduction in a Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Bryce B.; Stover, Angela M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bernstein, Leslie; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Piper, Barbara F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Brief, valid measures of fatigue, a prevalent and distressing cancer symptom, are needed for use in research. This study’s primary aim was to create a shortened version of the revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS-R) based on data from a diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to determine whether the PFS captured multiple distinct aspects of fatigue (a multidimensional model) or a single overall fatigue factor (a unidimensional model). Methods Breast cancer survivors (n=799; stages in situ through IIIa; ages 29–86 yrs) were recruited through 3 SEER registries (New Mexico, Western Washington, and Los Angeles, CA) as part of the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Fatigue was measured approximately 3 years post-diagnosis using the 22-item PFS-R that has 4 subscales (Behavior, Affect, Sensory, and Cognition). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare unidimensional and multidimensional models. Six criteria were used to make item selections to shorten the PFS-R: scale’s content validity, items’ relationship with fatigue, content redundancy, differential item functioning by race and/or education, scale reliability, and literacy demand. Results Factor analyses supported the original 4-factor structure. There was also evidence from the bi-factor model for a dominant underlying fatigue factor. Six items tested positive for differential item functioning between African-American and Caucasian survivors. Four additional items either showed poor association, local dependence, or content validity concerns. After removing these 10 items, the reliability of the PFS-12 subscales ranged from 0.87–0.89, compared to 0.90–0.94 prior to item removal. Conclusion The newly developed PFS-12 can be used to assess fatigue in African-American and Caucasian breast cancer survivors and reduces response burden without compromising reliability or validity. This is the first study to determine PFS literacy demand and to compare PFS-R responses in African-Americans and Caucasian breast cancer survivors. Further testing in diverse populations is warranted. PMID:22933027

  1. NTVBLM ARALIK 201016 Betl Kacar Arslan

    E-print Network

    Gaucher, Eric

    NASA'nin gezegenimizde yaamin balangicini ve uzaydaki potansiyel yaami aratirdii Workshop Without Walls çou bilmeceyi aydinlatabiliriz. NASA'nin astrobiyoloji çalitayinda paleogenetik diinda, hayatin DNA astrobiyoloji eitimi verilmemesi- ne ramen NASA'daki çali- taya katilimin yüzde 10'unun Türkiye'den olmasi

  2. Pseudomonas fluorescens mediated systemic resistance in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is driven through an elevated synthesis of defence enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diby Paul; YR Sarma

    2005-01-01

    Efficient strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens identified were evaluated for their efficacy in inducing defence enzymes in black pepper. Increased levels of Peroxidase (PO), Catalase, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) and Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO) were induced in leaves apart from the roots of treated plants indicating the systemic protection offered to black pepper by the strains exploring the prevention of even

  3. Division of Human Resources MEDICALLY-RELATED LEAVES

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources MEDICALLY-RELATED LEAVES GENERAL INFORMATION Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Medically-Related Leaves ­ General Information Form questions: (813) 974-2970 Rev. 04/2010 Some medically-related leaves of absence apply towards an employee's Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA

  4. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in wheat leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, K.; Bassham, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne (CI 8885)) leaves both by activity assays and by the protein blot method. The specific activity of the wheat enzyme is comparable to that of PPDK from maize leaves. Of the total soluble protein in wheat leaves, about 0.05% was PPDK, comparable to the amount in the immature wheat seed and about 1/70th the amount found in mesophyll cells of maize. Immunoprecipitation of wheat PPDK with maize enzyme antiserum indicates partial identity, and the apparent subunit molecular weight is the same based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  5. REQUEST FOR FAMILY OR MEDICAL LEAVE If possible, a request for family or medical leave must be made 30 days prior to the date requested leave

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    REQUEST FOR FAMILY OR MEDICAL LEAVE If possible, a request for family or medical leave must be made.Va. Hire Date: _________________ State Hire Date: _________________ I request family or medical leave: __________________ _____ TO CARE FOR MY SPOUSE, CHILD (UNDER THE AGE OF 18), OR A PARENT THAT HAS A SERIOUS HEALTH CONDITION* Leave

  6. Reflectance and Transmittance of Light by Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Joseph T.

    1971-01-01

    Spectrophotometric transmittance and reflectance curves were recorded for wavelengths from 0.45 (in some cases 0.34) to 2.7 micrometers for faces and backs of leaves and for stacked leaves of several plant species. Measurements were made at different angles of illumination. Leaf spectrophotometric curves were compared with curves for leaf extracts, potato tuber tissue, glass beads in water, and frozen leaves to demonstrate the physical bases for the leaf curves. Leaves were infiltrated with liquids of different refractive indices for further comparison of spectrophotometric curves. Goniophotometric reflectance curves were recorded, giving visible reflectance and degree of polarization as functions of viewing angle for two different angles of illumination. No retroreflection was observed, and no phenomena were observed which could be attributed to interference because of similarity between leaf structural sizes and wavelengths used. PMID:16657679

  7. DEPARTMENT WORKSHEET FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    FOR LEAVE own serious health condition pregnancy disability (nonwork- or work related)* serious health condition of parent, care for newborn, newly adopted or child placed spouse, domestic partner or child

  8. Herbicide Uptake by Leaves and Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation describes how herbicides are taken up by leaves and illustrates how physico-chemical characteristics alter their movement across cuticles. Passive and active mechanisms of herbicide absorption across plant membranes into cells are shown as well.

  9. Constant Email Checks Can Leave You Stressed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Constant Email Checks Can Leave You Stressed People felt less ... to help reduce your stress? Try checking your emails less often, researchers suggest. The new study featured ...

  10. Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

  11. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  12. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  13. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  14. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  15. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of...

  16. More manganese accumulates in maple sun leaves than in shade leaves.

    PubMed

    McCain, D C; Markley, J L

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season. PMID:16666945

  17. Colorado School of Mines Leave Sharing Bank Program

    E-print Network

    Colorado School of Mines Leave Sharing Bank Program Application for Use of Bank Leave PART I:___________________________________________ CWID #:_______________ Home Address City/State/Zip: _____________________________________________________ Home Phone: ________________________________ Work Phone:______________________ Department

  18. The Pied Piper

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    An unusually thorough British pest identification website loaded with general arthropod information, most of it well illustrated. Sections dedicated to chemicals, and miscellaneous home intruders are especially nice additions. They also include a bit of their work ethic, which contributes nicely to the overall quality.

  19. Evaluation of leaves as a litter material.

    PubMed

    Willis, W L; Murray, C; Talbott, C

    1997-08-01

    The suitability of leaves for use as broiler litter was evaluated in four 49-d floor pen trials of 150 Avian x Avian female chickens each. In each trial, 25 broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to one of six pens at a density of 1.2 m2 per bird. There were two replicates of each of the following three treatments: 1) pine wood shaving (control), 2) a mix of 50% pine wood shaving and 50% leaves, and 3) leaves. Litter materials had no significant (P > or = 0.05) influence on live weight, feed conversion, breast blisters, dressed carcass weight, carcass yield percentage, or mortality. Mortality of birds reared on leaves tended to be higher than the other treatments, but it was found to be nonsignificant at the P < 0.05 level. No significant differences were observed for percentage litter moisture among treatments. Body weight gain was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher for the broilers reared on the leaf litter. Leaves alone or mixed with wood shavings have potential as an alternate litter material without compromising production or processing parameters at a low placement density. PMID:9251143

  20. Leaving and Returning toLeaving and Returning to Harbour with anHarbour with an

    E-print Network

    Griffiths, Gwyn

    Leaving and Returning toLeaving and Returning to Harbour with anHarbour with an Autonomous UnderwaterAutonomous Underwater VehicleVehicle Gwyn Griffiths & Steven McPhail Southampton Oceanography l will be autonomous as the norm l will be Ôlong rangeÕ in time and distance l will operate at slow

  1. Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): Leave Usage Genie

    E-print Network

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): Leave Usage Genie Purpose_____ The Leave Usage Genie allows you to review timecard approvals and leave taken by the employees that you supervise in to CalTime." 2. Go to the Leave Usage Genie by clicking on its link underneath the My Genies tab

  2. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

  3. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

  4. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

  5. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

  6. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

  7. Family and Medical Leave Revised 06/06

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    Policy Family and Medical Leave Revised 06/06 THE LANGUAGE USED IN THIS DOCUMENT DOES NOT CREATE/University of Charleston has established the Family and Medical Leave Policy and Procedures. The Family and Medical Leave to "eligible" employees for certain family and medical reasons. While family medical leave is defined as unpaid

  8. Division of Human Resources USF Sick Leave Pool

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    experiences a short-term serious personal disability, illness or injury and has exhausted all personal leave requested for this medical leave of absence counts towards my entitlement as outlined under the Family & Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Employee's Signature Date I have approved a medical leave of absence (with

  9. Educational Leave in Europe. Policy Paper No. 83-C3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutze, Hans G.

    This paper provides a description of and rationale for paid educational leave policies in Western Europe by examining three basic categories: general leave provisions provided by law, legal provisions for specific groups, and provisions for educational leave in collective bargaining agreements. Five countries presently have general leave

  10. The geometry of unfolding tree leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

  11. STAFF REQUEST FOR PARENTAL LEAVE The Parental Leave Policy for staff is in Section VII.7.49 of

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    /paternity leave. Parental Leave will consist of any form of leave the employee has accrued and earned as well.49 of the UMBC Policies website (www.umbc.edu/policies). PART I: To be completed by the Employee Name: Empl ID the Parental Leave Policy. Employee's Signature: ______________________________ Date: _______________ PART II

  12. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N?=?716), twelve weeks (N?=?661), six months (N?=?625), and twelve months (N?=?575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  13. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Press Releases General Guidance Break Time for Nursing Mothers Special Rules for Returning Reservists under USERRA FMLA Frequently Asked Questions Military Frequently Asked Questions Questions and Answers concerning the use of FMLA leave to care for a son or daughter age 18 or older FMLA Employee ...

  14. Comparative ionomes of rice leaves and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The project is investigating the possibility of using the mineral (ionomics) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict varieties that accumulate large amounts of certain minerals in their seeds. This information will be used for improving our understanding of the mineral physi...

  15. Absence, Leave of 26 Absences 26

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Architecture Program 71 Canadian Undergraduates 14 College of Business 80 Early 15 Former Students 16 Freshmen, College of Courses Graduate Program Associated Students of MSU ASMSU Athletics Audiovisual Media ServicesMOM Absence, Leave of 26 Absences 26 Absentia Registration 35, 138 College of Graduate Studies 138

  16. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  17. Lignans from leaves of Rollinia mucosa.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Alvarez, Ana Laura; López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Rocha, Luisa; Heinze, Gerardo; Moreno, Julia; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    A new furofuranic lignan named (+)-epimembrine together with known (+)-epieudesmine and (+)-epimagnoline were isolated from leaves of R. mucosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic data. Palmitone and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol were also isolated. PMID:11926539

  18. MATERNITY LEAVE: WHERE WE STAND COMPARED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1) . There are essentially two basic types: financial instruments (tax deductions, credits, benefits, etc.) and formal, non-financial instruments (such as social recognition of the importance of motherhood and par- enthood). One of the first policy provisions that families with children encounter is maternity leave (ML) and the financial assistance that accompanies it. This policy provision combines both aspects: for-

  19. LEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Eirinaki, Magdalini

    LEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One Washington Square as well as any additional required documentation (see below) and submit it to your immediate supervisor. All documentation must be provided to HR for review and approval. Employee Information Employee Name

  20. APPLICATION FOR LEAVE *Without pay only. Required

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    events. Depts may use for other purposes. Today's Date Employee's UFID Employee's Name Division/College Military exams Natural disaster Civil disorder Athletic competition Formal investigation Disabled Veteran-month period for the reasons listed above. You may elect to substitute accrued paid leave for unpaid

  1. Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

  2. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  3. [Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L].

