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Sample records for piper betle leaves

  1. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

  2. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Badrul; Akter, Fahima; Parvin, Nahida; Sharmin Pia, Rashna; Akter, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Jesmin; Sifath-E-Jahan, Kazi; Haque, Ekramul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL). Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO) as well as inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in pain threshold in hot plate method whereas significantly (p<0.05) reduced the writhing caused by acetic acid and the number of licks induced by formalin in a dose-dependent manner. The same ranges of doses of MPBL caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema after 4 h in a dose-dependent manner. In DPPH, ONOO-, and total ROS scavenging method, MPBL showed good antioxidant potentiality with the IC50 value of 16.331.02, 25.160.61 , and 41.720.48 g/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.05) good reducing power. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that MPBL has strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, conforming the traditional use of this plant for inflammatory pain alleviation to its antioxidant potentiality. PMID:25050265

  3. Reduction of oxidative stress by an ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn. decreased methotrexate-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    De, Soumita; Sen, Tuhinadri; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-11-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist, is currently used as first line therapy for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, but its use is limited by the associated hepatotoxicity. As leaves of Piper betle, belonging to family Piperaceae, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of Piper betle leaf extract (PB) in attenuating MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats pre-treated with PB (50 or 100mgkg(-1) b.w., p.o.) were administered with a single dose of MTX (20mgkg(-1), b.w., i.p.) and its hepatoprotective efficacy was compared with folic acid (1mgkg(-1) b.w., i.p.), conventionally used to minimize MTX-induced toxicity. MTX-induced hepatotoxicity was confirmed by increased activities of marker enzymes, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase which were remitted by pre-treatment with PB and corroborated with histopathology. Additionally, MTX-induced hepatic oxidative stress which included increased generation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced lipid peroxidation, depleted levels of glutathione and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes was effectively mitigated by PB, indicative that its promising antioxidant-mediated hepatoprotective activity was worthy of future pharmacological consideration. PMID:26276309

  4. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  5. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  7. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

  8. An ethanol extract of Piper betle Linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Mula, Soumyaditya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2007-05-01

    The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. betle (100 mg kg(-1); PB) were demonstrated in a complete Freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. At non-toxic concentrations of PB (5-25 microg mL(-1)), a dose-dependent decrease in extracellular production of nitric oxide in murine peritoneal macrophages was measured by the Griess assay and corroborated by flow cytometry using the nitric oxide specific probe, 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate. This decreased generation of reactive nitrogen species was mediated by PB progressively down-regulating transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages, and concomitantly causing a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of interleukin-12 p40, indicating the ability of PB to down-regulate T-helper 1 pro-inflammatory responses. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrotic activity of PB is attributable to its ability to down-regulate the generation of reactive nitrogen species, thus meriting further pharmacological investigation. PMID:17524237

  9. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-03-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1mg?mL(-1); (iii) 3mg?mL(-1); and (iv) 6mg?mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the -values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.4410(6) to 1.7810(6) viable cell counts (CFU)?mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  10. Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats

    PubMed Central

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Ruban, Vasanthakumar Vasantha; Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Anandhi, Ramalingam; Thomas, Philip A.; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a dominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the putative antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were evaluated in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 (300?mg/kg?b.wt) in Wistar rats. Saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats revealed significantly higher mean blood/serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and of serum hepatic marker enzymes; in addition, significantly lower mean serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly lower mean activities of enzymatic antioxidants and nonenzymatic antioxidants were noted in hepatic tissue samples from saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats, compared to controls. However, in hypercholesterolemic rats receiving the Piper betle extract (500?mg/kg?b.wt) or eugenol (5?mg/kg?b.wt) for seven days orally, all these parameters were significantly better than those in saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. The hypercholesterolemia-ameliorating effect was better defined in eugenol-treated than in Piper betle extract-treated rats, being as effective as that of the standard lipid-lowering drug, lovastatin (10?mg/kg?b.wt). These results suggest that eugenol, an active constituent of the Piper betle extract, possesses antihypercholesterolemic and other activities in experimental hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. PMID:24523820

  11. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Milton Prabu, S.; Muthumani, M.; Shagirtha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P>0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P>0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P>0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

  12. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo. PMID:25650283

  13. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship. PMID:26243908

  14. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  15. Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-08-15

    The study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (EO) of Piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. A total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and Aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. Eleven aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) producing strains of A. flavus were recorded from the samples. Eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugenol (14.05%) were the major components of 32 constituents identified from the Piper betle EO through GC and GC-MS analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. betle EO was found 0.7 microl/ml against A.flavus. The EO reduced AFB(1) production in a dose dependent manner and completely inhibited at 0.6 microl/ml. This is the first report on efficacy of P. betle EO as aflatoxin suppressor. EO also exhibited strong antioxidant potential as its IC(50) value (3.6 microg/ml) was close to that of ascorbic acid (3.2 microg/ml) and lower than that of the synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytouene (BHT) (7.4 microg/ml) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (4.5 microg/ml). P. betle EO thus exhibited special merits possessing antifungal, aflatoxin suppressive and antioxidant characters which are desirable for an ideal preservative. Hence, its application as a plant based food additive in protection and enhancement of shelf life of edible commodities during storage and processing is strongly recommended in view of the toxicological implications by synthetic preservatives. PMID:20621374

  16. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  17. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination. PMID:26028728

  18. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. Methods: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. Results: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 ?mol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. Conclusions: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway. PMID:25091987

  19. Origin of the subepidermal tissue in Piper L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A T; Simo, E; Silva, L; Torres, G A

    2015-05-01

    Studies on the anatomy of Piper leaves demonstrate the presence of a subepidermal tissue distinct from the adjacent epidermis, which cells show thin walls and hyaline contents. Some authors consider such cells a hypodermal tissue, while others refer to them as components of a multiple epidermis. In this study, the nature of this subepidermal tissue was investigated through the analysis of leaf ontogeny in three Piper species. The analysis showed that the referred tissue originates from the ground meristem and, thus, should be considered a hypodermis. The studied species suggests that the role of the hypodermis would be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light, regulating the intensity of light reaching the chlorophyll parenchyma. PMID:26132020

  20. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), ?-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (?max in mm/day) and apparent lag time (? in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 ?l/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative. PMID:26439423

  1. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Demetrio L.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.; Puzon, Juliana Janet M.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID:26741962

  2. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID:26741962

  3. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Paula Araújo; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; Sousa, Ilza Maria de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in anticancer drug discovery field, the worldwide cancer incidence is remarkable, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on both cancer cell and its microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including inflammation. Nowadays, almost 75% of the anticancer agents used in chemotherapy are derived from natural products, and plants are an important source of new promising therapies. Continuing our research on Piper umbellatum species, here we describe the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models) activities of a standardized dichloromethane extract (SDE) from P. umbellatum leaves, containing 23.9% of 4-nerolidylcatechol. SDE showed in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity, reducing Ehrlich solid tumor growth by 38.7 and 52.2% when doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, were administered daily by oral route. Daily treatments did not produce signals of toxicity. SDE also reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced inflammation models, suggesting that the anticancer activity of SDE from Piper umbellatum leaves could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings highlight P. umbellatum as a source of compounds against cancer and inflammation. PMID:25713595

  4. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Vendramini-Costa, Dbora Barbosa; Monteiro, Paula Arajo; Ruiz, Ana Lcia Tasca Gois; Sousa, Ilza Maria de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, Joo Ernesto; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in anticancer drug discovery field, the worldwide cancer incidence is remarkable, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on both cancer cell and its microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including inflammation. Nowadays, almost 75% of the anticancer agents used in chemotherapy are derived from natural products, and plants are an important source of new promising therapies. Continuing our research on Piper umbellatum species, here we describe the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models) activities of a standardized dichloromethane extract (SDE) from P. umbellatum leaves, containing 23.9% of 4-nerolidylcatechol. SDE showed in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity, reducing Ehrlich solid tumor growth by 38.7 and 52.2% when doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg, respectively, were administered daily by oral route. Daily treatments did not produce signals of toxicity. SDE also reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced inflammation models, suggesting that the anticancer activity of SDE from Piper umbellatum leaves could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings highlight P. umbellatum as a source of compounds against cancer and inflammation. PMID:25713595

  5. Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

    2012-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level. PMID:22653631

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  7. Toxicological analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves.

    PubMed

    Hoff Brait, Dbora Regina; Mattos Vaz, Mrcia Soares; da Silva Arrigo, Juciclia; Borges de Carvalho, Luciana Noia; Souza de Arajo, Flvio Henrique; Vani, Juliana Miron; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Negro, Fbio Juliano; Kassuya, Cndida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves (OPV) and evaluated the toxicological potential of this oil through acute toxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. The acute toxicity of OPV was evaluated following oral administration to female rats at a single dose of 2g/kg b.w. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential, male mice were divided into five groups: I: negative control; II: positive control; III: 500mg/kg of OPV; IV: 1000mg/kg of OPV; V: 2000mg/kg of OPV. The anti-inflammatory activity of OPV was evaluated in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw edema models in rats. No signs of acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of this oil is greater than 2000mg/kg. In the comet assay, OPV did not increase the frequency or rate of DNA damage in groups treated with any of the doses assessed compared to that in the negative control group. In the micronucleus test, the animals treated did not exhibit any cytotoxic or genotoxic changes in peripheral blood erythrocytes. OPV (100 and 300mg/kg) significantly reduced edema formation and inhibited leukocyte migration analyzed in the carrageenan-induced edema and pleurisy models. These results show that OPV has anti-inflammatory potential without causing acute toxicity or genotoxicity. PMID:26545326

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhes, Chaiana Fros; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assuno

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  9. Phytochemical analysis and a study on the antiestrogenic antifertility effect of leaves of Piper betel in female albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Sasmita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper betel (PB) Linn (PBL) on the estrous cycle of female albino rats. Materials and Methods: Both the extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at three dose levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg/day and the vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for the different phases of the estrous cycle for a period of 30 days. Result: The estrous cycle was irregular and prolonged in the treated groups indicating anestrus condition, which would result in infertility. Both types of the extract showed a significant decrease in the duration of proestrus and estrus with a prolonged diestrus at 1000 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day doses as compared with control. However, no change was seen in the metestrus phase. The rats treated with PB showed a significant (P < 0.05), dose-dependent decrease in the estrus phase, in comparison to the control group, the effect was more with the methanolic extract. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase with decreased number of cornified cells. There was a significant reduction in the number of the estrous cycle, in the PBL treated group. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic PB extract, which was not observed in the control group. However, the aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day had no effect either on the estrous cycle or on its different phases. The observed effect of PB leaves could be due to the flavonoids and saponin contents, which also contributes to its antiestrogenic mechanism of action. Conclusion: Both the aqueous and methanolic extract of PBL possesses antifertility effect in female albino rats. PMID:25737606

  10. Two maize END-1 orthologs, BETL9 and BETL9like, are transcribed in a non-overlapping spatial pattern on the outer surface of the developing endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Joaqun; Gmez, Elisa; Sellam, Olivier; Gerentes, Denise; Paul, Wyatt; Hueros, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    In the course of a project aimed to isolate transfer cells-specific genes in maize endosperm we have identified the BETL9 gene. BETL9 encodes for a small protein very similar in sequence to the product of the barley transfer cell-specific gene END-1. Both BETL9 and END-1 proteins are lipid transfer proteins, but their function is currently unknown. In situ hybridization analysis confirms that the BETL9 gene is exclusively transcribed in the basal endosperm transfer cell layer during seed development since 10 days after pollination. However, immunolocalization data indicates that the BETL9 protein accumulates in the maternal placento-chalaza cells located just beside the transfer cell layer. This suggests that the BETL9 protein should be transported to the maternal side to exert its, still unknown, function. In addition, we have identified a second maize gene very similar in sequence to BETL9 and we have named it BETL9like. In situ hybridization shows that BETL9like is also specifically transcribed in the developing maize endosperm within the same time frame that BETL9, but in this case it is exclusively expressed in the aleurone cell layer. Consequently, the BETL9 and BETL9like genes are transcribed in a non-overlapping pattern on the outer surface of the maize endosperm. The BETL9 and BETL9like promoter sequences, fused to the GUS reporter gene, accurately reflected the expression pattern observed for the genes in maize. Finally, we have identified in the Arabidopsis genome a set of four genes orthologous to BETL9 and BETL9like and analyzed the activity of their promoters in Arabidopsis transgenic plants carrying fusions of their promoter sequences to the GUS reporter. As in the case of the maize genes, the Arabidopsis orthologs showed highly complementary expression patterns. PMID:24834070

  11. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Lim, C M; Lim, C K; Rahmani, M; Shaari, K; Bong, C F J

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds was achieved through NMR and MS techniques. Cytotoxic activity screening of the plant extracts indicated some activity. PMID:19809914

  12. MUTAGENICITY OF NITRITE-TREATED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF 'PIPER BETLE'; L

    EPA Science Inventory

    Betel quid is chewed as a masticatory material by people in certain areas of Asia. The quid chewing has been related to oral cancer by epidemiological study. The mutagenic components in the aqueous extracts of betel quid ingredients were studied. Only nitrite-treated aqueous extr...

  13. Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-glication effects of the hexane extract from Piper auritum leaves in vitro and beneficial activity on oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Flores Cotera, Luis B; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS). Eight complementary in vitro test methods were used, including inhibition of DPPH radicals, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, ion-chelating, ABTS, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ?-carotene bleaching and peroxy radical scavenging. The results indicated that HS possesses high antioxidant activity. To add to these finding we tested the effect against oxidative stress in liver, pancreas and kidney in diabetic rats. Low levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in diabetic rats were reverted to near normal values after treatment with HS. These results suggest that P. auritum prevents oxidative stress, acting as a suppressor of liver cell damage. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that HS might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activity. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of HS on bovine serum albumin, serum glycosylated protein, glycation of LDL, and glycation hemoglobin. The effect of HS on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of HS at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation, elevated renal glucose and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that HS would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that HS can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress. PMID:23047487

  14. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  15. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a

  16. Constituents from Piper marginatum fruits.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Chaves, M C; de Oliveira Santos, B V

    2002-10-01

    The hexane extract of the dried fruits of Piper marginatum yielded 1-(1Z-propenyl)-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene, a new natural product, besides 3-farnesyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:12385887

  17. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were ?-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and ?-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, ?-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and ?-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule. PMID:26749846

  18. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  19. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Results Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 ± 537.6 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 ± 106.8 μg TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 ± 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4 ± 4.4 μg/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 ± 235.7 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 ± 22.3 μg TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 ± 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective activity (r = 0.682). Conclusions The betel quid has higher TPC, and antioxidant and cytoprotective activities than betel quid with calcium hydroxide. The quinic acid in betel quid may play an important role in the oral health protection. PMID:24330738

  20. Antifungal compounds from Piper species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...

  1. Transcriptional regulation and posttranslational activity of the betaine transporter BetL in Listeria monocytogenes are controlled by environmental salinity.

    PubMed

    Sleator, Roy D; Wood, Janet M; Hill, Colin

    2003-12-01

    While the genetic elements contributing to the salinity tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes have been well characterized, the regulatory signals and responses (genetic and/or biochemical) that govern these mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Encoded by betL, the first genetic element to be linked to listerial osmotolerance, the secondary betaine uptake system BetL is a member of the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family. Preceded by consensus sigma(A)- and sigma(B)-dependent promoter sites, betL is constitutively expressed and transcriptionally up-regulated in response to salt stress. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to achieve salinity-independent, controlled betL expression in Listeria. In the absence of NaCl-activated transcriptional control, BetL activity was found to be a function of environmental salinity, showing optimal activity in buffer supplemented with 1 to 2% NaCl (osmolality, 417 to 719 mosmol/kg). In addition, BetL was activated rapidly (half-life, 2 min) in response to an osmotic upshift imposed by adding 2% NaCl to 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer. PMID:14645273

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel. PMID:20046756

  3. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission. I will describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the project.

  4. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3?,3?-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

  5. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28,...

  6. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... directive (AD) for all Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft...

  7. Molluscicidal effect of Piper guineense.

    PubMed

    Ukwandu, N C D; Odaibo, A B; Okorie, T G; Nmorsi, O P G

    2011-01-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the dosage-mortality ratio and toxic effects of Piper guineense fruit extracts on the adults of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, which causes intestinal schistosomiasis. The result showed significant toxic effects with crude ethanol and hot water fruits extracts. The estimated lethal dose concentration by arithmetic method (LC(50) and LC(90)) using both crude ethanol and hot water fruit media extracts were found to be (0.10 0.04, 0.9 0.2) mgl(-1) respectively for ethanolic extract and (5.0 1.4, 8.5 0.7) mgl(-1) respectively for hot water extract. Ethanolic extract was more potent than hot water extract. An all or none phenomenon appeared characteristic of the biological activity of these extracts. There was significant decrease in oviposition rate (p < 0.02). The extract from the fruits of this tropical plant holds promise in the control of Biomphalaria pfeifferi. PMID:22654225

  8. Identification and Disruption of BetL, a Secondary Glycine Betaine Transport System Linked to the Salt Tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes LO28

    PubMed Central

    Sleator, Roy D.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Abee, Tjakko; Hill, Colin

    1999-01-01

    The trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, conferring enhanced osmo- and cryotolerance upon Listeria monocytogenes. We report the identification of betL, a gene encoding a glycine betaine uptake system in L. monocytogenes, isolated by functional complementation of the betaine uptake mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. The betL gene is preceded by a consensus ςB-dependent promoter and is predicted to encode a 55-kDa protein (507 amino acid residues) with 12 transmembrane regions. BetL exhibits significant sequence homologies to other glycine betaine transporters, including OpuD from Bacillus subtilis (57% identity) and BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum (41% identity). These high-affinity secondary transporters form a subset of the trimethylammonium transporter family specific for glycine betaine, whose substrates possess a fully methylated quaternary ammonium group. The observed Km value of 7.9 μM for glycine betaine uptake after heterologous expression of betL in E. coli MKH13 is consistent with values obtained for L. monocytogenes in other studies. In addition, a betL knockout mutant which is significantly affected in its ability to accumulate glycine betaine in the presence or absence of NaCl has been constructed in L. monocytogenes. This mutant is also unable to withstand concentrations of salt as high as can the BetL+ parent, signifying the role of the transporter in Listeria osmotolerance. PMID:10224004

  9. Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.

    PubMed

    Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Snchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogne, B J R

    2004-08-01

    Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hbner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will work as a short-term repellent and feeding deterrent. It is recommended that the use of Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

  10. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  11. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-07-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0:2 on 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales ? =~0:6 to 90, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0:007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32x40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 mK. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variable- delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I; Q;U; V ) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  12. Heterologous expression of BetL, a betaine uptake system, enhances the stress tolerance of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Vivien M; Sleator, Roy D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin

    2006-03-01

    Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving the technological robustness of what are often process-sensitive cultures is an important biological goal. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to direct the heterologous expression of the listerial betaine uptake system BetL in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118. Following nisin induction, strains expressing betL exhibited a significant increase in resistance to several stresses, including elevated osmo-, cryo-, baro-, and chill tolerance, as well as increased resistance to spray- and freeze-drying. The ability to confer additional stress tolerance on a probiotic culture may be an important step in delivering viable cultures for maximal efficacy. PMID:16517668

  13. Differential induction of chitinase in Piper colubrinum in response to inoculation with Phytophthora capsici, the cause of foot rot in black pepper

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep Varma, R.; Johnson George, K.; Balaji, S.; Parthasarathy, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant chitinases have been of particular interest since they are known to be induced upon pathogen invasion. Inoculation of Piper colubrinum leaves with the foot rot fungus, Phytophthora capsici leads to increase in chitinase activity. A marked increase in chitinase activity in the inoculated leaves was observed, with the maximum activity after 60h of inoculation and gradually decreased thereafter. Older leaves showed more chitinase activity than young leaves. The level of chitinase in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) upon inoculation was found to be substantially high when compared to P. colubrinum. RTPCR using chitinase specific primers revealed differential accumulation of mRNA in P. colubrinum leaves inoculated with P. capsici. However, hyphal extension assays revealed no obvious differences in the ability of the protein extracts to inhibit growth of P. capsici in vitro. PMID:23961037

  14. Differential induction of chitinase in Piper colubrinum in response to inoculation with Phytophthora capsici, the cause of foot rot in black pepper.

    PubMed

    Sandeep Varma, R; Johnson George, K; Balaji, S; Parthasarathy, V A

    2009-07-01

    Plant chitinases have been of particular interest since they are known to be induced upon pathogen invasion. Inoculation of Piper colubrinum leaves with the foot rot fungus, Phytophthora capsici leads to increase in chitinase activity. A marked increase in chitinase activity in the inoculated leaves was observed, with the maximum activity after 60h of inoculation and gradually decreased thereafter. Older leaves showed more chitinase activity than young leaves. The level of chitinase in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) upon inoculation was found to be substantially high when compared to P. colubrinum. RT-PCR using chitinase specific primers revealed differential accumulation of mRNA in P. colubrinum leaves inoculated with P. capsici. However, hyphal extension assays revealed no obvious differences in the ability of the protein extracts to inhibit growth of P. capsici in vitro. PMID:23961037

  15. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM SEAL STACKS CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the polarized imprint of gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. The discovery of such a signal would provide direct evidence for inflation, and its characterization would provide a means to explore energy scales orders of magnitude larger than any conceivable particle accelerator. PIPER will consist of two cryogenic telescopes-one for each of the Q and U Stokes parameters. Each will use a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) as its first element. This architecture is designed to minimize both T->B and E->B systematics. The detectors will be four 32x40 arrays of BUG detectors, utilizing transition-edge sensors and time-domain multiplexing. Each flight will observe approximately 25% of the sky at a single frequency. Additional flights will increase the frequency coverage.

  17. Chemical and biological analyses of the essential oils and main constituents of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Moura do Carmo, Dominique F; Amaral, Ana Cludia Fernandes; Machado, Grzia M C; Leon, Leonor Laura; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3%) and ?-elemene (33.1%) and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%). P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC(50) values between 15 to 76 ?g mL(-1) against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC(50) = 278 ?M) and caryophyllene (IC(50) = 96 ?M), were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC(50) values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs. PMID:22330429

  18. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models...

  19. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... proposed AD. ] Discussion On May 27, 1980, AD 80-11-06, amendment 39-3776 (45 FR 35309), was published in... issued AD 80-11-06 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), we have become aware that the aircraft data plate on some... applicability. The requirements in AD 80-11-06 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), match those in Piper...

