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Fourteen volatile components including eight allypyrocatechol analgos were isolated and identified from the essential oil\\u000a and ether soluble fraction of PhilippinePiperbetleleaves (Piperaceae). The major constituents of PhilippinePiperbetle oil were chavibetol and chavibetol acetate. Capillary GC analysis of the oil showed chavibetol (53.1%), chavibetol acetate\\u000a (15.5%), caryophyllene (3.79%), allypyroacatechol diacetate (0.71%), campene (0.48%), chavibetol methyl ether (=methyl eugenol,
Agnes M. Rimando; Byung Hoon Han; Jeong Hill Park; Magdalena C. Cantoria
Leaves of Piperbetle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piperbetleleaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE)
L. S. R. Arambewela; L. D. A. M. Arawwawala; W. D. Ratnasooriya
It is known that piperleaves (sirih) from Piperbetle Linn has been used traditionally as medicine, for example for mouthwash and wound curing. The usage of hand gels antiseptic preparation was getting increased in the current time as the incidence of desease caused by virus and bacteria like SARS appears.This research was aimed to develop preparation of hand gels
This work studied the effects of drying temperature on the quality and drying kinetics of betel leaves (Piperbetle L.). As the drying process applies heat on the product, this might lead to the degradation and decomposition of valuable phytochemicals within the herbs. In this study, the effect of drying temperature on the quality of dried leaves was studied by
K. Y. Pin; T. G. Chuah; A. Abdull Rashih; C. L. Law; M. A. Rasadah; T. S. Y. Choong
The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piperbetle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol\\u000a is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.
Background: In April 1997, an unusual pigmentary disorder was noticed by dermatologists in Taiwan. All patients had a history of using facial dressings with steamed leaves of Piperbetle L. (Piperaceae). Objective: Our purpose was to clarify the evolution and the origin of this unique leukomelanosis. Methods: Fifteen patients with an unusual pigmentary disorder, who visited our clinic in September
An unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to\\u000a develop new antileishmanial agents. The leaves of Piperbetle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties\\u000a but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. Accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves
Leaves of Piperbetle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piperbetleleaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE). In normoglycaemic rats, both HWE and CEE significantly lowered the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. In glucose tolerance test, both extracts markedly reduced the external glucose load. The antidiabetic activity of HWE is comparable to that of CEE. Moreover, HWE failed to inhibit the glucose absorption from the small intestine of rats. Both extracts were found to be non-toxic and well tolerated after following chronic oral administration (no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity). However, the weight of the spleen had increased in treated groups possibly indicating lymphoproliferative activity. It is concluded that HWE and CEE of Piperbetleleaves possess safe and strong antidiabetic activity. PMID:16055288
Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Ratnasooriya, W D
Effects of depetiolation on protein metabolism during senescence of detached betel (Piperbetle L.) leaves have been studied. In normal petiolated leaves, the level of chlorophyll and proteins and extent of protein synthesis declined, while the protease activity registered manifold increase with the advancement of senescence. All of these changes were delayed by depetiolation/de-midribbing treatments, though without affecting the general pattern of senescence. Thus, the presence of petiole seems to expedite protein degradation, probably due to earlier attainment of optimal concentration of proposed senescence factor(s) (Mishra and Gaur 1970 Science 167: 387).
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piperbetle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Results: PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. Conclusions: The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.
De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali
Piperbetle L. leaves are commonly used masticatory material in Asia. Because hepatotoxicity of ethanol may result from oxidative damage, we investigated the effect of P. betleleaves on key hepatic markers and antioxidant defense against ethanol toxicity to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of P. betle. Administration of ethanol (7.9 g\\/kg body wt.) for 60 days resulted in significant elevation
Piperbetleleaves are used as masticatory in Asian countries. In the present study, antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of three local varieties of P. betleleaves were evaluated by several in vitro systems, e.g. DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity in a riboflavin\\/light\\/NBT system, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 in
More than twelve cultivars of Piperbetle are reported in Sri Lanka but no chemical studies have been carried out on them. The present study describes the morphological, physic0 - chemical, chemical and antimicrobial activities of six main cultivars of P. betle Linn namely Galdalu, Malzamaneru, Kudamaneru, Ratadalu, Nagawalli and Malabulath. The chemical constituents identified in the essential oil of
LAKSHMI ARAMBEWELA; K. G. A. KUMARATUNGA; KALYANI DIAS
The essential oil from the leaves of Piperbetle L. Sagar Bangla cultivar has been found in vitro to be highly active against the growth of four keratinophilic fungi, Arthroderma benhamiae, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Ctenomyces serratus and five pathogenic Aspergilli. Bacterial organisms Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae were also found to be susceptible
Piperbetle L. (Piperaceae) leaves which are traditionally used in India and China in the prevention of oral malodor was examined by bioassay-guided fractionation to yield allylpyrocatechol (APC) as the major active principle which showed promising activity against obligate oral anaerobes responsible for halitosis. The biological studies with APC indicated that the potential to reduce methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide was
Niranjan Ramji; Nivedita Ramji; Ritu Iyer; S Chandrasekaran
Piperbetle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373
Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P
Crude ethanolic extracts of Piperbetleleaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed
N. Trakranrungsie; A. Chatchawanchonteera; W. Khunkitti
BACKGROUND: Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piperbetle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of
Intzar Ali; Farrah G Khan; Krishan A Suri; Bishan D Gupta; Naresh K Satti; Prabhu Dutt; Farhat Afrin; Ghulam N Qazi; Inshad A Khan
Biochemical analysis of betel leaves infected by leaf spot and blight caused byXanthomonas campestris pv.betlicola showed a decrease in moisture, chlorophyll, protein, phenol and total carbohydrate contents as compared with healthy leaves.\\u000a The decrease in these five parameters was 31-42%, 29-70%, 20-79%, 30-53% and 53-87%, respectively. Application of 100 kg P2O5\\/ha gave maximum height of vine, number of leaves per
A. R. Wasnikar; S. K. Khatik; M. L. Nayak; S. K. Vishwakarma; L. K. Punekar
Piperbetle (sireh) have been reported to have antibacterial and antimycotic properties. To date, very little information is available as to the compounds in the piperbetle that are associated with the antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast and simplified thin layer chromatography technique in the separation of the active antibacterial compound which can
The leaves of the Piperbetle Linn. (Piperaceae) are used in traditional medicine and possess anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic and radioprotective activities. However, little is known about their anti-allergic activity. Therefore, the effects of P. betle ethanolic extract (PE) on the production of histamine and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by murine bone marrow mast cells (BMMCs) and on the secretion
Mali Wirotesangthong; Naoki Inagaki; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Witchuda Thanakijcharoenpath; Hiroichi Nagai
Piperbetle inflorescence extracts contain eugenol (6.2%) and safrole (78.9%). Intravenous injections of water extracts of P. betle inflorescence (PBE), eugenol, and safrole in rats induced hypotensive and bradycardiac effects, whereas both intraarterial and intrathecal injections of PBE, eugenol and safrole resulted in hypotensive and tachycardiac effects. Moreover, the effects of intravenous injections of PBE were reversed or inhibited by
S. J. Chen; B. N. Wu; J. L. Yeh; Y. C. Lo; I. S. Chen; I. J. Chen
The essential oil and methanolic and aqueous extracts of Piperbetle L. were assayed for their anti- microbial activity, mosquito larvicidal activity, antioxidant property and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition. The methanolic and aquaous extracts showed strong activity against the yeasts: C. albicans ,a ndM. pachydermatis. The crude essential oil exhibited a broad-spectrum strong antimicrobial activity against all test organisms. The strongest
Betelvine (Piperbetle) is an important cash crop in India. The cultivation of this crop is seriously threatened by several pest insects, for example the homopterans Aleurocanthus rugosa, Dialeuroides pallida, Aphis gossypii and Tricentrus gibbosulus and the thysanopterans Membrothrips indicus, Zaniothrips ricini, Mymarothrips garuda and Aroidothrips longistylus and by the plant pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata, Phytophthora parasitica, Colletotrichum piperis and
Piperbetle, an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk (Siddha and Ayurvedha) reputation in the rural southern India. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of P. betle on glucose metabolism since it is consumed as betel-quid after meals. Plasma levels of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and activities of liver hexokinase and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in control and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were assayed. Oral administration of leaf suspension of P. betle (75 and 150 mg/kg of body weight) for 30 days resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose (from 205.00 +/- 10.80 mg/dL to 151.30 +/- 6.53 mg/dL) and glycosylated hemoglobin and decreased activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, while liver hexokinase increased (P < .05), in STZ diabetic rats when compared with untreated diabetic rats. P. betle at a dose of 75 mg/kg of body weight exhibited better sugar reduction than 150 mg/kg of body weight. In addition, protection against body weight loss of diabetic animals was also observed. The effects produced by P. betle were compared with the standard drug glibenclamide. Thus, the present study clearly shows that P. betle intake influences glucose metabolism beneficially. PMID:16579737
Betelvine (Piperbetle L., family Piperaceae) is an important, traditional and widely cultivated crop of India. The cultivators and consumers recognize\\u000a more than 100 cultivars (landraces) based on regional and organoleptic considerations, while in terms of phytochemical constituents\\u000a only five groups have been identified for all the landraces. Since betelvine is an obligate vegetatively propagated species,\\u000a genomic changes, if any,
Five fungicides, 2 antibiotics and 2 combinations of fungicides and antibiotics were evaluated against incidence of bacterial and fungal diseases of Piperbetle L. Cv. Desawari. Copper oxychloride 50 WP (Blitox?50) at 0.25% at 15 days interval was most effective against mortality caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. piperina Dastur; whereas 0.25% Copper oxychloride 50 WP with 500 ppm streptocycline was
V. R. Balasubrahmanyam; R. S. Chaurasia; R. D. Tripathi; J. K. Johri
To study the antifertility effect of an extract (alcoholic) of the leaf-stalk of Piperbetle Linn., one set of experiments with two different doses in Swiss male albino mice were evaluated. Initially, 500 mg of the leaf-stalk extractive for 30 days and then 1000 mg for next 30 days\\/animal\\/day\\/kg body weight were administered orally. The extract reduced fertility to 0%
Pretreatment of an ethanolic extract of leaf ofPiperbetle linn at a dose of 200mg\\/kg body weight, orally administered to rats for ten consecutive days, was found to possess a significant\\u000a protective action against gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. The extract pretreatment resulted in significant increase\\u000a in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, increase in mucus, hexosamine and total
Biswajit Majumdar; Susri Ray Chaudhuri; Arun Ray; Sandip K Bandyopadhyay
The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA segments, with the objective of finding markers\\u000a linked to sex determination in male and female plants of Piperbetle L. Two bulks of DNA were made drawing one each from male and female, by pooling an equal volume of DNA samples from each\\u000a group of individual contributing to
Sanghamitra Samantaray; Arunkumar Phurailatpam; Ashok Kumar Bishoyi; K. A. Geetha; Satyabrata Maiti
Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piperbetle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment.