    PubMed

    Chen, L

    1991-01-01

    Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:2069701

  4. FAMILY LEAVE FOR AAUP FACULTY AT URI

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    ://www.nccp.org/state_detail_RI_policy_29.html URI President's Commission on the Status of Women: http://www.uri.edu/uriwomen/ URI the AAUP contract. These provisions include the paid parental leave and reduced workload options indicated) The President's Commission on the Status of Women American Association of University Professors #12;10 Article

  5. Report on Sabbatical Leave: Spring Semester, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, E. B.

    During his sabbatical leave, the author traveled to Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific, and Japan to observe English-language programs. He reports on the contacts that he made and the programs that he observed. He gives his general impressions of the English-language activity in each location and makes several recommendations as a result of…

  6. 5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...the following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee...daughter, or parent has a serious health condition; or (4) A serious health condition...12-month period beginning on the date of birth or placement. Leave for a...

  7. 5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee...daughter, or parent has a serious health condition; or (4) A serious health condition...12-month period beginning on the date of birth or placement. Leave for a...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...the following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee...daughter, or parent has a serious health condition; or (4) A serious health condition...12-month period beginning on the date of birth or placement. Leave for a...

  9. FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE IMPORTANT INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    must be granted for any of the following reasons: · to care for the employee's child after birth a serious health condition; or · for a serious health condition that makes the employee unable to perform certification to support a request for leave because of a serious health condition, and may require second

  10. SQL APPLICATION FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVING EXAMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Mariana MARCU

    2003-01-01

    This paper main objective is to present SQL power of use for a case of data management with heterogeneous data classification. The article is based on a PHP application developed to manage a real situation of secondary school leaving examination in August 2003 at Bra?ov city, Romania at exams center no. 29, where the first author was president of the

  11. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  12. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  13. Antifungal activity of Aloe vera leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oana Rosca-Casian; Marcel Parvu; Laurian Vlase; Mircea Tamas

    2007-01-01

    Aloe vera fresh leaves hydroalcoholic plant extract was tested against the mycelial growth of Botrytis gladiolorum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli, Heterosporium pruneti and Penicillium gladioli on Czapek-agar medium. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied between 80 and 100 ?l\\/ml, depending on the fungal species.

  14. Terpenes from leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Lago, J H; Brochini, C B; Roque, N F

    2000-12-01

    The dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) was submitted to adsorption chromatography. Guai-6-en-10beta-ol, isopimara-7,15-dien-2alpha-ol and cycloarta-23,25-dien-3-one were isolated and identified by spectroscopic data, mainly by 1H and 13C NMR analyses; eight other known terpenoids were also isolated. PMID:11190388

  15. CATASTROPHIC LEAVE MEDICAL CERTIFICATION HUMAN RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    and forward to Human Resources, Leave Program Manager, UPD 0046. Please print using blue or black ink pen. EMPLOYEE INFORMATION Employee's Name: Employee ID: Home Telephone: Address: City and Zip Code: Department/College Name: Campus Phone: Request for Self Request for incapacitated member of family Name: Relationship: I

  16. Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

  17. University of Sussex Arrangements for parental leave

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    in respect of each child (eg a parent of twins would be entitled to up to eight months' leave); and where is either (a) the parent named on the birth certificate of a child; or (b) a person who has adopted a child or until its eighteenth birthday if this is sooner); or (c) a person who has acquired formal parental

  18. Faculty Single Semester Leave 1. Complete Faculty Single Semester Leave Form and submit to department head.

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    leave. For more information, see Board of Regents Policy: Employee Development, Education, and Training at http://www.umn.edu/regents/policies/humanresources/Employee_Develop_Educ_Training. Requested in accordance with Board of Regents Policy: Employee Development, Education, and Training

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. PMID:25746504

  20. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

  1. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460?nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50?nm and 9–30?nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

  2. Antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of the volatile oil from the wild pepper Piper capense used in Cameroon as a culinary spice.

    PubMed

    Woguem, Verlaine; Maggi, Filippo; Fogang, Hervet P D; Tapondjoua, Léon A; Womeni, Hilaire M; Luana, Quassinti; Bramuccic, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Barboni, Luciano

    2013-12-01

    Wild pepper (Piper capense L.f., Piperaceae) is a spice traditionally used in western Cameroon to make soups called 'Nkui' and 'Nah poh'. In the present work, the essential oil hydrodistilled from fruits was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, and for in vitro biological activities, namely cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial, by MTT, DPPH, ABTS and agar disc diffusion methods. The oil composition was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (56.5%) responsible for the pepper odor, such as (beta-pinene (33.2%), sabinene (10.0%) and alpha-pinene (8.9%). The oil induced a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on human tumor cells MDA-MB 231 (breast adenocarcinoma), A375 (malignant melanoma) and HCT116 (colon carcinoma), showing IC50 values of 26.3, 76.0 and 22.7 microg/ml, respectively. The oil showed total antioxidant activity with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC) value of 140 micromol/g. The essential oil of P. capense proved to be an effective scavenger of the ABTS+ radical, with an activity only about 30 times lower than that of Trolox. Moderate activity was observed against the Gram-positive species Staphylococcos aureus and Enterococcusfaecalis, and the yeast Candida albicans. The notable inhibition of some human tumor cells is worthy of further investigation to discover the possible mechanisms of action responsible for the observed cytotoxic effect of this essential oil. PMID:24555300

  3. Methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits improves memory impairment by decreasing brain oxidative stress in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Noumedem, Jaurès A; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Kuete, Victor; Mihasan, Marius

    2014-04-01

    The present study analyzed the possible memory-enhancing and antioxidant proprieties of the methanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. fruits (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally, for 21 days) in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The memory-enhancing effects of the plant extract were studied by means of in vivo (Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks) approaches. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using superoxide dismutase-, catalase-, glutathione peroxidase-specific activities and the total content of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels. The amyloid beta(1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory and reference memory errors within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the plant extract significantly improved memory performance and exhibited antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the plant extract ameliorates amyloid beta(1-42)-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus. PMID:24442916

  4. Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-? was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06?µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100?µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-?. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

  5. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. PMID:20839630

  6. Enumerative Sequences of Leaves in Rational Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédérique Bassino; Marie-pierre Béal; Dominique Perrin

    1997-01-01

    . We prove that any IN-rational sequence s = (sn)n1 of nonnegativeintegers satisfying the Kraft strict inequalityPn1snk\\\\Gamman! 1is the enumerative sequence of leaves by height of a rational k-ary tree.Particular cases of this result had been previously proven. We give somepartial results in the equality case.1 IntroductionThis paper is a study of problems linked with coding and symbolic dynamics.The results

  7. Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

    2011-10-01

    The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

  8. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabira Begum; Razia Sultana; Bina S. Siddiqui

    1997-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander and their structures elucidated as 3?,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide and 3?,22?,28-trihydroxy-25-nor-lup-1 (10),20(29)-dien-2-one. Elucidation of the structures was based on spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR (COSY-45, NOESY and J-resolved).

  9. Sick leave patterns in common musculoskeletal disorders – a study of doctor prescribed sick leave

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparative data on sick leave within musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is limited. Our objective was to give a descriptive overview of sick leave patterns in different MSDs. Methods Using electronic medical records, we collected information on dates and diagnostic codes for all available sick leave certificates, during 2 years (2009–2010), in the North Western part of the Skåne region in Sweden (22 public primary health care centres and two general hospitals). Using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 codes on the certificates we studied duration, age and sex distribution and recurrent periods of sick leave for six strategically chosen MSDs; low back pain (M54) disc disorders (M51), knee osteoarthritis (M17) hip osteoarthritis (M16) rheumatoid arthritis (M05-M06) and myalgia (M79). Results All together 20 251 sick leave periods were issued for 16 673 individuals 16–64 years of age (53% women). Out of the selected disorders, low back pain and myalgia had the shortest sick leave periods, with a mean of 26 and 27 days, respectively, while disc disorders and rheumatoid arthritis had the longest periods with a mean of 150 and 147 days. For low back pain and myalgia 27% and 26% of all sick leave was short (8–14 days) and only 11% and 13%, were long (?90 days). For the other selected MSDs, less than 5% of the periods were short. For disc disorders, hip osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, more than 60% of the periods were long (p?>?0.001). For back disorders and myalgia most periods were issued in the age groups between 40–49, with similar patterns for women and men. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis had most periods in the age groups of 50–64, and patterns for women and men differed. Low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis and myalgia had the greatest share of recurrent sick leave (31%, 34% and 32% respectively). Conclusion Duration, age and sex distribution and numbers of recurrent sick leave varies considerably between different MSDs. This underscores the importance of using specified diagnosis, in sick leave research as well as in planning of treatment and rehabilitation and evaluation of prognosis. PMID:24886568

  10. Differential Localization of Antioxidants in Maize Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms. PMID:12223757

  11. Characterization of ?-Galactosidase from Cucumber Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Elizabeth L.; Pharr, David M.

    1980-01-01

    Two forms of ?-galactosidase (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.22) which differed in molecular weight were resolved from Cucumis sativus L. leaves. The enzymes were partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography. The molecular weights of the two forms, by gel filtration, were 50,000 and 25,000. The 50,000-dalton form comprised approximately 84% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in crude extracts from mature leaves and was purified 132-fold. The partially purified 25,000-molecular weight form rapidly lost activity unless stabilized with 0.2% albumin and accounted for 16% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in the crude extract. The smaller molecular weight form was not found in older leaves. The two forms were similar in several ways including their pH optima which were 5.2 and 5.5 for the 50,000- and 25,000-dalton form, respectively, and activation energies, which were 15.4 and 18.9 kilocalories per mole for the larger and smaller forms. Both enzymes were inhibited by galactose as well as by excess concentrations of p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactoside sub-strate. Km values with this substrate and with raffinose and melibiose were different for each substrate, but similar for both forms of the enzyme. With stachyose, Km values were 10 and 30 millimolar for the 50,000- and 25,000- molecular weight forms, respectively. PMID:16661511

  12. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  13. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

  14. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

  15. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

  16. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

  17. 5 CFR 304.106 - Pay and leave administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Pay and leave administration. 304.106 Section 304.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...REGULATIONS EXPERT AND CONSULTANT APPOINTMENTS § 304.106 Pay and leave administration....

  18. [Ultrastructure and pigment composition of Sagittaria sagittifolia L. leaves].