  20. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... R1, Amendment 39-11747 (65 FR 33745, May 25, 2000). That AD applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc... in the Federal Register on December 30, 2010 (75 FR 82329). That NPRM proposed to continue to require... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  1. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jackson, Michael L.; Jah, Muzariatu A.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kogut, Alan J.; Lowe, Luke; McCullagh, Nuala; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is it balloon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (C-N-113). Each flight will be configured for a single frequency, but in order to aid in the removal of the polarized foreground signal due to Galactic dust, the filters will be changed between flights. In this way, the CMB polarization at a total of four different frequencies (200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz) will be, measured on large angular scales. PIPER consists of a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 x 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the linear Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive. There are several advantages to this architecture. First, by modulating at the front of the optics, instrumental polarization is unmodulated and is therefore cleanly separated from source polarization. Second, by implementing this system with the appropriate symmetry, systematic effects can be further mitigated. In the PIPER design, many of the. systematics are manifest in the unmeasured linear Stokes parameter for each telescope and this can be separated from the desired signal. Finally, the modulation cycle never mixes the Q and U linear Stokes parameters, and thus residuals in the modulation do not twist the observed polarization vector. This is advantageous because measuring the angle of linear polarization is critical for separating the inflationary signal from other polarized components.

  2. WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ON A SHORT CONVEYOR THAT TRANSPORTS IT TO WAITING STORAGE BOXES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Analysis of amide compounds in different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl by high-performance liquid chromatographic

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel R.; Brenzan, Mislaine A.; Kambara, Lauro M.; Cortez, Lucia E. R.; Cortez, Digenes A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Piper ovatum (Piperaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations and as an analgesic. Previous studies have showed important biological activities of the extracts and amides from P. ovatum leaves. Objective: In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of the amides in different parts of Piper ovatum. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Metasil ODS column (150 4.6 mm, 5?m) at room temperature. HPLC conditions were as follows: acetonitrile (A), and water (B), 1.0% acetic acid. The gradient elution used was 030 min, 0-60% A; 3040 min, 60% A. Flow rate used was 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. Results: The validation using piperlonguminine, as the standard, demonstrated that the method shows linearity (linear correlation coefficient = 0.998), precision (relative standard deviation <5%) and accuracy (mean recovery = 103.78%) in the concentration range 31.25 500?g/mL. The limit of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 4.03?g/mL, respectively. This method allowed the identification and quantification of piperlonguminine and piperovatine in the hydroethanolic extracts of P. ovatum obtained from the leaves, stems and roots. All the extracts showed the same chromatographic profile. The leaves and roots contained the highest concentrations of piperlonguminine and the stems and leaves showed the most concentrations of piperovatine. Conclusion: This HPLC method is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of amides in extracts of Piper ovatum and phytopharmaceuticals containing this herb. PMID:24174818

  4. Flavonoids from Piper delineatum modulate quorum-sensing-regulated phenotypes in Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Martn-Rodrguez, Alberto J; Ticona, Juan C; Jimnez, Ignacio A; Flores, Ninoska; Fernndez, Jos J; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2015-09-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), or bacterial cell-to-cell communication, is a key process for bacterial colonization of substrata through biofilm formation, infections, and production of virulence factors. In an ongoing investigation of bioactive secondary metabolites from Piper species, four new flavonoids (1-4), along with five known ones (5-9) were isolated from the leaves of Piper delineatum. Their stereostructures were established by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and comparison with data reported in the literature. The compounds were screened for their ability to interfere with QS signaling in the bacterial model Vibrio harveyi. Four compounds from this series (2, 3, 6, and 7) exhibited remarkable activity in the micromolar range, being compounds 3 and 7 particularly attractive since they did not affect bacterial growth. The results suggest that these flavonoids disrupt QS-mediated bioluminescence by interaction with elements downstream LuxO in the QS circuit of V. harveyi, and also, they exhibited a strong dose-dependent inhibition of biofilm formation. The present findings shed light on the QS inhibition mechanisms of flavonoids, underlining their potential applications. PMID:26070141

  5. Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

    2012-06-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), α-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and β-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 μl/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 μl/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, α-humulene and β-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to β-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed. PMID:22415244

  6. A C-Glycosylflavone from Piper ossanum, a Compound Conformationally Controlled by CH/? and Other Weak Intramolecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Larionova, Mara; Spengler, Iraida; Nogueiras, Clara; Quijano, Leovigildo; Ramrez-Gualito, Karla; Corts-Guzmn, Fernando; Cuevas, Gabriel; Caldern, Jos S

    2010-10-22

    The structure of the known 2''-O-?-rhamnosyl-4''-O-methylvitexin (apigenin-8-C-?-rhamnosyl-(1?2)-?-4-O-methylglucopyranoside), isolated from the leaves of Piper ossanum, was revised to acacetin-8-C-neohesperidoside (acacetin-8-C-?-rhamnosyl-(1?2)-?-glucopyranoside or 2''-O-?-rhamnosyl-4'-O-methylvitexin) (1). The NMR data and theoretical calculations established the preferred conformation of 1, which is controlled by CH/? interactions. This phenomenon explains the unusual chemical shifts of some protons in the molecule, besides other weak intramolecular interactions such as the anomeric effect, the ?2 effect, and several hydrogen bonds. PMID:20879757

  7. Molecular and Physiological Analysis of the Role of Osmolyte Transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC in Growth of Listeria monocytogenes at Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H.; Sleator, Roy D.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Hill, Colin; Abee, Tjakko

    2004-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous food-borne pathogen found widely distributed in nature as well as an undesirable contaminant in a variety of fresh and processed foods. This ubiquity can be at least partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow at high osmolarity and reduced temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate osmo- and cryoprotective compounds termed osmolytes. Single and multiple deletions of the known osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC significantly reduce growth at low temperatures. During growth in brain heart infusion broth at 7°C, Gbu and OpuC had a more pronounced role in cryoprotection than did BetL. However, upon the addition of betaine to defined medium, the hierarchy of transporter importance shifted to Gbu > BetL > OpuC. Upon the addition of carnitine, only OpuC appeared to play a role in cryoprotection. Measurements of the accumulated osmolytes showed that betaine is preferred over carnitine, while in the absence of a functional Gbu, carnitine was accumulated to higher levels than betaine was at 7°C. Transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding BetL, Gbu, and OpuC revealed that each transporter is induced to different degrees upon cold shock of L. monocytogenes LO28. Additionally, despite being transcriptionally up-regulated upon cold shock, a putative fourth osmolyte transporter, OpuB (identified by bioinformatic analysis and encoded by lmo1421 and lmo1422), showed no significant contribution to listerial chill tolerance. Growth of the quadruple mutant LO28ΔBCGB (ΔbetL ΔopuC Δgbu ΔopuB) was comparable to the that of the triple mutant LO28ΔBCGsoe (ΔbetL ΔopuC Δgbu) at low temperatures. Here, we conclude that betaine and carnitine transport upon low-temperature exposure is mediated via three osmolyte transporters, BetL, Gbu, and OpuC. PMID:15128551

  8. The lignan eudesmin extracted from Piper truncatum induced vascular relaxation via activation of endothelial histamine H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Trindade, Ana Paula Felix; Velozo, Leosvaldo Salazar Marques; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2009-03-15

    In Brazilian folk medicine, extracts from Piper species are used to reduce blood pressure. Previously, we demonstrated the vasodilatory activity of crude extracts from leaves of Piper truncatum explaining their possible use in the treatment of hypertension in traditional medicine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of eudesmin, a lignan isolated from hexane extract of leaves from Piper truncatum, on the contractility of rat aortas and the possible mechanisms involved in its vascular action. Eudesmin induced an intense concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine. The concentration of eudesmin necessary to reduce phenylephrine-induced aortic contraction by 50% (IC(50)) was 10.69+/-0.67 microg/ml. Eudesmin-induced vasodilation required an intact endothelium since vascular relaxation was inhibited by mechanic removal of endothelium, and by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor. Relaxation induced by eudesmin was also impaired in the presence of indomethacin and diphenhydramine, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and an antagonist of type 1 histamine receptor (H(1)), respectively. IC(50) was increased to 18.1+/-1.8 and 18.1+/-2.6 microg/ml (P<0.05; n=6) after exposure to indomethacin and diphenhydramine, respectively. Atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker) did not alter the effect of eudesmin. These results indicate that eudesmin-induced vascular relaxation in rat aorta is mediated by release of nitric oxide and prostanoid through the involvement of histamine receptor present in the endothelial cells. PMID:19374838

  9. A single point mutation in the listerial betL σA-dependent promoter leads to improved osmo- and chill-tolerance and a morphological shift at elevated osmolarity

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Roland F; McLernon, Susan; Feeney, Audrey; Hill, Colin; Sleator, Roy D

    2013-01-01

    Betaine uptake in Listeria monocytogenes is mediated by three independent transport systems, the simplest of which in genetic terms is the secondary transporter BetL. Using a random mutagenesis approach, based on the E. coli XL1 Red mutator strain, we identified a single point mutation in a putative promoter region upstream of the BetL coding region which leads to a significant increase in betL transcript levels under osmo- and chill-stress conditions and a concomitant increase in stress tolerance. Furthermore, the mutation appears to counter the heretofore unreported “twisted” cell morphology observed for L. monocytogenes grown at elevated osmolarities in tryptone soy broth. PMID:23478432

  10. Synthesis and antihyperlipidemic activity of piperic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    A, Rong; Bao, Narisu; Sun, Zhaorigetu; Borjihan, Gereltu; Qiao, Yanjiang; Jin, Zhuang

    2015-02-01

    A series of piperic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized from piperine/piperlonguminine, and their antihyperlipidemic activities evaluated in diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats with respect to simvastatin. Two promising analogues 3 and 10 were discovered and their antihyperlipidemic activities were comparable to or better than those of simvastatin. PMID:25920263

  11. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... effective September 5, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-10-04 (78 FR 35110, June 12, 2013) remains July... INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2013-10-04 (78 FR 35110, June 12, 2013), currently requires a detailed...-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes...

  12. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...-08, Amendment 39-1312 (36 FR 19572, October 8, 1971), and adding the following new AD: Piper Aircraft... 71-21-08, Amendment 39-1312 (36 FR 19572, October 8, 1971) currently requires replacement of the fuel... proposed AD. Discussion On September 29, 1971, we issued AD 71-21-08, Amendment 39-1312 (36 FR...

  13. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY CORE BOX UNDER A FULL MAGAZINE AND THE FULL CORE BOX TO AN OPEN POSITION TO ALLOW CORE REMOVAL. WILLIAM SEAL STACK CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Development, Characterization, and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum Phytosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonam; Sahu, Alakh Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices have shown that combination of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum are traditionally used to treat symptoms of the liver disorder. The hypothesis is phytosomes of a combination of both crude drug extract will be more effective and safe as hepatoprotective agent. Aim: Present work is aimed at development and characterization of phytosomes containing ethanolic extract of both drugs to meet the need for better effectiveness and safety. Materials and Methods: Phytosomes were formulated by using Indena's patented process. Characterization involved following parameters: Particle size determination, percentage yield, entrapment efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high performance thin liquid chromatography. Liver damage was induced in adult Charles foster rats (150 ± 10 g) with CCl4 in olive oil (1:1 v/v, i.p) 1 ml/kg once daily for 7 days. LIV 52 (1 ml/kg per oral [p.o]), ethanolic extract of A. indicum and P. longum combination (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o) and phytosomes (100 mg/kg p.o.) was given 3 days prior to CCl4 administration. Estimation of liver marker enzymes and histopathological studies were done. Result was analyzed by using (analysis of variance) followed by Student-Newman–Keuls test. Result: Combined extract has shown hepatoprotective activity but phytosomal formulation has more potent hepatoprotective effect on CCl4 induced liver toxicity at very low dose comparative to a higher dose of combined extract. Conclusion: Novel approach for herbal drug delivery is more prominent than conventional which improves bioavailability of polar extract and also patient compliance. SUMMARY Standardised ethanolic extract of leaves of abutilon indicum and piper longum fruits by microwave assisted extraction was used for phytosomal complex formation and phytosomal complex was characterised by various parameters and finally the hepatoprotective activity of phytosomes and crude extract was evaluated by different biochemical markers and histopathological study. Abbreviations Used: DSC: Differential scanning calorimetry, SEM: Scanning electron microscope, FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, HPTLC: High performance thin liquid chromatography, p.o: Per oral, A. indicum: Abutilon indicum, P. longum: Piper longum. PMID:26941533

  15. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  16. 78 FR 49221 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...We propose to revise airworthiness directive (AD) 99-26-19 that applies to certain The New Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model J-2 airplanes equipped with wing lift struts. AD 99-26-19 currently requires repetitively inspecting the wing lift struts for dents and corrosion; repetitively inspecting the wing lift strut forks for cracks; replacing any dented or corroded wing lift strut; replacing any......

  17. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ...We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and PA-31-350 airplanes. The existing AD currently requires a detailed repetitive inspection of the exhaust system downstream of the turbochargers and repair or replacement of parts as necessary. Since we issued that AD, forced landings of aircraft have occurred......

  18. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Eric. J.; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date. PMID:24596490

  19. Nondestructive inspection of Piper PA25 forward spar fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.

    1995-07-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration`s (FAA`s) Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories applied two nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques to inspect a forward spar fuselage attachment fitting. The techniques used were based on radiography and ultrasonic test methods. The combination of these techniques did reveal material thinning of two spar fittings from Piper PA25 aircraft. However, crack detection near a notch design feature could not be performed. Based on the results of these experiments, an ultrasonic test procedure was subsequently developed for the material thinning. The procedure has since been incorporated by the FAA into a revision of Airworthiness Directive 93-21-12.

  20. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. PMID:21035316

  1. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    PubMed

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection. PMID:26155671

  2. Piper sarmentosum: a new hope for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Suhaimi, Farihah; Ahmad, Fairus; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. Osteoporosis is characterized by the loss of bone mass and strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11?-HSD1). The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative stress which leads to increased bone resorption. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine of South East Asia. It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. Recent studies found that Ps extract has the ability to inhibit the expression and activity of 11?-HSD1 in adipose tissue and bone which restored bone structure and strength. It also accelerates fracture healing in the oestrogen deficient state through its antioxidant properties. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats. PMID:24107234

  3. Antifungal and antioxidant pyrrole derivative from Piper pedicellatum.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Dutta, Partha P; Bordoloi, Manobjyoti; Bora, Jayanta

    2013-10-01

    In continuation of our search for efficient pest control natural products from the flora of the South Eastern Sub-Himalayan biodiversity region, we have investigated wild edible Piper pedicellatum C. DC (Piperaceae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India against five important plant pathogenic fungi through an activity guided method, and a new compound, pedicellamide, was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic studies and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The compound exhibited antifungal activities against the phytopathogenic fungal organisms Rhizoctonia solani (MIC 38.4 +/- 1.6 microg/mL), Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 29.7 +/- 0.8 microg/mL), Aspergillus niger (MIC 48.6 +/- 0.7 microg/mL), Puccinia gramini (MIC 46.8 +/- 1.4 microg/mL) and Curvularia lunata (MIC 49.1 +/- 0.1 microg/mL). Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the compound was estimated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay and found to be 2.87 +/- 0.20, 2.19 +/- 0.13 and 3.96 +/- 0.17 VCEAC (microM/g), respectively. PMID:24354199

  4. New free radical scavenging neolignans from fruits of Piper attenuatum

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S. Divya; Siva, Bandi; Poornima, B.; Kumar, D. Anand; Tiwari, Ashok K.; Ramesh, U.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to study and identify free radicals scavenging and antihyperglycemic principles in fruit of Piper attenuatum. Materials and Methods: Bioassay guided identification of extracts possessing potent free radical scavenging activity, and isolation of compounds was done. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum possessing potent radical scavenging activity was also evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Results: Nine neolignans namely, denudatin B (1), iso-4, 5-dimethoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy-2-oxo-?3,5,8-8.1-lignan (2), lancifolin D (3), denudatin A (4), wallichinin (5), piperenone (6), lancifolin C (7), 2-oxo-piperol B (8), piperkadsin A (9) and a crotepoxide (10) was identified in Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum. Neolignans (1-9) displayed potent 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and piperkadsin A (9) also displayed 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Analysis of structure-activity relationship revealed that presence of furan ring and methoxy groups is an important criterion to influence 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging potentials. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum fruit could not display antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Conclusion: Neolignans present in P. attenuatum fruits are potent free radical scavengers and this is the first report identifying these compounds and activities in this fruit. PMID:25829760

  5. Anticholinesterase and Antityrosinase Activities of Ten Piper Species from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Hashim, Nur Athirah; Ahmad, Farediah; Heng Yen, Khong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antityrosinase activities of extracts from ten Piper species namely; P. caninum, P. lanatum, P. abbreviatum, P. aborescens, P. porphyrophyllum, P. erecticaule, P. ribesioides, P. miniatum, P. stylosum, and P. majusculum. Methods: Anticholinesterase and antityrosinase activities were evaluated against in vitro Ellman spectroscopy method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. Results: The EtOAc extract of P. erecticaule showed the highest AChE and BChE inhibitory with 22.9% and 70.9% inhibition, respectively. In antityrosinase activity, all extracts of P. porphyrophyllum showed the highest inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase, compared to standard, kojic acid. Conclusion: This study showed that P. erecticaule and P. porphyrophyllum have potential AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibition activities. The respective extracts can be explored further for the development of novel lead as AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibitors in therapeutic management of Alzheimers disease. PMID:25671185

  6. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of three varieties of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Isong, E U; Essien, I B

    1996-02-01

    The proximate composition of three varieties of Piper guineense (Odusa-Ibibio/Efik) viz. 'Uyat Odusa' (cultivated and peppery), 'Eting-keni Ikot' (wild forest variety) and 'Eting-keni mben inyang' (wild, riverine variety), were determined using available standard methods. Also determined were mineral, antinutrient and ascorbate levels. The cultivated pepperic variety had the highest content of crude protein and moisture (18.9% and 97% respectively) while the wild, riverine variety had the highest content of ether extract, carbohydrate and calories (7.79%, 63.38% and 398 cals respectively). The cultivated variety had appreciable amounts of phosphorus (1.12 mg/100 g), potassium (1.2 mg/100 g), sodium (0.24 mg/100 g), zinc (0.18 mg/100 g), and copper (0.18 mg/100 g) while the forest variety contained more of calcium (12.38 mg/100 g), magnesium (1.21 mg/100 g) and iron (0.85 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety appeared to have the least mineral content but had the highest ascorbate level of 173.4 mg/100 g. Of four antinutrients assayed, the cultivated pepperic one had the least quantities while the forest variety was highest in hydrocyanic acid (85.8 mg/100 g) and glucosinolates (0.20 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety had the highest level of total oxalate (165.0 mg/100 g). These quantities are however far below documented toxic levels. PMID:8811726

  7. Histamine release inhibitory activity of Piper nigrum leaf.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Inaba, Kazunori; Itoh, Kimihisa; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    Oral administration of a methanolic extract of Piper nigrum leaf (PN-ext, 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)] after and 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] after DNFB challenge in mice which were passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. Ear swelling inhibitory effect of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) on very late phase response (vLPR) in the model mice was significant but weaker than that on IPR. Oral administration of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 7 d) inhibited picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice. PN-ext exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Two lignans of PN-ext, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), were identified as major active principles having histamine release inhibitory activity. PMID:18827366

  8. Antifungal activities of compounds isolated from Piper abutiloides Kunth.

    PubMed

    Johann, S; Cota, B B; Souza-Fagundes, E M; Pizzolatti, M G; Resende, M A; Zani, C L

    2009-11-01

    Piperaceae is a family of tropical plants known to have antifungal, antibacterial, tumour-inhibitory, antiviral, antioxidant, molluscicidal and leishmanicidal activities. In this work, extracts and fractions from aerial parts of Piper abutiloides (Piperaceae), a traditional medicinal plant, were evaluated against the fungal species Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Sporothrix schenckii. The results have shown that the antifungal activity of this plant can be concentrated in the hexanic fraction after partitioning its hydroalcoholic extract between hexane and 90% aqueous methanol. The chromatographic fractionation of the bioactive part was monitored with a bioautographic assay using C. glabrata, and allowed the isolation of three antifungal compounds: pseudodillapiol, eupomatenoid-6 and conocarpan. These compounds presented different potencies against the fungi tested, with the strongest effect being observed for eupomatenoid-6 against C. glabrata, which presented a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 0.3 microg spot(-1). Conocarpan showed antifungal activity without apparent cytotoxic effect on normal human lymphocytes, as assessed by the proliferation assay with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phytohaemaglutinin. This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of these compounds in P. abutiloides and justifies further studies to clarify their mechanisms of action. PMID:19076283

  9. Camphene isolated from essential oil of Piper cernuum (Piperaceae) induces intrinsic apoptosis in melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity invivo.

    PubMed

    Girola, Natalia; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Farias, Camyla F; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Ferreira, Adilson K; Teixeira, Sarah F; Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; Matsuo, Alisson L; Travassos, Luiz R; Lago, Joo H G

    2015-11-27

    Natural monoterpenes were isolated from the essential oil of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) leaves. The crude oil and the individual monoterpenes were tested for cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lineages and B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma cells. In the present work we demonstrate the activity of camphene against different cancer cells, with its mechanism of action being investigated invitro and invivo in murine melanoma. Camphene induced apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway in melanoma cells mainly by causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, with release of Ca(2+) together with HmgB1 and calreticulin, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and up regulation of caspase-3 activity. Importantly, camphene exerted antitumor activity invivo by inhibiting subcutaneous tumor growth of highly aggressive melanoma cells in a syngeneic model, suggesting a promising role of this compound in cancer therapy. PMID:26471302

  10. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Piper spp using RAPD and SRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Liu, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis were applied to 74 individual plants of Piper spp in Hainan Island. The results showed that the SRAP technique may be more informative and more efficient and effective for studying genetic diversity of Piper spp than the RAPD technique. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp in Hainan was relatively high, with the mean Shannon diversity index being 0.2822 and 0.2909, and the mean Nei's genetic diversity being 0.1880 and 0.1947, calculated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. The ranges of the genetic similarity coefficient were 0.486-0.991 and 0.520-1.000 for 74 individual plants of Piper spp (the mean genetic distance was 0.505 and 0.480) and the within-species genetic distance ranged from 0.063 to 0.291 and from 0.096 to 0.234, estimated with RAPD and SRAP data, respectively. These genetic indices indicated that these species are closely related genetically. The dendrogram generated with the RAPD markers was topologically different from the dendrogram based on SRAP markers, but the SRAP technique clearly distinguished all Piper spp from each other. Evaluation of genetic variation levels of six populations showed that the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity and the Shannon information index within Jianfengling and Diaoluoshan populations are higher than those elsewhere; consequently conservation of wild resources of Piper in these two regions should have priority. PMID:22179965

  11. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-08-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  12. A benzoic acid derivative and flavokawains from Piper species as schistosomiasis vector controls.

    PubMed

    Rapado, Ludmila N; Freitas, Giovana C; Polpo, Adriano; Rojas-Cardozo, Maritza; Rincn, Javier V; Scotti, Marcus T; Kato, Massuo J; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia F

    2014-01-01

    The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, "in silico" studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. PMID:24762961

  13. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-01-01

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317

  14. Piper and Vismia Species from Colombian Amazonia Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Leandro J.; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M. Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M. Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:25558904

  15. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  17. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 145 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  18. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  19. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos include Engle turning propeller while his son sits in the cockpit (34323); both Engle and son examine propeller (34324); Engle works on engine while his son sits in cockpit (34325).