Background Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piperbetle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of hydroxychavicol were determined by using broth microdilution method following CLSI guidelines. Time kill curve studies, post-antifungal effects and mutation prevention concentrations were determined against Candida species and Aspergillus species "respectively". Hydroxychavicol was also tested for its potential to inhibit and reduce the formation of Candida albicans biofilms. The membrane permeability was measured by the uptake of propidium iodide. Results Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effect on fungal species of clinical significance, with the MICs ranging from 15.62 to 500 ?g/ml for yeasts, 125 to 500 ?g/ml for Aspergillus species, and 7.81 to 62.5 ?g/ml for dermatophytes where as the MFCs were found to be similar or two fold greater than the MICs. There was concentration-dependent killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata up to 8 × MIC. Hydroxychavicol also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect of 6.25 to 8.70 h at 4 × MIC for Candida species and suppressed the emergence of mutants of the fungal species tested at 2 × to 8 × MIC concentration. Furthermore, it also inhibited the growth of biofilm generated by C. albicans and reduced the preformed biofilms. There was increased uptake of propidium iodide by C. albicans cells when exposed to hydroxychavicol thus indicating that the membrane disruption could be the probable mode of action of hydroxychavicol. Conclusions The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida infections.
Alcoholic extract of Piperbetle (Piperbetle L.) leaves was recently found to induce apoptosis of CML cells expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl with imatinib resistance phenotype. Hydroxy-chavicol (HCH), a constituent of the alcoholic extract of Piperbetleleaves, was evaluated for anti-CML activity. Here, we report that HCH and its analogues induce killing of primary cells in CML patients and leukemic cell lines expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl, including the T315I mutation, with minimal toxicity to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HCH causes early but transient increase of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species-dependent persistent activation of JNK leads to an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide generation. This causes loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, cleavage of caspase 9, 3 and poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase leading to apoptosis. One HCH analogue was also effective in vivo in SCID mice against grafts expressing the T315I mutation, although to a lesser extent than grafts expressing wild type Bcr-Abl, without showing significant bodyweight loss. Our data describe the role of JNK-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide for anti-CML activity of HCH and this molecule merits further testing in pre-clinical and clinical settings. PMID:21943109
A simple and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver-protein (coreshell) nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed using the betle, Piperbetle L. (Piperaceae) leaf extract. The exposure time played a major role in the control of biosynthesized NPs size and shell thickness on the surface of silver (Ag) NPs. A heightened fluorescence emission peak was recorded in these NPs, indicating
The study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (EO) of Piperbetle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. A total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and Aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. Eleven aflatoxin
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) yielded a new pyrrolidine amide, N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine 1, in addition to two known amides N-[5-(3', 4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E)-pentadienoyl] pyrrolidine and N-[2-(3', 4'-methylenedioxy-6'-methoxyphenyl)-2(Z)-propenoyl]pyrrolidine. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of spectral data, including ES-MS. Compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:9599264
Alécio, A C; da Silva Bolzani, V; Young, M C; Kato, M J; Furlan, M
The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piperbetle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183
Rhizolex 50 WP O,O-dimethyl-O(2,6-dichloro-4-methyl-phenyl)-phosphorothioate, a new fungicide, was evaluated againstSclerotium rolfsii Sacc., the causal organism of foot rot of betelvine (Piperbetle L.). The fungicide,in vitro, arrested mycelial growth and sclerotial germination ofSclerotium rolfsii at 50 ppm and above concentration, maximum effect being at 100 and 200 ppm for inhibition of mycelial growth and Sclerotial\\u000a germination respectively. Two months old
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of crude chloroform extract of Piperbetle L. (PbC) in controlling Fusarium wilt of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. It was observed that 1% (w\\/w) amendment of the PbC in soil was more efficient in reducing the Fusarium population in soil than carbendazim and
Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...
Modulation of immune functions by using herbal plants and their products has become fundamental regime of therapeutic approach. Piperbetle Linn. (Piperaceae) is a widely distributed plant in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and has been attributed as traditional herbal remedy for many diseases. We have recently reported the antifilarial and antileishmanial efficacy in the leaf extract
Collar rot disease of betelvine ( Piperbetle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. In the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against S. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. Two strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6
This work aims to investigate the origins and development of secretory cells in Piper umbellatum (L.) Miq. (Piperaceae) leaves as well as the course and the nature of their secretion. The results were compared with studies in oil-secreting cells of several species. Fully expanded fresh leaves were sectioned and subjected to different histochemical tests. Leaves in different developmental stages were
Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level. PMID:22653631
Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A
Ethnopharmacological relevanceOur previous work has demonstrated that several plants in the Piperaceae family are commonly used by the Qeqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala to treat amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and pain. Extracts of Piper hispidum Swingle (Piperaceae), bound to the estrogen (ER) and serotonin (5-HT7) receptors.
Joanna L. Michel; Yegao Chen; Hongjie Zhang; Yue Huang; Aleksej Krunic; Jimmy Orjala; Mario Veliz; Kapil K. Soni; Djaja Doel Soejarto; Armando Caceres; Alice Perez; Gail B. Mahady
Morphogenetic potential of root, leaf, node and internode expiants of 3 cultivated Piper species was investigated to develop a reliable plant regeneration protocol. P. longum (pipli) was the most responsive followed by P. betle (betel vine) and P. nigrum (black pepper). In P. longum the highest number of shoot buds was produced on root expiants followed by node, internode and
Dichloromethane and aqueous fractions from leaves and stems of Piper arboreum Aubl., P. aduncum L., P. amalago L., P. crassinervium H.B. & K., P. diospyrifolium Kunth, P. hispidum Sw. and P. xylosteoides (Kunth) Steud. were tested against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. The in vitro activity was evaluated in terms of mortality, number of separated worms and number of worms with reduced motor activity. Most dichloromethane fractions from all Piper species showed moderate schistosomicidal activity, but aqueous fractions were not active. The dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves (at 100 ?g/ml) showed the highest activity, resulting in worm mortality, the separation of worm pairs and reduced motor activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves led to the isolation of its major compound, which was also tested against adults of S. mansoni. The isolated piperamide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine, at 100 ? m, resulted in the mortality of all adult worms after 24 h of incubation. The findings suggest that species of Piper are potential sources of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:23561585
Carrara, V S; Vieira, S C H; de Paula, R G; Rodrigues, V; Magalhães, L G; Cortez, D A G; Da Silva Filho, A A
We have investigated the chemical composition of Piper gaudichaudianum essential oil, as well as its cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects in V79 cells. The chemical analyses showed that the major compounds are (E)-nerolidol (22.4%), ?-humulene (16.5%), (E)-caryophyllene (8.9%) and bicyclogermacrene (7.4%). Dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed in V79 cells treated with essential oil by using clonal survival, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide
V. F. Péres; D. J. Moura; A. R. M. Sperotto; F. C. Damasceno; E. B. Caramão; C. A. Zini; J. Saffi
The interaction between the transfer cell specific transcriptional activator ZmMRP-1 and the promoter of the transfer cell specific gene BETL-1 constitutes an exceptionally robust system. Reporter constructs containing the BETL-1 promoter are virtually silent in a variety of cell types, from maize leaves to yeast. The introduction of ZmMRP-1 in co-transformation assays leads to the transactivation of the reporter construct
Cristina Barrero; Luis M. Muñiz; Elisa Gómez; Gregorio Hueros; Joaquín Royo
Summary and Conclusions The results of the experiments carried out during the years 1940-46 to ascertain the effects of some soil treatments on the\\u000a incidence of theSclerotial wilt ofpan due toS. rolfsii are presented.\\u000a \\u000a It has been found possible to considerably reduce the percentage of mortality by deep ploughing and by the growing of other\\u000a crops for a few years on
Summary The effect of temperature on the growth ofS. rolfsii and the effect of soil temperature on the development of sclerotial wilt ofpan were studied.\\u000a \\u000a It was found that the optimum temperature for the vegetative growth of the organism in culture was 28° C. and the maximum\\u000a number of sclerotia was formed at 28° and 30° C. in culture. The optimum
Summary \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (1) \\u000a A general account of the methods of pan cultivation practised in the Central Provinces and Berar is given.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (2) \\u000a A detailed account of the foot-rot diseases of pan caused byPhytophthora and a new species ofPythium, of the leaf-rot caused byPhytophthora and of the anthracnose disease caused byColletotrichum spp. is given.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (3) \\u000a A short account of the foot-rot diseases
Summary \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a Out of the twelve cuttings from each vine the first three took comparatively a longer period for germination than the rest.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a Mortality due toPhytophthora parasitica var.piperina was highest in 5th to 12th cuttings, the least susceptible being the 3rd cutting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a Highest rate of growth was observed in the first cutting with progressively lesser rate in the
Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors. PMID:21721229
The interaction between the transfer cell specific transcriptional activator ZmMRP-1 and the promoter of the transfer cell specific gene BETL-1 constitutes an exceptionally robust system. Reporter constructs containing the BETL-1 promoter are virtually silent in a variety of cell types, from maize leaves to yeast. The introduction of ZmMRP-1 in co-transformation assays leads to the transactivation of the reporter construct by up to two orders of magnitude. In this work we have investigated the molecular basis of this interaction. We found that the BETL-1 promoter includes four potential targets for ZmMRP-1 binding, consisting of a 12 bp motif containing two repeats. Co-transformation assays and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments identified the sequence TATCTCTATCTC as the preferred one for the interaction with the transcription factor. Identification of similar sequences in other transfer cell specific promoters lead us to propose as a transfer cell box a sequence related to those identified in the BETL-1 promoter, positioned 50-100 bp upstream the TATA box. PMID:17001496
Barrero, Cristina; Muñiz, Luis M; Gómez, Elisa; Hueros, Gregorio; Royo, Joaquín
Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum accumulate amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. The isolation and characterization of several representatives including two hitherto unreported amides were performed by chromatographic techniques and by analysis of spectroscopic data. The antifungal activity of each amide was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:11130674
Navickiene, H M; Alécio, A C; Kato, M J; Bolzani, V D; Young, M C; Cavalheiro, A J; Furlan, M
Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum accumulate amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. The isolation and characterization of several representatives including two hitherto unreported amides were performed by chromatographic techniques and by analysis of spectroscopic data. The antifungal activity of each amide was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum.