    PubMed

    Nedukha, O M

    2013-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the cellular ultrastructure and pigment content of both submerged and above-water Sagittaria sagittifolia leaves with transmission electron microscopic and biochemical methods were realized. Essential distinctions of S. sagittifolia ultrastructure of photosynthesizing cells in submerged leaves were revealed during the comparison with those in mesophyll cells of above-water leaves. The changes of chloroplast ultrastructure in submerged leaves are examined as the adaptative signs of photosynthesizing cells under influence of altered environment. PMID:24228498

  19. REGULAR PAPER Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    REGULAR PAPER Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed carried to unravel mecha- nism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed *5

  20. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  1. Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

    2002-01-01

    States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

  2. Methods of Reducing Sick Leave Abuse. An ERS Information Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    A perennial concern to educational administrators is the abuse of sick leave by school employees. Numerous suggestions have been offered for reducing the abuse of sick leave both within education and industry. This publication reviews 12 research studies that evaluate plans for reducing sick leave abuse among various categories of employees. Also…

  3. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2014-11-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol ? methyl viologen ? O2) and PS II (H2O ? parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH ? O2; succinate ? O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and reduction of O2. PMID:25366828

  4. The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, Richard M.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1974-01-01

    When the detached first leaves of green or etiolated oat (Avena sativa cv. Victory) seedlings senesce in the dark, their oxygen consumption shows a large increase, beginning after 24 hours and reaching a peak of up to 2.5 times the initial rate by the 3rd day. This effect takes place while the chlorophyll of green leaves, or the carotenoid of etiolated leaves, is steadily decreasing. Kinetin, at a concentration which inhibits the decrease in pigment, completely prevents the respiratory rise; instead, the oxygen consumption drifts downwards. Lower kinetin concentrations have a proportional effect, 50% reduction of respiration being given by about 0.1 mg/l. About one-fifth of the respiratory rise may be attributed to the free amino acids which are liberated during senescence; several amino acids are shown to cause increases of almost 50% in the oxygen consumption when supplied at the concentrations of total amino acid present during senescence. A smaller part of the rise may also be due to soluble sugars liberated during senescence, largely coming from the hydrolysis of a presumptive fructosan. The remainder, and the largest part, of the increase is ascribed to a natural uncoupling of respiration from phosphorylation. This is deduced from the fact that dinitrophenol causes a similar large rise in the oxygen consumption of the fresh leaves or of leaf segments kept green with kinetin, but causes only a very small rise when the oxygen consumption is near its peak in senescent controls. The respiration of these leaves is resistant to cyanide, and 10 mm KCN even increases it by some 30%; in contrast, etiolated leaves of the same age, which undergo a similar rise in oxygen consumption over the same time period, show normal sensitivity to cyanide. The respiratory quotient during senescence goes down as low as 0.7, both with and without kinetin, though it is somewhat increased by supplying sugars or amino acids; glucose or alanine at 0.3 m bring it up to 1.0 and 0.87, respectively. N6-Benzylaminopurine and ?-2-isopentenylaminopurine act similarly to kinetin in repressing the respiratory rise, the former being five times as active as kinetin, while the latter has only 1% of the activity of kinetin. Zeatin also powerfully prevents senescence. Because the repression of the respiratory rise is shown by each cytokinin at the concentration at which it inhibits senescence, the action is ascribed in both cases to the maintenance of a tight coupling between respiration and phosphorylation. It is pointed out that such an effect would explain many features of cytokinin action. A change in the methodology of the senescence experiments is described and compared with the method previously used, and the influence of temperature and age of the plants on the course of leaf senescence are presented in detail. PMID:16658877

  5. BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Leave CPT Comp time taken MTH Military Leave-Temp DNO Organ Donation-Temp-Salary MTS Military Leave-Temp-Salary DNR Organ Donor-Regular OCE On Call Earned DNA Organ Donor-Salary OCH On Call Hours-Paid DNT Organ

  6. Dibenzocycloheptanoids from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2012-10-26

    Five dibenzocycloheptatrienes (1-3, 5, and 6) and one dibenzocycloheptadiene (8) together with 16 known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium. Application of HPLC-SPE-NMR to a selected fraction afforded two additional dibenzocycloheptatrienes (4, 7). The glycosides 2-7 comprise two diastereomers because of the chiral glycosyl moiety and the axial chirality of the biphenyl system. Their structures were elucidated via ECD and 2D NMR analyses and chemical degradation. Subavenosides D (5) and E (6) showed moderate inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus with IC?? values of 50.7 and 19.0 ?M, respectively. PMID:23025417

  7. Dihydrostilbene derivatives from Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Daniela M; Rocco, Concetta; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2005-07-01

    Four new dihydrostilbenes, alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4'-acetoxy-5'-isopentenylstilbene (1), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3',4'-trihydroxy-5-O-isopentenyl-6-isopentenylstilbene (2), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (3), and alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3'-dihydroxy-5beta-d-O-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), together with seven known flavonoids, glabranin isomer, naringenin, lupiwighteone, pinocembrin 7-O-glucoside, astragalin, isoquercitrin, vicenin II, and the inositol, pinitol, were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra grown in Sicily. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:16038558

  8. Female journalists more likely to leave newspapers

    E-print Network

    Reinardy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    42 - Newspaper Research Journal • Vol. 30, No. 3 • Summer 2009 Female Journalists More Likely To Leave Newspapers by Scott Reinardy A survey of 715 U.S. newspaper journalists reveals women report higher levels of exhaustion and lower levels... they are experiencing. Nonetheless, HI was supported. H2 stated that female journalists will report significantly lower levels of professional efficacy on the MBI-GS scale than would men. Independent sam- ple t-tests were used to determine H2. There were significant...

  9. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  10. The senescence of detached leaves of tropaeolum.

    PubMed

    Thimann, K V

    1985-12-01

    The senescence of detached Tropaeolum majus leaves was compared with that described earlier for Avena. Tropaeolum was chosen as being not only a dicot but also as having a nearly circular leaf, thus needing only the smallest minimum of wounding, since wounding delays the loss of chlorophyll and protein in darkness. Tropaeolum resembles Avena in that closing the stomata osmotically or with ABA causes rapid senescence in light. As in Avena also, n-hexanol and alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl delay senescence in darkness but cause ;bleaching' of chlorophyll in light. Unlike Avena, however, kinetin and gibberellic acid, which delay senescence in the dark in both species, do so in Tropaeolum without causing any significant stomatal opening. The senescence of Tropaeolum leaves is actually promoted by fusicoccin, which powerfully delays senescence in Avena, although fusicoccin does cause stomatal opening in darkness in both species. Thus, many of the phenomena of senescence are alike in the monocot and dicot, but there are several significantly different responses to the senescence-modifying reagents. It is concluded that while stomatal closure accelerates senescence in both species, stomatal opening is not directly linked to the prevention of leaf senescence. PMID:16664539

  11. Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 85 Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves

    E-print Network

    Koptur, Suzanne

    on the same plant. One aspect of understanding plants is to be able to figure out what is root, stem, and leaf of the stem between the nodes (Figure 1). Figure 1. Shoot structure. #12;Plants: Roots, Stems and Leaves 86 meristem, the differentiating cells produce the root cap, a structure that protects the root apical

  12. Danforth Campus Family and Medical Leave of Absence Application Form (and Departmental Leave when applicable)

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . For unforeseen events, such as accidental injury causing a serio us health condition, premature birth or sudden health condition. NEW CHILD LEAVE ­ to be with your child following the birth or the placement of a child days in advance. Examples of foreseeable events include planned medical treatment or your child's birth

  13. Guidelines to the Implementation of Leaves under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    . The situations in which FMLA leave may be taken are these: Birth of a child, and in order to care for that child Placement of a dependent child with the employee for adoption or foster care A serious health condition from such a serious health condition Employees who have worked for NIU for the equivalent of at least

  14. Danforth Campus Family and Medical Leave of Absence Application Form (and Departmental Leave when applicable)

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . For unforeseen events, such as accidental injury causing a serious health condition, premature birth or sudden a serious health condition. NEW CHILD LEAVE ­ to be with your child following the birth or the placement days in advance. Examples of foreseeable events include planned medical treatment or your child's birth

  15. Leaving and entering a career in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2013-03-01

    Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

  16. Waving Apollo 8 Astronauts Leaving Recovery Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 served as the first manned lunar orbit mission. Liftoff occurred on December 21, 1968, carrying a three man crew consisting of astronauts Frank Borman, commander; William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot. The three safely returned to Earth on December 27, 1968. In this photograph, the crew members are waving as they leave the recovery helicopter. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  17. Diterpenoids from leaves of Cryptomeria japonica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Chiung Su; Jim-Min Fang; Yu-Shia Cheng

    1996-01-01

    Phytol, seven labdanes, eight abietanes, four pimaranes and three biditerpenes were isolated from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica. The new compounds included 8,13-dioxo-14,15,17-trinorlabdan-19-oic acid, 12-hydroxy-11-methoxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-7-one, 6?,11-dihydroxy-12-methoxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-7-one, 6,12-dihydroxy-11-methoxyabieta-5,8,11,13-tetraen-7-one, an acetal formed by abieta-8,11,13-triene-6?,7?,11,12-tetraol and imbricataloic acid, a self-condensation product of imbricataloic acid, as well as an acetal formed by abieta-8,11,13-triene-6?,7?,12-triol and 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectral methods.

  18. Three chromone components from Aloe vera leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Okamura; Noriko Hine; Satomi Harada; Toshihiro Fujioka; Kunihide Mihashi; Akira Yagi

    1996-01-01

    Three new chromone components, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera. Their structures have been established from spectroscopic studies; the structures of 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were shown to be 8-C-?-d- glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone and 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-cinnamoyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, respectively. The inhibitory action of these compounds against tyrosine oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase was examined.

  19. Proanthocyanidins from the leaves of Machilus philippinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Shoei-Sheng

    2010-08-27

    Seven proanthocyanidins (2-8) together with epicatechin (1) were isolated from the EtOH extract of the leaves of Machilus philippinensis. Of these, machiphilitannins A (7) and B (8) are new natural products, with respective IC(50) values of 31.3 (7) and 18.4 microM (8) against alpha-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus. Their structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of CD and 2D NMR analyses. In addition, aesculitannin B (2) showed inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase with an IC(50) value of 3.5 microM. This work demonstrates for the first time that the purified proanthocyanidins possess inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase type IV. PMID:20568785

  20. [Chemical constituents from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Jing, Wen-Guang; Liu, An

    2013-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents, twenty-seven compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera by modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified as 10-octacosanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2), 1-undecanol (3), 1-eicosanol (4), daucosterol (5), 6'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (6), 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone (7), rhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (11), hyperoside (12), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (13), astragalin (14), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1--> 6)-[alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside] (15), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), quercetin (19), kaempferol (20), dehydronuciferine (21), roemerine (22), stigmast-7-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (24), and benzene-1,2-diol (25) on the basis of spectral data analysis. Compounds 1, 6, 7, 8, 24 and 25 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 15-18 were isolated from the leaves for the first time. Compounds 6, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15 showed inhibitory activities against beta amyloid (1-42) by A-beta aggregation method with inhibition rates of (63.99 +/- 24.29)%, (79.61 +/- 4.49)%, (49.96 +/- 12.61)%, (101.19 +/- 8.19)%, (88.41+/-6.76)% and (72.48 +/- 8.97)%, respectively. PMID:23724680

  1. Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Nasir S. A.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1980-01-01

    The ATP content of 7-day-old Avena sativa leaves during senescence in dark and in light, and after treatment with cytokinins and other reagents, has been determined by the luciferin-luciferase method. Special care was taken to avoid decomposition of the ATP, and a detailed procedure is presented for ATP analysis at the picomole level. Preliminary experiments with several inhibitors of photophosphorylation suggest, though not conclusively, that the delaying effect of light on senescence is mediated by photophosphorylation. The ATP values of the leaves senescing in darkness are found to increase in parallel with the large increase in respiratory rate, and kinetin prevents this increase just as completely as it prevents the respiratory rise. It is concluded that the respiratory increase in senescence cannot be simply due to uncoupling. In light the ATP level also rises, though more slowly, and again kinetin prevents this rise. l-Serine, which promotes dark senescence, does not significantly modify the dark ATP level, but both arginine and kinetin, which antagonize the action of serine on senescence, greatly lower the ATP level below that on serine alone. Cycloheximide has a similar effect, and the combination of cycloheximide and kinetin lowers the ATP level drastically. Fusicoccin, which opens stomata in the dark, correspondingly maintains the ATP at a low level. Thus, in general, a low level of ATP is associated with the prevention of dark senescence, i.e. probably with ATP utilization, and the ATP level at any time may thus be determined more by the rate of utilization than by the efficiency of respiratory coupling. PMID:16661296

  2. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  3. UF Parental Leave Policy UFF Faculty Benefit MOU of 2/8/2008

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    If the employee leaves the University, the leave hours will be paid back from accrued leave of the employee If the employee does not have enough accrued leave to repay the balance, the employee does not have to pay for outstanding used leave balance The employee can take up to 6 months of paid/unpaid parental leave per year

  4. Thin-layer drying behaviour of mint leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?brahim Doymaz

    2006-01-01

    The thin-layer drying behaviour of mint leaves for a temperature range of 35–60°C was determined in a cabinet dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly reduced the drying time of the mint leaves. Drying data of this material were analysed to obtain diffusivity values from the falling rate-drying period. In this period, moisture transfer from mint leaves was described by

  5. The bionomics of Liriomyza Trifolii on Gypsophila and Bean Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanine H. W. M. Van Elferen; Shoshana Yathom