  20. Children and Drug Education: The P.I.E.D. Pipers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloss, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Developing coping skills for preventing substance abuse and promoting interaction and role modeling among older and younger children were the goals of the P.I.E.D. (People Involved in Education about Drugs) Pipers project. Nurses taught content to student trainees who presented information to peers and younger children. (SK)

  1. Improved exposure characterization with robotic (PIPER) sampling and association with children's respiratory symptoms, asthma and eczema.

    PubMed

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L

    2014-07-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol PM, a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study was to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate matter through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Seventy-five households with children between 3 and 59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information, and responses to a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC), and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze ("recent" (<1 year) and "ever"), cough, asthma and eczema was evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (odds ratio=4.2; 95% confidence interval 0.7-24.0), was compared with measurements by SIM (odds ratio=0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.2-2.6). Measurements of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze compared with measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide useful insights into early childhood exposures related to the etiology of childhood illnesses associated with inhalation exposures. PMID:24802555

  2. Fatigue-related decrease in Piper rhythm frequency of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Barandun, Marina; Stirling, Lisa M

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how the frequency of the Piper rhythm of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle (APB) and thus of the rhythmic synchronization of motor units changes with fatigue. Fourteen subjects participated in the study. The EMG signals were measured during maximum voluntary contractions, and a mimicked motor unit action potential was used to simulate an EMG signal containing no rhythmicity. The simulated EMG was used as a reference. The Piper rhythm was extracted from the high frequency power (170-271 Hz) of the wavelet transformed real and simulated EMG data using the difference of the autocorrelation functions of the power. The study shows that the Piper rhythm of the APB muscle, its pacing frequency and pacing amplitude can be extracted from the EMG signal recorded during a fatiguing task. One can conclude that the pacing frequencies observed in various hands covered the whole frequency range of the Piper band which includes the beta and the gamma band frequencies observed in brain activity (17-60 Hz). While the pacing frequency decreased with fatigue the pacing amplitude did not change significantly. The Piper rhythm is a result of a changing central drive and its measurement thus allows observing changes of central drive to the muscle. The ability to better resolve the Piper rhythm in the EMG without using the coherence with the brain activity opens the possibility to study the behavior of central control in the peripheral signal. PMID:21094054

  3. Cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation of crude extracts and fractions from Piper jericoense with trypanocidal action.

    PubMed

    Hamedt, A L; Ortiz, I C; García-Huertas, P A; Sáenz, J; de Araujo, A Caldeira; De Mattos, J C P; Rodríguez-Gazquez, M A; Triana-Chávez, O

    2014-03-01

    The current Chagas disease treatment is based on two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, which is considered unsatisfactory, not only because of the narrow therapeutic range but also because of the associated toxicity. Natural products are considered an important source of biologically active compounds against various infectious organisms. Numerous Piper species are used in traditional medicine to treat parasitic diseases. In this paper, we study the activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Piper jericoense plant against epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, we evaluated the cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic activities of the F4 fraction obtained from one of the more promising extracts. We obtained four extracts, one of which presented low toxicity and high trypanocidal activity. This extract was separated into eight fractions, and the F4 fraction presented better results than the other extracts and had a higher selectivity index than the reference drug, benznidazole. This fraction was not cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic. PMID:24361641

  4. Essential oil composition of Piper guineense and its antimicrobial activity. Another chemotype from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, O A; Adeniyi, B A; Ajayi, O; Knig, W A

    2005-04-01

    The analysis of the essential oil of Piper guineense from Nigeria presents a new chemotype of constituents different from earlier reports with the absence of the usual myristicin. Ishwarane, a common constituent of Aristolochia indica and Bixa orellana, was also isolated from the essential oil of the fruit. The essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 655 strain at 5 mg/mL on which standard antibiotic drugs were ineffective. PMID:16041738

  5. Antiamoebic activity of Piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, S; Prasad, B N; Lakshmi, V

    1996-03-01

    The fruits of Piper longum used in traditional remedies against intestinal distress have been tested for their efficacy against experimental caecal amoebiasis of rats. The ethanolic extract, hexane fraction, n-butanol soluble fraction exerted in vitro amoebicidal action at 1000 micrograms/mL and the chloroform fraction at 500 micrograms/mL. The ethanolic extract and piperine, a pure compound, from this plant material cured 90% and 40% of rats with caecal amoebiasis, respectively. PMID:8691851

  6. Differentiation of the Chemical Profile of Piper arboreum Tissues Using NIR Spectrometry and Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, M. S.; Pontes, M. J. C.; Ramos, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of chemical profiles from Piper arboreum tissues using near infrared (NIR) spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA) was addressed. The NIR analyses were performed with a small quantity of dried and ground tissues. Differences in the chemical composition of leaf, stem, and root tissues were observed. The results obtained were compared to those produced by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as the reference method, confirming the NIR results.

  7. Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos includes Jon Engle sitting on side door frame working on portion of wing. Joe Engle is behind him working on a wing strut (34329); Joe Engle works on tightening bolt (34330); Jon Engle works on portion of wing which connects to the cockpit. Joe Engle works on connecting strut to wing (34331).

  8. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317

  9. In vitro plant regeneration from leaf callus inPiper colubrinum Link.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, S M; Deboo, G B; Krishnamurthy, K V

    1996-12-01

    Callus-mediated shoot regeneration from leaf explants ofPhytophthora resistant pepper (Piper colubrinum Link.) is described. The effect of basal media composition and growth regulators onin vitro response of explants was evaluated. Shoot buds were induced and elongated on half-strength MS medium containing 2.0 mg l(-1) BA and 0.5 mg l(-1) NAA , as well as 1.0 mg l(-1) BA and 0.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. The shoots were rooted in half-strength MS medium with or without IAA or IBA, and then were transferred to soil with 100% survival. PMID:24177555

  10. Problematising Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is

  11. Does Oral Ingestion of Piper sarmentosum Cause Toxicity in Experimental Animals?

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaiton; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Othman, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE) on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50?mg/kg, 300?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000?mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24228062

  12. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Sachidanandan, P; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-03-15

    Many endophytic fungi have been reported with the biosynthetic potential to produce same or similar metabolites present in host plants. The adaptations that might have acquired by these fungi as a result of the long-term association with their host plants can be the possible basis of their biosynthetic potential. The bioactive compounds originated from endophytes are currently explored for their potential applications in pharmaceutical, agriculture and food industries. Piper nigrum, a plant of the Piperaceae is very remarkable because of the presence of the alkaloid piperine. Piperine has been reported to have broad bioactive properties ranging from antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative to anticancer activities. Interestingly, piperine also plays a vital role in increasing the bioavailability of many drugs which again is a promising property. The current study was carried out to identify piperine producing endophytic fungus from Piper nigrum L. By screening various endophytic fungi, the isolate which was identified as member of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was found to have the ability to form piperine and was confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. Considering the broad bioactive potential of piperine, the piperine producing fungi identified in the study can expect to have much industrial potential. PMID:24268806

  13. Piper rhythm in the activation of the gastrocnemius medialis during running.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Lisa M; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Kugler, Patrick; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-02-01

    The presence of temporal rhythmicity in electromyographic (EMG) signals at frequencies of 35-60 Hz was initially noted by Piper (1907). This modulation and synchronization of motor unit activity is generally accepted to represent a centrally generated coding of motor commands. The purpose of this study was to resolve and quantify the Piper rhythm in the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during running. EMG was recorded from the GM of 14 female runners during 1-h treadmill runs. The average wavelet transform was computed for EMG from series of steps taken at 2 min intervals throughout the run. The total intensity across three wavelets (center frequencies: 170, 218 and 271 Hz) was computed and a histogram indicating the incidence peaks in this signal was generated for each subject. In order to rule out effects of the analysis process, the process was repeated using simulated EMG data. Autocorrelations of the histograms were used to extract the frequency of the peaks resulting in rhythmicity at 25-55 Hz. The ability to measure superimposed rhythmicity in EMG signals during dynamic tasks allows investigation of the role of aspects of central drive during movement. In particular, the changes in central control during dynamic activities can be examined with this approach. PMID:20655246

  14. Multidrug resistance-selective antiproliferative activity of Piper amide alkaloids and synthetic analogues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Goto, Masuo; Wang, Li-Ting; Hsieh, Kan-Yen; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Tang, Gui-Hua; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five amide alkaloids (125) from Piper boehmeriifolium and 10 synthetic amide alkaloid derivatives (3948) were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against eight human tumor cell lines, including chemosensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. The results suggested tumor type-selectivity. 1-[7-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)heptanoyl]piperidine (46) exhibited the best inhibitory activity (IC50 = 4.94 M) against the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing KBvin MDR sub-line, while it and all other tested compounds, except 9, were inactive (IC50 >40 M) against MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) indicated that (i) 3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl substitution is critical for selectivity against KBvin, (ii) the 4-methoxy group in this pattern is crucial for antiproliferative activity, (iii) double bonds in the side chain are not needed for activity, and (iv), in arylalkenylacyl amide alkaloids, replacement of an isobutylamino group with pyrrolidin-1-yl or piperidin-1-yl significantly improved activity. Further study on Piper amides is warranted, particularly whether side chain length affects the ability to overcome the MDR cancer phenotype. PMID:25241925

  15. Chemical composition of essential oils from four Vietnamese species of piper (piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Hieu, Le D; Thang, Tran D; Hoi, Tran M; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from four Piper species, Piper retrofractum Vahl., P. boehmeriaefolium (Miq.) C. DC., P. sarmentosum Roxb., and P. maclurei Merr., were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nineteen to sixty-four compounds representing 92.0%-98.4% of the total contents were identified in the oil samples. The major constituents identified in P. retrofractum leaf oil were benzyl benzoate (14.4%), myrcene (14.4%), bicycloelemene (9.9%), bicyclogermacrene (7.0%) and ?-caryophyllene (5.3%). On the other hand, the main constituents of P. boehmeriaefolium were ?-copaene (28.3%), ?-pinene (7.4%) and 1, 8-cineole (5.7%). P. sarmentosum showed a very different chemical profile characterized mainly by aromatic compounds and devoid of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The major constituents were benzyl benzoate (49.1%), benzyl alcohol (17.9%), 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester (10.0%) and 2-butenyl-benzene (7.9%). The leaf of P. maclurei was characterized by higher amount of (E)-cinnamic acid (37.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (19.4%). Moreover, (Z)-9-octadecanoic acid methyl ester (28.0%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (17.2%), phytol (12.2%) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (8.8%) were the major compounds identified in the stem oil. PMID:24712088

  16. Geographic Variation in Host-Specificity and Parasitoid Pressure of an Herbivore (Geometridae) Associated with the Tropical Genus Piper (Piperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Connahs, Heidi; Rodrguez-Castaeda, Genoveva; Walters, Toni; Walla, Thomas; Dyer, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The extraordinary diversity of tropical herbivores may be linked to hostplant specialization driven in part by variation in pressure from natural enemies. We quantified levels of host-specificity and parasitoid attack for the specialist herbivore, Eois (Geometridae). The goals of this research were to examine: 1) whether Eois are specialized on the genus Piper (Piperaceae) and if hostplant specialization varies geographically; 2) whether Eois are equally vulnerable to parasitoid attack across different geographic regions and by the same parasitoid families; and 3) whether parasitism levels vary with precipitation and elevation. Based on over 15,000 rearings, we found Eois caterpillars feeding exclusively on Piper. However, we did not detect geographic differences in host-specificity; each Eois species fed on an average of two Piper species. Parasitism levels of Eois varied significantly with climate and topography; Eois were most vulnerable to parasitoid attack in moist versus dry and wet forests and at low versus high elevations. The diversity of parasitoid families reared from Eois was greater in Ecuador and Costa Rica than in Panama, where parasitoids were primarily in the family Braconidae. The quantitative evidence for host-specificity provides support for the hypothesis that Eois are specialized on Piper. Our results also reveal that Eois are exposed to a mosaic of potential selective pressures due to variation in parasitoid attack over a large spatial scale. PMID:19613860

  17. Insecticidal activity of Piper essential oils from the Amazon against the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Souto, R N P; Harada, A Y; Andrade, E H A; Maia, J G S

    2012-12-01

    Pepper plants in the genus Piper (Piperales: Piperaceae) are common in the Brazilian Amazon and many produce compounds with biological activity against insect pests. We evaluated the insecticidal effect of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper marginatum (chemotypes A and B), Piper divaricatum and Piper callosum against workers of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as their chemical composition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) in 48 h was obtained with the oil of P. aduncum (58.4 mg/L), followed by the oils of P. marginatum types A (122.4 mg/L) and B (167.0 mg/L), P. divaricatum (301.7 mg/L), and P. callosum (312.6 mg/L). The major chemical constituents were dillapiole (64.4%) in the oil of P. aduncum; p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (39.0%), 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (19.0%), and (E)-β-ocimene (9.8%) in P. marginatum chemotype A and (E)-isoosmorhizole (32.2%), (E)-anethole (26.4%), isoosmorhizole (11.2%), and (Z)-anethole (6.0%) in P. marginatum chemotype B; methyleugenol (69.2%) and eugenol (16.2%) in P. divaricatum; and safrole (69.2%), methyleugenol (8.6%), and β-pinene (6.2%) in P. callosum. These chemical constituents have been previously known to possess insecticidal properties. PMID:23949677

  18. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  19. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. PMID:23791964

  20. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl)...

  5. Histological Changes in the Fracture Callus Following the Administration of Water Extract of Piper Sarmentosum (Daun Kadok) in Estrogen-Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Das, Srijit; Ali, Aishah Mohd; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj

    2011-01-01

    Background: The fracture healing is impaired in osteoporosis. Piper sarmentosum is a plant, which contains potent antioxidant, naringenin that may enhance fracture healing. The present histological study aimed to determine the effects of water extract of Piper sarmentosum on the late phase of fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. Methods: Twenty four female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 gm) were obtained. Six rats underwent sham operation and the rest were ovariectomized. Six weeks post-ovariectomy all the rats were fractured at the mid-diaphysis of the right femur and a K-wire was inserted for internal fixation. The sham group was given vehicle (normal saline) and the ovariectomized group was randomly subdivided into three groups: (i) ovariectomized-control group supplemented with vehicle; (ii) ovariectomized+estrogen replacement therapy group treated with estrogen (100 g/kg/day) and (iii) ovariectomized+Piper sarmentosum group treated with Piper sarmentosum water extract (125 mg/kg). Following six weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the right femora were harvested for histological assessment of fracture callus. Results: The ovariectomized-control group showed a significant delay in fracture healing compared to the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups. The median callus score for the ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum group was 4.50 (range, 4-5), which was significantly higher than the median callus score 3.50 (range, 3-4) for the ovariectomized-control group (P=0.019). However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the callus score among the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups groups. Conclusion: Treatment with water extract of Piper sarmentosum proved beneficial in the fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. PMID:23115413

  6. Preventable disasters in the offshore oil industry: from Piper Alpha to Deepwater Horizon.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article compares two industrial disasters in the offshore oil industry, the explosion and fire on Piper Alpha off the coast of Scotland in 1988, the world's worst offshore disaster, and the blowout and explosions on Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It attempts to answer a simple question: Given the enormity of the first tragedy and the careful analysis of its circumstances and causes, why were the lessons of previous failure not learned by this globally organized industry, in the very heartland in the United States? The answer tells us much about the ability of corporate capital to configure regulatory regimes in its own interests and to do so in a manner that continues to threaten the safety and well-being of its employees and the wider environment. PMID:23384815

  7. Protective effects of Piper nigrum and Vinca rosea in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, M; Sheema; Sarmad, H; Bano, B

    2005-01-01

    In the present study aqueous extract of Piper nigrum seeds and Vinca rosea flowers were administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats once a day for 4 weeks. These treatments lead to significant lowering of blood sugar level and reduction in serum lipids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in alloxan induced diabetic rats however these levels returned to normal in insulin, P. nigrum and V. rosea treated rats. There was no significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity in all groups compared to controls. Lipid peroxidation levels were significantly higher in diabetic rats and it was slightly increased in insulin, P. nigrum and V. rosea treated rats as compared to control rat. These results suggest that oxidative stress plays a key role in diabetes, and treatment with P. nigrum and V. rosea are useful in controlling not only the glucose and lipid levels but these components may also be helpful in strengthening the antioxidants potential. PMID:15881860

  8. Compounds from the aerial parts of Piper bavinum and their anti-cholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Dung, Hoang Viet; Cuong, To Dao; Chinh, Nguyen Minh; Quyen, Do; Kim, Jeong Ah; Byeon, Jeong Su; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sui; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-01-01

    A new alkenylphenol, bavinol A (1), together with six known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bavinum (Piperaceae). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR spectroscopy. The anti-Alzheimer effects of compounds 1-7 were evaluated from acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity assays. Bavinol A (1), ampelopsin (3), and violanthin (4) exhibited AChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 29.80, 59.47 and 79.80?M. Compound 1 also showed the most potent BChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 19.25?M. PMID:25005067

  9. A review of the use of Piper betel in oxidative stress disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Nurul Zaidah, A S; Nur Amalina, G; Muhammad Azree, Ema; Das, S; Zar, C T

    2014-01-01

    Increase in prevalence of disease related oxidative stress disorders have been on the rise in the entire world since the past decades. Significant positive effects with few antioxidant properties in the modern drugs pave for the alternative medicines in managing the disease. Piper betel (P. betel), a herb, is known to possess high anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-cancer and neuroprotective property. This review focused on the effect of P. betel on diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, Alzheimer's disease and breast cancer. P. betel proved to show positive effects with specific outcomes towards these diseases. Moreover, the promising effect of P. betel in vitro studies was also highlighted in the present review. It is believed that the findings obtained in this review will draw the attention of the medical professionals and general public towards P. betel and it will open the door for further detailed research. PMID:25366948

  10. Anticancer activity studies of cubebin isolated from Piper cubeba and its synthetic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rajalekshmi, Dhanya S; Kabeer, Farha A; Madhusoodhanan, Arya R; Bahulayan, Arun K; Prathapan, Remani; Prakasan, Nisha; Varughese, Sunil; Nair, Mangalam S

    2016-04-01

    (-)-Cubebin, isolated from the seeds of Piper cubeba, and its five different types of derivatives (a total of 17), with varying functionalities, were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against six human cancer cell lines (A549, K562, SiHa, KB, HCT116 and HT29) using MTT assay. Cubebin as well as its derivatives containing lactone and amide groups showed significant anticancer activity. In some of the tested cell lines, the amide derivatives showed higher activity. Morphological analysis indicated that these compounds act through apoptosis mediated pathway of cell death and we expect that these results will pave new paths in the development of novel anticancer agents by the derivatization of (-)-cubebin. PMID:26916436

  11. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronauts (from left) Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. She and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  12. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronaut Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Waiting at left are Astronauts Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper and Steven W. Lindsey. Mrs. Clinton and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  13. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill......

  14. Legacies and Leaving Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role that mothers' and grandmothers' legacies have in the home-leaving transition of adolescent girls from a rural setting. Results suggest issues that school counselors might explore using the concept of legacy, including: distance from home; attachment to families; adolescent girls' interpretation of what it means to be a woman; and

  15. Leaving a Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banach, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Most school board members and superintendents want to leave a lasting legacy to their district. To do this, they need to acknowledge that large-scale change is complex and takes time and that the system will outlast them. Board members can give their communities the gifts of vision, process, and competence. (MLF)

  16. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  17. Bemoans, Belittles, and Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Biniek, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I examine Lynn Truss's book of punctuation rules and faux pas, "Eats, Shoots & Leaves," contemplating the complex relationships among class, academics, and language snobbery. I don't refute Truss's lessons on punctuation. Instead, I use her text as a jumping-off point for discussion of the social issues embedded in her guide and

  18. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk

  19. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students

  20. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  1. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  2. Physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77%) and -elemene (10.42%) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58%), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95%), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1,4,4a,8a)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30%), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48%), phytol (4.22%), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78%) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39%). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50?=?34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of ?- and ?-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti. PMID:26277727

  3. Development and In-home Testing of the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Shalat, Stuart L.; Stambler, Adam A.; Wang, Zuocheng; Mainelis, Gediminas; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Hernandez, Marta; Lioy, Paul J.; Black, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Exposure and dose estimation are essential to understanding the etiology of environmentally linked childhood diseases. The behavior of resuspended particulate matter (PM) suggests that stationary measurements may underestimate household exposures in young children (ages 6 to 36 months). Because of the size and weight of the sampling equipment, use of personal samplers in this age group is either difficult or impossible. The Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) sampler has been developed to provide a surrogate method to ascertain personal exposures to PM for this age group. As part of a study of childhood asthma, 55 homes in central New Jersey were tested. Simultaneous sampling for inhalable PM using stationary (110 cm height) and PIPER mobile sampler were carried out. In homes with bare floors (N=21), the absolute difference was 3.9 ?g/m3 (S.E. = 3.01; p = 0.217) and relative difference (PIPER/Stationary) was 1.12 (linearized S.E. = 0.11). On carpets (N=34), the absolute difference was 54.1 ?g/m3 (S.E. = 13.50; p = 0.0003), and the relative difference was 2.30 (linearized S.E. = 0.34). The results confirm the importance of understanding the personal dust cloud caused by childrens activity in a room, particularly when rugs or carpets are present. PMID:21351766

  4. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 ?g mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 ?g mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 ?g mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 ?g mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells in vitro. PMID:19257877

  5. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  6. Judy Holoviak Leaves AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Judy C. Holoviak, AGU director of publications, leaves AGU on 6 May 2009. Her nearly 45-year career at AGU was recognized when she received the 2008 Edward A. Flinn III Award (see Eos, 89(52), 546, 2008). During her tenure, the journals program grew from 803 articles published per year to an average of 22 articles published per day (about 5670 per year); Eos grew from a quarterly journal (under the title of Transactions, American Geophysical Union) to a monthly magazine, and then to a weekly newspaper; and AGU became recognized as a leader in electronic publication.