Hosana Maria D. Navickiene; Alberto Camilo Alécio; Massuo Jorge Kato; Vanderlan da S. Bolzani; Maria Claudia M. Young; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Maysa Furlan
Summary A strain ofBacillus subtilis isolated from soil was found effective againstSclerotium rolfsii when grown on 20% potato extract for 48 hours and used along with the medium. Whole boiled potato was also a good medium but the bacteria needed 20 days to grow until insoluble starch was digested.
Gender based differences in response to low temperature stress in leaf chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoids (Car) contents and\\u000a chlorophyllase (Chlase) activity were monitored in male (Kapoori Vellaikodi and Madras Pan Kapoori) and female (Bangla Mahoba,\\u000a Desi Bangla and Kaker) betel vine landraces. Although female plants contained nearly two fold more Chl than male counterparts,\\u000a the low temperature induced Chl loss
Summary \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a Out of the twelve cuttings from each vine, the first four cuttings took longer period for germination than the rest.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a Germination in 1st to 3rd cuttings was slightly lower than in 4th to 12th cuttings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a Mortality due to poor development of root system was observed in 7th to 12th cuttings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a Mortality due toPhytophthora parasitica var.piperina
Summary Against the fungal pathogens,Phytophthora parasitica, Sclerotium rolfsii, Colletotrichum capsici andGlomerella cingulata responsible for leaf and foot rot of betel vines, 3 fungus, 9 actinomycetes and 4 bacterial antagonists were screened out from 61 fungus, 28 actinomycetes and 4 bacterial organisms isolated from 3 sources of soils. One each from the 3 groups of antagonists when further tested, was found
Subcellular changes during Phytophthora infection on betelvine are studied. Haustorial penetration of the fungal mycelium is accompanied by degradation of host cell wall. Appearance of membrane bound lipoid bodies and amorphous structures leading to degeneration of host cytoplasm was observed. Considering the economic significance of the betelvine plants, information on the pathogen and host interaction in this species gains significance.
. In maize, the endosperm region next to the placento-chalaza is characterised by the presence of cells with extensive cell wall ingrowths (transfer cells). Specific genes, collectively named as BETL (for Basal Endosperm Transfer Layer) genes, are expressed in these cells in a way that coincides with the temporal development of the transfer cell layer. The BETL-1 gene encodes a
Giampiero Cai; Claudia Faleri; Cecilia Del Casino; Gregorio Hueros; Richard D. Thompson; Mauro Cresti
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-pointed telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.
Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Tucker, C.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.
...RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; All Airplane Models of The New Piper Aircraft...lift strut forks for cracks or corrosion on all airplane models of The New Piper Aircraft...39) to include an AD that would apply to all Piper airplane models equipped with...
Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in environments of elevated osmolarity and reduced temperature is attributed, at least in part, to the accumulation of the trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine. Previously we identified betL, a gene encoding the secondary glycine betaine transporter BetL, which we linked to the salt tolerance of Listeria. In this report, we demonstrate that betL, preceded
Roy D. Sleator; Cormac G. M. Gahan; Brid ODriscoll; Colin Hill
The bioassay-guided purification of the ethanolic extract from the leaves of Piper hispidum led to the isolation of one new amide, N-2-(3?,4?,5?-trimethoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-hydroxybenzamide (1) as well as two known chalcones 2?-hydroxy-3?,4?,6?-trimethoxychalcone (2); 2?,4?-dihydroxy-6?-methoxychalcone (cardamonin, 3) and one known flavanone, 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone (Pinocembrin, 4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, including homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC
Various parts of Piper obliquum Ruíz & Pavon yielded the new alkenylphenols obliquol A (1) and obliquol B (2), the new 4-chromanone 3 together with the known compounds 4 and 5. A synthesis of obliquol B (2) was developed in order to confirm its structure and to provide sufficient amounts for biological testing. Compounds 1 and 2 have antibacterial activity comparable to that of ampicillin, 2 in addition possesses potent anti-NF-kappaB activity by targeting early events in the TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB inflammatory pathway, which may explain the effects reported for the traditional use of the plant. PMID:18276144
Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management.
...RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; All Models of The New Piper Aircraft, Inc...93-10-06, which currently applies to all models of The New Piper Aircraft, Inc...triplicate to the address specified above. All communications received on or before...
Piper betel leaves (PBL) are used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. PBL has the biological\\u000a capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antimutation. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of PBL\\u000a extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in a rat model. Fibrosis and hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the activities of
While the genetic elements contributing to the salinity tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes have been well characterized, the regulatory signals and responses (genetic and/or biochemical) that govern these mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Encoded by betL, the first genetic element to be linked to listerial osmotolerance, the secondary betaine uptake system BetL is a member of the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family. Preceded by consensus sigma(A)- and sigma(B)-dependent promoter sites, betL is constitutively expressed and transcriptionally up-regulated in response to salt stress. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to achieve salinity-independent, controlled betL expression in Listeria. In the absence of NaCl-activated transcriptional control, BetL activity was found to be a function of environmental salinity, showing optimal activity in buffer supplemented with 1 to 2% NaCl (osmolality, 417 to 719 mosmol/kg). In addition, BetL was activated rapidly (half-life, 2 min) in response to an osmotic upshift imposed by adding 2% NaCl to 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer. PMID:14645273
While the genetic elements contributing to the salinity tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes have been well characterized, the regulatory signals and responses (genetic and/or biochemical) that govern these mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Encoded by betL, the first genetic element to be linked to listerial osmotolerance, the secondary betaine uptake system BetL is a member of the betaine-carnitine-choline transporter family. Preceded by consensus ?A- and ?B-dependent promoter sites, betL is constitutively expressed and transcriptionally up-regulated in response to salt stress. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to achieve salinity-independent, controlled betL expression in Listeria. In the absence of NaCl-activated transcriptional control, BetL activity was found to be a function of environmental salinity, showing optimal activity in buffer supplemented with 1 to 2% NaCl (osmolality, 417 to 719 mosmol/kg). In addition, BetL was activated rapidly (half-life, 2 min) in response to an osmotic upshift imposed by adding 2% NaCl to 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer.
Survival of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in environments of elevated osmolarity and reduced temperature is attributed, at least in part, to the accumulation of the trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine. Previously we identified betL, a gene encoding the secondary glycine betaine transporter BetL, which we linked to the salt tolerance of Listeria. In this report, we demonstrate that betL, preceded by a consensus sigmaB-dependent promoter, is regulated by osmotic up-shock, at least in part at the level of transcription. Using allelic exchange mutagenesis we constructed an in-frame deletion in betL, and used this mutant to determine the role of BetL in contributing to the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes, both in a high risk food (Camembert cheese) and animal model. Our results indicate that while BetL plays an important role in glycine betaine mediated osmoprotection, mutating the gene does not significantly effect either the cryotolerance or virulence of the organism. PMID:11016615
Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will work as a short-term repellent and feeding deterrent. It is recommended that the use of Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353
Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R
The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in search of the expected signature of primordial gravity waves excited during an inflationary epoch shortly after the Big Bang. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, one sensitive to the Q Stokes parameter and the other to U. Sky signals will be detected with 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers distributed in four rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 100 mK. To maximize the sensitivity of the instrument, both telescopes are mounted within a single open bucket dewar and are maintained at 1.5 K throughout flight, with no ambient-temperature windows between the sky and the detectors. To mitigate the effects of systematic errors, the polarized sky signals will be modulated using a variable-delay polarization modulator. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission within the Galaxy. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce nearly full-sky maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. I will discuss the current status and potential science returns from the PIPER project.