    1989-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the distribution of feeding and oviposition punctures made byLiriomyza trifolii Burgess on gypsophila(Gypsophila paniculata ) and bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, and the development times of the immature stages on these plants. The absolute number of punctures per leaf area\\u000a was much greater on bean leaves than on gypsophila leaves. The number of mines per

  6. Leaf life span of floating-leaved plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tsuchiya

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity of floating-leaved plants is relatively high comparable with terrestrial herbaceous plants, though floating-leaved plants have a much smaller biomass with a leaf area index seldom exceeding 2m2m-2. Their rather small biomass accumulation is related to higher turnover of leaf biomass or shorter leaf life span. Life span of floating leaves reported in the literature ranged mostly from 13

  7. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  8. Protective Effect of Hexane and Ethanol Extract of Piper Longum L. on Gentamicin-Induced Hair Cell Loss in Neonatal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Choi, June

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. Piper longum L. (PL) is a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, which has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activity, including antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hexane:ethanol (2:8) PL extract (subfraction of PL [SPL] extract) on GM-induced hair cell loss in basal, middle and apical regions in a neonatal cochlea cultures. Methods The protective effects of SPL extract were measured by phalloidin staining of cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice with GM-induced hair cell loss. The anti-apoptosis activity of SPL extract was measured using double labeling by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and myosin-7a staining. The radical-scavenging activity of SPL extract was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results SPL extract at a concentration of 1 µg/mL significantly inhibited GM-induced hair cell loss at basal and middle region of cochlea, while 5 µg/mL was effective against apical region hair cell loss. The protective effect of SPL extract was concentration dependent and hair cells retained their stereocilia in explants treated with SPL extract prior to treatment with 0.3 mM GM. SPL extract decreased GM-induced apoptosis of hair cells as assessed by TUNEL staining. The outer hair and inner hair counts were not decreased in SPL extract treated groups in compare to GM treated explants. Additionally, SPL extract showed concentration dependent radical scavenging activity in a DPPH assay. Conclusion An anti-apoptosis effect and potent radical scavenger activity of SPL extract protects from GM-induced hair cell loss at basal, middle and apical regions in neonatal cochlea cultures. PMID:24587875

  9. Leishmania donovani pteridine reductase 1: comparative protein modeling and protein-ligand interaction studies of the leishmanicidal constituents isolated from the fruits of Piper longum.

    PubMed

    Sahi, Shakti; Tewatia, Parul; Ghosal, Sabari

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is caused by the dimorphic parasite Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent. Treatment options for kala-azar are currently inadequate due to various limitations. Currently, drug discovery for leishmaniases is oriented towards rational drug design; the aim is to identify specific inhibitors that target particular metabolic activities as a possible means of controlling the parasites without affecting the host. Leishmania salvages pteridin from its host and reduces it using pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1, EC 1.5.1.33), which makes this reductase an excellent drug target. Recently, we identified six alkamides and one benzenoid compound from the n-hexane fraction of the fruit of Piper longum that possess potent leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes as well as axenic amastigotes. Based on a homology model derived for recombinant pteridine reductase isolated from a clinical isolate of L. donovani, we carried out molecular modeling and docking studies with these compounds to evaluate their binding affinity. A fairly good agreement between experimental data and the results of molecular modeling investigation of the bioactive and inactive compounds was observed. The amide group in the conjugated alkamides and the 3,4-methylenedioxystyrene moiety in the benzenoid compound acts as heads and the long aliphatic chain acts as a tail, thus playing important roles in the binding of the inhibitor to the appropriate position at the active site. The remarkably high activity of a component containing piperine and piperine isomers (3.36:1) as observed by our group prompted us to study the activities of all four isomers of piperine-piperine (2E,4E), isopiperine (2Z,4E), isochavicine (2E,4Z), and chavicine (2Z,4Z)-against LdPTR1. The maximum inhibitory effect was demonstrated by isochavicine. The identification of these predicted inhibitors of LdPTR1 allowed us to build up a stereoview of the structure of the binding site in relation to activity, affording significant information that should prove useful during the structure-based design of leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:22752544

  10. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  11. Birch leaves as a resource for herbivores: Seasonal occurrence of increased resistance in foliage after mechanical damage of adjacent leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erkki Haukioja I; Pekka Niemelä

    1979-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of such wound-induced reaction in birch foliage which deteriorates the quality of nearby leaves for herbivores was tested by means of bioassays. Length of the larval period was protracted in two early and mid-summer (larval period!) lepidopteran species as well as in two mid-summer hymenopteran species when larvae were reared on birch leaves whose adjacent leaves had earlier

  12. Cytokine-mimetic properties of some Philippine food and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tulin, Edgardo E; Ecleo, Zenaida T

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated Philippine indigenous plants for cytokine-mimetic properties and partially characterized candidate mimetics for their stability as well as their sensitivity to variations in temperature and pH. Forty-five plant extract preparations were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of mouse spleen cells and bone marrow cells. Temperature and pH effects were determined by subjecting the extracts to different temperature and pH levels and measuring their residual proliferative activities. Results revealed that 24 and 14 extracts were able to stimulate proliferation of bone marrow cells and spleen cells, respectively. Extracts from yam (Dioscorea alata L.) (Dioscoreaceae) roots and leaves, taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) (Araceae) roots, and buyo (Piper betle L.) (Piperaceae) leaf were among the extracts that strongly stimulated proliferation of both bone marrow cells and splenocytes, significantly increasing cell concentrations. Heating the extracts beyond 40 degrees C markedly reduced their proliferative ability, while a pH level below 4.0 and above 8.0 also significantly decreased the extracts' activity. Three protein-mimetics with sizes of 26 kDa, 35 kDa, and 50 kDa were isolated from buyo leaf, yam root, and taro root extracts, respectively. All three molecules are biologically active and stimulate a dose-dependent proliferative response. PMID:17651065

  13. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Hydroxychavicol for Its Potential Use as an Oral Care Agent?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Khan, Inshad Ali; Ali, Intzar; Ali, Furqan; Kumar, Manoj; Kumar, Ashwani; Johri, Rakesh Kamal; Abdullah, Sheikh Tasduq; Bani, Sarang; Pandey, Anjali; Suri, Krishan Avtar; Gupta, Bishan Datt; Satti, Naresh Kumar; Dutt, Prabhu; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxychavicol isolated from the chloroform extraction of aqueous extract of Piper betle leaves showed inhibitory activity against oral cavity pathogens. It exhibited an inhibitory effect on all of the oral cavity pathogens tested (MICs of 62.5 to 500 ?g/ml) with a minimal bactericidal concentration that was twofold greater than the inhibitory concentration. Hydroxychavicol exhibited concentration-dependent killing of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 up to 4× MIC and also prevented the formation of water-insoluble glucan. Interestingly, hydroxychavicol exhibited an extended postantibiotic effect of 6 to 7 h and prevented the emergence of mutants of S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 15987 at 2× MIC. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilms generated by S. mutans and A. viscosus and reduced the preformed biofilms by these bacteria. Increased uptake of propidium iodide by hydroxychavicol-treated cells of S. mutans and A. viscosus indicated that hydroxychavicol probably works through the disruption of the permeability barrier of microbial membrane structures. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This was evident from its concentration-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and significant suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in human neutrophils. Its efficacy against adherent cells of S. mutans in water-insoluble glucan in the presence of sucrose suggests that hydroxychavicol would be a useful compound for the development of antibacterial agents against oral pathogens and that it has great potential for use in mouthwash for preventing and treating oral infections. PMID:18573934

  14. Development of wine from infused tea leaves (Cammellia sinensis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Aroyeun; O. Olubamiwa; M. A. K. Ogunjobi

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Tea and herb teas are popular beverages with potential health benefits. This study evaluates the potential for the development of wine using infused tea leaves as a raw material. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Tea leaves of clones 318 and 143 obtained from the Mambilla Highland of the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria Ibadan, were infused in hot water and used

  15. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Emami; J. Asili; Z. Mohagheghi; M. K. Hassanzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and

  17. Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dern, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

  18. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Tracking Form

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) Tracking Form Refer to page 2 for instructions into PeopleSoft and shadow records updated accordingly. REMINDER: PTO only accrues during paid leaves of FMLA documentation should be kept in the employee's medical/confidential file, which is to be kept

  19. The Family and Medical Leave Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    This Final Rule amends certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (the FMLA or the Act) to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the Act made by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which extends the availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the servicemember's deployment; defines those deployments covered under these provisions; extends FMLA military caregiver leave for family members of current servicemembers to include an injury or illness that existed prior to service and was aggravated in the line of duty on active duty; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries or illnesses. This Final Rule also amends the regulations to implement the Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act, which establishes eligibility requirements specifically for airline flight crewmembers and flight attendants for FMLA leave and authorizes the Department to issue regulations regarding the calculation of leave for such employees as well as special recordkeeping requirements for their employers. In addition, the Final Rule includes clarifying changes concerning the calculation of intermittent or reduced schedule FMLA leave; reorganization of certain sections to enhance clarity; the removal of the forms from the regulations; and technical corrections to the current regulations. PMID:23476974

  20. P-83 OLVERSION 5/2012 Employee Request for Leave

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    P-83 OLVERSION 5/2012 Employee Request for Leave Name: SSN: Department: Dept. No.: Indicate Type) Requires approval by employee's department and by the University's Benefits Office. Please forward. Signature of Employee (Sign original in blue ink) Date Sick leave of over three (3) days must be submitted

  1. Pushout Principals: Why They Leave and Where They Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeonibus, Nancy; Thomson, Scott D.

    1979-01-01

    Reasons principals give for leaving the principalship involve job conditions more than personal or community circumstances. Diminished authority contributes to the attrition rate. From a random survey of 4,766 secondary school principals, just under 10 percent (446) indicated they had decided to leave the principalship in 1979. (Author/LD)

  2. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  3. Iron distribution in vine leaves with HCO3 induced chlorosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mengel; W. Bubl; H. W. Scherer

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to examine whether iron chlorosis in grape vine grown on calcareous soils was related to the Fe distribution in the leaf.Leaf samples collected from three different sites showed in most cases higher Fe contents in the chlorotic leaves as compared with healthy leaves. The solubility of leaf Fe in diluted HC1, however, was lower

  4. Nutritive Value of Tree Leaves m the Kansas Flint Hills

    E-print Network

    Owensby, Clenton E.

    w . 11 `c7 Nutritive Value of Tree Leaves m the Kansas Flint Hills JR. FORWOOD AND C.E. OWENSBY Flint Hills, the tons of tree leaves that fall to the ground each autumn are largely ignored MANAGEMENT 38(l), January 1985 We have observed cattle grazing Flint Hills rangeland in the fall selecting

  5. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U-0181 Expires: 12/31/2011 SECTION I: For Completion by the EMPLOYER INSTRUCTIONS to the EMPLOYER: The Family to active duty) in support of a contingency operation is attached. ___ I have previously provided my

  6. Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Kenagy

    1972-01-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

  7. Separation of cell enlargement and division in bean leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Van Volkenburgh; Robert E. Cleland

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for inducing cell enlargement in intact leaves and leaf strips of Phaseolus vulgaris L. without the complication of cell division. Primary bean leaves complete cell division and stop growing after 10 d in dim red light. Transfer to white light induces expansion (50% in 24 h) which is entirely the consequence of cell enlargement. Leaf strips

  8. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  9. Enumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of leaves or nodes in a rational tree. Let s be an IN-rational sequence of nonnegative numbers, that is a se in "Theoretical Computer Science 221, 1-2 (1999) 41-60" #12;A rational tree is a tree which has only a nite numberEnumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees Frederique Bassino Institut Gaspard

  10. Understanding Worker Leave Policies: An Overview December 2010

    E-print Network

    . For a worker's own short- term illness (such as a cold); For a worker to attend routine medical appointments and medical leave, and paid sick and safe days. FMLA (Family and Medical Leave Act) "Paid Family and Medical-protected. Policies that provide job- protected, paid time off for short-term, routine personal illness, to allow

  11. Family and Medical Leave Acts Rights and Responsibilities

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    · Birth/adoption of a child · Employee's own serious health condition · Care of an eligible family member with a serious health condition = Six weeks = Two weeks = Two weeks #12;WFMLA: Birth/adoption of a child · Under WFMLA, leave must begin within 16 weeks of birth or date of adoption. · Six weeks of leave is available

  12. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  13. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  14. First Grade Collecting Leaves with the book Leaf Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is takes place in nature and in the classroom. Students are gathering different types of leaves and naming characteristics of each then sorting them by those characteristics. Students then make a picture with leaves and writes 2-3 sentences about their picture using the characteristic words.