  7. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldvar-Rivern, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  8. Alteration of pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline following oral administration of Piper longum in hens.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Varshneya, C; Telang, R S; Srivastava, A K

    2005-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg body weight) was studied 7 days post oral treatment of Piper longum (15 mg equivalent/kg) in White Leghorn hens (2-2.8 kg). On the day 8, oxytetracycline (OTC) was administered orally and blood samples were collected from the wing vein in heparinised vials for plasma separation at 0 (pre-treatment), 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480 and 600 minutes post OTC administration. Plasma OTC concentrations were determined by microbial assay technique using Bacillus cereus var. mycoides (ATCC 11778) as test organism. The plasma levels of OTC against time were adequately described by one compartment open model. The pharmacokinetic data revealed that P.longum treated animals had significantly higher area under curve (AUC), area under the first moment of plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUMC) and mean residential time (MRT). Prior treatment of P.longum significantly reduced elimination rate constant(beta)and increased elimination half life (t(1/2beta)). The total body clearance (Cl(B)) reduced by 21%whereas total duration of pharmacological effect (t(d)) increased by 29%. The treatment with P. longum reduced loading and maintenance dose by 33.3 and 39%, respectively. PMID:16131821

  9. Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Pate-Cornell, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67μg/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. PMID:24268240

  12. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Piper Fatigue Scale for use in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Ulrika; Gustavsson, Petter; Frst, Carl-Johan

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the revised Piper Fatigue Scale to Swedish. For translation, guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation were used. Two teams independently translated the instrument and two other teams produced back-translations, after which a multidisciplinary committee decided on a Swedish version. In pre-test interviews, ten cancer patients were encouraged to think out loud while completing the Swedish version. Their verbal responses were analysed and used for a second revision. The initial translations varied in words, expressions and grammar, shown in a lack of equivalence to the original instrument after back-translation. In order to establish semantic equivalence, the committee changed some grammatical constructions, and some words were replaced for experiential and conceptual equivalence. When analysing the pre-test, obscurities due to the phrasing of some items were revealed and dealt with in the second revision. This study does not fulfil the process of validation for a translated instrument but offers a sound basis for further accumulation of evidence for validity, and facilitates the choice of an appropriate instrument for studying cancer-related fatigue in Sweden. PMID:16814606

  13. Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Roseli R P; Souto, Raimundo N P; Bastos, Cleber N; da Silva, Milton H L; Maia, Jos G S

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils of the specimens of Piper aduncum that occur in deforested areas of Brazilian Amazon, North Brazil, are rich in dillapiole (35-90%), a derivative of phenylpropene, to which are attributed biological properties. On the other hand, the oils of the specimens with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest, and Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil, do not contain dillapiole, but only terpene compounds such as (E)-nerolidol and linalool. One specimen existing in the Amazon was hydrodistilled. The obtained oil was fractioned on a silica chromatographic column, resulting in fractions rich in dillapiole (95.0-98.9%) utilized for analyses by GC and GC/MS, structural characterization by NMR, confirmation of their biological properties, and to obtain the isomer isodillapiole. Dillapiole showed a fungicide action against the fungus Clinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom) by inhibition of its basidiospores, in concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 ppm. The larvicide and insecticide actions of dillapiole were tested against the larvae and the adult insects of Anopheles marajoara and Aedes aegypti (malaria and dengue mosquitoes), resulting in mortality of the larvae (48 h, 100%) at a concentration of 100 ppm, and mortality of the insects (30 min, 100%) at a concentration of 600 ppm. The isomeric isodillapiole showed no significant activity in the same biological tests. PMID:19774604

  14. A clinical trial of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) with special reference to Abheshaja.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Megha; Vyas, Hitesh; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-10-01

    The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study. PMID:22048536

  15. A clinical trial of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) with special reference to Abheshaja

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Megha; Vyas, Hitesh; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study. PMID:22048536

  16. Protective effect of Piper longum Linn. on monosodium glutamate induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mariyamma; Sujatha, K S; George, Sisilamma

    2009-03-01

    Protective effect of ethanol extract of Piper longum Linn. against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced toxicity was studied. Rats, orally administered with MSG at a dose of 8 mg/g body weight for 20 consecutive days, showed an increase in liver weight and rate of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione (GSH) in serum, liver and kidney showed decreased concentration. Significant increase was noticed in activities of serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and urea. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney showed central venous congestion, diffuse degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes in para cortical and midzonal areas of liver and diffuse cortical tubular degeneration of kidney. Oral administration of ethanol extract of P. longum fruits at 300 mg/kg body weight along with MSG significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxides in serum, liver and kidney, serum AST activity, serum levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol. Though, there was an increase in the level of GSH in tissues it was not significant. However, the treatment failed to reduce the levels of ALT and urea. Examination of tissue sections also exhibited normal histological architecture of both the organs. The present study revealed that administration of P. longum provided significant protection to liver and kidney from the oxidative stress of MSG, though the dose rate was not sufficient to provide a complete protection. PMID:19405384

  17. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Glin, Ilhami

    2005-11-01

    Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP. PMID:16503560

  18. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper. PMID:19456163

  19. Mosquito larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts of long pepper (Piper retrofractum vahl) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chansang, Uruyakorn; Zahiri, Nayer S; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Boonruad, Thidarat; Thongsrirak, Pratom; Mingmuang, Jiranuch; Benjapong, Nipa; Mulla, Mir S

    2005-12-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine medicinal plants were bioassayed against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypt (L.). Among these plants, the long pepper, Piper retrofractum Vahl (Piperaceae), showed the highest level of activity against mosquito larvae. To gain more information on larvicidal activity of P. retrofractum, fresh fruits of this plant were extracted in water and the extracts made into powder and bioassayed against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. Extracts of unripe (001/3) and ripe (002/3 and 001/4) fruits showed different levels of activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Extracts 001/3 and 002/3 were equi-toxic to a Bacillus sphaericus resistant and susceptible strains, both from Thailand. The ripe fruit extract 002/3 was somewhat more active against Ae. aegypti than Cx. quinquefasciatus. Another ripe fruit extract (001/4) was much more toxic to both mosquito species. Diluted solutions of the solid extract (002/3) in distilled water lost their larvicidal activity upon aging. Loss of activity at 25 degrees C was greater than that stored at 4 degrees C, and greater in water than in acetone solution. PMID:16599152

  20. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 0.1304 ppm (mean Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  1. Protective Effect of Piper aduncum Capsule on DMBA-induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Acevedo, J; Chávez-Asmat, RJ; Anampa-Guzmán, A; Donaires, R; Ráez-Gonzáles, José

    2015-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Piper aduncum capsule on DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)-induced breast cancer in rats was assessed by monitoring the tumor and lung metastases incidence and recording hematological and biochemical parameters and frequency of micronuclei. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced in 36 female Holtzman rats by providing a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA. Oral administration of P. aduncum capsule lowered adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases incidence. Pulmonary metastasis was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). Hematological indicators showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Also, P. aduncum capsule significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P < 0.01). Considering the antitumorigenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties of P. aduncum capsule, we conclude that it has a protective effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats. PMID:26157333

  2. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity. PMID:17147171

  3. Biotransformation of Flavokawains A, B, and C, Chalcones from Kava (Piper methysticum), by Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Katharina; Agnolet, Sara; Schneider, Bernd; Kraus, Birgit

    2015-07-22

    The in vitro metabolism of flavokawains A, B, and C (FKA, FKB, FKC), methoxylated chalcones from Piper methysticum, was examined using human liver microsomes. Phase I metabolism and phase II metabolism (glucuronidation) as well as combined phase I+II metabolism were studied. For identification and structure elucidation of microsomal metabolites, LC-HRESIMS and NMR techniques were applied. Major phase I metabolites were generated by demethylation in position C-4 or C-4' and hydroxylation predominantly in position C-4, yielding FKC as phase I metabolite of FKA and FKB, helichrysetin as metabolite of FKA and FKC, and cardamonin as metabolite of FKC. To an even greater extent, flavokawains were metabolized in the presence of uridine diphosphate (UDP) glucuronic acid by microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases. For all flavokawains, monoglucuronides (FKA-2'-O-glucuronide, FKB-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-2'-O-glucuronide, FKC-4-O-glucuronide) were found as major phase II metabolites. The dominance of generated glucuronides suggests a role of conjugated chalcones as potential active compounds in vivo. PMID:26123050

  4. Parental Leave Policies and Parents’ Employment and Leave-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time-span is one during which parental leave legislation expanded at both the state and federal level. We also provide the first comprehensive examination of employment and leave-taking by fathers of infants. Our main finding is that leave expansions are associated with increased leave-taking by both mothers and fathers. The magnitudes of the changes are small in absolute terms but large relative to the baseline for men and much greater for college-educated or married mothers than for their less-educated or single counterparts. PMID:19090048

  5. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Oge, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along monocot leaf blades, except at the leaf tip and giving the uncertainties on measurements and model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed differences between C3 and C4 plants reflect more mesophyll tortuosity rather than leaf length or interveinal distance. Using measurements of non-steady-state, spatially varying leaf water enrichment we show that spatial patterns are in steady state around midday only, just as observed for bulk leaf water, but can be easily up-scaled to the whole leaf level, independent of the degree of heterogeneity. This together suggests that regardless of the heterogeneity of leaf water enrichment, it is appropriate to take simple models of leaf water enrichment weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux for applications involving leaf water isotope enrichment. References Cuntz M, Oge J, Farquhar GD, Peylin P & Cernusak LA (2007) Modelling advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 892-909 Farquhar GD & Cernusak LA (2005) On the isotopic composition of leaf water in the non-steady state, Functional Plant Biology 32, 293-303 Oge J, Cuntz M, Peylin P & Bariac T (2007) Non-steady-state, non-uniform transpiration rate and leaf anatomy effects on the progressive stable isotope enrichment of leaf water along monocot leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 367-387

  6. Cytotoxic Activity of Piper cubeba Extract in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Graidist, Potchanapond; Martla, Mananya; Sukpondma, Yaowapa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a crude extract of Piper cubeba against normal and breast cancer cell lines. To prepare the extract, P. cubeba seeds were ground, soaked in methanol and dichloromethane and isolated by column chromatography. Fractions were tested for cytotoxicity effects on normal fibroblast (L929), normal breast (MCF-12A) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231). The most effective fraction was selected for DNA fragmentation assay to detect apoptotic activity. The results showed that the methanolic crude extract had a higher cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 than a dichloromethane crude extract. Then, the methanolic crude extract was separated into six fractions, designated A to F. Fraction C was highly active against breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 value less than 4 ?g/mL. Therefore, Fraction C was further separated into seven fractions, CA to CG. The 1H-NMR profile showed that Fraction CE was long chain hydrocarbons. Moreover, Fraction CE demonstrated the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.69 0.09 ?g/mL and lower cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast L929 cells with an IC50 value of 4.17 0.77 ?g/mL. Finally, DNA fragmentation with a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis was observed in MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and L929 cells, but not in MCF-12A cells. PMID:25867951

  7. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Watson, Susan B; Asolkar, Ratnakar N; Boddy, Louis G

    2015-01-01

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid). However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 ?M or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 ?M sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II (PSII) on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I 50app of 18.3 ?M. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to be a complex process associated with multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:25904929

  8. In vitro efficacy of the essential oil of Piper cubeba L. (Piperaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Magalhes, Lizandra G; de Souza, Julia M; Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; Laurentiz, Rosangela da S; Vinhlis, Adriana H C; Rezende, Karen C S; Simaro, Guilherme V; Bastos, Jairo K; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Esperandim, Viviane R; Ferreira, Daniele S; Crotti, Antnio E M; Cunha, Wilson R; e Silva, Mrcio L A

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, cercariae, schistosomula, and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were incubated in vitro with the essential oil of Piper cubeba (PC-EO) at concentrations from 12.5 to 200 ?g/mL, and the viability was evaluated using an inverted microscopy. The effects of PC-EO at 100 and 200 ?g/mL on the stages of S. mansoni were similar to those of the positive control (PZQ at 12.5 ?g/mL), with total absence of mobility after 120 h. However, at concentrations from 12.5 to 50 ?g/mL, PC-EO caused a reduction in the viability of cercariae and schistosomula when compared with the negative control groups (RPMI 1640 or dechlorinated water) or (RPMI 1640 + 0.1% DMSO or dechlorinated water + 0.1% DMSO). On the other hand, adult S. mansoni worms remained normally active when incubated with PC-EO at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 ?g/mL, and their viabilities were similar to those of the negative control groups. In addition, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 ?g/mL, separation of all the coupled adult worms was observed after 24 h of incubation, which is related to the fact of the reduction in egg production at this concentration. The main chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as being sabinene (19.99%), eucalyptol (11.87%), 4-terpineol (6.36%), ?-pinene (5.81%), camphor (5.61%), and ?-3-carene (5.34%). The cytotoxicity of the PC-EO was determined, and a significant cytotoxicity was only obtained in the concentration of 200 ?g/mL after 24 h treatment. The results suggest that PC-EO possesses an effect against cercariae, schistosomula, and adult worms of the S. mansoni. PMID:22006194

  9. Effect of reverse photoperiod on in vitro regeneration and piperine production in Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach for in vitro regeneration of Piper nigrum L. has been applied in order to increase healthy biomass, phytochemicals and piperine production via reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). Leaf portions of the seed-derived plants were placed on an MS-medium fortified with different PGRs. Under 16hD/8hL, thidiazuron (TDZ; 4.0 mg L⁻¹) and BA (1.5 mg L⁻¹) was found to be the most effective (<90%) in callus induction. Two concentrations (1.5, 2.0 mg L⁻¹) of the IBA produced>80% shoots from callus cultures. Healthy shoots were transferred to rooting medium and higher percentage of rooting (<90%) was observed on IBA (1.5 mg L⁻¹). These in vitro tissues were subjected to amino acid analysis, spectrophotometry, and HPLC. ARG, SER, THR, and TYR were the most abundant components out of 17 amino acids. Higher amino acid production was observed under normal photoperiod (16hL/8hD) than under reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). The highest total phenolic content (TPC; 9.91 mg/g-DW) and flavonoid content (7.38 mg/g-DW) were observed in callus cultures incubated under 16hL/8hD than other tissues incubated under 16hD/8hL photoperiod. Higher DPPH and PoMo activities were observed in tissues incubated under 16hL/8hD photoperiod, while ABTS and Fe²⁺ chelating activities were found higher in tissues incubated under reverse photoperiod. Significant quantities of piperine content were observed in all tissues except callus cultures. These results suggest that reverse photoperiod is a promising approach for callus induction, phytochemicals and piperine production for commercial applications. PMID:24439548

  10. A novel nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum modulates Candida albicans biofilm.

    PubMed

    Curvelo, J A R; Marques, A M; Barreto, A L S; Romanos, M T V; Portela, M B; Kaplan, M A C; Soares, R M A

    2014-05-01

    Candidiasis is a major opportunistic fungal infection in humans, and its incidence has increased steadily over the last two decades. Candida albicans, the main species of the genus, has a large arsenal of virulence attributes that contribute to successful infections, such as dimorphism and biofilm formation. The adverse effects of eukaryotic antimicrobial therapies associated with an increase in resistance to the compounds presently available have boosted efforts to improve the therapeutic arsenal against candidiasis with a newer and cheaper range of drugs. In this study, a novel nerolidol-rich essential oil (EO) derived from Piper claussenianum (Miq.) C. DC., Piperaceae, was tested on the growth, transition (yeast to hyphae), formation and stability of biofilms produced by C. albicans. Both inflorescence and leaf EOs were evaluated and revealed MIC values ranging from 0.04 to 0.1?% and 0.2 to 1.26?%, respectively. Furthermore, leaf EO managed to downregulate the yeast-to-hyphae transition by 81?%, as well as reducing biofilm formation by about 30 and 50?% after incubation for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The EO was also able to reduce the viability of pre-formed biofilm by 63.9?%. Finally, the association between the leaf EO and fluconazole was evaluated and revealed an interesting synergistic effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate that this novel compound could be a promising agent and could reinforce the arsenal of therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of candidiasis. Furthermore, it may represent a novel and natural source of nerolidol, which could be of interest pharmaceutically. PMID:24523158

  11. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, ??,?-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids. PMID:25660876

  12. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised ?, ?, and ? classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region. PMID:26214435

  13. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M.

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.

  14. Construction of a cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags in Piper hainanense.

    PubMed

    Fan, R; Ling, P; Hao, C Y; Li, F P; Huang, L F; Wu, B D; Wu, H S

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is a perennial climbing vine. It is widely cultivated because its berries can be utilized not only as a spice in food but also for medicinal use. This study aimed to construct a standardized, high-quality cDNA library to facilitated identification of new Piper hainanense transcripts. For this, 262 unigenes were used to generate raw reads. The average length of these 262 unigenes was 774.8 bp. Of these, 94 genes (35.9%) were newly identified, according to the NCBI protein database. Thus, identification of new genes may broaden the molecular knowledge of P. hainanense on the basis of Clusters of Orthologous Groups and Gene Ontology categories. In addition, certain basic genes linked to physiological processes, which can contribute to disease resistance and thereby to the breeding of black pepper. A total of 26 unigenes were found to be SSR markers. Dinucleotide SSR was the main repeat motif, accounting for 61.54%, followed by trinucleotide SSR (23.07%). Eight primer pairs successfully amplified DNA fragments and detected significant amounts of polymorphism among twenty-one piper germplasm. These results present a novel sequence information of P. hainanense, which can serve as the foundation for further genetic research on this species. PMID:26505424

  15. Oranges - Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Five orange blossoms against a backdrop of citrus leaves and a mature orange produced by the previous year's blossoms. One blossom has already been pollinated and has lost its surrounding petals leaving the pistil isolated. Photograph taken March 15-16, 2008....

  16. 75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... in the Federal Register on June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35619), and applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc... of Model PA-46-350P airplanes, are equipped with two of the affected V-band clamps. We are issuing..., the FAA issued AD 2010-13-07, Amendment 39-16338 (75 FR 35619, June 23, 2010), which applies...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  2. The Effects of Piper Sarmentosum Water Extract on the Expression and Activity of 11?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in the Bones with Excessive Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Suhana Mohd Ramli, Elvy; Nirwana Soelaiman, Ima; Othman, Faizah; Ahmad, Fairus; Nazrun Shuib, Ahmad; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Hj Suhaimi, Farihah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Long-term glucocorticoid therapy causes secondary osteoporosis leading to pathological fractures. Glucocorticoid action in bone is dependant upon the activity of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11?-HSD1). Piper sarmentosum is a local herb that possesses the ability to inhibit 11-?HSD1 enzyme activity. We aimed to determine the effects of Piper sarmentosum water extract on 11-?HSD1 expressions and activity in the bones of glucocorticoid-treated adrenalectomized rats. Methods: Forty male SpragueDawley rats (200-250 g) were used. Twenty-four animals were adrenalectomized and received intramuscular injection of dexamethasone (120 ?g/kg/day). They were simultaneously administered with either Piper sarmentosum water extract (125 mg/kg/day), GCA (120 mg/kg/day) or distilled water as vehicle by oral gavage for two months. Eight animals were sham-operated and given vehicle daily, i.e. intramuscular olive oil and oral distilled water. Results: Following two months treatment, dexamethasone-treated adrenalectomized rats had significantly lower 11?-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity and higher 11?-HSD1 expression in the femoral bones compared to the sham-operated and baseline group. The rats supplemented with Piper sarmentosum water extract had significantly higher 11?-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity and lower 11?-HSD1 expression in the bones. Conclusion: The results showed that Piper sarmentosum water extract had the ability to prevent glucocorcoticoid excess in the bones of glucocorticoid-treated adrenalectomized rats through the local modulation of 11?-HSD1 expression and activity, and may be used as prophylaxis for osteoporosis in patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment. PMID:23115429

  3. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Owens, Daniel K.; Watson, Susan B.; Asolkar, Ratnakar N.; Boddy, Louis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid). However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 μM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 μM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II (PSII) on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 μM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to be a complex process associated with multiple mechanisms of action. PMID:25904929

  4. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro plantlets, producing metabolites of interest with substantial applications for the conservation of germplasm. PMID:23354497

  5. Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Ngassoum, Martin Benoit; Geissler, Margit

    2002-11-01

    The investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and black and white "Ashanti pepper" (Piper guineense) from Cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. By means of GC-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS (using different polar columns) the main compounds (concentration >3.0%, calculated as area of GC-FID analysis using a non-polar fused-silica open tubular RSL-200 column) of the SPME headspace samples of P. nigrum (black) and P. guineense (black and white) were found to be: P. nigrum (black)--germacrene D (11.01%), limonene (10.26%), beta-pinene (10.02%), alpha-phellandrene (8.56%), beta-caryophyllene (7.29%), alpha-pinene (6.40%) and cis-beta-ocimene (3.19%); P. guineense (black)--beta-caryophyllene (57.59%), beta-elemene (5.10%), bicyclogermacrene (5.05%) and alpha-humulene (4.86%); and P. guineense (white)--beta-caryophyllene (51.75%), cis-beta-ocimene (6.61%), limonene (5.88%), beta-pinene (4.56%), linalool (3.97%) and alpha-humulene (3.29%). The most intense odor impressions of the essential oils of the various dried pepper fruits were given byprofessional perfumers as follows: P nigrum (black)--fine, pleasant black pepper note; P. guineense (black)--black pepper top-note; and P. guineense (white)--pleasant white pepper note. These analytical results for the SPME headspace samples of three different pepper species from Cameroon are in accordance with the olfactoric data of the corresponding essential oils. A GC-sniffing technique was used to correlate the single odor impression of the identified SPME headspace volatiles of the three investigated pepper samples with the following results: themain compounds such as beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene and alpha-humulene, as well as minor constituents such as delta-carene, beta-phellandrene, isoborneol, alpha-guaiene, sarisan, elemicin, calamenene, caryophyllene alcohol, isoelemicin, T-muurolol, cubenol and bulnesol, are of greatest importance for the characteristic pepper odor notes of these three Piper samples. Further aroma impressions can be attributed to mono- and sesquiterpenes, hexane, octane and nonane derivatives. PMID:12462618

  6. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  7. A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by Stefanyshyn-Piper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  8. Carcinogenicity testing of black pepper (Piper nigrum) using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis) as a quick biological test animal.

    PubMed

    el-Mofty, M M; Soliman, A A; Abdel-Gawad, A F; Sakr, S A; Shwaireb, M H

    1988-01-01

    Milled black pepper (Piper nigrum) force-fed to Egyptian toads as a suspension in amphibian saline or injected subcutaneously in the dorsal lymph sac as an ethanol extract, induced primary tumours in the liver and secondary tumours in other organs (kidney and spleen). When applied to the skin of experimental animals as an ethanol extract, black pepper induced primary tumours in the liver and secondary tumours in the ileum and stomach. Tumours of the liver were diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinomas and those of the other organs as metastases of the primary liver tumours. It is speculated that one or more constituents of black pepper may be responsible for tumour induction in the organs of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. PMID:3368202

  9. Strong spatial genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the BakerFedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?

    PubMed Central

    Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E

    2011-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the BakerFedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or strongly outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed strong genetic structure at both fine- and large-spatial scales. Over short distances (200750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.110.46, P < 0.05), with values of spatial genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.030.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus. PMID:22393518

  10. 75 FR 70845 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... NDAA legislation. DOL issued its final regulations on November 17, 2008, (73 FR 67934) to implement the... proposed FMLA regulations on August 26, 2009, (74 FR 43064, at http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9... leave may be found in the DOL proposed regulations published on February 11, 2008, at 73 FR 7876...

  11. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Director shall issue procedures to administer the accrual and use of student leave. Such procedures shall... leave at any time subject to approval by the Center Director. Annual leave with transportation at... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual leave. 638.532 Section...