Background\\/Aims: Botanical drugs are widely used and often contain highly active compounds. Kava root (Piper methysticum rhizoma), used frequently in Europe as a remedy against anxiety, contains kavapyrones with sedative effects. Seven case reports suggested the development of hepatitis after the intake of Kava.Methods: We analyzed 29 novel cases of hepatitis along with Kava ingestion which occurred between 1990 and
Felix Stickel; Hans-Martin Baumüller; Karlheinz Seitz; Dimitrios Vasilakis; Gerhard Seitz; Helmut K Seitz; Detlef Schuppan
The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Piper arboreum var. latifolium and P. hispidum were analyzed by a combination of GC\\/MS, C-NMR and Kovats indices. The main constituents found in the oil of P. hispidum were ?-cadinene (25.13%), camphene (15.61%), ?-guaiene (11.47%) and ?-elemene (10.88%). The oil of P. arboreum var. latifolium showed a high yield of germacrene D
Samísia M. F. Machado; Júlio S. L. T. Militão; Valdir A. Facundo; Adauto Ribeiro; Selene M. Morais; Maria I. L. Machado
Comparison between farming of Piper auritum Kunth (CaisimÛn de anÌs) in the shadow and in the sunlight, hasnít significant differences in yieldieng from foliage in two forms of farming, but a considerable increase was noted in essential oil content, present in its leaves, when farming was performed under sunlight. Subject heading: PLANT LEAVES\\/chemistry; PLANT OILS\\/chemistry; MEDICINAL PLANTS\\/chemistry
The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has developed a pipe corrosion management system, called PIPER, as part of the Corrosion Mitigation and Management System. PIPER is a predictive technique based on state-of-the-art mathematical mo...
Betaine uptake in Listeria monocytogenes is mediated by three independent transport systems, the simplest of which in genetic terms is the secondary transporter BetL. Using a random mutagenesis approach, based on the E. coli XL1 Red mutator strain, we identified a single point mutation in a putative promoter region upstream of the BetL coding region which leads to a significant increase in betL transcript levels under osmo- and chill-stress conditions and a concomitant increase in stress tolerance. Furthermore, the mutation appears to counter the heretofore unreported "twisted" cell morphology observed for L. monocytogenes grown at elevated osmolarities in tryptone soy broth. PMID:23478432
Hoffmann, Roland F; McLernon, Susan; Feeney, Audrey; Hill, Colin; Sleator, Roy D
The trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, conferring enhanced osmo- and cryotolerance upon Listeria monocytogenes .W e report the identification of betL, a gene encoding a glycine betaine uptake system in L. monocytogenes, isolated by functional complementation of the betaine uptake mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. The betL gene is preced- ed by a consensus
R. D. Sleater; CORMAC G. M. GAHAN; TJAKKO ABEE; COLIN HILL
The trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine (N,N, N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, conferring enhanced osmo- and cryotolerance upon Listeria monocytogenes. We report the identification of betL, a gene encoding a glycine betaine uptake system in L. monocytogenes, isolated by functional complementation of the betaine uptake mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. The betL gene is preceded by a consensus sigmaB-dependent promoter and is predicted to encode a 55-kDa protein (507 amino acid residues) with 12 transmembrane regions. BetL exhibits significant sequence homologies to other glycine betaine transporters, including OpuD from Bacillus subtilis (57% identity) and BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum (41% identity). These high-affinity secondary transporters form a subset of the trimethylammonium transporter family specific for glycine betaine, whose substrates possess a fully methylated quaternary ammonium group. The observed Km value of 7.9 microM for glycine betaine uptake after heterologous expression of betL in E. coli MKH13 is consistent with values obtained for L. monocytogenes in other studies. In addition, a betL knockout mutant which is significantly affected in its ability to accumulate glycine betaine in the presence or absence of NaCl has been constructed in L. monocytogenes. This mutant is also unable to withstand concentrations of salt as high as can the BetL+ parent, signifying the role of the transporter in Listeria osmotolerance. PMID:10224004
The maize (Zea mays L.) betl1 locus, encoding a basal endosperm transfer layer-specific protein, has been mapped and molecularly cloned in its entirety. The locus is shown to consist of three gene copies in the maize inbred line A69Y. To distinguish the three transcription units from the locus name, we have termed them BETL1a, BETL1b, and BETL1c. Two of the copies are expressed, whereas one is inactive and contains retrotransposon-like insertions in both promoter and intron regions. Based on this information, and a restriction site map covering 17 kb around the BETL1 locus, a DNA fragment putatively containing an active promoter sequence was identified. This fragment was tested for its ability to confer transfer-cell-specific expression in transient and stably transformed maize tissues. The transgenic maize plants obtained showed the predicted cell-type specificity of expression restricted to the basal endosperm transfer cells, although there were minor deviations in promoter strength and timing and accumulation of the transgene product from the corresponding BETL-1 endogene expression pattern. PMID:10594101
The maize (Zea mays L.) betl1 locus, encoding a basal endosperm transfer layer-specific protein, has been mapped and molecularly cloned in its entirety. The locus is shown to consist of three gene copies in the maize inbred line A69Y. To distinguish the three transcription units from the locus name, we have termed them BETL1a, BETL1b, and BETL1c. Two of the copies are expressed, whereas one is inactive and contains retrotransposon-like insertions in both promoter and intron regions. Based on this information, and a restriction site map covering 17 kb around the BETL1 locus, a DNA fragment putatively containing an active promoter sequence was identified. This fragment was tested for its ability to confer transfer-cell-specific expression in transient and stably transformed maize tissues. The transgenic maize plants obtained showed the predicted cell-type specificity of expression restricted to the basal endosperm transfer cells, although there were minor deviations in promoter strength and timing and accumulation of the transgene product from the corresponding BETL-1 endogene expression pattern.
Hueros, Gregorio; Gomez, Elisa; Cheikh, Nordine; Edwards, Janice; Weldon, Marcia; Salamini, Francesco; Thompson, Richard D.
The trimethylammonium compound glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) can be accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, conferring enhanced osmo- and cryotolerance upon Listeria monocytogenes. We report the identification of betL, a gene encoding a glycine betaine uptake system in L. monocytogenes, isolated by functional complementation of the betaine uptake mutant Escherichia coli MKH13. The betL gene is preceded by a consensus ?B-dependent promoter and is predicted to encode a 55-kDa protein (507 amino acid residues) with 12 transmembrane regions. BetL exhibits significant sequence homologies to other glycine betaine transporters, including OpuD from Bacillus subtilis (57% identity) and BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum (41% identity). These high-affinity secondary transporters form a subset of the trimethylammonium transporter family specific for glycine betaine, whose substrates possess a fully methylated quaternary ammonium group. The observed Km value of 7.9 ?M for glycine betaine uptake after heterologous expression of betL in E. coli MKH13 is consistent with values obtained for L. monocytogenes in other studies. In addition, a betL knockout mutant which is significantly affected in its ability to accumulate glycine betaine in the presence or absence of NaCl has been constructed in L. monocytogenes. This mutant is also unable to withstand concentrations of salt as high as can the BetL+ parent, signifying the role of the transporter in Listeria osmotolerance.
Sleator, Roy D.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Abee, Tjakko; Hill, Colin
Background: Piper ovatum (Piperaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations and as an analgesic. Previous studies have showed important biological activities of the extracts and amides from P. ovatum leaves. Objective: In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of the amides in different parts of Piper ovatum. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Metasil ODS column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5?m) at room temperature. HPLC conditions were as follows: acetonitrile (A), and water (B), 1.0% acetic acid. The gradient elution used was 030 min, 0-60% A; 3040 min, 60% A. Flow rate used was 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. Results: The validation using piperlonguminine, as the standard, demonstrated that the method shows linearity (linear correlation coefficient = 0.998), precision (relative standard deviation <5%) and accuracy (mean recovery = 103.78%) in the concentration range 31.25 500?g/mL. The limit of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 4.03?g/mL, respectively. This method allowed the identification and quantification of piperlonguminine and piperovatine in the hydroethanolic extracts of P. ovatum obtained from the leaves, stems and roots. All the extracts showed the same chromatographic profile. The leaves and roots contained the highest concentrations of piperlonguminine and the stems and leaves showed the most concentrations of piperovatine. Conclusion: This HPLC method is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of amides in extracts of Piper ovatum and phytopharmaceuticals containing this herb.
Silva, Daniel R.; Brenzan, Mislaine A.; Kambara, Lauro M.; Cortez, Lucia E. R.; Cortez, Diogenes A. G.