  15. OFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE 2015/2016

    E-print Network

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    , intellectual renewal, and acquisition of new skills through study, research, writing, and trainingOFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE ­ 2015/2016 The Professional Development Leave (PDL) program is funded and administered by the College of Liberal Arts. Its purpose is to enhance

  16. Extraction of tannin from fresh and preserved leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann E. Hagerman

    1988-01-01

    The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from

  17. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  18. Towards a More Telling Way of Understanding Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research into early school leaving. A narrative interview approach was used to document and analyse the experiences, processes and decisions that a small sample of boys made prior to leaving school, in this case, before completing year 10 and 11. Data collected in 2004 indicate that schools along with students…

  19. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  20. Response of the Succulent Leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia to Dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Jutta E.; Kaiser, Werner M.

    1987-01-01

    Relative water content, solute concentrations, and osmolality were determined in the water storage tissue (hydrenchyma) and the assimilatory tissue (chlorenchyma) of the succulent leaves of Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jac) (Piperaceae) during slow desiccation. Relative water loss was significantly greater for the hydrenchyma than for the chlorenchyma. When whole leaves had lost 50% of their initial water content, the concomitant decrease of the relative water content of the hydrenchyma was 75 to 85%, but of the chlorenchyma only 15 to 25%. In spite of this differential water loss, the osmolality in both tissues increased to the same extent, indicating solute flow from the hydrenchyma to the chlorenchyma during desiccation. Solute translocation appeared to be unspecific, probably reflecting symplastic mass flow from one tissue to the other. The observed volume preservation of the chlorenchyma stabilized photosynthesis of Peperomia magnoliaefolia (Jac) leaves, which was less inhibited by a given decrease of the relative water content of the whole leaves than in nonsucculent leaves. PMID:16665200

  1. Student Checklist: Requesting a Leave of Absence 11/13 Page 1 of 2 LEAVE OF ABSENCE OFFICE

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    program. The leave of absence process is designed to protect your privacy. Forms requesting sensitive/Scholar Advisor to discuss how immigration regulations will impact the proposed leave of absence. An advisor from an appointment as a GSI, GSRA or a GSSA will be responsible for tuition assessments for the current term

  2. The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

  3. The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Liang, Ting; Li, Qingliang; Du, Yuanpeng; Zhai, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly. Chloroplast ultrastructure analysis showed that the gap between thylakoids layers in few chloroplasts of middle-node leaves increased, which was also observed in ones of upper-node leaves; the number and size of chloroplast increased. Analysis on the deformed leaves of grapevines treated with 375 g ai ha(-1) fluoroglycofen showed that the starch grain per cell was much more and larger than that in the same size control leaves; the dark green and yellow parts had more or fewer chloroplast than the control, respectively, but both with more grana per chloroplast and less layers per granum. Chloroplasts went larger and round. Taken together, these results suggested that fluoroglycofen caused the grape leaves become dark green, which might be associated with the changes of chloroplast; the growth inhibition in the second year might be due to accumulation of starch. PMID:25175657

  4. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using poplar leaves as activator material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilmi Toker; Ergun Baysal; Osman Nuri Yigitbasi; Mehmet Colak; Huseyin Peker; Hakan Simsek; Ferah Yilmaz

    This study was carried out to determine pin head formation time and mushroom yield of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves using poplar leaves as activator material. In this study, moreover, in order to follow the evolution of the composting process, daily temperature measurements were taken. According to the

  5. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  6. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic ?-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-?-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

  7. Changes in the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and c-reactive protein following administration of aqueous extract of piper sarmentosum on experimental rabbits fed with cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inflammation process plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on inflammatory markers like vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods Forty two male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into seven groups; (i) C- control group fed normal rabbit chow (ii) CH- cholesterol diet (1%cholesterol) (iii) X1- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg) (iv) X2- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (125 mg/kg (v) X3- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (250 mg/kg) (vi) X4- 1% cholesterol with water extract of P.s (500 mg/kg) and (vii) SMV group fed with 1% cholesterol supplemented with simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. Blood serum was taken for observing the inflammatory markers at the beginning and end of the experiment. Results Rabbits fed with 1% cholesterol diet (CH) showed significant increase in the level of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CRP compared to the C group. The levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CRP in the 1% cholesterol group and supplemented with P.s (500 mg/kg) were significantly reduced compared to the cholesterol group. Similar results were also reported with simvistatin group. Conclusion These results suggest that the supplementation of Piper sarmentosum extract could inhibit inflammatory markers which in turn could prevent atherosclerosis. PMID:21214952

  8. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  9. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid. PMID:16665768

  10. Acetaldehyde and Ethanol Biosynthesis in Leaves of Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerer, Thomas W.; MacDonald, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    Leaves of terrestrial plants are aerobic organs, and are not usually considered to possess the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis of ethanol, a product of anaerobic fermentation. We examined the ability of leaves of a number of plant species to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically, by incubating detached leaves in N2 and measuring headspace acetaldehyde and ethanol vapors. Greenhouse-grown maize and soybean leaves produced little or no acetaldehyde or ethanol, while leaves of several species of greenhouse-grown woody plants produced up to 241 nanograms per milliliter headspace ethanol in 24 hours, corresponding to a liquid-phase concentration of up to 3 milligrams per gram dry weight. When leaves of 50 plant species were collected in the field and incubated in N2, all higher plants produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, with woody plants generally producing greater amounts (up to 1 microgram per milliliter headspace ethanol concentration). Maize and soybean leaves from the field produced both acetaldehyde and ethanol. Production of fermentation products was not due to phylloplane microbial activity: surface sterilized leaves produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol as did unsterilized controls. There was no relationship between site flooding and foliar ethanol biosynthesis: silver maple and cottonwood from upland sites produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically as did plants from flooded bottomland sites. There was no relationship between flood tolerance of a species and ethanol biosynthesis rates: for example, the flood intolerant species Quercus rubra and the flood tolerant species Quercus palustris produced similar amounts of ethanol. Cottonwood leaves produced more ethanol than did roots, in both headspace and enzymatic assays. These results suggest a paradox: that the plant organ least likely to be exposed to anoxia or hypoxia is rich in the enzymes necessary for fermentation. PMID:16665585

  11. Supervisor's User Guide (Exempt Employees--Web): How to Add Leave

    E-print Network

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    Information tab.). --OR-- To add leave to an employee's timecard, click the Leave Usage Genie link under My Genies 3. Previous Pay Period is the default Time Period in the Leave Usage Genie. --OR-- Current Pay to Add Leave 12. Click the Home link to return to the Leave Usage Genie to work on another employee --OR

  12. Cytokinins in the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba1

    PubMed Central

    Van Staden, Johannes; Hutton, Margaret J.; Drewes, Siegfried E.

    1983-01-01

    Cytokinin conjugates of zeatin, ribosylzeatin, and their respective dihydro derivatives tentatively have been identified as the major cytokinins present in mature Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Ribosylzeatin was present in higher levels than zeatin and dihydrozeatin. No evidence could be found that 6-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutylamino)purine occurs as a metabolite in the mature leaves. From the available evidence, it is concluded that cytokinin conjugates are probably the major metabolites formed in the leaves of this deciduous gymnosperm. PMID:16663198

  13. Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Cultivated Lycium barbarum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Z. Dong; Da Y. Lu; Y. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated\\u000a and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified\\u000a as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03–16.33 mg\\/g).

  14. Changes in endogenous growth regulators in nasturtium leaves during senescence.

    PubMed

    Chin, T Y; Beevers, L

    1970-06-01

    By use of lettuce-hypocotyl and wheat-coleoptile bioassay, the presence of both gibberellin (GA)-like and abscisic-acid(ABA)-like components in acidic ethyl-acetate extracts of fully expanded nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) leaves has been shown. During senescence of detached leaves there was a progressive decline in GA-like components and an increase in ABA-like components. Pretreatment of detached leaves with GA3 or kinetin prevented changes in the levels of endogenous growth regulators and delayed senescence. The observations provide experimental verification for the concept that senescence is associated with changes in endogenous growth regulators. PMID:24500186

  15. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    PubMed

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzi?ska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively. PMID:24583325

  16. Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    REVIEW Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory PAUL D tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis

  17. Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    REVIEW Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory Paul D imaging tech- nologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four

  18. TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY SABBATICAL LEAVE REQUEST COVER SHEET

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY SABBATICAL LEAVE REQUEST COVER SHEET ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016 FACULTY ACTION: SUBMIT THIS COVER SHEET TO YOUR DEAN BY NOON ON SEPTEMBER 15, 2014, FOR UPLOADING TO THE APPLICATION SITE

  19. School Sports Costs Leave Some Students on Sidelines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. School Sports Costs Leave Some Students on Sidelines Only one-third ... an average of $275 in other sports-related costs such as equipment and travel. "So, the average ...

  20. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

  1. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

  2. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

  3. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

  4. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...daughter, and to care for the newborn child; (2) The placement...or parent with a serious health condition; (4) Because of a serious health condition that makes the...weeks of leave for a serious health condition commencing...

  5. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...to designate properly. The employee might establish this by showing that he or she would have arranged for an alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated...

  6. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...to designate properly. The employee might establish this by showing that he or she would have arranged for an alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated...

  7. A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

    2011-10-05

    This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

  8. Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures 1. Introduction has significantly strengthened the legal protections for students during periods of pregnancy who is pregnant or has decided to terminate a pregnancy. The arrangements and procedures detailed

  9. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.

    PubMed

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

    2014-01-01

    An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON LEAVES OF DRYMARIA CORDATA WILLD

    E-print Network

    S. Venkatesan; V. Sankar; A. S. K. Sankar

    ABSTRACT: In folklore medicine Drymaria Cordata willd (Fam:Caryophylaceae) is well known plant in Sikkim state, India. The present work summarizes preliminary phytochemical study of leaves of this plant.

  11. 76 FR 18254 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) Employee and Employer...on employees' and employers' experience with family and medical leave under the Family Medical Leave Act. A copy of the proposed...

  12. Reddish spring colouring of deciduous leaves: a sign of ecotype?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari Taulavuori; Henna Pihlajaniemi; Satu Huttunen; Erja Taulavuori

    2011-01-01

    Several deciduous woody plant species produce anthocyanins during leaf development in spring and again during leaf senescence\\u000a in autumn. The leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) commonly exhibit transient reddening in juvenile leaves under northern growing conditions, with the intensity\\u000a of the red colour varying among individual trees. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that

  13. Nutritional Value of Balsam Apple (Momordica balsamina L.) Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nutritive value of Momordica balsamina L. leaves by analysing their proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral constituents. The results showed that the plant leaves had high moisture content (71.00±0.95% fresh weights). The concentration of estimate d crude protein and available carbohydrates on dry weight (DW) basis were 11.29 0.07% and

  14. Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

  15. Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

    1997-07-01

    Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

  16. Effect of light intensity on ammonia assimilation in maize leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth E. Klaus; Michael G. Berger; Heinrich P. Fock

    1985-01-01

    The effect of light on the metabolism of ammonia was studied by subjecting detached maize leaves to 150 or 1350 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR during incubation with the leaf base in 2 mM 15NH4Cl. After up to 60 min, leaves were extracted. Ammonia, glutamine, glycine, serine, alanine, and aspartate were separated by isothermal distillation and ion exchange chromatography. 15N enrichments

  17. Efficacy of leaves (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken block.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, A P; Mandal, P K; Pal, U K

    2015-05-01

    The use of natural preservatives to increase the shelf-life of meat products is promising as they possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Earlier, a highly acceptable restructured chicken slice without the addition of extra fat was developed in the same laboratory which was acceptable up to 10th day of storage under refrigeration and spoilage was mainly due to oxidation. Hence, the present study was planned to determine the efficacy of certain plant leaves' (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder at 1 % level as natural preservatives to enhance the shelf life of restructured chicken slices under refrigerated storage. The quality attributes of the products containing different natural preservativs were compared with the control and reference products. The control product contained no preservative and the reference product contained BHT (200 ppm) only. Incorporation of the leaf powders at 1 % level did not show any significant differences for both cooking yield (99.5-99.6 %) and proximate composition (moisture 72.2-72.3 %, protein 19.2-19.4 %, fat 4.2-4.3 % and total ash 2.3-2.4 %) of the restructured chicken slices compared to both control and reference products during storage. All products containing leaf powders showed significantly (P?