  12. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  13. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.202 Intermittent...

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  15. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  16. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  17. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek... required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with...

  18. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  19. Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mrcia H.

    2005-10-01

    Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

  20. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  1. In vitro antiparasitic activity and chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the fruits of Piper cubeba.

    PubMed

    Esperandim, Viviane Rodrigues; da Silva Ferreira, Daniele; Sousa Rezende, Karen Cristina; Magalhes, Lizandra Guidi; Medeiros Souza, Julia; Pauletti, Patrcia Mendona; Janurio, Ana Helena; da Silva de Laurentz, Rosangela; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Smaro, Guilherme Venncio; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Andrade E Silva, Mrcio Luis

    2013-11-01

    Protozoans of the trypanosomatid family cause the neglected tropical diseases leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis, for which few drugs are available. In this context our group has recently reported that the essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruits of Piper cubeba is active against Schistosoma mansoni. Therefore, we have investigated the in vitro effects of the essential oil against the trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from an LLCMK? cell line culture and the promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The in vitro activity of the essential oil against trypomastigotes of T. cruzi increased upon rising concentrations, giving IC?? values of 45.5 and 87.9?g??mL? against trypomastigotes and amastigotes, respectively. The essential oil was not active against L. amazonensis, since it displayed lyses of only 24?% at 400?g??mL?, and an IC?? of 326.5?g??mL?. Therefore, the essential oil should be further investigated to determine the compounds responsible for the observed activities, as well as its mechanism of action. PMID:24288276

  2. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported. PMID:23107941

  3. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme. PMID:24498820

  4. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells. PMID:15231065

  5. Effects of ionic surfactants on the morphology of silver nanoparticles using Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaheer; Bashir, Ommer; Hussain, Javed Ijaz; Kumar, Sunil; Ahmad, Rabia

    2012-10-01

    Stable silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions with a Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The reaction process was simple and convenient to handle, and was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Absorbance of Ag-nanoparticles increases with the concentrations of Paan leaf extract, acts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. The polyphenolic groups of petiole extract are responsible to the rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions into metallic Ag(0). The results indicated that the shape of the spectra, number of peaks and its position strongly depend on the concentration of CTAB, which played a shape-controlling role during the formation of silver nanoparticles in the solutions, whereas SDS has no significant effect. The morphology (spherical, truncated triangular polyhedral plate and some irregular nanoparticles) and crystalline phase of the particles were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). PMID:22652360

  6. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home > WHD > FMLA Wage and Hour Division (WHD) Family and Medical Leave Act Overview The FMLA entitles ... to take unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health ...

  7. Exploring Why Career Changers Leave Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddapah, Jennifer L.; Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Masci, Frank J.; Hetrick, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Survey data were used to explore the current teaching status and reasons for leaving or considering leaving teaching for 154 career changers who all graduated from a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program over a 9-year time period. Respondents provided information about reasons for leaving teaching, indicating personal/family, career, and school…

  8. Parental Leave and Productivity. Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E., Ed.; And Others

    This report consists of papers, commissioned by the Family Work Institute, by expert policy makers in the area of parental leave. The report consists of eight papers: (1) "The Impact of Childbearing on Employment" (James T. Bond); (2) "Fathers and Parental Leave: A Perspective" (Joseph H. Pleck); (3) Parental Leave and Productivity: The

  9. Pregnancy, Teaching, and Leaving before Year's End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulrashid, Jamila

    This essay highlights one pregnant middle school teacher's experiences with taking a mid-year leave. She used entries from her personal diary to reflect on how she felt about her leave, while her students wrote letters and notes expressing their anxieties about her leaving. The discussion of planning a pregnancy and the stages of pregnancy, along

  10. Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, James

    1986-01-01

    Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus! Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care. PMID:21267231

  11. Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Siddiqui, Bina S; Hassan, Syed Imran

    2002-06-01

    Three pentacyclic triterpenoids including one new guajavanoic acid (2) and two known obtusinin (1) and goreishic acid I (3) have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. The new constituent 2 has been characterized as 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-p-E-coumaroyloxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid through 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (broad band and DEPT). This is the first report of isolation of compound 1 and 3 from the genus Psidium. PMID:12049217

  12. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under 630... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual..., by transfer to the annual leave accounts of leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is...

  14. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under 630... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual..., by transfer to the annual leave accounts of leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is...

  15. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under 630... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual..., by transfer to the annual leave accounts of leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is...

  16. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor....207 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Generally, FMLA leave is unpaid leave. However, under the... leave for FMLA leave. If an employee does not choose to substitute accrued paid leave, the employer...

  17. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor....207 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Generally, FMLA leave is unpaid leave. However, under the... leave for FMLA leave. If an employee does not choose to substitute accrued paid leave, the employer...

  18. Effect on oxidative stress, glucose uptake level and lipid droplet content by Apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether isolated from Piper longum L.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mahesh S; Joy, Beena; Sundaresan, A

    2015-06-01

    Piper longum L. (Family: Piperaceae), is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases. Potential of the plant material as an antidiabetic and cardio protective agent has not been evaluated so far. In the study, we designed experiments to evaluate antioxidant, glucose uptake potential and lipid content regulating potential of extracts and compound from P. longum fruits. Solvent extracts from Piper longum fruits using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, 70% methanol-water were taken and apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether (ADE) was isolated from ethyl acetate extract. Antioxidant activity, glucose uptake potential and adipocyte differentiation assay was performed with extract and pure compound. Antioxidant activity in terms of TRP (196.03?g/mg GAE), DPPH assay (IC50-173.09?g/mL), hydroxyl radical scavenging assay (IC50-20.42?g/mL), inhibiting LDL oxidation (IC50-51.99 ?g/mL) and to enhance SOD activity (25.3%) was higher in ethyl acetate extract (EAP). Phenolic and flavonoid content was measured and showed a positive correlation with antioxidant activity. Presence of apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether (ADE) and piperine (Pip) in EAP was determined by HPTLC analysis and was isolated. ADE inhibited ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzymes and enhanced 2-NBDG uptake in L6 cells. Hypolipidemic effect of ADE on mouse pre-adipocyte (3T3L1) cell lines also showed a dose dependent reduction on lipid droplet content and effective concentration range was determined as 1-2.5?g/mL. The results suggested that Piper longum fruits can provide a natural source of antioxidants with antidiabetic and anti obesity potential. PMID:26028738

  19. Mercury uptake into poplar leaves.

    PubMed

    Assad, Mohamad; Parelle, Julien; Cazaux, David; Gimbert, Frédéric; Chalot, Michel; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2016-03-01

    Tailings dumps require mercury stabilization to prevent air pollution by evaporated mercury, which can be achieved through plant covers. Plants are considered a net sink for atmospheric Hg via incorporation into leaf tissues. However, most studies related to Hg uptake by plants have considered plants exposed to only atmospheric Hg, whereas in the case of tailings dumps, plants are potentially exposed to both soil and atmospheric Hg. The goal of this work is to evaluate the relative contributions of root and atmospheric pathways by growing poplar (Populus trichocarpa X Populus maximowiczii/var Skado) cuttings on either control or polluted substrates and under either natural or controlled exposure conditions. We showed that foliar Hg concentrations significantly increased with age, reaching 120 ng g(-1) dry mass when poplars were exposed to Hg-contaminated substrate under natural exposure. Remarkably, we did not observe significantly different Hg concentrations in poplar leaves grown on either the control or polluted substrates when cultivated together in growth chambers. Our set of data prompted us to conclude that Hg entry into poplar leaves is exclusively through an atmospheric pathway. Our results are discussed in line with existing literature. PMID:26694893

  20. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  1. A flight investigation of the ultra-deep-stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radiocontrolled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ultradeep stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radio controlled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk aircraft was investigated. It was shown that the full scale PA38 is a suitable aircraft for conducting ultradeep stall research. Spin recovery was accomplished satisfactorily by entry to the ultradeep stall mode, followed by the exit from the ultradeep stall mode. It is concluded that since the PA38 has excellent spin recovery characteristics using normal recovery techniques (opposite rudder and forward control colum pressure), recovery using ultradeep stall would be beneficial only if the pilot suffered from disorientation.

  2. Effect of different in vitro culture extracts of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on toxic metabolites-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of different in vitro cultures (callus, in vitro shoots) and commercially available peppercorn extract was investigated for its activity against toxic metabolite-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). These in vitro cultures were extracted with ethanol, hexane, and chloroform, and the antipathogenic activity was determined by well-diffusion method. Hexane extract of callus showed 22 mm zone of inhibition against B. cereus, 23 mm against S. aureus, while regenerated shoots and seeds have shown 24.3 and 26 mm zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of regenerated Piper shoots have shown 25 mm activity against S. aureus, 21 mm against B. cereus, and 16 mm in the case of C. albicans in comparison with standard antibiotics. Peppercorn extracts in chloroform and ethanol had shown activities against B. cereus (23.6 mm) and B. subtilis (23.5 mm). During in vitro organogenesis and morphogenesis, cells and tissues produced a comparable phytochemicals profile like mother plant. Morphogenesis is critically controlled by the application of exogenous plant-growth regulators. Such addition alters the hormonal transduction pathways, and cells under in vitro conditions regenerate tissues, which are dependant on the physiological state of cells, and finally enhance the production of secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the antimicrobial potential of in vitro regenerated tissues and peppercorn with standard antibiotics. In conclusion, most of the extracts showed pronounced activities against all the pathogenic microbes. This is a preliminary work, and the minimum inhibitory concentration values needs to be further explored. Regenerated tissues of P. nigrum are a good source of biologically active metabolites for antimicrobial activities, and callus culture presented itself as a good candidate for such activities. PMID:24193053

  3. Long lasting preventive effects of piperlongumine and a Piper longum extract against stress triggered pathologies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vaishali; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Majeed, Muhammed; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare doxycycline (DOX) such as oral efficacies of piperlongumine (PL) and a Piper longum fruits extract (PLE) as stress resistance inducers. Materials and Methods: Efficacies of oral pretreatments with 5 mg/kg PL or PLE or of 50 mg/kg DOX for 10 consecutive days against stress resistance were compared. Mice in treated groups were subjected to a stress induced hyperthermia on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10thday. Treated mice were then subjected to tail suspension test on the 11thday. Alteration in body weights, core temperatures, and gastric ulcers triggered by occasional exposures to foot shocks were determined. Results: DOX like long-lasting protective effects of PL and PLE against gradual alterations in body weights, basal temperatures and transient hyperthermic responses triggered by foot shocks during the post-treatment days were observed. Altered responses of stressed mice in tail suspension test observed 1 day after the last foot-shock exposures and gastric ulcers and other pathologies quantified 1 day after the test were also suppressed in PL or PLE or DOX pretreated groups. Conclusion: PL and crude PLE are DOX like long-acting desensitizers of stress triggered co-morbidities. Reported observations add further experimental evidences justifying traditionally known medicinal uses of P. longum and other plants of the Piperaceae family, and reveal that PL is also another very long acting and orally active inducer of stress resistance. Efforts to confirm stress preventive potentials of low dose plant-derived products enriched in PL or piperine like amide alkaloids in volunteers and patients can be warranted. PMID:26649232

  4. Microbial population dynamics on leaves.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, L L

    1997-01-01

    Microbial population dynamics on leaves in time and space are a function of immigration, emigration, growth, and death. Insight into the relative significance of each population process to the generation of specific dynamics for individual microorganisms is necessary to understanding the ecology and life history strategy of the microorganism and to developing effective control strategies. Additionally, information on the significance of within-leaf versus extra-leaf processes to the generation of phyllosphere dynamics is important to determining the range of spatial scales over which a population should be studied. Unfortunately, such information is difficult to obtain due to the lack of effective methodologies for distinguishing these processes within phyllosphere populations. Future research efforts should focus on the quantification of immigration, emigration, growth, and death relative to the population dynamics of phyllosphere microorganisms. PMID:15012527

  5. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

  6. Proteases of Senescing Oat Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Drivdahl, Rolf H.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1977-01-01

    Two proteases active in the senescing first leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa cv. Victory) have been purified approximately 500-fold by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on hemoglobin-Sepharose, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. The enzymes show pH optima of 4.2 and 6.6 with denatured hemoglobin as substrate, and the molecular weights of both are about 76,000. Their optimum temperatures are close to 50 C. Small amounts of a third enzyme, active at pH 3.5, may also be present. The enzyme active at pH 6.6 shows evidence of a sulfhydryl residue in the active site. Images PMID:16659993

  7. The cardioprotective power of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boncler, Magdalena; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity, smoking and/or inappropriate diet can contribute to the increase of oxidative stress, in turn affecting the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Strong anti-oxidant properties of plant polyphenolic compounds might underlie their cardioprotective activity. This paper reviews recent findings on the anti-oxidant activity of plant leaf extracts and emphasizes their effects on blood platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells – the targets orchestrating the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We also review the evidence linking supplementation with plant leaf extracts and the risk factors defining the metabolic syndrome. The data point to the importance of leaves as an alternative source of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26322095

  8. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  9. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  10. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferruginea leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Talla, E; Djamen, D; Djould, D; Tatsadjeu, L; Tantoh, D; Mbafor, J T; Fomum, Z T

    2002-07-01

    Methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of Bridelia ferruginea leaves exhibited significant activity against Pseudomonas frutescens, Bacillus subtilis, Echerichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:12234581

  12. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, andPiper: Implications for the phylogeny of magnoliids and the evolution ofGC content

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqiu, C.; Penaflor, C.; Kuehl, J.V.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Carlson, J.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Boore, J.L.; Jansen, R.K.

    2006-06-01

    The magnoliids represent the largest basal angiosperm clade with four orders, 19 families and 8,500 species. Although several recent angiosperm molecular phylogenies have supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence has resulted in phylogenies supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. This is one of the most important remaining issues concerning relationships among basal angiosperms. We sequenced the chloroplast genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other completed angiosperm chloroplast genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids. The Drimys and Piper chloroplast genomes are nearly identical in size at 160,606 and 160,624 bp, respectively. The genomes include a pair of inverted repeats of 26,649 bp (Drimys) and 27,039 (Piper), separated by a small single copy region of 18,621 (Drimys) and 18,878 (Piper) and a large single copy region of 88,685 bp (Drimys) and 87,666 bp (Piper). The gene order of both taxa is nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Comparisons of angiosperm chloroplast genomes indicate that GC content is not uniformly distributed across the genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34-39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions (both intergenic spacers and introns). Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Across the genome, GC content is highest in the inverted repeat due to the presence of rRNA genes and lowest in the small single copy region where most NADH genes are located. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes. Trees from both analyses provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. The phylogenies also provided moderate to strong support for the basal position of Amborella, and a sister relationship of magnoliids to a clade that includes monocots and eudicots. The complete sequences of three magnoliid chloroplast genomes provide new data from the largest basal angiosperm clade. Evolutionary comparisons of these new genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genome, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots.

  13. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to

  14. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leave. 310.8 Section 310.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Regulations and Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges 310.8 Leave. (a) Enrolled...

  15. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across

  16. Ensiling Characteristics of Alfalfa Leaves and Stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...

  17. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,

  18. Extended Leaves of Absence for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Extended leave of absence policies for classroom teachers in 129 school systems with enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. A table lists, in order of descending frequency, the following purposes for which leaves are granted: (1) Military service, (2) professional study, (3) maternity, (4) exchange teaching

  19. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and

  20. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leave. 310.8 Section 310.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRAINING MERCHANT MARINE TRAINING Regulations and Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges 310.8 Leave. (a) Enrolled before April 1, 1982. Limitations on cadet...

  1. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their

  2. Why Are Experienced Teachers Leaving the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye, Barbara Benham; O'Brien, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses several reasons teachers give for leaving or considering leaving the profession: Pressures of increased accountability, workload issues, student attitudes, lack of parent support, tension between faculty and administration, and low status of the profession. Suggests strategies to improve working conditions for teachers. (Contains 23

  3. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... reduced leave schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the..., special rules for schools. (2) If an employer has made a permanent or long-term change in the...

  4. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... reduced leave schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the..., special rules for schools. (2) If an employer has made a permanent or long-term change in the...

  5. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., employees may not be charged FMLA leave for periods during which they are working. (2) Where it is physically impossible for an employee using intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to... schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the...

  6. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., employees may not be charged FMLA leave for periods during which they are working. (2) Where it is physically impossible for an employee using intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to... schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the...

  7. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... reduced leave schedule. An employer may convert these fractions to their hourly equivalent so long as the..., special rules for schools. (2) If an employer has made a permanent or long-term change in the...

  8. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  9. Paid Sick Leave and Nonfatal Occupational Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between US workers access to paid sick leave and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries from the employers perspective. We also examined this association in different industries and occupations. Methods. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the business value of offering paid sick leave. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to test the hypothesis that offering paid sick leave is associated with a reduced incidence of occupational injuries. We used data on approximately 38?000 working adults to estimate a multivariate model. Results. With all other variables held constant, workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% (95% confidence interval?=?0.52, 0.99) less likely than workers without access to paid sick leave to be injured. The association between the availability of paid sick leave and the incidence of occupational injuries varied across sectors and occupations, with the greatest differences occurring in high-risk sectors and occupations. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that, similar to other investments in worker safety and health, introducing or expanding paid sick leave programs might help businesses reduce the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries, particularly in high-risk sectors and occupations. PMID:22720767

  10. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later. PMID:21322232

  11. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiov, Renata; Slvikov, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  12. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in wheat leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, K.; Bassham, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne (CI 8885)) leaves both by activity assays and by the protein blot method. The specific activity of the wheat enzyme is comparable to that of PPDK from maize leaves. Of the total soluble protein in wheat leaves, about 0.05% was PPDK, comparable to the amount in the immature wheat seed and about 1/70th the amount found in mesophyll cells of maize. Immunoprecipitation of wheat PPDK with maize enzyme antiserum indicates partial identity, and the apparent subunit molecular weight is the same based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  13. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  14. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  15. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  16. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  17. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  18. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  19. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  20. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  1. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  2. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  4. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1205 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Except as provided in... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 630.1205...) An employee may elect to substitute the following paid leave for any or all of the period of...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  6. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1205 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Except as provided in... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 630.1205...) An employee may elect to substitute the following paid leave for any or all of the period of...

  7. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  8. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  9. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  10. Adipogenic effects of piperlonguminine in 3T3-L1 cells and plasma concentrations of several amide constituents from Piper chaba extracts after treatment of mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Itadaki; Matsuda, Hisashi; Zhang, Hailong; Hamao, Makoto; Yamashita, Chihiro; Kogami, Yuichiro; Kon'I, Haruka; Murata, Megumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study, piperlonguminine from the fruit of Piper chaba was reported to promote adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells like the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist, troglitazone. In the present study, the mode of action of piperlonguminine in cells was examined. Piperlonguminine increased mRNA levels of adiponectin, glucose transporter 4, and fatty acid-binding protein (aP2). It also increased mRNA levels of PPAR?2 but, unlike troglitazone, piperlonguminine did not activate PPAR? directly in a nuclear receptor cofactor assay. Analyses of plasma from mice treated with piperlonguminine, piperine, and retrofractamide A, and an extract of the fruit, showed that concentrations of piperlonguminine were higher than those of piperine and retrofractamide A, and that the "area-under-the-curve" of piperine increased following in vivo administration of the extract. PMID:23584920

  11. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y.; Ozbak, Hani A.; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit further exploration of P. nigrum bioactive fractions as a source of potent and non-toxic antileishmanials. PMID:26696979

  12. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y; Ozbak, Hani A; Hemeg, Hassan A; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit further exploration of P. nigrum bioactive fractions as a source of potent and non-toxic antileishmanials. PMID:26696979

  13. Preparative isolation and purification of amides from the fruits of Piper longum L. by upright counter-current chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shihua; Sun, Cuirong; Pei, Saifeng; Lu, Yanbin; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2004-06-25

    A versatile counter-current chromatography (CCC) with upright type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge, named upright CCC, was applied to the isolation and purification of amides from Piper longum L., which is widely used as an anodyne and a treatment for stomach disease in China. After the saponification by KOH of the ethanol extracts solution of 15 kg of crude drug "Piper Longi Fructus", the fruits of P. longum L., the solution was extracted with light petroleum and 500 g of red crude oil was obtained. Using 2.5 g of red crude oil as sample, the preparative upright CCC with a two-phase system composed of light petroleum (bp 60-90 degrees C)-ethyl acetate-tetrachloromethane-methanol-water (1:1:8:6:1, v/v) was successfully performed, which yielded nine fractions. Then these fractions were further purified by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with a glass column of 500 x 10 mm i.d. packed with reversed-phase silica gel. As a result, nine target amides with over 95% purity, i.e., 50 mg of (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4-dienamide, 150 mg of (2E,4E,14Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,14-trienamide, 110 mg of (2E,4E,12Z)-N-isobutyl-ocatadeca-2,4,12-trienamide, 50 mg of guineensine, 60 mg of pipernonaline, 75 mg of pellitorine, 63 mg of piperine, 45 mg of piperanine, and 40 mg of piperlonguminine were isolated, respectively. Structures of all compounds were identified by electrospray ionization MS, electron impact ionization MS, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra. PMID:15230526

  14. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  15. Who Pays the Piper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussow, Joan Dye

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the food industry's role in educating children on nutrition raises the question of how objective this instruction is, and whether the industry should be engaged in nutrition education at all. (JD)

  16. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. PMID:26004982

  17. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  18. Biosynthesis of Caffeine in Leaves of Coffee.

    PubMed Central

    Ashihara, H.; Monteiro, A. M.; Gillies, F. M.; Crozier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The levels of endogenous caffeine and theobromine were much higher in buds and young leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv Kent than in fully developed leaves. Biosynthesis of caffeine from 14C-labeled adenine, guanine, xanthosine, and theobromine was observed, whereas other studies (H. Ashihara, A.M. Monteiro, T. Moritz, F.M. Gillies, A. Crozier [1996] Planta 198: 334-339) have indicated that there is no detectable incorporation of label into caffeine when theophylline and xanthine are used as substrates for in vivo feeds with leaves of C. arabica. The capacity for caffeine biosynthesis, especially from guanine and xanthosine, was reduced markedly in both fully developed mature and aged leaves. Data obtained in pulse-chase experiments with young leaves indicate the operation of an AMP -> IMP -> xanthosine 5[prime]-monophosphate (or GMP -> guanosine) -> xanthosine -> 7-methylxanthosine -> 7-methylxanthine -> theobromine -> caffeine pathway. The data obtained provide strong evidence against proposals by G.M. Nazario and C.J. Lovatt ([1993] Plant Physiol 103: 1203-1210) concerning the independence of caffeine and theobromine biosynthesis pathways and the role of xanthine as a key intermediate in caffeine biosynthesis. PMID:12226327

  19. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  20. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator. PMID:25772371

  1. School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with

  2. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality. PMID:22982636

  3. Phenolic profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Pereira, Jos A; Andrade, Paula B; Valento, Patrcia; Seabra, Rosa M; Silva, Branca M

    2007-09-19

    Cydonia oblonga Miller leaves phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolics were carried out in a total of 36 samples of quince leaves from three different geographical origins of Northern (Bragana and Carrazeda de Ansies) and Central Portugal (Covilh) and three collection months (June, August, and October of 2006). These leaves presented a common phenolic profile composed by nine compounds: 3- O-, 4- O- and 5- O-caffeoylquinic acids, 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, quercetin-3- O-galactoside, quercetin-3- O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3- O-glycoside, kaempferol-3- O-glucoside, and kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside. 5- O-caffeoylquinic acid was the major phenolic compound (36.2%), followed by quercetin 3- O-rutinoside (21.1%). Quince leaves are characterized by higher relative contents of kaempferol derivatives than fruits (pulps, peels, and seeds), especially in what concerns kaempferol-3- O-rutinoside (12.5%). C. oblonga leaves total phenolic content was very high, varying from 4.9 to 16.5 g/kg dry matter (mean value of 10.3 g/kg dry matter), indicating that these leaves can be used as a good and cheap source of bioactive constituents. Significantly differences were observed in 3- O-caffeoylquinic and 3,5- O-dicaffeoylquinic acids contents, according to geographical provenance and harvesting month, suggesting a possible use of these compounds as geographical origin and/or maturity markers. PMID:17711340

  4. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualifying exigency leave. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Qualifying exigency leave. (a) An employee may take...