Summary Sporangial formation was found restricted within the range of temperature from 2031° C. Atmospheric humidity of 100 % did not favour very much in developing sporangia. Free water appeared to be essential in sporangial formation. The range of temperature within which the liberation of zoospores took place was even narrower, 19 to 25° C. Temperature from 21 to 23°
Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous food-borne pathogen found widely distributed in nature as well as an undesirable contaminant in a variety of fresh and processed foods. This ubiquity can be at least partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow at high osmolarity and reduced temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate osmo- and cryoprotective compounds termed osmolytes. Single and multiple deletions of the known osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC significantly reduce growth at low temperatures. During growth in brain heart infusion broth at 7°C, Gbu and OpuC had a more pronounced role in cryoprotection than did BetL. However, upon the addition of betaine to defined medium, the hierarchy of transporter importance shifted to Gbu > BetL > OpuC. Upon the addition of carnitine, only OpuC appeared to play a role in cryoprotection. Measurements of the accumulated osmolytes showed that betaine is preferred over carnitine, while in the absence of a functional Gbu, carnitine was accumulated to higher levels than betaine was at 7°C. Transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding BetL, Gbu, and OpuC revealed that each transporter is induced to different degrees upon cold shock of L. monocytogenes LO28. Additionally, despite being transcriptionally up-regulated upon cold shock, a putative fourth osmolyte transporter, OpuB (identified by bioinformatic analysis and encoded by lmo1421 and lmo1422), showed no significant contribution to listerial chill tolerance. Growth of the quadruple mutant LO28?BCGB (?betL ?opuC ?gbu ?opuB) was comparable to the that of the triple mutant LO28?BCGsoe (?betL ?opuC ?gbu) at low temperatures. Here, we conclude that betaine and carnitine transport upon low-temperature exposure is mediated via three osmolyte transporters, BetL, Gbu, and OpuC.
Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H.; Sleator, Roy D.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Hill, Colin; Abee, Tjakko
Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving the technological robustness of what are often process-sensitive cultures is an important biological goal. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to direct the heterologous expression of the listerial betaine uptake system BetL in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118. Following nisin induction, strains expressing betL exhibited a significant increase in resistance to several stresses, including elevated osmo-, cryo-, baro-, and chill tolerance, as well as increased resistance to spray- and freeze-drying. The ability to confer additional stress tolerance on a probiotic culture may be an important step in delivering viable cultures for maximal efficacy.
Sheehan, Vivien M.; Sleator, Roy D.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin
Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving the technological robustness of what are often process-sensitive cultures is an important biological goal. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to direct the heterologous expression of the listerial betaine uptake system BetL in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118. Following nisin induction, strains expressing betL exhibited a significant increase in resistance to several stresses, including elevated osmo-, cryo-, baro-, and chill tolerance, as well as increased resistance to spray- and freeze-drying. The ability to confer additional stress tolerance on a probiotic culture may be an important step in delivering viable cultures for maximal efficacy. PMID:16517668
Sheehan, Vivien M; Sleator, Roy D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin
...Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...to Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 airplanes. The existing AD...certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 airplanes. That AD...
...type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-18 and...toggle-style magneto switches located on the left cabin panel, adjacent to the front seat, away...style magneto switches located on the left cabin panel, adjacent to the front seat,...
...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive...previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc...time located on the left cabin panel, adjacent to the...ignition leads from the left cabin panel, adjacent to the...configuration existing at time of new switch...
One new alkaloid amide, piperlongumide (1) [N-isobutyl-19-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2E,4E nonadecadienamide], and six known compounds with leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani were isolated from the n-hexane fraction of the fruits of Piper longum. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic evidences. PMID:22576441
Ghosal, Sabari; Deb, Anindita; Mishra, Priyanka; Vishwakarma, Ram
|Explores the sacrifice of African American children to the broadcast media and video games in terms of the players ("media pipers"), the messages ("piping"), and the consequences to children. Proposes some solutions for the problems associated with excessive television viewing and undesirable programming. (SLD)|
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are important constituents of snake venoms, being responsible for several of their toxic actions. Extracts from plants used in folk medicine were screened for inhibition of the enzymatic activity of myotoxin I, a PLA2 from Bothrops asper. Piper umbellatum and Piper peltatum extracts tested positive, and their fractionation resulted in the isolation of 4-nerolidylcatechol. Its inhibitory effects
Vitelbina Núñez; Víctor Castro; Renato Murillo; Luis A. Ponce-Soto; Irmgard Merfort; Bruno Lomonte
Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous food-borne pathogen found widely distributed in nature as well as an undesirable contaminant in a variety of fresh and processed foods. This ubiquity can be at least partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow at high osmolarity and reduced temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate osmo- and cryoprotective compounds termed osmolytes. Single and multiple deletions of the known osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC significantly reduce growth at low temperatures. During growth in brain heart infusion broth at 7 degrees C, Gbu and OpuC had a more pronounced role in cryoprotection than did BetL. However, upon the addition of betaine to defined medium, the hierarchy of transporter importance shifted to Gbu > BetL > OpuC. Upon the addition of carnitine, only OpuC appeared to play a role in cryoprotection. Measurements of the accumulated osmolytes showed that betaine is preferred over carnitine, while in the absence of a functional Gbu, carnitine was accumulated to higher levels than betaine was at 7 degrees C. Transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding BetL, Gbu, and OpuC revealed that each transporter is induced to different degrees upon cold shock of L. monocytogenes LO28. Additionally, despite being transcriptionally up-regulated upon cold shock, a putative fourth osmolyte transporter, OpuB (identified by bioinformatic analysis and encoded by lmo1421 and lmo1422), showed no significant contribution to listerial chill tolerance. Growth of the quadruple mutant LO28deltaBCGB (deltabetL deltaopuC deltagbu deltaopuB) was comparable to the that of the triple mutant LO28deltaBCGsoe (deltabetL deltaopuC deltagbu) at low temperatures. Here, we conclude that betaine and carnitine transport upon low-temperature exposure is mediated via three osmolyte transporters, BetL, Gbu, and OpuC. PMID:15128551
Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H; Sleator, Roy D; Wouters, Jeroen A; Hill, Colin; Abee, Tjakko
Piper longum Linn. (Piperaceae) (fruits and roots powder) is given with boiled milk in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of liver ailments and jaundice. However, the biochemical basis and mechanism of hepatoprotective action of Piper longum milk extract is not scientifically studied. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Piper longum
Piper auritum (H.B. & K.), a pioneer tree restricted to open sites and Piper hispidum (Swartz), a shrub common in sites ranging from recent clearings to shaded understory, both adjust photosynthetic characteristics in response to light availability during growth. The sensitivity of photosynthetic capacity to light availability during growth was indistinguishable for the two species growing in their natural habitat.
The chemical composition of essential oils from unripe and ripe fruits of Piper amalago L. var. medium (Jacq.) Yunck and Piper hispidum Sw. was examined using GC\\/MS analysis. The analysis of oils from P. amalago revealed a predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and 65 compounds were identified; their main constituents are: (E)- nerolidol (14.2% and 19.9%), germacrene-D-4-ol (10.3% and 12.7%), ?-cadinol
Maria Lúcia Ferreira Simeone; Sandra Bos Mikich; Lílian Cristina Côcco; Fabrício Augusto Hansel; Gledson Vigiano Bianconi
Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are parasitic protozoan infections that affect the poorest population in the world, causing high mortality and morbidity. As a result of highly toxic and long-duration treatments, novel, safe and more efficacious drugs are essential. In this work, the methanol (MeOH) extract from the leaves of Piper malacophyllum (Piperaceae) was fractioned to afford one alkenylphenol, which was characterized as 4-[(3'E)-decenyl]phenol (gibbilimbol B) by spectroscopic methods. Anti-protozoan in vitro assays demonstrated for the first time that Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi was susceptible to gibbilimbol B, with an in vitro EC(50) of 23 ?g/mL against axenic promastigotes and an EC(50) of 22 ?g/mL against intracellular amastigotes. Gibbilimbol B was also tested for anti-trypanosomal activity (Trypanosoma cruzi) and showed an EC(50) value of 17 ?g/mL against trypomastigotes. To evaluate the cytotoxic parameters, this alkenylphenol was tested in vitro against NCTC cells, showing a CC(50) of 59 ?g/mL and absent hemolytic activity at the highest concentration of 75 ?g/mL. Using the fluorescent probe SYTOX Green suggested that the alkenylphenol disrupted the Leishmania plasma membrane upon initial incubation. Further drug design studies aiming at derivatives could be a promising tool for the development of new therapeutic agents for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. PMID:22981719
de Oliveira, Alberto; Mesquita, Juliana T; Tempone, André G; Lago, João Henrique G; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kato, Massuo J
Three new 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid derivatives, 4-methoxy-3,5-bis-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-butenyl)benzoate, 3-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylic acid, and 3-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester together with eight known compounds, have been isolated from the stems of Piper hispidum. Their structures were elucidated by a detailed spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the cytotoxicity of seven isolated compounds has been evaluated, revealing a moderate activity for three derivatives of dillapiole. PMID:15997836
Friedrich, U; Siems, K; Solis, P N; Gupta, M P; Jenett-Siems, K
Attempt has been made to evaluate free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. individually. In this study goat liver has been used as lipid source. This in vitro evaluation was done by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) of tissue homogenates. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the Piper trioicum Roxb. and Physalis minima L. has the ability to suppress the lipid peroxidation and it was also found that Piper trioicum Roxb. extract has more activity than Physalis minima L. extract. PMID:21715277