  18. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  19. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.

    PubMed

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  20. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves

    PubMed Central

    Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  1. Metabolism of purine bases, nucleosides and alkaloids in theobromine-forming Theobroma cacao leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Koyama; Yoshihisa Tomoda; Misako Kato; Hiroshi Ashihara

    2003-01-01

    We examined the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plant leaves at various ages: young small leaves (stage I), developing intermediate size leaves (stage II), fully developed leaves (stage III) from flush shoots, and aged leaves (stage IV) from 1-year-old shoots. The major purine alkaloid in stage I leaves was theobromine (4.5 ?mol g–1 fresh weight),

  2. OSU Human Resources 106 Whitehurst, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (405) 744-5449 Annual Leave, Sick Leave, and Holidays

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    of the immediate family who is ill or incapacitated. The immediate family is defined as spouse, children, parents is ill or incapacitated. Employees are not paid for unused sick leave. Employees who return to OSU within

  3. OSU Human Resources 106 Whitehurst, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (405) 744-5449 ANNUAL LEAVE, SICK LEAVE, AND HOLIDAYS

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    for a member of the immediate family who is ill or incapacitated. The immediate family is defined as spouse family who is ill or incapacitated. Employees are not paid for unused sick leave. Employees who return

  4. GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. Conclusions and implications. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed. PMID:25602364

  5. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    SciTech Connect

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  6. Radical scavenging conserves from unused fresh green tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Borse, B B; Kumar, H Vijay; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2007-03-01

    Green teas were made by inactivating the enzymes present in fresh leaves of coarse/pruned (unused) and normal (used for tea) grades using different sources of thermal energies. Green teas were extracted in a Soxhlet using different solvents. The obtained miscella was subjected to concentration to give the extract. The extract was subjected to solvent-solvent extraction. Solvent extract was concentrated to obtain conserve. The yields of conserves are 17 +/- 0.8 and 15 +/- 0.8% from green teas of normal and coarse tea leaves, respectively. The radical scavenging activity of these extracts was evaluated using a DPPH in vitro model system. The total polyphenol content was also determined and found to be higher in conserves from normal tea leaves. However, radical scavenging activity of conserves from coarse and normal green tea leaves was found to be >90% at 15 ppm concentration. The HPLC profiles of these conserves were used to quantify the total catechin content with the help of calibration curves prepared using authentic samples at known concentrations. The total catechin content is found to be in the range of 55-85%. Results indicated that the extracts from coarse leaves also possess potential biological activity and could be used as nutraceuticals as well as for preservation purposes in food formulations. PMID:17284052

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Emami, S. A.; Asili, J.; Mohagheghi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of ?-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than ?-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

  8. Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Iranian conifers.

    PubMed

    Emami, S A; Asili, J; Mohagheghi, Z; Hassanzadeh, M K

    2007-09-01

    Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of alpha-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

  9. Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and pyrophosphorylase of bean leaves.

    PubMed

    Wolcott, J H; Ross, C

    1967-02-01

    This report includes results demonstrating the existence of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase in plant leaves. The decarboxylase enzyme, purified 8 fold from leaves of etiolated pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), had a pH optimum of 6.3. It was strongly inhibited by 6-azauridine-5'-phosphate; a concentration of 12 mum decreased the reaction rate 60%. The enzyme was not dependent upon magnesium ions or inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. It was present in other parts of the bean plant and was found in young leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.)The enzyme orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase, which catalyzes the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphate from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, was found in the etiolated bean leaves, and was also present in the leaves of tomato and Canada thistle. It was stimulated by manganous or magnesium ions and had a pH optimum of 7.2. The K(m) value obtained by varying the concentrations of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate was 75 mum, and when orotic acid was varied the resulting K(m) was 3.5 mum. The presence of these 2 enzymes in higher plants, combined with previous results with inhibitors and labeled metabolites, indicates that the normal pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis in higher plants proceeds through orotic acid and OMP. PMID:6040896

  10. An event history analysis of union joining and leaving.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Donna M; Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D

    2007-05-01

    This article examines parallel models of union joining and leaving using individual-level longitudinal panel data collected over a 5-year period. The authors utilized objective measures of joining and leaving collected from union and organizational records and took into account time by using event history analysis. The results indicated that union joining was negatively related to procedural justice and higher performance appraisals and positively related to partner socialization and extrinsic union instrumentality. Conversely, members were most likely to leave the union when they perceived lower procedural justice, where there was no union representative present in the workplace, and where they had individualistic orientations. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice for trade unions. PMID:17484562

  11. Proteinase Inhibitor-inducing Factor in Plant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Douglas; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-nine plant species representing 20 families from the four major divisions of plants were surveyed for the presence of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor activity in leaves or other tissues. Tissue juices were assayed for their capacity to induce accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I in excised tomato (Lycopersico esculentum) leaves. In tissues of only 2 of the 39 species was proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity not found. The activity was absent in cabbage leaves and celery stalks. Fruiting bodies from one of three fungi genera assayed contained exceptionally large quantities of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity. Extracts from Agraricus campestris fruiting bodies contained over 20 times more activity than tomato leaf juice. The survey confirms that substances with proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity are widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:16658956

  12. Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, G J

    1972-12-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

  13. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana *

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Fen; Zhou, Guo-jun; Chu, Guo-hai; Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Qiao-mei; Jin, Li-feng; Lin, Fu-cheng; Yang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from all six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were observed both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R 2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding. PMID:24302710

  14. How different are the indicatrixes of the leaves of various woody plant species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayama, Hiroshi

    1996-06-01

    Some researchers assume that the light reflection from leaves is Lambertian, but I verify that some leaves exist showing no Lambertian reflection. One can measure the indicatrixes of leaves of various woody plant species by the use of a goniophotometer. Minnaert constants can be calculated from these indicatrixes for quantitative evaluation. I discuss why light scattering from leaves does not always obey Lambertian law.

  15. Correlation between loss of turgor and accumulation of abscisic acid in detached leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Pierce; Klaus Raschke

    1980-01-01

    Mature leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red kidney bean), Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) were used to study accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) during water stress. The water status of individual, detached leaves was monitored while the leaves slowly wilted, and samples were cut from the leaves as they lost water. The leaf sections were incubated

  16. The Development of Recommendations for College of Du Page Faculty Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasiliauskas, Jura B.

    Information on existing sabbatical leave policies at 38 Illinois public community colleges was gathered in order to assess the current policy at the College of DuPage and to generate recommendations for revisions. Data were collected on years of service before eligibility for leave, permissible reasons for leave grants, maximum length of leave

  17. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.306 Time limit for use...able to return to duty if the leave was forfeited because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5...

  18. Evaluation of mercury contamination using plant leaves and humus as indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tamura; N. Fukuzaki; Y. Hirano; Y. Mizushima

    1985-01-01

    Plant leaves and humus were collected from three areas with and without mercury emission sources. Mercury in these samples were determined by cold flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. A part of mercury emitted from the source into the atmosphere is absorbed by plant leaves, and move to humus through fallen leaves. Consequently, plant leaves are able to be used as an

  19. Employee Benefits & Other Related Information * FOR EMPLOYEES HIRED BEFORE July 1, 2012 Vacation Leave

    E-print Network

    life insurance coverage. Current benefits range from $38,361 (under age 65) to $7,672 (age 80 and over family and medical leave, up to 26 weeks of unpaid leave under the Servicemember Family Leave provision, and/or up to 4 weeks of leave under State law or collective bargaining (faculty members may

  20. Paid Educational Leave. NIE Papers in Education and Work: Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Herbert A.

    This report is a digest of a larger work, "Developments in Paid Leave of Absence," a report including case studies and analysis of the collective experience of nine European countries and the United States with paid educational leave. Section I defines paid educational leave as "leave given to an employee for educational purposes for a specified…

  1. Sequence diversity among badnavirus isolates infecting black pepper and related species in India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, A I; Sasi, Shina; Revathy, K A; Deeshma, K P; Saji, K V

    2014-01-01

    The badnavirus, piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) is known to infect black pepper (Piper nigrum), betelvine (P. betle) and Indian long pepper (P. longum) in India and other parts of the world. Occurrence of PYMoV or other badnaviruses in other species of Piper and its variability is not reported so far. We have analysed sequence variability in the conserved putative reverse transcriptase (RT)/ribonuclease H (RNase H) coding region of the virus using specific badnavirus primers from 13 virus isolates of black pepper collected from different cultivars and regions and one isolate each from 23 other species of Piper. Of these, four species failed to produce expected amplicon while amplicon from four other species showed more similarities to plant sequences than to badnaviruses. Of the remaining, isolates from black pepper, P. argyrophyllum, P. attenuatum, P. barberi, P. betle, P. colubrinum, P. galeatum, P. longum, P. ornatum, P. sarmentosum and P. trichostachyon showed an identity of >85 % at the nucleotide and >90 % at the amino acid level with PYMoV indicating that they are isolates of PYMoV. On the other hand high sequence variability of 21-43 % at nucleotide and 17-46 % at amino acid level compared to PYMoV was found among isolates infecting P. bababudani, P. chaba, P. peepuloides, P. mullesua and P. thomsonii suggesting the presence of new badnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses showed close clustering of all PYMoV isolates that were well separated from other known badnaviruses. This is the first report of occurrence of PYMoV in eight Piper spp and likely occurrence of four new species in five Piper spp. PMID:25674613

  2. Goniometric observations of light scattered from soils and leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestner, Joann M.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Irons, James R.; Smith, James A.; Brakke, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    The laboratory established at NASA-Goddard to measure and model the light-scattering properties of soil samples and individual plant leaves employs two goniometers: one for the measurement of directional reflectance and transmittance from vertically-mounted leaf samples, and the other for measurement of directional reflectance from such horizontal, semiinfinite particulate surfaces as soil samples. Sample observations of various soil minerals and plant leaves are presented; these goniometric data are compared to the results of a reflectance model from particulate surfaces and those of a ray-tracing model of leaf reflectance and transmittance.

  3. G-MG How many leaves on a tree?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Amy and Greg are raking up leaves from a large maple tree in their yard and Amy remarks "I'll bet this tree has a million leaves." Greg is skeptical an...