  7. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualifying exigency leave. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Qualifying exigency leave. (a) An employee may take...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualifying exigency leave. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Qualifying exigency leave. (a) An employee may take...

  9. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single method of determining the...

  10. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single method of determining the...

  11. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  12. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  13. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  14. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  15. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  16. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries PMID:17385479

  17. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls

  18. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract. PMID:22557233

  19. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in

  20. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  1. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at

  2. Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

    2012-01-01

    For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade. In 2010

  3. 5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... following reasons: (1) The birth of a son or daughter of the employee and the care of such son or daughter... date of birth or placement. Leave for a birth or placement must be concluded within this 12-month... date of birth or placement for adoption or foster care, and the 12-month period, referred to...

  4. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary

  5. Why Nannies Leave Their Employing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Glenn

    The position of nanny as a career option for child care/child development/early childhood education graduates is examined. This study surveyed nannies randomly selected from the 1991 International Nanny Association Directory to determine why nannies leave their employing families. Surveys were mailed to 160 nannies; 62 (39%) nannies responded.

  6. Comparative ionomes of rice leaves and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The project is investigating the possibility of using the mineral (ionomics) composition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves to predict varieties that accumulate large amounts of certain minerals in their seeds. This information will be used for improving our understanding of the mineral physi...

  7. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  8. Geometric Probability and the Areas of Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoiberg, Karen Bush; Sharp, Janet; Hodgson, Ted; Colbert, Jim

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how a group of fifth-grade mathematics students measured irregularly shaped objects using geometric probability theory. After learning how to apply a ratio procedure to find the areas of familiar shapes, students extended the strategy for use with irregularly shaped objects, in this case, leaves. (Contains 2 tables and 8

  9. Terpenes from leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Lago, J H; Brochini, C B; Roque, N F

    2000-12-01

    The dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) was submitted to adsorption chromatography. Guai-6-en-10beta-ol, isopimara-7,15-dien-2alpha-ol and cycloarta-23,25-dien-3-one were isolated and identified by spectroscopic data, mainly by 1H and 13C NMR analyses; eight other known terpenoids were also isolated. PMID:11190388

  10. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  11. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  12. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50 nm and 9–30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

  13. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Piper cubeba Extract in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Liver Injuries and Oxidative Damage in the Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    AlSaid, Mansour; Mothana, Ramzi; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Ahmad, Ajaz; Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver diseases still represent a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases including liver. Thus, the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Piper cubeba fruits in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model. Methods. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, ?-GGT, ALP, total bilirubin, LDH, and total protein. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as LPO, NP-SH, and CAT were measured in rat liver as well as mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNF?, IL-6, and IL-10 and stress related genes iNOS and HO-1 were determined by RT-PCR. The extent of liver damage was also analyzed through histopathological observations. Results. Treatment with PCEE significantly and dose dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, PCEE significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes NP-SH and CAT towards normal levels. The administration of PCEE significantly downregulated the CCl4-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF? and IL-6 mRNA expression in dose dependent manner, while it upregulated the IL-10 and induced hepatoprotective effect by downregulating mRNA expression of iNOS and HO-1 gene. PMID:25654097

  14. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification. PMID:25746504

  15. Antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of the volatile oil from the wild pepper Piper capense used in Cameroon as a culinary spice.

    PubMed

    Woguem, Verlaine; Maggi, Filippo; Fogang, Hervet P D; Tapondjoua, Lon A; Womeni, Hilaire M; Luana, Quassinti; Bramuccic, Massimo; Vitali, Luca A; Petrelli, Dezemona; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Barboni, Luciano

    2013-12-01

    Wild pepper (Piper capense L.f., Piperaceae) is a spice traditionally used in western Cameroon to make soups called 'Nkui' and 'Nah poh'. In the present work, the essential oil hydrodistilled from fruits was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS, and for in vitro biological activities, namely cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial, by MTT, DPPH, ABTS and agar disc diffusion methods. The oil composition was dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons (56.5%) responsible for the pepper odor, such as (beta-pinene (33.2%), sabinene (10.0%) and alpha-pinene (8.9%). The oil induced a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on human tumor cells MDA-MB 231 (breast adenocarcinoma), A375 (malignant melanoma) and HCT116 (colon carcinoma), showing IC50 values of 26.3, 76.0 and 22.7 microg/ml, respectively. The oil showed total antioxidant activity with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant concentration (TEAC) value of 140 micromol/g. The essential oil of P. capense proved to be an effective scavenger of the ABTS+ radical, with an activity only about 30 times lower than that of Trolox. Moderate activity was observed against the Gram-positive species Staphylococcos aureus and Enterococcusfaecalis, and the yeast Candida albicans. The notable inhibition of some human tumor cells is worthy of further investigation to discover the possible mechanisms of action responsible for the observed cytotoxic effect of this essential oil. PMID:24555300

  16. Hypoglycemic Effect of the Methanol flower Extract of Piper Claussenianum and the Major Constituent 2?,6?-dihydroxy-4?-methoxychalcone in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, A. M.; Pereira, S. L.; Paiva, R. A.; Cavalcante, C. V.; Sudo, S. Z.; Tinoco, L. W.; Moreira, D. L.; Guimaraes, E. F.; Sudo, R. T.; Kaplan, M. A. C.; Sudo, G. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Piper claussenianum inflorescences crude methanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels of rats treated with methanol extract were reduced from 318.428.1 mg/dl before treatment to 174.238.3 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). Phytochemical studies were carried out on inflorescences methanol crude extract in order to investigate the possible metabolites responsible for the pharmacological properties of the extract. After chromatographic procedures, three flavonoids were isolated and characterized. The major compound 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone was also tested. Rats that received the chalcone content also displayed a reduction in blood glucose levels from 277.47.7 mg/dl before treatment to 158.89.2 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). The results suggest this chalcone is one of the metabolite responsible for the blood glucose levels reduction in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The inflorescence crude extract of P. claussenianum was found to be composed mainly by flavonoids and may be a potential natural source of compounds with hypoglycemic properties. PMID:26009660

  17. Hypoglycemic Effect of the Methanol flower Extract of Piper Claussenianum and the Major Constituent 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Marques, A M; Pereira, S L; Paiva, R A; Cavalcante, C V; Sudo, S Z; Tinoco, L W; Moreira, D L; Guimaraes, E F; Sudo, R T; Kaplan, M A C; Sudo, G Z

    2015-01-01

    Piper claussenianum inflorescences crude methanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels of rats treated with methanol extract were reduced from 318.428.1 mg/dl before treatment to 174.238.3 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). Phytochemical studies were carried out on inflorescences methanol crude extract in order to investigate the possible metabolites responsible for the pharmacological properties of the extract. After chromatographic procedures, three flavonoids were isolated and characterized. The major compound 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone was also tested. Rats that received the chalcone content also displayed a reduction in blood glucose levels from 277.47.7 mg/dl before treatment to 158.89.2 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). The results suggest this chalcone is one of the metabolite responsible for the blood glucose levels reduction in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The inflorescence crude extract of P. claussenianum was found to be composed mainly by flavonoids and may be a potential natural source of compounds with hypoglycemic properties. PMID:26009660

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Piper cubeba extract in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model.

    PubMed

    AlSaid, Mansour; Mothana, Ramzi; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Ahmad, Ajaz; Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver diseases still represent a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases including liver. Thus, the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Piper cubeba fruits in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model. Methods. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, ?-GGT, ALP, total bilirubin, LDH, and total protein. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as LPO, NP-SH, and CAT were measured in rat liver as well as mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNF?, IL-6, and IL-10 and stress related genes iNOS and HO-1 were determined by RT-PCR. The extent of liver damage was also analyzed through histopathological observations. Results. Treatment with PCEE significantly and dose dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, PCEE significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes NP-SH and CAT towards normal levels. The administration of PCEE significantly downregulated the CCl4-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF? and IL-6 mRNA expression in dose dependent manner, while it upregulated the IL-10 and induced hepatoprotective effect by downregulating mRNA expression of iNOS and HO-1 gene. PMID:25654097

  19. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

  20. Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-? was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 3.06?g/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100?g/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-?. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

  1. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves.

    PubMed

    Frankiewicz, C; Attinger, D

    2016-02-11

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces. PMID:26537609

  2. Family medical leave--management strategies.

    PubMed

    Morris, Judy A; Strasser, Patricia B

    2004-12-01

    Employers are recognizing the impact of lost productivity on total benefit costs. In a recent report based on 2002 benefit data, lost productivity represented 71% of the full cost of health/absence benefits (Integrated Benefits Institute, 2004). Occupational health nurse managers can develop FMLA leave management policies and programs to assure that leave is provided when appropriate, to help curb FMLA abuse and fraud, and to assist employers in defending adverse employment actions based on attendance. A review of employer policies and FMLA implementation also assesses compliance with the Act and provides the basis for appropriate responses in the case of legal actions and employee complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor. PMID:15635929

  3. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Influence of the reaction parameters (temperature, concentration, time) on the surface texture and wettability, the estimation of roughness and solid fraction, drop impact measurements, EDS measurements, and durability tests. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04098a

  4. Diterpenes from the leaves of Croton zambesicus.

    PubMed

    Block, Sebastien; Baccelli, Chiara; Tinant, Bernard; Van Meervelt, Luc; Rozenberg, Raoul; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Llabrès, Gabriel; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle

    2004-04-01

    Two new trachylobane- and one isopimarane-type diterpenoids: ent-18-hydroxy-trachyloban-3-one; ent-trachyloban-3-one; isopimara-7,15-dien-3beta-ol, were isolated from the leaves of Croton zambesicus, together with trans-phytol, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amyrin and stigmasterol. The structures were determined by extensive NMR techniques and X-ray analysis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has been evaluated on cancer and non-cancer cell-lines. PMID:15110699

  5. Sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y H; Chen, C H

    1998-06-26

    Two new compounds, a germacrane sesquiterpene, 1-acetyltagitinin A (1), and a guaianane sesquiterpene, 8beta-isobutyryloxycumambranolide (2), were isolated from leaves of Tithonia diversifolia, together with two known compounds, methyl 3alpha-acetoxy-4alpha-hydroxy-11(13)-eudesmen-12-oa te and tagitinin A. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:9644077

  6. Isocitrate Lyase in Green Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Godavari, H. R.; Badour, S. S.; Waygood, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) has been demonstrated in crude dialyzed extracts of healthy spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves from commercial sources and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) leaves stored in darkness in the cold room for 1 week. The products of the reaction were identified as glyoxylate and succinate, the former by its phenylhydrazone, and the latter traced by isotopic labeling and cochromatography. Fresh spinach extracts contain a mixture of at least two endogenous inhibitors of isocitrate lyase activity and one of them is proteinaceous. The endogenous inhibitor(s) is thermostable and retains 50% of its inhibitory effect even after boiling for 10 minutes. Dark starvation of the leaves removes the inhibition, due possibly to autolysis of the inhibitor(s). The inhibitor(s) can also be removed by filtration through Sephadex gels. The crude extract from spinach shows double pH optima in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and pH 8.0. The apparent Km at pH 7.4 was 0.1 mm. Oxaloacetate, dl-malate, succinate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and glycolate at 10 mm concentration inhibited, but ribulose 1,5-diphosphate activated enzymic activity. Images PMID:16658428

  7. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  8. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees working under this contract vacations of reasonable duration in accordance with the Contractor's practice for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26...

  9. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees working under this contract vacations of reasonable duration in accordance with the Contractor's practice for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26...

  10. 46 CFR 502.72 - Petition for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petition for leave to intervene. 502.72 Section 502.72 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.72 Petition for leave to intervene. (a) A petition for leave to intervene may be filed in...

  11. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other

  12. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY.... Similarly, an employee using accrued paid vacation leave who seeks an extension of unpaid leave for a...

  13. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY.... Similarly, an employee using accrued paid vacation leave who seeks an extension of unpaid leave for a...

  14. Methods of Reducing Sick Leave Abuse. An ERS Information Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    A perennial concern to educational administrators is the abuse of sick leave by school employees. Numerous suggestions have been offered for reducing the abuse of sick leave both within education and industry. This publication reviews 12 research studies that evaluate plans for reducing sick leave abuse among various categories of employees. Also

  15. 46 CFR 201.78 - Petition for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petition for leave to intervene. 201.78 Section 201.78 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Proceedings, Notice, Pleadings, Replies (Rule 7) 201.78 Petition for leave to intervene. A petition for leave...

  16. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  17. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  18. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  19. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  20. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth...

  1. Attenuation of oxidative stress by allylpyrocatechol in synovial cellular infiltrate of patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sunanda; Bala, Asis; Ghosh, Parasar; Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Mitra, Anupam; Sarkar, Avijit; Bauri, Ajay K; Ghosh, Alakendu; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2011-05-01

    Free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid arthritis, a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by unchecked synovial inflammation. Allylpyrocatechol, a phytoconstituent of Piper betle leaves, has potent anti-inflammatory activity and this study evaluated its anti-oxidant effect on the synovial infiltrate of patients with Rheumatoid arthritis. The ex vivo effect of allylpyrocatechol upon generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, wherein it significantly decreased basal levels as also scavenged phorbol myristate acetate generated reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, its effect on generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals produced within infiltrated neutrophils was measured by cytochrome c and deoxyribose assay, respectively. Allylpyrocatechol significantly scavenged superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in infiltrated neutrophils. The effect of allylpyrocatechol on nitric oxide was measured in macrophages using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate by flow cytometry wherein it decreased production of nitric oxide in infiltrated macrophages, which correlated with its in vitro nitric oxide scavenging activity. Taken together, this ex vivo study has established that allylpyrocatechol has potent scavenging activity and could be considered as an add-on therapy in the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders like Rheumatoid Arthritis. PMID:21284489

  2. Cytokine-mimetic properties of some Philippine food and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tulin, Edgardo E; Ecleo, Zenaida T

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated Philippine indigenous plants for cytokine-mimetic properties and partially characterized candidate mimetics for their stability as well as their sensitivity to variations in temperature and pH. Forty-five plant extract preparations were tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation of mouse spleen cells and bone marrow cells. Temperature and pH effects were determined by subjecting the extracts to different temperature and pH levels and measuring their residual proliferative activities. Results revealed that 24 and 14 extracts were able to stimulate proliferation of bone marrow cells and spleen cells, respectively. Extracts from yam (Dioscorea alata L.) (Dioscoreaceae) roots and leaves, taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) (Araceae) roots, and buyo (Piper betle L.) (Piperaceae) leaf were among the extracts that strongly stimulated proliferation of both bone marrow cells and splenocytes, significantly increasing cell concentrations. Heating the extracts beyond 40 degrees C markedly reduced their proliferative ability, while a pH level below 4.0 and above 8.0 also significantly decreased the extracts' activity. Three protein-mimetics with sizes of 26 kDa, 35 kDa, and 50 kDa were isolated from buyo leaf, yam root, and taro root extracts, respectively. All three molecules are biologically active and stimulate a dose-dependent proliferative response. PMID:17651065

  3. Random walks between leaves of random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, David

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by the desire to model internet traffic we consider random walks that start and are absorbed on the leaves of random networks and study the length of such walks. We present and test two techniques to analyse these walks. On Erd?s-Rnyi random graphs where the probability of a walk decays exponentially with its length, the methods give indistinguishable results for the decay exponent. This simple form of decay is not apparent on heterogeneous networks such as Barabsi-Albert scale free networks and in this case each technique is demonstrated to have a different strength.

  4. Dihydrostilbene derivatives from Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Daniela M; Rocco, Concetta; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2005-07-01

    Four new dihydrostilbenes, alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4'-acetoxy-5'-isopentenylstilbene (1), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3',4'-trihydroxy-5-O-isopentenyl-6-isopentenylstilbene (2), alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,5,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (3), and alpha,alpha'-dihydro-3,3'-dihydroxy-5beta-d-O-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), together with seven known flavonoids, glabranin isomer, naringenin, lupiwighteone, pinocembrin 7-O-glucoside, astragalin, isoquercitrin, vicenin II, and the inositol, pinitol, were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra grown in Sicily. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:16038558

  5. Tissue distribution profiles of three antiparkinsonian alkaloids from Piper longum L. in rats determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haolong; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Liu, Junhui; Bi, Ying; Zheng, Li; Wu, Xia

    2013-06-01

    The alkaloids of Piper longum L. (PLA) improved motor dysfunction and dopamine depletion in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. A rapid, accurate, simple, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated to simultaneously detect three P. longum L. antiparkinsonian alkaloids (piperine (PPR), piperlonguminine (PPL), and ??,?-dihydropiperlonguminine (DPPL)) in rat plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain tissues. Rat plasma and tissue homogenates were pretreated with methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) using a simple protein precipitation method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50mm2.00mm, 5?m) with a gradient mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water or acetonitrile. The elution was pumped at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min, and the injection volume was 10?l with a total running time of 4min. The analysis was performed by selected reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 285.9?201.1, m/z 274.3?209.9, and m/z 276.2?134.9 for PPR, PPL, and DPPL, respectively. All three analytes showed good linearity (R>0.995) in plasma and tissue homogenates, and the lower limit of quantification was 0.20ng/ml. The distribution of PPR, PPL and DPPL in all 7 tissues was examined. The highest concentrations for PPR and PPL were observed in the liver, while the highest DPPL concentration was observed in the kidney. Following oral administration, the highest levels of PPR, PPL and DPPL in different tissues were found at approximately 2h. PPR, PPL and DPPL could cross the blood-brain barrier. The present study provides evidences for that PPR, PPL and DPPL may play roles in improving motor dysfunction and dopamine depletion. PMID:23603295

  6. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats. Cancer Prev Res; 9(1); 74-82. 2015 AACR. PMID:26511488

  7. Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

    2011-11-01

    Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

  8. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  9. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  10. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  11. Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Sergio O.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1983-01-01

    In air largely freed from CO2, senescence of isolated oat (Avena sativa cv Victory) seedling leaves is no longer prevented by white light; instead, the leaves lose both chlorophyll and protein as rapidly as in the dark. Senescence in light is also accelerated in pure O2, but it is greatly delayed in N2; 100% N2 preserves both protein and chlorophyll in light and in darkness. In light in air, most of the compounds tested that had previously been found to delay or inhibit senescence in darkness actually promote the loss of chlorophyll, but they do not promote proteolysis. Under these conditions, proteolysis can therefore be separated from chlorophyll loss. But in light minus CO2, where chlorophyll loss is rapid in controls, two of these same reagents prevent the chlorophyll loss. Unlike the many reagents whose action in light is thus the opposite of that in darkness, abscisic acid, which promotes chlorophyll loss in the dark, also promotes it in light with or without CO2. Kinetin, which prevents chlorophyll loss in the dark, also prevents it in light minus CO2. In general, therefore, the responses to light minus CO2 are similar to the responses to darkness, and (with the exception of abscisic acid and kinetin) opposite to the response to light in air. PMID:16662800

  12. Synthetic Leaves: Pumping at Negative Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Tobias; Stroock, Abraham; Havenstrite, Karen

    2004-03-01

    A common process that is rarely considered in detail is the circulation of fluid in trees. As with most multi-cellular organisms, the internal convective transport of nutrients and the evacuation of waste are essential to their survival. What is unique to flowering plants is that the convectively transported fluid (water) is under tension. According to the Cohesion-Tension Theory (Dixon & Joly), this tension is induced by siphoning: capillary forces replenish water lost to evaporation at the air-water interface in leaves. Intermolecular forces between water molecules ensure that the column of water suspended from the air-water interface remains continuous. Integral to this passive pumping is a dynamic meniscus, which changes curvature and thereby the capillary pressure at the interface to allow the leaf to pump against variable loads as environmental conditions (convection, relative humidity) change. I will present our efforts to harness the capabilities of dynamic menisci in a synthetic system. We use hydraulic resistances as loads to assess the pumping ability of these systems and their susceptibility to cavitation. The goal is to understand the physico-chemical aspects of pumping in plants and the design constraints of vascular networks of leaves.

  13. A novel synthetic Piper amide derivative NED-180 inhibits hyperpigmentation by activating the PI3K and ERK pathways and by regulating Ca(2+) influx via TRPM1 channels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Lee, Taek Hwan; Lee, Wook-Joo; Shim, Won-Sik; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2016-01-01

    Piper amides have a characteristic, unsaturated amide group and exhibit diverse biological activities, including proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes, although the molecular mechanisms underlying its antimelanogenesis effect remain unknown. We screened a selected chemical library of newly synthesized Piper amide derivatives and identified (E)-3-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)-N-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)acrylamide (NED-180) as one of the most potent compounds in suppressing melanogenesis. In murine melan-a melanocytes, NED-180 downregulated the expression of melanogenic regulatory proteins including tyrosinase, Tyrp1, Dct, and MITF. PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of GSK3? by NED-180 decreases MITF phosphorylation and inhibits melanogenesis without any effects on cytotoxicity and proliferation. Furthermore, topical application of NED-180 significantly ameliorated UVB-induced skin hyperpigmentation in guinea pigs. Interestingly, data obtained using calcium imaging techniques suggested that NED-180 reduced the TPA-induced activation of TRPM1 (melastatin), which could explain the NED-180-induced inhibition of melanogenesis. All things taken together, NED-180 triggers activation of multiple pathways, such as PI3K and ERK, and inhibits TRPM1/TRPV1, leading to inhibition of melanogenesis. PMID:26459162

  14. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2005-03-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. PMID:15777222

  15. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  16. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory constituents of henna leaves.