The paper details likely incomes and living costs of law graduates as related to educational costs and debts. Concern is expressed about the deterrent effect of potential high debt on minorities and an approach to financial aid which would take minority status into account is urged. (Author/DB)
The effects of leaf-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on the transient and steady-state stomatal responses to photon flux density (PFD) were evaluated in Piper auritum, a pioneer tree, and Piper aequale, a shade tolerant shrub, that are both native to tropical forests at Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, México. Under constant high-PFD conditions, the stomata of shade-acclimated plants of both species were
Kava (Piper methysticum) is an effective anxiolytic that has been withdrawn from various consumer markets in European countries due to concerns over its hepatotoxicity. It is plausible that the reported hepatotoxicity may be due in part to plant substitution, or an incorrect cultivar, or plant parts being used (such as leaves or bark); thus both the plant chemotype and the plant part used may be critical factors. If re-institution of kava in the EU is to occur, more evidence is required to determine its safety and efficacy. Furthermore, according to current evidence, the study of traditional water soluble rhizome extracts using a noble cultivar of kava may be advised. The Kava Anxiety-Lowering Medication (KALM) project is due to start in late 2010 to address these considerations. The KALM project uses an aqueous rhizome extract of a noble cultivar of kava in participants with generalised anxiety and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD). The project comprises of 1) an acute RCT, kava (180 mg of kavalactones) versus oxazepam and placebo in 20 anxious people, testing effects on cognition, mood, anxiety, and driving; 2) an 8-week RCT comparing kava (120 mg kavalactones) versus placebo in 100 patients with GAD. To assess differences between dosages, non-responders at 3 weeks will be titrated to 240 mg of kavalactones. The project will also assess the effects of kava on liver function tests and its side effects profile. A novel component of the project is the pharmacogenomic exploration of phenotypical responses (GABA system and cytochrome P450 markers). The results of the study may be of benefit to sufferers of anxiety and the future economy of the Pacific islands, potentially providing an important step in the way forward with kava. PMID:20814850
Sarris, Jerome; Teschke, Rolf; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Schweitzer, Isaac
The success of Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen owes much to its ability to survive a variety of stresses, both in the food environment and, after ingestion, within the animal host. Growth at high salt concentrations is attributed mainly to the accumulation of organic solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine. We characterized L. monocytogenes LO28 strains with single, double, and triple deletions in the osmolyte transport systems BetL, Gbu, and OpuC. When single deletion mutants were tested, Gbu was found to have the most drastic effect on the rate of growth in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth with 6% added NaCl. The highest reduction in growth rate was found for the triple mutant LO28BCG (?betL ?opuC ?gbu), although the mutant was still capable of growth under these adverse conditions. In addition, we analyzed the growth and survival of this triple mutant in an animal (murine) model. LO28BCG showed a significant reduction in its ability to cause systemic infection following peroral coinoculation with the wild-type parent. Altering OpuC alone resulted in similar effects (R. D. Sleator, J. Wouters, C. G. M. Gahan, T. Abee, and C. Hill, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:2692-2698, 2001), leading to the assumption that OpuC may play an important role in listerial pathogenesis. Analysis of the accumulation of osmolytes revealed that betaine is accumulated up to 300 ?mol/g (dry weight) when grown in BHI broth plus 6% NaCl whereas no carnitine accumulation could be detected. Radiolabeled-betaine uptake studies revealed an inability of BGSOE (?betL ?gbu) and LO28BCG to transport betaine. Indeed, for LO28BCG, no accumulated betaine was found, but carnitine was accumulated in this strain up to 600 ?mol/g (dry weight) of cells, indicating the presence of a possible fourth osmolyte transporter.
Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Sleator, Roy D.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin; Abee, Tjakko
Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. PMID:23993539
Nano-S prepared by an annealing process showed excellent catalytic activity for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols under solvent-free reaction condition at 50 °C. The catalyst could be reused up to the fifth cycle without loss in its action. The green-ness of the present protocol was also measured using green metrics drawing its superiority. PMID:23472638
Background and Aims Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development is a complex, yet homoplasious developmental pattern that is interesting from both evolutionary and developmental perspectives. Piper (Piperaceae) was chosen for this study of Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development because Piperales represent a hotspot of female gametophyte developmental evolution and have been the subject of several recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. This wealth of phylogenetic and descriptive data make Piper an excellent candidate for inferring the evolutionary developmental basis for the origin of Fritillaria-type female gametophytes. Methods Developing ovules of Piper peltatum were taken from greenhouse collections, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and serially sectioned. Light microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy were combined to produce three-dimensional computer reconstructions of developing female gametophytes. The ploidies of the developing embryos and endosperms were calculated using microspectrofluorometry. Key Results The data describe female gametophyte development in Piper with highly detailed three-dimensional models, and document two previously unknown arrangements of megaspore nuclei during early development. Also collected were microspectrofluorometric data that indicate that Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development in Piper results in pentaploid endosperm. Conclusions The three-dimensional models resolve previous ambiguities in developmental interpretations of Fritillaria-type female gametophytes in Piper. The newly discovered arrangements of megaspore nuclei that are described allow for the construction of explicit hypotheses of female gametophyte developmental evolution within Piperaceae, and more broadly throughout Piperales. These detailed hypotheses indicate that the common ancestor of Piperaceae minus Verhuellia had a Drusa-type female gametophyte, and that evolutionary transitions to derived tetrasporic female gametophyte ontogenies in Piperaceae, including Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development, are the consequence of key nuclear migration and patterning events at the end of megasporogenesis.
The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program. PMID:21128372
To observe the effect of various doses of oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter (OPUM) to cholesterol gallstones in experimental mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 60) were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group, model group, OPUM (15, 30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, administered for 10 weeks. The level of serum lipid and liver function enzymes were tested. The gallbladder was removed and bile was obtained by centrifugation. Next, the levels of the bile total cholesterol (TC), phospholipid (PL) and bile acid (TBA) were measured. The indicators of lipid peroxidation were determined and cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated. The liver histological changes were observed by HE staining. The results showed that serum TC, TG (triglycerides) and AST (aspartate transaminase) contents, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of SOD decreased significantly and MDA content increased significantly in liver (P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the hepatic cord disorder and intracellular lipid droplets increased significantly. All results indicate that lithogenic diet lead to the formation of cholesterol gallstones. In OPUM (30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, serum TC, TG and AST content, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI decreased significantly, the activity of SOD increased significantly and MDA content decreased significantly. HE staining results showed that OPUM can improve the morphology of liver cell, reduce the degree of hepatic cord disorders and restore the cell morphology close to normal. The cause of OPUM prevents cholesterol gallstone formation maybe due to protect the integrity of the liver cells, lower CSI, and reduce cholesterol crystal formation and hence prevent cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:24133988
The chemical composition of the leaf oil of Piper hispidum Sw. was studied by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-five compounds of the oil were identified of which ?-eudesmol (17.5%) and a compound tentatively identified as trans-6-vinyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-5-isopropenylbenzofuran (12.9%) were the major components.
Jorge A. Pino; Rolando Marbot; Avilio Bello; Armando Urquiola
BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL
Kava kava, a beverage or extract prepared from the rhizome of the kava plant (Piper methysticum Forst. f.), was used for many centuries as a traditional beverage in the Pacific Islands. During the past few decades, kava has also gained popularity in Western countries as well, due to its anxiolytic and sedative properties. However, in recent years, kava has been
This study presents results of field experiments conducted to identify factors determining kavalactone content and chemotype in Piper methysticum. The following factors have been studied: (1) the geographical direction of the roots on the plant, (2) the geographical location of the plant, (3) its age, and (4) its organ (roots, stumps, or basal stems). Overall, 185 samples were analysed by
Ethanol and aqueous extracts of the different parts of Piper sarmentosum were analysed by HPLC for marker compounds to standardise these extracts. The standardised extracts were investigated for antioxidant activity (?-carotene linoleate model and DPPH model), anti-TB activity (microplate tetrazolium assay), and estimation of total phenolic and amide contents. The extracts of the different parts exhibited different antioxidant activity, phenolic
We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in
Dominic J. Benford; David T. Chuss; Gene C. Hilton; Kent D. Irwin; Nikhil S. Jethava; Christine A. Jhabvala; Alan J. Kogut; Timothy M. Miller; Paul Mirel; S. Harvey Moseley; Karwan Rostem; Elmer H. Sharp; Johannes G. Staguhn; Gregory M. Stiehl; George M. Voellmer; Edward J. Wollack
We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 ?m in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.
Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, Gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.
The present study describes the successful development of vacuum infiltration method in the oomycete-resistant wild Piper sp., Piper colubrinum, as a rapid transient method for expression of GUS (?-Glucuronidase) reporter gene and introduction of hairpin vector for endogenous gene silencing. The GUS reporter gene construct pCAMBIA 1305.2 was used as a positive control to test the efficiency of vacuum infiltration
?-caryophyllene (20.8%) for P. guineense. The oil from the fruits of P. nigrum contained sabinene (11.2%), ? ? ? ?-3-carene (18.5%), limonene (14.7%) and ? ? ? ?-caryophyllene (12.8%) while that of P. umbellatum content linalool (14.4%) and (E)-nerolidol (10.0%) as major constituents. The essential oil obtained from the leaves of P. capense was largely composed of ? ? ?