  4. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

  5. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

    2011-04-01

    Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

  6. Site of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Majorana hortensis Leaves 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney

    1977-01-01

    Excised epidermis of Majorana hortensis Moench (sweet marjoram) leaves incorporates label from [U-14C]sucrose into monoterpenes as efficiently as do leaf discs, while mesophyll tissue has only a very limited capacity to synthesize monoterpenes from exogenous sucrose. These results strongly suggest that epidermal cells, presumably the epidermal oil glands, are the primary site of monoterpene biosynthesis in marjoram. Using a leaf disc assay, it was demonstrated that label from [U-14C]sucrose is incorporated into monoterpenes most efficiently in very young leaves. PMID:16659884

  7. Site of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Majorana hortensis Leaves.

    PubMed

    Croteau, R

    1977-03-01

    Excised epidermis of Majorana hortensis Moench (sweet marjoram) leaves incorporates label from [U-(14)C]sucrose into monoterpenes as efficiently as do leaf discs, while mesophyll tissue has only a very limited capacity to synthesize monoterpenes from exogenous sucrose. These results strongly suggest that epidermal cells, presumably the epidermal oil glands, are the primary site of monoterpene biosynthesis in marjoram. Using a leaf disc assay, it was demonstrated that label from [U-(14)C]sucrose is incorporated into monoterpenes most efficiently in very young leaves. PMID:16659884

  8. Detoxification of cassava leaves by simple traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Maduagwu, E N; Umoh, I B

    1982-02-01

    Cassava leaves, which usually contain large quantities of cyanogenic glycosides, were processed into a Zairian traditional vegetable sauce "Mpondu" by simple methods which included blanching (10 min), mashing and then boiling for 20-80 min. These methods enhanced the detoxification of the leaves, with blanching alone resulting in the loss of 57% of the free (non-glycosidic) cyanide content and of 60% of the bound (glycosidic) cyanide. It is presumed that losses of cyanide during these processes would be accounted for in volatile HCN, its derivatives and in the boiling water. PMID:7080092

  9. Cycads from the Triassic of Antarctica: Permineralized Cycad Leaves

    E-print Network

    Hermsen, Elizabeth; Taylor, Thomas N.; Taylor, Edith L.; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2007-09-01

    from the Jurassic of Scotland (Dower et al. 2004), multiple petrified leaves on four specimens from the Early Cretaceous of India (Sharma 1973; Suthar et al. 1986), and two perminer- alized leaves from the Cretaceous of Japan (Stopes 1910; Nishida et al... characteristic also present in sporophylls (Matte 1904; Stevenson 1990). In extant cycads, the protoxylem in the vascular bundles of the petiole-rachides is exarch and occurs at the tip of a wedge of centripetal pri- mary xylem (Le Goc 1914; Marsh 1914; fig. 2E...

  10. Comparative phytochemical analysis of Diospyros chloroxylon leaves in various extracts

    E-print Network

    Resmi. P. Thomas; Alpha Maria Antony; Anu Annamma Mamen

    Abstract- A comparative preliminary study on the phytochemistry of acetone, methanol ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Diospyros chloroxylon of family Ebenaceae was carried out using specific chemical color reaction tests. The results obtained revealed that acetone was the best extractive solvent with the phytochemical properties of the D.chloroxylon leaves. Phytochemical studies indicated that the leaf contain a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites. Different extracts of leaf powders have been screened for qualitative determination of different secondary metabolites like carbohydrates,cardioglycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, amino acids and proteins, saponins etc. Index Terms- Diospyros chloroxylon, Phytochemistry, secondary metabolites, soxhlet extraction

  11. Why Do the Colors of Leaves Change in the Fall?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. William A White (Arsenal Technical High School)

    2000-08-01

    The color change of the leaves on deciduous trees is one of the most striking signals that summer is ending and fall is beginning. What is it that causes this change in color? We all know that leaves contain chlorophyll Â? giving them their green-color but why do they change from green to the palette of colors we see in the fall? In this investigation students determine the pigment molecules that green plants contain and what happens to those molecules as the season progresses.

  12. Synthesis of Oxalic Acid by Enzymes from Lettuce Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Davies, David D.; Asker, Hassan

    1983-01-01

    A rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves is described. The kinetics of both enzymes are reported in relation to their possible roles in the production of oxalate. Lettuce lactate dehydrogenase behaves like mammalian dehydrogenase, catalyzing the dismutation of glyoxylate to glycolate and oxalate. A model is proposed in which glycolate oxidase in the peroxisomes and lactate dehydrogenase in the cytosol are involved in the production of oxalate. The effect of pH on the balance between oxalate and glycolate produced from glyoxylate suggests that in leaves lactate dehydrogenase may function as part of an oxalate-based biochemical, pH-stat. PMID:16662946

  13. Water is allocated differently to chloroplasts in sun and shade leaves.

    PubMed

    McCain, D C; Croxdale, J; Markley, J L

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study water allocation in cell compartments of sun and shade leaves. NMR spectra of Acer platanoides were resolved into two peaks that were assigned to chloroplast and nonchloroplast water. Sun leaves contained 1.7 times more water per unit area of surface than shade leaves, and the water was allocated differently. Chloroplasts in sun leaves contained 17% of the total leaf water versus 47% in shade leaves. Comparing equal leaf surface areas, the chloroplasts in shade leaves contained 60% more water than those in sun leaves. PMID:16665860

  14. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  15. Rapid and Pervasive Occupation of Fallen Mangrove Leaves by a Marine Zoosporic Fungus †

    PubMed Central

    Newell, S. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Fell, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (?4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition. PMID:16347463

  16. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  17. Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C 3 plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Evans

    1989-01-01

    The photosynthetic capacity of leaves is related to the nitrogen content primarily bacause the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoids represent the majority of leaf nitrogen. To a first approximation, thylakoid nitrogen is proportional to the chlorophyll content (50 mol thylakoid N mol-1 Chl). Within species there are strong linear relationships between nitrogen and both RuBP carboxylase and chlorophyll.

  18. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  19. Nootropic and anxiolytic activity of saponins of Albizzia lebbeck leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D Une; V. P Sarveiya; S. C Pal; V. S Kasture; S. B Kasture

    2001-01-01

    The effect of saponin containing, n-butanolic fraction (BF), extracted from dried leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, was studied on cognitive behavior and anxiety in albino mice. The elevated plus maze was used for assessment of both nootropic and anxiolytic activity. The nootropic activity was evaluated by recording the effect of BF (0, 10, 25, and 50 mg\\/kg) on the transfer latency,

  20. Leaving hospital against medical advice among HIV-positive patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aslam H. Anis; Huiying Sun; Daphne P. Guh; Anita Palepu; Martin T. Schechter; Michael V. O'Shaughnessy

    2002-01-01

    Background: Hospital discharge against medical advice, especially among substance-abusing populations, is a frustrating problem for health care pro- viders. Because of the high prevalence of injection drug use among HIV- positive patients admitted to hospital in Vancouver, we explored the factors as- sociated with leaving hospital against medical advice in this population. Methods: We reviewed records for all HIV\\/AIDS patients

  1. Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves from Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Abdulrazak; T. Fujihara; J. K. Ondiek; E. R. Ørskov

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive potential value of six species of acacia tree leaves: Acacia brevispica, nubica, tortilis, seyal, nilotica, and mellifera from Kenya. A wide variability in chemical composition, polyphenolics and gas production and in situ dry matter (DM) degradability was recorded. Crude protein (CP) content ranged from 134 to 213g\\/kg DM. The content of neutral

  2. Unusual Metaxylem Tracheids in Petioles of Amorphophallus (Araceae) Giant Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZYGMUNT HEJNOWICZ

    2005-01-01

    Background and Aims Petioles of huge solitary leaves of mature plants of Amorphophallus resemble tree trunks supporting an umbrella-like crown. Since they may be 4 m tall, adaptations to water transport in the petioles are as important as adaptations to mechanical support of lamina. The petiole is a cylindrical shell composed of compact unlignified tissue with a honeycomb aerenchymatous core.

  3. Students Matter in School Reform: Leaving Fingerprints and Becoming Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osberg, Jerusha; Pope, Denise; Galloway, Mollie

    2006-01-01

    Our examination of three schools demonstrates how students can be involved in school reform by giving input about problems, helping design the reform, and sharing implementation responsibilities with adult leaders. Their involvement affects both the reform--as students leave their fingerprints on it--and the students themselves, who show signs of…

  4. Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85?GAE?mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96?CE?mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2??g/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

  5. Leaving Education: The Agony and the Ecstasy of Changing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Christopher I.

    A description is given of a workshop format that is being successfully used to motivate and guide teachers who are changing careers. Reasons cited for teachers leaving the profession include a heavily supplied market with reduced demand, economic stagnation and noncompetitive salaries, and job burnout. The workshop is designed to promote the…

  6. Syncom IV-1 satellite leaving Discovery's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In a frisbee-type method, the Syncom IV-1 satellite leaves the Discovery's payload bay on its way into service for the U.S. Navy. Retrieval hardware and part of the pallet for securing the Palapa B-2 are pictured near the protective shield for the now vacated Telest-H/PAM-B.

  7. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) General Information

    E-print Network

    in a 12 month period with continuation of group health insurance for a specified family event total of 12 weeks of FMLA leave for the birth and care of a newborn child, for placement of a child for adoption or foster care, or to care for a parent with a serious health condition. If either spouse, partner

  8. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  9. Maternal leave policies and vaccination coverage: a global analysis.

    PubMed

    Daku, Mark; Raub, Amy; Heymann, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Childhood vaccination is a proven and cost-effective way to reduce childhood mortality; however, participation in vaccination programs is not universal even where programs are free or low cost. Studies in diverse countries have reported work conflicts as limiting parents' ability to vaccinate their children. Using policy data for 185 UN member countries, we explore the hypothesis that an increased opportunity for parents to bring children to vaccination sites will translate into higher childhood vaccination rates. To do so, we use OLS regression to examine the relationship between the duration of adequately paid maternal leave and the uptake of vaccines. We find that a higher number of full-time equivalent weeks of paid maternal leave is associated with higher childhood vaccination rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita, health care expenditures, and social factors. Further research is needed to assess whether this association is upheld in longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as whether other forms of leave such as paid leave to care for the health of family members is effective at increasing the ability of parents to bring children for needed preventive care. PMID:22196248

  10. The occurrence of nitrate reductase in leaves of prunus species.

    PubMed

    Leece, D R; Dilley, D R; Kenworthy, A L

    1972-05-01

    Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

  11. "Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

    2012-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

  12. Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves

    PubMed Central

    Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

  13. Alkaloids from leaves and stems of Vallesia glabra.

    PubMed

    Zèches, M; Mesbah, K; Richard, B; Moretti, C; Nuzillard, J M; Men-Olivier, L L

    1995-02-01

    Eleven known indole alkaloids: vallesine, aspidospermine, 11-methoxydichotine, apparicine, tubotaïwine, vincadifformine, condylocarpine, (-)-rhazinilam, aspidospermatine, haplocidine, and 18-oxohaplocidine, have been isolated from leaves and stems of Vallesia glabra (Cav.) Link. (Apocynaceae) from Bolivia. Analysis of 2 D NMR spectra complete previous 1H and 13C data for vallesine, aspidospermine, and 11-methoxydichotine. PMID:17238065

  14. Tertiary indole alkaloids from leaves of Tabernaemontana dichotoma.

    PubMed

    Perera, P; Samuelsson, G; van Beek, T A; Verpoorte, R

    1983-03-01

    Seven indole alkaloids were isolated and identified from the leaves of Tabernaemontana dichotoma Roxb. The major alkaloids were: perivine, 19-epi-voacristine, 12-methoxy-voaphylline and vobasine. (-)apparicine, 19-epi-iboxygaine and isomethuenine occurred in minor amounts. PMID:17404903

  15. Plaque the Apollo 14 crew will leave on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close-up view of the plaque which the Apollo 14 crew will leave behind on the Moon during their lunar landing mission. The seven by nine-inch stainless steel plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the Lunar Module's descent stage.