    PubMed

    Mikhaeil, Botros R; Badria, Farid A; Maatooq, Galal T; Amer, Mohamed M A

    2004-01-01

    The immunomodulatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.; syn. Lawsonia alba L.) leaves resulted in the isolation of seven compounds; three have been isolated for the first time from the genus, namely p-coumaric acid, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and apiin, along with the previously isolated compounds: lawsone, apigenin, luteolin, and cosmosiin. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was based upon their physical, chemical as well as spectroscopic characters. Their immuomodulatory profile was studied using an in vitro immunoassay, the lymphocyte transformation assay. The ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], free radical scavenging assay depicted that all isolated compounds exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. PMID:15813363

  17. Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Radioactive products in detached leaf segments were examined after periods of steady-state photosynthesis in 14CO2. 2. After exposure to 14CO2 for approx. 1sec. more than 93% of the fixed radioactivity was located in malate, aspartate and oxaloacetate. After longer periods large proportions of the radioactivity appeared in 3-phosphoglycerate, hexose monophosphates and sucrose. Similar results were obtained with leaves still attached to the plant. 3. Radioactivity appeared first in C-4 of the dicarboxylic acids and C-1 of 3-phosphoglycerate. The labelling pattern in hexoses was consistent with their formation from 3-phosphoglycerate. 4. The reaction giving rise to C4 dicarboxylic acid appears to be the only quantitatively significant carboxylation reaction. 5. Evidence is provided that the radioactivity incorporated into the C4 dicarboxylic acid pool is transferred to sugars via 3-phosphoglycerate. A scheme is proposed to account for these observations. PMID:5971771

  18. Antiviral sesquiterpenes from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shan-Zhai; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Jian-Guo; Xu, Xing-Meng; Sun, Han-Dong; Pu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Miao, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yong-Kuan; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Three unreported sesquiterpenes possessing two new skeletons, tabasesquiterpenes A-C (1-3), together with three known sesquiterpenes (3-6) were isolated from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. Their structures were determined mainly by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) activities. The results showed that compound 2 exhibited high anti-TMV activity with inhibition rate of 35.2%, which were higher than that of positive control (ningnanmycin). The other compounds also showed potential anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates in the range of 20.5-28.6%. PMID:26581121

  19. The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyung T.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1975-01-01

    The changes in chlorophyll and protein in senescing chloroplasts isolated from the first leaves of 7-day-old oat (Avena sativa) seedlings have been investigated. In darkness the chlorophyll in these plastids is highly stable, losing only 5 to 10% of its content after 7 days at 26 C. This result contrasts with the behavior of chlorophyll in intact leaves, in which about 80% of the pigment would have disappeared in that time. The protein is less stable than the chlorophyll, though more stable than in the leaf; probably a small amount of protease is present in the plastids. Some protein is also being synthesized in the chloroplasts along with its breakdown; gains of up to 38% in protein and 13% in chlorophyll were observed under different conditions. l-Serine, which actively promotes senescence in the leaf, has only a very slight effect on the chloroplasts, and kinetin antagonizes it. Kinetin also has a small but significant effect in preserving the protein from breakdown. Acid pH somewhat promotes the breakdown, both of chlorophyll and protein. A loss of chlorophyll and protein comparable to that occurring in the senescence of the leaf could not be induced in the chloroplasts by suspending them in malate, in cytoplasmic extract, or in any of a number of enzymes tested alone. Incubation with a mixture of four enzymes was the only treatment which approximated the senescent process in the leaf, causing 34% loss of chlorophyll at pH 5 and 40% loss of protein at pH 7.4, both in 72 hours. In white light, the chlorophyll and the carotenoids, but not the protein, disappear rapidly. This disappearance was shown to be prevented in an atmosphere of nitrogen or in air by a number of reducing agents, of which ascorbic acid was the most effective. It is, therefore, ascribed to photooxidation rather than to normal senescence. PMID:16659176

  20. Abdominal sepsis managed by leaving abdomen open.

    PubMed

    Duff, J H; Moffat, J

    1981-10-01

    Intra-abdominal sepsis and necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall are usually fatal unless adequate drainage and wide debridement are possible. To follow these principles, we managed 18 seriously ill patients with abdominal sepsis by leaving the abdomen completely open. All except two of the patients had severe intra-abdominal sepsis. Eight patients had full-thickness wound infections and intra-abdominal infections refractory to the usual surgical drainage techniques. Two had necrotizing wound infections only. In 12 an upper abdominal incision was managed open, and in six the open incision was lower. As part of the initiating illness, there were eight small bowel and six colon fistulas. They were managed by colostomy in five patients and ileostomy in two. More than one organism was cultured in all patients and 12 of 18 had a positive blood culture. Respiratory failure made mechanical ventilation necessary in 13 patients for an average of 44 days. Previous adhesions, usually present, or an intact greater omentum, were necessary to prevent bowel evisceration, but three patients required paralysis and mechanical ventilation until adhesions became strong enough to prevent evisceration. There were seven deaths (39%), six caused by continuing sepsis and one from hemorrhage. In those surviving, granulation tissue grew over omentum or bowel loops to eventually seal the abdominal cavity. The late management was split-skin grafting in five and secondary closure in two. Four healed by second intention. We conclude that leaving the abdomen completely open facilitates the widest possible drainage, uncompromising debridement of the abdominal wall, and is compatible with good recovery. The ultimate result in survivors is acceptable. This technique is preferable to closing an abdominal wall of questionable viability in the face of intraperitoneal sepsis. PMID:6456563

  1. Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Nasir S. A.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1980-01-01

    The ATP content of 7-day-old Avena sativa leaves during senescence in dark and in light, and after treatment with cytokinins and other reagents, has been determined by the luciferin-luciferase method. Special care was taken to avoid decomposition of the ATP, and a detailed procedure is presented for ATP analysis at the picomole level. Preliminary experiments with several inhibitors of photophosphorylation suggest, though not conclusively, that the delaying effect of light on senescence is mediated by photophosphorylation. The ATP values of the leaves senescing in darkness are found to increase in parallel with the large increase in respiratory rate, and kinetin prevents this increase just as completely as it prevents the respiratory rise. It is concluded that the respiratory increase in senescence cannot be simply due to uncoupling. In light the ATP level also rises, though more slowly, and again kinetin prevents this rise. l-Serine, which promotes dark senescence, does not significantly modify the dark ATP level, but both arginine and kinetin, which antagonize the action of serine on senescence, greatly lower the ATP level below that on serine alone. Cycloheximide has a similar effect, and the combination of cycloheximide and kinetin lowers the ATP level drastically. Fusicoccin, which opens stomata in the dark, correspondingly maintains the ATP at a low level. Thus, in general, a low level of ATP is associated with the prevention of dark senescence, i.e. probably with ATP utilization, and the ATP level at any time may thus be determined more by the rate of utilization than by the efficiency of respiratory coupling. PMID:16661296

  2. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  3. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  4. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  5. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  6. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... because of sickness. (b) Annual leave restored to an employee under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(3) must be...

  7. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  8. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  9. Protective Effect of Hexane and Ethanol Extract of Piper Longum L. on Gentamicin-Induced Hair Cell Loss in Neonatal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Choi, June

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. Piper longum L. (PL) is a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, which has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activity, including antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hexane:ethanol (2:8) PL extract (subfraction of PL [SPL] extract) on GM-induced hair cell loss in basal, middle and apical regions in a neonatal cochlea cultures. Methods The protective effects of SPL extract were measured by phalloidin staining of cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice with GM-induced hair cell loss. The anti-apoptosis activity of SPL extract was measured using double labeling by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and myosin-7a staining. The radical-scavenging activity of SPL extract was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results SPL extract at a concentration of 1 g/mL significantly inhibited GM-induced hair cell loss at basal and middle region of cochlea, while 5 g/mL was effective against apical region hair cell loss. The protective effect of SPL extract was concentration dependent and hair cells retained their stereocilia in explants treated with SPL extract prior to treatment with 0.3 mM GM. SPL extract decreased GM-induced apoptosis of hair cells as assessed by TUNEL staining. The outer hair and inner hair counts were not decreased in SPL extract treated groups in compare to GM treated explants. Additionally, SPL extract showed concentration dependent radical scavenging activity in a DPPH assay. Conclusion An anti-apoptosis effect and potent radical scavenger activity of SPL extract protects from GM-induced hair cell loss at basal, middle and apical regions in neonatal cochlea cultures. PMID:24587875

  10. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  11. Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence 1

    PubMed Central

    Veierskov, Bjarke; Satler, Sergio O.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism whereby l-serine specifically promotes the dark senescence of detached oat (Avena) leaves has been examined. The fact that this promotion is strong in darkness but very weak in white light has been explained, at least in part, by the finding that added serine is partly converted to reducing sugars in light. Labeled serine gives rise to 14C-sugars and 14CO2. In the absence of CO2, serine does cause chlorophyll loss in light and undergoes a decreased conversion to sugar. As to the large promotion of protease activity which accompanies senescence in the dark, reported earlier, careful purification of the proteases shows that the l-[14C]serine is not incorporated into these enzymes, although it is incorporated into the total protein. Cycloheximide decreases the overall synthesis both of protease and of total protein, but again [14C]serine does not impart radioactivity to the purified acid proteases. Even when serine is simply added to the protease assay the proteolysis is significantly increased. It is concluded that serine promotes the protease activity by synergizing with the enzyme, or by activating an apoenzyme. PMID:16664237

  12. Cytotoxic limonoids from Trichilia americana leaves.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kai-Long; Zhang, Ping; Li, Xiao-Nian; Guo, Juan; Hu, Hua-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Fen; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Xu, You-Kai

    2015-10-01

    Ten cedrelone limonoids were isolated from the leaves of Trichilia americana. These compounds include americanolides A-D (1-4), 1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (5), 1?-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (6), 1?-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrohirtin (7), 1?-methoxy-1,2-dihydrodeacetylhirtin (8), 11?-hydroxy-12?-propanoyloxycedrelone (9), and 1?,11?-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrocedrelone (10), as well as two previously reported compounds, deacetylhirtin (11) and hirtin (12). Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic studies, and the assignment of the absolute configuration of americanolide A (1) was supported by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxic activities of all isolated compounds were also evaluated against five human tumour cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480) using an MTS assay. Compounds 11 and 12 showed significant cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 ?M, and compounds 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 exhibited potent or selective cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 39.6 ?M. PMID:26330216

  13. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal. PMID:26233737

  14. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    PubMed

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions. PMID:15027834

  15. Glutamate Synthase from Rice Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Akira; Gadal, Pierre

    1982-01-01

    Ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.7.1) from rice leaves (Oryza sativa L. cv Delta) was purified 206-fold with a final specific activity of 35.9 ?moles glutamate formed per min per milligram protein by a procedure including ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration, and ferredoxin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme yielded a single protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be 224,000 daltons by Sepharose 6B gel filtration. Electrophoresis of the dissociated enzyme in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel gave a single protein band which corresponds to the subunit molecular weight of 115,000 daltons. Thus, it is concluded that the glutamate synthase is composed of two polypeptidic chains exhibiting the same molecular weight. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the enzyme is free of iron-sulfide and flavin. The pH optimum was 7.3. The enzyme had a negative cooperativity (Hill number of 0.70) for glutamine, and its Km value increased from 270 to 570 ?m at a glutamine concentration higher than 800 ?m. Km values for ?-ketoglutarate and ferredoxin were 330 and 5.5 ?m, respectively. Asparagine and oxaloacetate could not be substituted for glutamine and ?-ketoglutarate, respectively. Enzyme activity was not detected with pyridine nucleotides as electron donors. Azaserine and several divalent cations were potent inhibitors. The purified enzyme was stabilized by dithiothreitol. Images PMID:16662307

  16. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  17. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

  18. Carbon balance in leaves of young poplar trees.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer, S; Heizmann, U; Magel, E; Eiblmeier, M; Mller, A; Rennenberg, H; Hampp, R; Schnitzler, J-P; Kreuzwieser, J

    2004-11-01

    In the present study, important components of carbon metabolism of mature leaves of young poplar trees (Populus x canescens) were determined. Carbohydrate concentrations in leaves and xylem sap were quantified at five different times during the day and compared with photosynthetic gas exchange measurements (net assimilation, transpiration and rates of isoprene emission). Continuously measured xylem sap flow rates, with a time resolution of 15 min, were used to calculate diurnal balances of carbon metabolism of whole mature poplar leaves on different days. Loss of photosynthetically fixed carbon by isoprene emission and dark respiration amounted to 1% and 20%. The most abundant soluble carbohydrates in leaves and xylem sap were glucose, fructose and sucrose, with amounts of approx. 2 to 12 mmol m(-2) leaf area in leaves and about 0.2 to 15 mM in xylem sap. Clear diurnal patterns of carbohydrate concentration in xylem sap and leaves, however, were not observed. Calculations of the carbon transport rates in the xylem to the leaves were based on carbohydrate concentrations in xylem sap and xylem sap flow rates. This carbon delivery amounted to about 3 micromol C m(-2) s(-1) during the day and approx. 1 micromol C m(-2) s(-1) at night. The data demonstrated that between 9 and 28 % of total carbon delivered to poplar leaves during 24 h resulted from xylem transport and, hence, provide a strong indication for a significant rate of carbon cycling within young trees. PMID:15570479

  19. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  20. 46 CFR 502.68 - Motion for leave to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... notice of the filing of the complaint. Motions filed after that date must show good cause for the failure... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Motion for leave to intervene. 502.68 Section 502.68... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies 502.68 Motion for leave to intervene. (a) Filing. A motion...

  1. Secondary metabolite profiles in HLB-affected sweet orange leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary analyses of methanolic extracts of orange leaves that are either healthy or symptomatic of citrus greening (HLB) have shown consistent differences in the profiles of important classes of phytochemicals. The main flavonoids in symptomatic and healthy leaves were monitored in the HPLC chro...

  2. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  3. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was

  4. Pregnant Staff and Parental Leave: Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla Jo

    1995-01-01

    Reviews health concerns and considerations for pregnant child care staff and discusses elements to include when developing or revising parental leave policies and procedures. Summarizes the elements of an exemplary comprehensive leave policy and supports the positions presented with the related federal legislation. (AA)

  5. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  6. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results. PMID:24135861

  7. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  8. Leaving the Parental Home: Patterns in Six Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vos, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Used mid-1970s World Fertility Survey cross-sectional data to analyze sociodemographic determinants of home-leaving by young Latin American adults (N=68,534). Found marriage as major reason for home-leaving and sex, urban/rural residence, education, and work as other important determinants. Noted international differences. (Author/CM))

  9. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their

  10. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12... system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time school-term... accrued leave balance immediately before conversion to a contract education position or appointment...

  11. Early iron deficiency stress response in leaves of sugar beet.

    PubMed Central

    Winder, T L; Nishio, J N

    1995-01-01

    Iron nutrient deficiency was investigated in leaves of hydroponically grown sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) to determine how ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) gene expression is affected when thylakoid components of photosynthesis are diminished. Rubisco polypeptide content was reduced by 60% in severely iron-stressed leaves, and the reduction was directly correlated to chlorophyll content. The concentration of Rubisco protein in iron-stressed leaves was found to be regulated by availability of mRNAs, and CO2 fixation by Rubisco was reduced from 45 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1 in extracts from iron-sufficient leaves to 20 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1 in extracts from severely stressed leaves. The rate of CO2 fixation was directly correlated to leaf chlorophyll content. Rubisco in iron-sufficient control leaves was 59% activated, whereas in severely stressed leaves grown under the same light, Rubisco was 43% activated. RNA synthesis was reduced by about 50% in iron-deficient leaves, but 16S and 25S rRNA and ctDNA were essentially unaffected by iron stress. PMID:7659749

  12. [Fat soluble constituents of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb].

    PubMed

    Tu, P; Liu, J; Li, J

    1997-07-01

    Four compounds were isolated from the fat soluble fraction of the leaves of Vaccinium bracteatum and identified as friedelin (I), epifriedelinol (II), beta-sitosterol(III) and ursolic acid(IV) by IR, NMR and MS. Compound III and IV are isolated from the leaves of this plant for the first time. PMID:11038902

  13. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  14. PHARMACOGNOSY OF LEAVES OF WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA R. BR.

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, N.; Moorthy, K.; Perumal, P.; Raju, S. Varadha

    1998-01-01

    Wrightia tinctora is a tree widely used by the peoples of Tamil Nadu as a traditional medicine for pain and inflammations. Latex form the plant especially from leaves is directly applied on inflammation. This plant is very closely related to other species of Wrightia and hence pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Wrightia tinctoria leaves were carried out. PMID:22556873

  15. Pharmacognosy of leaves of wrightia tinctoria R. Br.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, N; Moorthy, K; Perumal, P; Raju, S V

    1998-07-01

    Wrightia tinctora is a tree widely used by the peoples of Tamil Nadu as a traditional medicine for pain and inflammations. Latex form the plant especially from leaves is directly applied on inflammation. This plant is very closely related to other species of Wrightia and hence pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of Wrightia tinctoria leaves were carried out. PMID:22556873

  16. Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dern, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and

  17. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Grkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  18. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  19. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall proceed out of a lock until the exit gates, ship arresters and the bridge, if any, are in a fully... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaving a lock. 401.47 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a)...

  20. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:

  1. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 8960) requesting public comments on the proposed revisions to the regulations. Interested... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012,...

  2. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social

  3. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  4. The Librarian and the Leaver: Who Leaves the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Olson, Josephine E.

    1991-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of graduates of the University of Pittsburgh's Masters of Library Science (M.L.S.) program that was conducted to investigate reasons for leaving the profession for other fields or to leave the workforce entirely. Highlights include characteristics and attitudes of at-home versus employed women and their educational

  5. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 57.19069 Section 57.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 57.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19069 - Entering and leaving conveyances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entering and leaving conveyances. 56.19069 Section 56.19069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures 56.19069 Entering and leaving conveyances. Persons shall not enter or...

  16. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out

  17. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;

  18. Towards a More Telling Way of Understanding Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research into early school leaving. A narrative interview approach was used to document and analyse the experiences, processes and decisions that a small sample of boys made prior to leaving school, in this case, before completing year 10 and 11. Data collected in 2004 indicate that schools along with students

  19. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  20. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  1. 4-Methyleneglutamine Amidohydrolase from Peanut Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Harry C.; Dekker, Eugene E.

    1991-01-01

    4-Methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase has been extracted and purified over 1000-fold from 14-day-old peanut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves by modification of methods described previously. The purified enzyme shows two bands of activity and three to four bands of protein after electrophoresis on nondenaturing gels. Each of the active bands is readily eluted from gel slices and migrates to its original position on subsequent electrophoresis. Although they are electrophoretically distinct, the two forms of the enzyme are immunologically identical by Ouchterlony double-diffusion techniques and have similar catalytic properties. Activity toward glutamine that has a threefold lower Vmax and a four-fold higher Km value copurifies with MeGln aminohydrolase activity. 4-Methyleneglutamine and 4-methyleneglutamic acid inhibit the hydrolysis of glutamine while glutamine inhibits 4-methyleneglutamine hydrolysis, further indicating the identity of the activity toward both substrates. Amidohydrolase activity is stimulated up to threefold by preincubation with either ionic or non-ionic detergents (0.1%) and also by added proteins (0.5% bovine serum albumin or whole rabbit serum); it is inhibited 50% by 1 millimolar borate or the glutamine analog, albizziin (10 millimolar). Rabbit antiserum to the purified peanut enzyme cross-reacts with one or more proteins in extracts of some plants but not others; in no instance, however, was 4-methyleneglutamine amidohydrolase activity detected in other species. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that 4-methyleneglutamine supplies N, via its hydrolysis by the amidohydrolase, to the growing shoots of peanut plants, whereas glutamine hydrolysis is prevented by the prepon-derance of the preferred substrate. Some results also suggest that this amidohydrolase activity may be regulated by metabolites and/or by association with other cellular components. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667952

  2. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic α-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-α-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

  3. The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Liang, Ting; Li, Qingliang; Du, Yuanpeng; Zhai, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly. Chloroplast ultrastructure analysis showed that the gap between thylakoids layers in few chloroplasts of middle-node leaves increased, which was also observed in ones of upper-node leaves; the number and size of chloroplast increased. Analysis on the deformed leaves of grapevines treated with 375 g ai ha(-1) fluoroglycofen showed that the starch grain per cell was much more and larger than that in the same size control leaves; the dark green and yellow parts had more or fewer chloroplast than the control, respectively, but both with more grana per chloroplast and less layers per granum. Chloroplasts went larger and round. Taken together, these results suggested that fluoroglycofen caused the grape leaves become dark green, which might be associated with the changes of chloroplast; the growth inhibition in the second year might be due to accumulation of starch. PMID:25175657

  4. The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  6. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  7. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 l GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  8. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  9. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were minor components. PMID:23637874

  10. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid. PMID:16665768

  11. Acetaldehyde and ethanol biosynthesis in leaves of plants.

    PubMed

    Kimmerer, T W; Macdonald, R C

    1987-08-01

    Leaves of terrestrial plants are aerobic organs, and are not usually considered to possess the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis of ethanol, a product of anaerobic fermentation. We examined the ability of leaves of a number of plant species to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically, by incubating detached leaves in N(2) and measuring headspace acetaldehyde and ethanol vapors. Greenhouse-grown maize and soybean leaves produced little or no acetaldehyde or ethanol, while leaves of several species of greenhouse-grown woody plants produced up to 241 nanograms per milliliter headspace ethanol in 24 hours, corresponding to a liquid-phase concentration of up to 3 milligrams per gram dry weight. When leaves of 50 plant species were collected in the field and incubated in N(2), all higher plants produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, with woody plants generally producing greater amounts (up to 1 microgram per milliliter headspace ethanol concentration). Maize and soybean leaves from the field produced both acetaldehyde and ethanol. Production of fermentation products was not due to phylloplane microbial activity: surface sterilized leaves produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol as did unsterilized controls. There was no relationship between site flooding and foliar ethanol biosynthesis: silver maple and cottonwood from upland sites produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically as did plants from flooded bottomland sites. There was no relationship between flood tolerance of a species and ethanol biosynthesis rates: for example, the flood intolerant species Quercus rubra and the flood tolerant species Quercus palustris produced similar amounts of ethanol. Cottonwood leaves produced more ethanol than did roots, in both headspace and enzymatic assays. These results suggest a paradox: that the plant organ least likely to be exposed to anoxia or hypoxia is rich in the enzymes necessary for fermentation. PMID:16665585

  12. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace

  13. [Fluorescence of higher plant leaves at raised temperatures].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E A

    1982-01-01

    Red fluorescence (lambda approximately 630 divided by 760 nm) of naked-spermous (Gimnospermae) plant leaves in the state of winter rest and in the summer period, and also green and etiolated angiospermous (Angiospermae) plant leaves at different developmental stages (from embryonic to mature state) was investigated in the temperature range 20-96 degrees C. At the temperature about 60 degrees C a fluorescence "flash" develops avalanche-lookingly, its intensity being the higher, the younger is the angiospermous plant leaf. In the naked-spermous plant leaves an intensive avalanche-looking process is observed only in the winter-spring period. PMID:7138929

  14. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  15. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  16. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  17. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  18. Effect of microbial fermentation on caffeine content of tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Hu, Shuxia; Wan, Xiaochun; Pan, Caiyuan

    2005-09-01

    Caffeine is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For safety concerns, natural caffeine is preferred over synthetic products despite of its high cost. To explore more economical methods of acquiring natural caffeine, we adopted a microbial fermentation technique to increase the caffeine content of tea leaves. Our studies showed that the caffeine content in tea leaves increased reasonably after treating leaves with microorganisms for a period of time (i.e. orthodox pile-fermentation), and the amount of caffeine content increase varied significantly between black and green teas (27.57% and 86.41%). These results suggested that the change of caffeine content in tea leaves during the pile-fermentation depended not only on the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, but also on the tea composition. PMID:16131136

  19. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance. PMID:26751036

  20. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the child fails to pursue a vocational training program. For prolonged periods of absence, the VR&E case...