Plant extracts, a concoction of bioactive non-nutrient phytochemicals, have long served as the most significant source of new leads for anticancer drug development. Explored for their unique medicinal properties, the leaves of Piper betel, an evergreen perennial vine, are a reservoir of phenolics with antimutagenic, antitumor and antioxidant activities. Here, we show that oral feeding of betel leaf extract (BLE) significantly inhibited the growth of human prostate xenografts implanted in nude mice compared with vehicle-fed controls. To gain insights into the 'active principles', we performed a bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanolic BLE employing solvents of different polarity strengths using classical column chromatography. This approach yielded 15 fractions, which were then pooled to 10 using similar retention factors on thin-layer chromatographs. Bioactivity assays demonstrated that one fraction in particular, F2, displayed a 3-fold better in vitro efficacy to inhibit proliferation of prostate cancer cells than the parent BLE. The presence of phenols, hydroxychavicol (HC) and chavibetol (CHV), was confirmed in F2 by nuclear magnetic resonance, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Further, the HC containing F2 subfraction was found to be ~8-fold more potent than the F2 subfraction that contained CHV, in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells as evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Removing CHV from F2 remarkably decreased the IC50 of this fraction, indicating that HC is perhaps the major bioactive constituent, which is present to an extent of 26.59% in BLE. These data provide evidence that HC is a potential candidate for prostate cancer management and warrants further preclinical evaluation. PMID:23430955
We studied root net uptake of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) in species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae) under high, intermediate and low photosynthetically active photon flux densities (PFD). Plants were grown hydroponically, and then transferred to temperature controlled (25° C) root cuvettes for nutrient uptake determinations. Uptake solutions provided NH4+and NO3-simultaneously (both) or separately (single). In the first experiment,
Summary A review of the literature on the history, uses, and chemical constituents of long pepper is presented. The long peppers of\\u000a Indian commerce are derived from five different species of the genusPiper. Data concerning the geographical sources, cultivation, collection and commerce of each is presented. Distinguishing features\\u000a of the fruits derived from the several species are described. Substantial quantities of
Betel quid chewing is a general oral habit in Taiwan, India, southeastern Asian and South Africa with or without the additive of tobacco, alcohol or lime. In this study, the tumor-promoting neoplastic transformation effect of Lime-Piper betel quid (LPB) was examined on JB6 cells. The treatment of LPB at a high dose (1.0 mg\\/ml) for over 5 days or at lower doses
Summary Many naturally occurring substances of plant origin ingested in human diet, exhibit anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects.\\u000a One of the active phytochemical which shows the active anticarcinogenic role is Piper longum Linn. (Pl). Pl is widely used in ayurvedic industry due to its property in healing some of the bodily ailments. Despite being\\u000a known for the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects,
Umadevi Subramanian; Sharmila Poongavanam; A. J. Vanisree
The tropical plant family Piperaceae has provided many past and present civilizations with a source of diverse medicines and\\u000a food grade spice. The secondary plant compounds that produce these desired qualities function also as chemical defenses for\\u000a many species in the genus Piper. The compounds with the greatest insecticidal activity are the piperamides. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of
Ian M. Scott; Helen R. Jensen; Bernard J. R. Philogène; John T. Arnason
This paper describes the nightly and seasonal production of ripe fruit by Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a patchily distributed, bat-dispersed forest shrub, at Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Phenological observations over several years indicate that individuals produce a low (usually 13) and variable number of ripe fruit each night for 34 wks in the early wet season (June and July).
The organogenic potential and antioxidant potential (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging activity) of the medicinal\\u000a plant Piper nigrum L. (black pepper) were investigated. Callus induction and shoot regeneration were induced from leaf explants of potted plants\\u000a cultured on MS medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators. The best callogenic response was observed on explants\\u000a cultured for 30 days on MS medium supplemented with
Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Muhammad Rashid; Tariq Mahmood; Nighat Fatima
Acute (24 hours) and chronic (90 days) oral toxicity studies on the ethanolic extracts of common spices Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees bark and Piper longum L. fruits were carried out in mice. Acute dosages were 0.5, 1.0 and 3 g\\/kg while the chronic dosage was 100 mg\\/kg\\/day. All external morphological, hematological and spermatogenic changes, in addition to body weight and vital
A. H. Shah; A. H. Al-Shareef; A. M. Ageel; S. Qureshi
The anti-inflammatory activities of Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower) and Rosa hybrida (flower) were determined by carrageenan-induced paw edema, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and formaldehyde-induced arthritis in mice. The anti-allergic and analgesic activities of these plants were also studied by using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) and hot plate test in mice, respectively. These plant extracts clearly
In addition to nerolidol, 2?,6?-dihydroxy-4?-methoxydihydrochalcone, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3?-methyl-2?-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate and methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate, two new natural products were isolated from the leaves of Piperaduncum, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylic acid and 3-(3?,7?-dimethyl-2?,6?-octadienyl)-4-methoxybenzoic acid. The structures of the isolates were established based on analysis of spectroscopic data, including ESMS. The DNA-damaging activity of the isolated compounds was also investigated against mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Debora Cristina Baldoqui; Massuo Jorge Kato; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani; Maria Claudia M. Young; Maysa Furlan
This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.
IN a recent issue of NATURE, in the discussion on the forms of leaves, Mr. Henslow seems to doubt the assertion of Sir John Lubbock that the holly produces prickly leaves on the lower branches, and smooth leaves without spines above; but this is a fact which may easily be verified in numerous localities (selected gardens varieties are of course
Alcohol and water extracts of Piperbetle, Ocimum sanctum and Citrus limon were effective against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in culture and in checking the incidence and spread of the disease caused by the pathogen in the field. However, alcohol extracts were more effective in controlling the growth of the pathogen in vitro and in vivo. Extracts of P. betle was the
A new complex natural product with a C39 skeleton, named nudibaccatumone, and the known sesquiterpenes (+)-spathulenol, (-)-4?,10?-aromadendranediol, and ent-T-muurolol, as well as the phenylpropanoid hydroxychavicol, were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper nudibaccatum. The structure and absolute configuration of nudibaccatumone were elucidated using spectroscopic methods and ECD calculations. A 1,8-Michael addition reaction and an intermolecular, inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction are proposed as the key steps in the biosynthesis of nudibaccatumone. PMID:23544451
Background: The large-leafed perennial plant Piper auritum known as Hoja Santa, is used for its leaves that because of their spicy aromatic scent and flavor have an important presence in Mexican cuisine, and in many regions, this plant is known for its therapeutic properties. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from Piper auritum on cell culture system and the effect in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats treated by 28 days on the physiological, metabolic parameters and oxidative stress. Results: The hexane extract of P. auritum (HS) treatment significantly reduced the intake of both food, water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increase HDL-cholesterol. After 4-week administration of HS antioxidant enzyme as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx in pancreas were determined. These enzyme increased significantly compared with those of the diabetic rats control and normal animals. For all estimated, the results of HS treated groups leading to a restoration of the defense mechanism. The treatment also improves pancreatic TBARSreactive substance level and serum NO and iNOS. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the serum and pancreatic sections were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant increase in serum and pancreas tissue insulin. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the HS extract increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. In cultured RIN-5F cells, we examined whether hexane extract of P. auritum would protect the pancreas-derived ?-cells from oxidative stress. Moreover, HS could protect pancreatic ?-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress. Conclusion: From these results, HS is suggested to show anti-diabetic effect by stimulating insulin-dependent and by protecting pancreatic ?-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress.
In this fun, hands-on autumn activity, learners experiment to discover whether the colored substances in leaves can be separated from the leaves. Learners crush leaves and other natural materials and soak them in different liquids. They then carry out the technique of chromatography to separate out the pigments for observation. The activity is broken into three parts and includes follow-up and background information.
Secondary fallow vegetation in parts of the Papua New Guinea lowlands is dominated by the shrub Piper aduncum L. that originates from South America. Here we report on its seed bank, growth rate and biomass accumulation. P. aduncum accounted for 69 % (408 m[minus sign]2) of the seed bank in the forest and 53 % (1559 m[minus sign]2) of the
Shifting cultivation with short fallow periods (<3 years), is an important form of land use in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. The secondary forest vegetation is dominated by the shrub Piper aduncum which originates from South America, and Imperata cylindrica grasslands in areas where annual bush fires are common. No information is available on the rate of biomass
The success of Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen owes much to its ability to survive a variety of stresses, both in the food environment and, after ingestion, within the animal host. Growth at high salt concentrations is attributed mainly to the accumulation of organic solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine. We characterized L. monocytogenes LO28 strains with single, double, and triple deletions in the osmolyte transport systems BetL, Gbu, and OpuC. When single deletion mutants were tested, Gbu was found to have the most drastic effect on the rate of growth in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth with 6% added NaCl. The highest reduction in growth rate was found for the triple mutant LO28BCG (DeltabetL DeltaopuC Deltagbu), although the mutant was still capable of growth under these adverse conditions. In addition, we analyzed the growth and survival of this triple mutant in an animal (murine) model. LO28BCG showed a significant reduction in its ability to cause systemic infection following peroral coinoculation with the wild-type parent. Altering OpuC alone resulted in similar effects (R. D. Sleator, J. Wouters, C. G. M. Gahan, T. Abee, and C. Hill, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:2692-2698, 2001), leading to the assumption that OpuC may play an important role in listerial pathogenesis. Analysis of the accumulation of osmolytes revealed that betaine is accumulated up to 300 micro mol/g (dry weight) when grown in BHI broth plus 6% NaCl whereas no carnitine accumulation could be detected. Radiolabeled-betaine uptake studies revealed an inability of BGSOE (DeltabetL Deltagbu) and LO28BCG to transport betaine. Indeed, for LO28BCG, no accumulated betaine was found, but carnitine was accumulated in this strain up to 600 micro mol/g (dry weight) of cells, indicating the presence of a possible fourth osmolyte transporter. PMID:12324311
Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H; Wouters, Jeroen A; Sleator, Roy D; Gahan, Cormac G M; Hill, Colin; Abee, Tjakko
Leave No Trace (LNT) has become the official education and outreach policy for managing recreational use in parks and wilderness areas throughout the United States. It is based on seven core principles that seek to minimize impacts from backcountry recreational activities such as hiking, climbing, and camping. In this paper, we review the history and current practice of Leave No
Plants produce leaves to gather sunlight and exchange gases in the environment around them. Plants produce leaves unique to that particular plant species. Leaves can have many different shapes, sizes, and colors.