  16. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate. PMID:23738442

  17. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

  18. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  19. University of Sussex A Guide to Paternity Leave and Pay

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    a baby (this includes same-sex partners); (ii) who is the biological father of an expected baby; (iii) who is adopting a child with a partner, or whose partner is adopting a child. 1.2 Paternity leave or adopted child and/or to support the mother following birth or following the adoption of a child. 1

  20. FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994). 2. Permissible Reasons for Taking FMLA Leave a members of the National Guard or Reserve whose military service combined with the time employed and hours actually worked for CUNY satisfy the time and service requirements (in compliance with the Uniformed

  1. Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    1984-01-01

    High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)

  2. Nutrient antioxidants in some herbs and Mediterranean plant leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anila Demo; Christos Petrakis; Panagiotis Kefalas; Dimitrios Boskou

    1998-01-01

    Hexane extracts obtained by percolation from the leaves of nine Mediterranean plants (Daphne oleoides, Myrtus communis, Pelargonium zonale, Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia terebinthus, Quercus pubescens, Rhamnus lucioides, Sideritis syriaca, Smilax aspera) and from five leaf spices (Rosmarinum officinalis, Coridothymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia pomifera) were examined for the presence of tocopherols by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance

  3. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  4. Chemistry & Biology Peptide Length and Leaving-Group Sterics Influence

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    of cancer cells. INTRODUCTION The creation and implementation of high-throughput nucleic acid analysisChemistry & Biology Article Peptide Length and Leaving-Group Sterics Influence Potency of Peptide an analysis of parameters influencing potency of peptide phosphonate ABPs for trypsin- fold S1A proteases

  5. Oviposition by butterflies on young leaves: Investigation of leaf volatiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Bergström; Miriam Rothschild; Inga Groth; Cathy Crighton

    1994-01-01

    Summary Various butterflies select young foliage on which to lay their eggs; volatiles emitted by young and old leaves have been compared (by sorption enrichment, followed by GC-MS) to gauge possible qualitative and quantitative differences between the two age groups. The plants investigated are cabbage (Brassica oleracea), two milkweeds (Asclepias syriaca andA. curassavica), the bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and the

  6. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  7. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  8. Bioactive cardenolides from the leaves of Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabira Begum; Bina S Siddiqui; Razia Sultana; Atiya Zia; Amin Suria

    1999-01-01

    A bioactivity directed isolation of the methanolic extract of the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect in mice has been undertaken. As a result, four CNS depressant cardenolides including a new cardenolide, neridiginoside and three known constituents, nerizoside, neritaloside and odoroside-H, have been isolated which exhibited CNS depressant activity in mice at

  9. Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves.

    PubMed

    Noblin, X; Mahadevan, L; Coomaraswamy, I A; Weitz, D A; Holbrook, N M; Zwieniecki, M A

    2008-07-01

    The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (delta), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation-permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

  10. Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "Gives It Up."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)

  11. Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Gershenzon; Marie E. McConkey; Rodney B. Croteau

    2000-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that ac- cumulate during development and are thought to function as con- stitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita L.) leaves and investigated

  12. A Statewide Analysis of RNs' Intention To Leave Their Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambur, Betty; Palumbo, Mary Val; McIntosh, Barbara; Mongeon, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Secondary analysis of registered nurse work force data from Vermont (n=4,418, 85% response) identified predictors of intention to leave current position. Differences in intention vary by educational attainment, hours worked, gender, practice role, and practice activity. Improving retention will require increased attention to compensation,…

  13. FACULTY DEVELOPMENT LEAVE COMMITTEE 2012-2013 (FY13)

    E-print Network

    Boas, Harold P.

    FACULTY DEVELOPMENT LEAVE COMMITTEE 2012-2013 (FY13) OFFICE OF THE DEAN OF FACULTIES AND ASSOCIATE@tamu.edu n/a 108 YMCA/ 1126 TAMU Vice-Chair Burlbaw Lynn Education & Human Development Teaching, Learning-oberhelman@tamu.edu 2015 ACAD 119B/ 4215 TAMU Kyle Gerard Agriculture & Life Sciences Recreation, Parks and Tourism

  14. Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

  15. Carbon Dreaming: getting to know hummers, tropical leaves

    E-print Network

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Carbon Dreaming: getting to know hummers, tropical leaves and power plants Kevin Robert Gurney (CSU of C = 1 Gt C Ocean! 38,000! ~90 /yr! ~90 /yr! Land! 2000! ~120 /yr! ~120 /yr! Rock: 10000000!! #12;The Global Carbon Cycle Atmosphere! 500! Units: billion tons of C = 1 Gt C Ocean! 38,000! ~90/yr! ~90/yr

  16. When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    ECOLOGY: When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi For Amy Arnett, getting a Ph, collecting ants at 33 sites along the way. They had set out to look at how the food resources for ant lions, insects that prey on ants, changed from north to south along the East Coast. But in the process

  17. Rapid isolation of intact chloroplasts from spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Joly, David; Carpentier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, a rapid method to isolate intact chloroplasts from spinach leaves is described. Intact chloroplasts are isolated using two short centrifugation steps and avoiding the use of percoll gradient. Intactness of chloroplast is evaluated by the inability of potassium ferricyanide to enter inside the chloroplasts and to act as an electron acceptor for photosystem II. PMID:20960139

  18. Morphogenesis of Simple and Compound Leaves: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves. PMID:20435903

  19. HR & Payroll11/5/2008 EMPLOYEE LEAVE REQUEST FORM

    E-print Network

    )__________________________________________________ G # _____________________Date of Request ______________________________ Reason for Leave The birth of your child or placement of a child with you for adoption or foster care. A serious health condition that makes you unable to perform the essential functions of your job. A serious health condition affecting

  20. Boise State University Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition to submit a medical certification a request for FMLA leave to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition. Your response or daughter, date of birth: ___________________________ 4) Describe the care you will provide to your family

  1. FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) CERTIFICATION FORM Employee's Section

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    __________________ (if patient is not employee): Reason for FMLA Leave: a. Employee's (your) own medical condition. b. Employee's spouse/parent/dependant medical condition, if #2 check one: Employee's Spouse Parent Dependant 18 or over Dependant under 18 Birth, Foster Placement/Adoption of a child Provider's Section Thank

  2. The Family and Medical Leave Act University of Oklahoma

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    condition. Clarification: *The total FMLA protected leave taken for the birth of a child or adoption events that are covered under FMLA: a) *The birth and care of a newborn child; b) *The placement's spouse, or parent with a serious health condition; or son or daughter who is under the age of 18. d) **To

  3. Why Some Students Leave College during Their Senior Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Patricia F.; Boyd, Vivian S.; Gast, Linda K.; Mitchell, Alice; Wilson, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have examined college student attrition, no extant literature examines the phenomenon of undergraduates who discontinue their enrollment in college during a semester of their senior year. This study used both institutional and self-reported survey data to examine the rationale behind seniors' decision to leave college during…

  4. CONFIDENTIAL REQUEST FOR FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    or because of other circumstances beyond my control. If I am unable to return to work because of serious leave (check all that apply): a. Birth of a child b. Placement of a child for adoption or foster care c. Care for a child within a 12 month period from birth or placement d. Care for an immediate family

  5. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Said Fernández; Monica Celina Ramos Guerra; Benito David Mata Cárdenas; Javier Vargas Villarreal; Licet Villarreal Treviño

    2005-01-01

    The inhabitants of Northeast of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana as an antidiarrheal remedy. The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane leaf extracts from mature plants were found to be active in vitro against the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

  6. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana.

    PubMed

    Said Fernández, Salvador; Ramos Guerra, Monica Celina; Mata Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas Villarreal, Javier; Villarreal Treviño, Licet

    2005-07-01

    The inhabitants of Northeast of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana as an antidiarrheal remedy. The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane leaf extracts from mature plants were found to be active in vitro against the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia. PMID:15975735

  7. COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES LEAVE SHARING BANK PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    -altering catastrophic events or emergencies, such as wildfires, floods, tornados, other natural disasters, murder, or Worker's Compensation are excluded. This program is not intended to cover cases of abusive leave usage are final and not subject to grievance or appeal. Decisions are based on the merits of each individual case

  8. MODELING EXPANSION OF INDIVIDUAL LEAVES IN THE POTATO CANOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model to simulate expansion of individual leaves in the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) canopy was developed by modifying an existing growth model. Data for model development and testing were obtained from three soil-plant-atmosphere-research (SPAR) chamber experiments. The first experi...

  9. Essential Oil Composition of Origanum ramonense Danin Leaves from Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinoam Danin; Uzi Ravid; Katsumi Umano; Takayuki Shibamoto

    1997-01-01

    Essential oils of Origanum ramonense Danin leaves were obtained using two methods: steam-distillation followed by dichloromethane extraction (SDR), and simultaneous purging and extraction (SPE). Volatile constituents of the oils were isolated and identified by GC and GC\\/MS. A total of 132 compounds were identified using both methods. Among the more than 90 compounds identified in the oil obtained by SDR,

  10. Annonaceous acetogenins from the Leaves of Annona montana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Quan Wang; Byung-Sun Min; Yan Li; Norio Nakamura; Guo-Wei Qin; Can-Jun Li; Masao Hattori

    2002-01-01

    A novel Annonaceous acetogenin, montanacin F, with a new type of terminal lactone unit, was isolated from the leaves of Annona montana. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectral evidences and chemical methods, and a possible biosynthetic pathway was discussed. In addition, the cytotoxicity of montanacin F was evaluated in vitro against Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor cell

  11. Methyl Jasmonate Induces Papain Inhibitor(s) in Tomato Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Bolter, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Leaves of 18- to 24-d-old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants exposed to gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) for 24 h at 30[deg]C in continuous light contained high levels of soluble protein that inhibited papain. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the active protein had a molecular mass of 80 to 90 kD. Induction of papain inhibitor was directly related to the concentration of air-borne MJ up to a maximum of 0.1 [mu]L MJ per treatment and depended on the duration of exposure up to 18 h. Inhibitor activity in plants treated for less than 18 h increased with time after treatment. Levels remained constant for up to 4 d after treatment, after which time activity decreased. The youngest leaf, leaf 5, consistently lost activity at a faster rate than older, lower leaves. Inhibitor concentration in all leaves was reduced to minimum levels by 11 d after MJ treatment, but did not return to control levels. Treatment with MJ in the dark did induce inhibitor activity, but at a significantly lower rate. Polyclonal antibodies raised to purified potato tuber skin cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI) cross-reacted with the tomato inhibitor, suggesting that the tomato papain inhibitor and the potato CPI are closely related. No papain inhibitor activity was observed in extracts from wounded tomato leaves, nor was there any immunoreactivity with antibodies raised to potato tuber skin CPI. PMID:12232028

  12. When the Leader Leaves: Sustaining Success at Romero High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri; Sillman, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This case study asks readers to consider what leadership actions might help to sustain success for immigrant students in a small urban high school when the leader leaves. Principal Michael Perez, the founding principal of Romero High School, has been recruited to become the superintendent of a first-ring suburban district with rapidly changing…

  13. Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity in Maize Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Doncaster, Helen D.; Leegood, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how light regulates the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in vivo in C4 plants. The properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were investigated in extracts which were rapidly prepared (in less than 30 seconds) from darkened and illuminated leaves of Zea mays. Illumination resulted in a significant decrease in the S0.5(phosphoenolpyruvate) but there was no change in Vmax. The form of the enzyme from illuminated leaves was less sensitive to malate inhibition than was the form from darkened leaves. At low concentrations of phosphoenolpyruvate, the activity of the enzyme was strongly stimulated by glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, triose-phosphate, alanine, serine, and glycine and was inhibited by organic acids. The enzyme was assayed in mixtures of metabolites at concentrations believed to be present in the mesophyll cytosol in the light and in the dark. It displayed low activity in a simulated `dark' cytosol and high activity in a simulated `light' cytosol, but activities were different for the enzyme from darkened compared to illuminated leaves. PMID:16665411

  14. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  15. Penicillium fagi sp. nov., isolated from beech leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Martinez; C. Ramirez

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a new species of Penicillium, isolated from fallen beech (Fagus silvatica) leaves over an andosol in the Spanish province of Navarra. Its main characteristics suggest its location within the Penicillium roqueforti series of the Biverticillata-Asymmetrica-Velutina subsection and the name of Penicillium fagi is proposed. The species is characterized by the deep blue colour of the

  16. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...leave is requested for emergency purposes (e.g...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may be...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may...

  17. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...leave is requested for emergency purposes (e.g...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may be...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may...

  18. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...leave is requested for emergency purposes (e.g...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may be...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may...

  19. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...leave is requested for emergency purposes (e.g...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may be...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may...

  20. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...leave is requested for emergency purposes (e.g...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may be...immediately after the emergency is known, if possible...Regulations. Medical and dental appointments may...