  2. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  3. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  4. Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California study found hospital admissions for abuse-linked ... baby. Head injuries are the leading cause of child abuse-related deaths in the United States, the researchers ...

  5. Paid Sick Leave Can Be Crucial When Cancer Strikes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients nearly twice as likely to keep their jobs if they had the benefit, study found To ... their financial struggles and helps them keep their jobs, a new study shows. "Paid sick leave allows ...

  6. Biophysical limitation of cell elongation in cereal leaves.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Wieland

    2002-08-01

    Grass leaves grow from the base. Unlike those of dicotyledonous plants, cells of grass leaves expand enclosed by sheaths of older leaves, where there is little or no transpiration, and go through developmental stages in a strictly linear arrangement. The environmental or developmental factor that limits leaf cell expansion must do so through biophysical means at the cellular level: wall-yielding, water uptake and solute supply are all candidates. This Botanical Briefing looks at the possibility that tissue hydraulic conductance limits cell expansion and leaf growth. A model is presented that relates pathways of water movement in the elongation zone of grass leaves to driving forces for water movement and to anatomical features. The bundle sheath is considered as a crucial control point. The relative importance of these pathways for the regulation of leaf growth and for the partitioning of water between expansion and transpiration is discussed. PMID:12197513

  7. Polyhydroxytriterpenoids and Phenolic Constituents from Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl Leaves.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Wang, Yazhen; Chen, Pingping; Wang, Yufang; Hou, Congcong; Wu, Yibing; Zhang, Manli; Li, Ligeng; Huo, Changhong; Shi, Qingwen; Gao, Haixia

    2016-01-13

    Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl leaves have been consumed in China as a health-promoting functional tea for centuries. Three new polyhydroxytriterpenoid glycosides named suspensanosides A-C (1-3), seven known polyhydroxytriterpenoids (4-10), and 12 known phenolics (11-22) were identified from F. suspensa leaves. Compounds 1-10, 15-17, and 22 have not been found in the Forsythia genus previously, whereas compound 14 was first reported to be isolated from the leaves of F. suspensa. All isolates were tested for their antiproliferative activities on BGC-823 and MCF-7 human tumor cell lines, whereas all phenolics were further investigated for their antioxidant activities by a DPPH assay. The results clearly demonstrate that triterpenoids, especially ursane-type triterpenoids, and the diverse phenolic components are crucial for the beneficial effects of F. suspensa leaves. PMID:26694205

  8. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  9. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  10. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  11. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation 401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No...

  12. Short Lunch Periods Leave Kids Eating Less, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_154588.html Short Lunch Periods Leave Kids Eating Less, Study Finds Schools should take steps ... In order to investigate how the timing of kids' lunches affects their nutrition, the researchers analyzed the ...

  13. Biophysical Limitation of Cell Elongation in Cereal Leaves

    PubMed Central

    FRICKE, WIELAND

    2002-01-01

    Grass leaves grow from the base. Unlike those of dicotyledonous plants, cells of grass leaves expand enclosed by sheaths of older leaves, where there is little or no transpiration, and go through developmental stages in a strictly linear arrangement. The environmental or developmental factor that limits leaf cell expansion must do so through biophysical means at the cellular level: wall‐yielding, water uptake and solute supply are all candidates. This Botanical Briefing looks at the possibility that tissue hydraulic conductance limits cell expansion and leaf growth. A model is presented that relates pathways of water movement in the elongation zone of grass leaves to driving forces for water movement and to anatomical features. The bundle sheath is considered as a crucial control point. The relative importance of these pathways for the regulation of leaf growth and for the partitioning of water between expansion and transpiration is discussed. PMID:12197513

  14. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN RIVER AT BARGES LEAVING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST DOWN RIVER AT BARGES LEAVING THE LOCKS. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. Anti-diabetes constituents in leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zheng; He, Fan; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Gai, Kuo; Shi, Yu-Yuan; Kim, Young-Ho; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves. PMID:20184030

  16. Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P.

    1997-07-01

    Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

  17. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  18. Long-term declines in nutritional quality of tropical leaves.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Struhsaker, Thomas T; Raubenheimer, David; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Waterman, Peter G

    2015-03-01

    Global change is affecting plant and animal populations and many of the changes are likely subtle and difficult to detect. Based on greenhouse experiments, changes in temperature and rainfall, along with elevated CO2, are expected to impact the nutritional quality of leaves. Here, we show a decline in the quality of tree leaves 15 and 30 years after two previous studies in an undisturbed area of tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda. After 30 years in a sample of multiple individuals of ten tree species, the mature leaves of all but one species increased in fiber concentrations, with a mean increase of 10%; tagged individuals of one species increased 13% in fiber. After 15 years, in eight tree species the fiber of young leaves increased 15%, and protein decreased 6%. Like many folivores, Kibale colobus monkeys select leaves with a high protein-to-fiber ratio, so for these folivores declining leaf quality could have a major impact. Comparisons among African and Asian forests show a strong correlation between colobine biomass and the protein-to-fiber ratio of the mature leaves from common tree species. Although this model, predicts a 31% decline in monkey abundance for Kibale, we have not yet seen these declines. PMID:26236882

  19. Metabolic Regulation in Diseased Leaves. I. The Respiratory Rise in Barley Leaves Infected with Powdery Mildew 1

    PubMed Central

    Scott, K. J.; Smillie, Robert M.

    1966-01-01

    Photosynthetic and respiratory activities have been measured in leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. var. Manchuria (barley) after infection with Erysiphe graminis var. hordei (powdery mildew). Two isogenic lines, one resistant to infection and the other highly susceptible, were examined. These isogenic lines showed very different physiological responses following infection. Photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content of resistant leaves was unaffected by infection. Respiration increased slightly and this was accompanied by small increases in activities of enzymes of glycolysis, the pentose-P pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The infection of susceptible leaves resulted in a slight increase in photosynthesis 48 hours after inoculation, but subsequently there was a progressive decrease in the photosynthesis of these leaves compared with that of noninfected leaves. The capacity of infected leaves for partial reactions of photosynthesis such as the Hill reaction and the photoreduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP1) decreased during the later stages of infection. The levels of chlorophyll, NADPH-diaphorase and aldolase also declined. There was no detectable difference in the respiration of infected and noninfected leaves until 48 hours after inoculation. After this time, the infected leaves showed a higher respiration, the maximum difference occurring about 144 hours after inoculation. The respiratory increase was not accompanied by significant changes in the levels of enzymes of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with the exception of malate dehydrogenase which was lower in infected leaves. In contrast, the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase showed changes similar to that observed for respiration. The respiration and the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase did not increase in infected leaves of etiolated plants, even when excellent growth of the fungus was established by growing the plants in White's basal medium supplemented with sucrose. The respiration of a susceptible mutant barley (the yellow-green virescent mutant of the variety Himalaya) when grown in the light at 11 was not changed by infection although the characteristic respiratory rise occurred in plants grown at 15. At the lower temperature chloroplasts fail to develop in this mutant, although development is normal at 15. It is suggested that the pathogen is not directly responsible for the increase in respiration in green leaves, rather that this is a response in the host cells to a loss of photosynthetic capacity. Images PMID:16656253

  20. Propensity to Leave versus Probability of Leaving: The Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction in the Voluntary Leaving Behavior of IT Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative analysis of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and the voluntary leaving behavior of IT professionals. In addition, the study adds to the validity and reliability of the Udechukwu and Mujtaba Mathematical Turnover Model. Surveyed within the study for their intrinsic and

  1. GPs negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners (GPs) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 3265), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. Conclusions and implications. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed. PMID:25602364

  2. Emission of isoprene from salt-stressed Eucalyptus globulus leaves.

    PubMed

    Loreto, F; Delfine, S

    2000-08-01

    Eucalyptus spp. are among the highest isoprene emitting plants. In the Mediterranean area these plants are often cultivated along the seashore and cope with recurrent salt stress. Transient salinity may severely but reversibly reduce photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of Eucalyptus globulus leaves but the effect on isoprene emission is not significant. When the stress is relieved, a burst of isoprene emission occurs, simultaneously with the recovery of photosynthetic performance. Later on, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and isoprene emission decay, probably because of the onset of leaf senescence. Isoprene emission is not remarkably affected by the stress at different light intensities, CO(2) concentrations, and leaf temperatures. When CO(2) was removed and O(2) was lowered to inhibit both photosynthesis and photorespiration, we found that the residual emission is actually higher in salt-stressed leaves than in controls. This stimulation is particularly evident at high-light intensities and high temperatures. The maximum emission occurs at 40 degrees C in both salt-stressed and control leaves sampled in ambient air and in control leaves sampled in CO(2)-free and low-O(2) air. However, the maximum emission occurs at 45 degrees C in salt-stressed leaves sampled in CO(2)-free and low-O(2) air. Our results suggest the activation of alternative non-photosynthetic pathways of isoprene synthesis in salt-stressed leaves and perhaps in general in leaves exposed to stress conditions. The temperature dependence indicates that this alternative synthesis is also under enzymatic control. If this alternative synthesis still occurs in the chloroplasts, it may involve a thylakoid-bound isoprene synthase. PMID:10938376

  3. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  4. Ethnic differences in leaving home: timing and pathways.

    PubMed

    Zorlu, Aslan; Mulder, Clara H

    2011-02-01

    The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 1999-2004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving home for union formation, to live independently, and to share with others. Migrant youth, and particularly Turkish and Moroccan youth, leave home at a significantly younger age than Dutch youth, given the relevant background variables. This is remarkable, given the older ages at which young people in the origin countries leave the parental home. The result may be seen as evidence of how the potential effects of cultural norms are counter-affected by other factors, such as the facilities of the welfare state and the awkward position of migrant youth between two cultures. Considering the pathways out of home, the analysis largely confirms the expected pattern: Turkish and Moroccan youth leave home more often for union formation and particularly marriage, while this pathway is of minor importance for Dutch youth at early ages. PMID:21290208

  5. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf. PMID:11577394

  6. [Sick-leave during pregnancy--focusing on textile workers].

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, O; Kristiansen, J L

    1992-08-17

    In order to illustrate the conditions involved in sick-leave during pregnancy, 593 consecutive parturient women received a questionnaire on the day after delivery. 48% of the pregnant women were certified as sick and 16% were admitted to hospital during pregnancy. The most common reasons for sick-leave were threatening abortion (19%), haemorrhage (18%) and threatening premature delivery (15%). The duration of sick-leave averaged 15 weeks as compared with 7.3 weeks in Denmark as a whole. In the subgroup of textile workers, 71% considered that the work was physically stressing and 70% were certified sick. Compared with all of the other occupationally active women, textile workers were more frequently certified sick, considered that their work was more physically stressing and had more frequently required sick-leave but were more rarely admitted to hospital. Similarly, textile workers had a greater risk for sick-leave on account of threatening abortion, pelvic loosening or pain in the locomotor system. PMID:1413139

  7. PROFILE OF PATIENTS ON SICK LEAVE WITH CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Judson Welber Veríssimo; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Nascimento, Valdênia das Graças; de Paiva, Henver Ribeiro; Viecili, Leandro; Rocha, Murilo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) on sick leave admitted in a University Hospital. Methods: This is a transversal study conducted with patients admitted sequentially over 18 years of age, without distinction of gender and race in the period between September and November 2014. Patients answered a questionnaire and underwent physical examination carried out by the authors. Results: Twenty-five patients were admitted within three months, all females, the mean age was 50.24 years old (standard deviation 10,39) . Among the professions they performed, general and cleaning services were the most prevalent. Most patients featured obesity, followed by depression and systemic arterial hypertension. Approximately half of them were on sick leave. Sleep disorders were also a frequent complaint. Conclusion: CTS is a frequent cause of sick leave and it is related to obesity, dyslipidemia and depression. Level of Evidence IV, Series of Cases. PMID:26981030

  8. Ethylene evolution from tobacco leaves irradiated with UV-B.

    PubMed

    Nara, Akira; Takeuchi, Yuichi

    2002-08-01

    Seedlings of Nicotiana tabacum L. (cv. Petit Havana SR1) were grown in the presence or absence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 290-320 nm) irradiation. The evolution of ethylene from the leaves, the content of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), an endogenous precursor of ethylene, and the activity of ACC synthase, a rate-limiting step in the production of ethylene, were increased by UV-B irradiation. The time course of these increases was parallel with the emergence of damage that was estimated by measuring the chlorophyll (Chl) content and the leakage of ions from leaf cells. Treatment of leaves with aminoethoxy-vinyl-glycine (AVG), a specific inhibitor of ACC synthase, reduced the extent of damage caused by UV-B. These results suggest that ethylene acts on certain processes to cause damage in tobacco leaves irradiated with UV-B. PMID:12582726

  9. Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves. PMID:23533545

  10. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana *

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Fen; Zhou, Guo-jun; Chu, Guo-hai; Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Qiao-mei; Jin, Li-feng; Lin, Fu-cheng; Yang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from all six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were observed both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R 2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding. PMID:24302710

  11. [Beijing common green tree leaves' accumulation capacity for heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Wei; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Bo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variation of heavy metal contents in leaves and their relationships with soil heavy metal pollution levels were studied through measuring and analyzing the leaves of the common tree species in Beijing and soil heavy metal contents, to detect heavy metal accumulation ability of plant leaves. The results showed that: (1) the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn in plant leaves first decreased and then increased, again declined with changing the seasons (from spring to winter). Cr concentration showed the trend of first increase and then decrease from spring to winter, and the highest in the autumn; the accumulation capacities of Cu for Babylonica and Japonica were higher in the spring, summer and autumn, while Tabuliformis was in winter; the higher accumulation capacities for Cr, Pb were Japonica and Platycladus, and in winter were Platycladus and Bungeana; the higher accumulation capacities for Zn were Babylonica and Bungeana, while Platycladus in winter; (2) the pollution degree of four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) from downtown to suburbs showed that: Jingshan (C =2.48, C is contamination factor) > Olympic (C = 1.27) > Songshan (C = 1.20) > Shuiguan (C = 1. 18); (3) the heavy metals concentration of same plant leaves in the water of the Great Wall changed larger, but those in the other three areas showed that: Jingshan > Olympic > Songshan; the ability of same species leaf to absorb different sorts of heavy metals showed that: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cr; the difference between Zn content and Cr content was significant (P <0.01); (4) the relationship between heavy metal content in plant leaves and soil heavy metal pollution levels presented a quadratic polynomial relation; the significant correlation was found between other three heavy metal contents of plant samples and soil samples, but they were not the case for the Cu, and the correlation coefficients were above 0. 9. PMID:25055683

  12. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to non-reported triterpene and flavonoids from this species. PMID:27013790

  13. Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

    Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

  14. Is there spectral variation in the polarized reflectance of leaves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-05-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  15. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  16. Immediate IPTV channel leave by explicit user tracking in PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Yoshiuchi, Hideya; Yoshizawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel IPTV channel leave mechanism for Passive Optical Network (PON). By explicit user tracking and automatic differentiation of IGMP v2 and v3 users, the proposed mechanism can realize immediate channel leave in both Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) while avoiding removing the channel which still has users. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can significantly save the bandwidth consumption during "channel surf" by users, compared to the standard IGMP timeout mechanism.

  17. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  18. State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability

  19. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate paid leave if the employee has earned or accrued it, for up to a total of 12 workweeks in any 12... a covered employer may take job-protected, unpaid leave, or substitute appropriate paid leave if the... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The Family and Medical Leave Act. 825.100 Section...

  20. Ages, Reasons and Sex Differences for Children Leaving Home: Observations From Survey Data for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Overall, daughters leave home when about two years younger than sons, and a higher proportion of daughters leave home for marriage than for other reasons. For each sex, the average age at leaving home is youngest when the reason for leaving is education or a job, and oldest when the reason is marriage. (Author)

  1. Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

    1999-01-01

    Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.

  2. Paid Educational Leave. NIE Papers in Education and Work: Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Herbert A.

    This report is a digest of a larger work, "Developments in Paid Leave of Absence," a report including case studies and analysis of the collective experience of nine European countries and the United States with paid educational leave. Section I defines paid educational leave as "leave given to an employee for educational purposes for a specified

  3. 5 CFR 630.1304 - Receipt, processing, and transfer of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Receipt, processing, and transfer of leave. 630.1304 Section 630.1304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Reservist Leave Bank Program 630.1304 Receipt, processing, and transfer of leave. (a) Each agency shall accept...

  4. The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  5. The Effects of Californias Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 19992010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how Californias first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

  6. Paid maternity leave and breastfeeding practice before and after California's implementation of the nation's first paid family leave program.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Yang, Muzhe

    2015-01-01

    California was the first state in the United States to implement a paid family leave (PFL) program in 2004. We use data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study to examine the changes in breastfeeding practices in California relative to other states before and after the implementation of PFL. We find an increase of 3-5 percentage points for exclusive breastfeeding and an increase of 10-20 percentage points for breastfeeding at several important markers of early infancy. Our study supports the recommendation of the Surgeon General to establish paid leave policies as a strategy for promoting breastfeeding. PMID:24508006

  7. Pyrophen Produced by Endophytic Fungi Aspergillus sp Isolated from Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav Exhibits Cytotoxic Activity and Induces S Phase Arrest in T47D Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Astuti, Puji; Erden, Willy; Wahyono; Wahyuono, Subagus; Hertiani, Triana

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl acetate extracts obtained from culture of endophytic fungi Aspergillus sp isolated from Piper crocatum Ruiz and Pav, have been shown to possess cytotoxic activity against T47D breast cancer cells. Investigations were here conducted to determine bioactive compounds responsible for the activity. Bioassay guided fractionation was employed to obtain active compounds. Structure elucidation was performed based on analysis of LC-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, DEPT, HMQC, HMBC data. Cytotoxity assays were conducted in 96 well plates against T47D and Vero cell lines. Bioassay guided isolation and chemical investigation led to the isolation of pyrophen, a 4-methoxy-6-(1'-acetamido-2'-phenylethyl)-2H-pyran-2-one. Further analysis of its activity against T47D and Vero cells showed an ability to inhibit the growth of T47D cells with IC50 values of 9.2 ?g/mL but less cytotoxicity to Vero cells with an IC50 of 109 ?g/mL. This compound at a concentration of 400 ng/mL induced S-phase arrest in T47D cells. PMID:26925652

  8. German Kava Ban Lifted by Court: The Alleged Hepatotoxicity of Kava (Piper methysticum) as a Case of Ill-Defined Herbal Drug Identity, Lacking Quality Control, and Misguided Regulatory Politics.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Kenny; Schmidt, Mathias; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2015-12-01

    Kava, the rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, are one of the most important social pillars of Melanesian societies. They have been used for more than 1000 years in social gatherings for the preparation of beverages with relaxing effects. During the colonial period, extract preparations found their way into Western medicinal systems, with experience especially concerning the treatment of situational anxiety dating back more than 100 years. It therefore came as a surprise when the safety of kava was suddenly questioned based on the observation of a series of case reports of liver toxicity in 1999 and 2000. These case reports ultimately led to a ban of kava products in Europe - a ban that has been contested because of the poor evidence of risks related to kava. Only recently, two German administrative courts decided that the decision of the regulatory authority to ban kava as a measure to ensure consumer safety was inappropriate and even associated with an increased risk due to the higher risk inherent to the therapeutic alternatives. This ruling can be considered as final for at least the German market, as no further appeal has been pursued by the regulatory authorities. However, in order to prevent further misunderstandings, especially in other markets, the current situation calls for a comprehensive presentation of the cardinal facts and misconceptions concerning kava and related drug quality issues. PMID:26695707

  9. Chromatographic Profiles of Ginkgo biloba Leaves and Selected Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginkgo biloba leaves and their extracts are one of the most widely used herbal products or dietary supplements in the world. Their flavonoids and terpene lactones are considered to be the main beneficial components. Many previous studies have focused on specific components, or families of component...

  10. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  11. The occurrence of nitrate reductase in leaves of prunus species.

    PubMed

    Leece, D R; Dilley, D R; Kenworthy, A L

    1972-05-01

    Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

  12. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over

  13. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that

  14. STS 41-G crew prepares to leave for KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-G crew leaves the hanger at Ellington Air Force Base for departure for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the STS 41-G mission. From left to right are Astronauts Sally Ride, mission specialist; Robert Crippen, mission commander; Kathryn Sullivan, mission specialist; David Leestma, mission specialist; and Jon McBride, pilot.

  15. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  16. Maintenance Carbon Cycle in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, William H.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.

    1985-01-01

    The reciprocal relationship between diurnal changes in organic acid and storage carbohydrate was examined in the leaves of three Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. It was found that depletion of leaf hexoses at night was sufficient to account quantitatively for increase in malate in Ananas comosus but not in Sedum telephium or Kalancho daigremontiana. Fructose and to a lesser extent glucose underwent the largest changes. Glucose levels in S. telephium leaves oscillated diurnally but were not reciprocally related to malate fluctuations. Analysis of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles from leaves of A. comosus and S. telephium revealed that vacuoles contain a large percentage (>50%) of the protoplast glucose, fructose and malate, citrate, isocitrate, ascorbate and succinate. Sucrose, a major constituent of intact leaves, was not detectable or was at extremely low levels in protoplasts and vacuoles from both plants. In isolated vacuoles from both A. comosus and S. telephium, hexose levels decreased at night at the same time malate increased. Only in A. comosus, however, could hexose metabolism account for a significant amount of the nocturnal increase in malate. We conclude that, in A. comosus, soluble sugars are part of the daily maintenance carbon cycle and that the vacuole plays a dynamic role in the diurnal carbon assimilation cycle of this Crassulacean acid metabolism plant. PMID:16664005

  17. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  18. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  19. Essential oil of Turnera ulmifolia leaves from Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia L. (Turneraceae) from Cuba was studied by GC and GC/MS. Sixty-four volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were beta-caryophyllene (21.5%) and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (18.4%). PMID:21213992

  20. What Your Babysitter Should Know before You Leave the House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The most important part of any babysitting job is everyone's safety while the parents are gone. The article makes suggestions about what parents should ask prospective babysitters before hiring them and discusses issues that parents must cover with babysitters before leaving them alone with the children. (SM)