In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.
One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students pondered the mechanics of leaves' solar-collecting abilities, they began to understand plant behavior in a meaningful way.
Milled Piper methysticum roots were extracted sequentially with hot water and methanol. Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory assay directed purification of the methanol extract yielded bornyl esters of 3,4-methylenedioxy cinnamic acid (1) and cinnamic acid (2), pinostrobin (3), flavokawain B (4), and 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (5). The structures of compounds 1-5 were accomplished by spectral experiments. The aqueous extract contained previously reported kava lactones, as confirmed by TLC analysis. Compounds 3 and 5 were isolated for the first time from kava kava roots. Compound 4 showed the highest COX-I inhibitory activity at 100 microg/mL. All the compounds tested gave good COX-I and moderate COX-II enzyme inhibitory activities at 100 microg/mL. This is the first report of COX-I and -II inhibitory activities for compounds 1-5. PMID:11829631
Two new mono- and four new dimeric alkenylphenols, namely sarmentosumols A to F (1-6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum. The structures of these compounds were determined through a detailed analysis of NMR and MS data. Their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, and Candida albicans, and their cytotoxic activity against human myeloid leukemia (K562) and human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines were also evaluated. Except for sarmentosumol A (1), whose MIC on S. aureus was reported to be 7.0 µg/mL, none of the other newly discovered compounds exhibited antimicrobial property. The studied compounds did not possess any cytotoxic property. PMID:23576174
A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum. The method involves extraction of the fruit powder with glacial acetic acid, from which piperine is partitioned into chloroform and subsequently crystallized. The identity of the compound was confirmed by its melting point, comparison of UV, IR, and mass spectral data with those from a reference standard, and co-chromatography with the reference standard using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the compound was ascertained by TLC, by recording UV absorption spectra at the start, middle, and end positions of the spot on the plate, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PMID:18404304
This article compares two industrial disasters in the offshore oil industry, the explosion and fire on Piper Alpha off the coast of Scotland in 1988, the world's worst offshore disaster, and the blowout and explosions on Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It attempts to answer a simple question: Given the enormity of the first tragedy and the careful analysis of its circumstances and causes, why were the lessons of previous failure not learned by this globally organized industry, in the very heartland in the United States? The answer tells us much about the ability of corporate capital to configure regulatory regimes in its own interests and to do so in a manner that continues to threaten the safety and well-being of its employees and the wider environment. PMID:23384815
Work-place smoking bans have not only reduced work-day cigarette consumption but also been associated with going outside to smoke during working hours. We examined the extent of "exiled smoking", estimated how much work-day cigarette consumption can be attributed to it, and examined proximal predictors of both these two variables. Some 794 smokers from 42 medium-sized work-places were surveyed as the baseline for an intervention study. A self-completed questionnaire assessed smoking behaviour on work and non-working days, leaving work to smoke, and beliefs and opinions about smoking and smoking bans. Multiple regressions were used to examine predictors of leaving work to smoke, and of the amount smoked when doing so. Smokers reported consuming an average of 5.4 cigarettes during work breaks, 3.5 of which were associated with deliberately seeking opportunities to smoke; 39% reported leaving work to smoke one or more times per day during non-break periods. Indices of addiction were significant predictors of both leaving work to smoke and of cigarette consumption while doing so. Leaving work to smoke is in part an activity of addicted smokers, presumably to maintain blood nicotine levels. There is the potential to further reduce rates of cigarette consumption associated with work-place smoking bans if this "exiled smoking" can be reduced. This may be easier to achieve in light smokers. PMID:9489053
Bacillus thuringiensis is found naturally on the phylloplane. In this study 35 samples from 13 species of the genus Piper\\u000a (Piperaceae) were collected from three altitudinal levels located between 1800 and 2900 m above sea level in the Colombian\\u000a Andean forest of Central Cordillera. Two hundred and fifty-six isolates of B. thuringiensis were obtained from 74% of the\\u000a samples studied.
P. Maduell; R. Callejas; K. R. Cabrera; G. Armengol; S. Orduz
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was found by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to be not fully systemic in naturally infected\\u000a kava (Piper methysticum) plants in Fiji. Twenty-six of 48 samples (54%) from various tissues of three recently infected plants were CMV-positive\\u000a compared with 7\\/51 samples (14%) from three long-term infections (plants affected by dieback for more than 1 year).
R. I. DavisA; M. F. Lomavatu-FongB; L. A. McMichaelC; T. K. RuabeteA; S. Kumar; U. Turaganivalu
The 80% aqueous acetone extract from the fruit of Piper chaba (Piperaceae) was found to have hepatoprotective effects on d-galactosamine (d-GalN)\\/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice. From the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, three new amides, piperchabamides E, G, and H, 33 amides, and four aromatic constituents were isolated. Among the isolates, several amide constituents inhibited d-GalN\\/tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced death of hepatocytes,
The ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum on radiation-induced hepatic damage was evaluated. Rats were treated with a single dose of 600 rads (6 Gy) y-radiation to induce hepatic damage. Aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum (200 and 400 mg/kg b. wt) were administered orally to rats for two weeks prior to radiation and four weeks after radiation. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined for their antioxidant capacity. The activities of serum markers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and the histological changes were examined to evaluate potential ameliorative effects. Results from this study confirmed that exposure of animals to radiation led to induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced the level of GSH as well as CAT and GPx activities while simultaneously a significant elevation in the activities of serum ALT and AST was observed. Administration of varying doses of P.G. and A.L. before and after irradiation inhibited the elevated levels of LPO, restored the GSH level and enhanced CAT and GPx activities as well as significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum ALT and AST activities. This findings demonstrated that aqueous extracts of Piper guineense and Aframomum longiscapum might mitigate the liver gamma-radiation-induced damage probably by increasing antioxidant activities. PMID:23033796
FRITZ MUELLER has sent me some additional observations on the movements of leaves, when exposed to a bright light. Such movements seem to be as well developed and as diversified under the bright sun of Brazil, as are the well-known sleep or nyctitropic movements of plants in all parts of the world. This result has interested me much, as I
In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.
One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students
Starch mobilization is well understood in cereal endosperms, but both the pathway and the regulation of the process are poorly characterized in other types of plant organs. Arabidopsis leaves offer the opportunity for rapid progress in this area, because of the genomic resources available in this species and the ease with which starch synthesis and degradation can be monitored and
Alison M. Smith; Samuel C. Zeeman; David Thorneycroft; Steven M. Smith
|One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students
|Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk
Background The magnoliids with four orders, 19 families, and 8,500 species represent one of the largest clades of early diverging angiosperms. Although several recent angiosperm phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence resulted in phylogenetic reconstructions supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. We sequenced the plastid genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other angiosperm plastid genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids and to examine patterns of variation of GC content. Results The Drimys, Liriodendron, and Piper plastid genomes are very similar in size at 160,604, 159,886 bp, and 160,624 bp, respectively. Gene content and order are nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm plastid genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Overall GC content ranges from 3439%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions. Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and likelihood methods and sequences of 61 protein-coding genes provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. Strong support is reported for monocots and eudicots as sister clades with magnoliids diverging before the monocot-eudicot split. The trees also provided moderate or strong support for the position of Amborella as sister to a clade including all other angiosperms. Conclusion Evolutionary comparisons of three new magnoliid plastid genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genomes, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots.
Cai, Zhengqiu; Penaflor, Cynthia; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Leebens-Mack, James; Carlson, John E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K
Kabab chini (KC) (Piper cubeba) is an important drug in Unani Medicine, widely described to be effective in renal diseases, and physicians are using it as a protective and curative agent in various renal disorders from ancient times. The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of KC against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. This was studied in two different sets of tests, in which both the protective as well as the curative effects were evaluated in groups of albino rats. The powder of the test drug was administered orally in a dose of 810 mg/kg and 1220 mg/kg, in suspension form, in the pre- and post-treated models. The nephroprotective effect was assessed on the basis of biochemical estimation of serum urea and creatinine levels and histopathological examination of the treated kidney. The effect observed in the pre-treated and post-treated groups was compared with plain as well as negative control groups using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple pair comparison test. The findings of the two tests demonstrated that KC produced a significant nephroprotective effect in both pre-treated and post-treated groups. The results of our study indicate that KC possesses significant benefit against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:22805390
The anti-inflammatory activities of Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower) and Rosa hybrida (flower) were determined by carrageenan-induced paw edema, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and formaldehyde-induced arthritis in mice. The anti-allergic and analgesic activities of these plants were also studied by using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) and hot plate test in mice, respectively. These plant extracts clearly exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammation by oral administration (200 mg/kg). Also, administration (200 mg/kg, p.o.) of plant extracts for 1 week significantly inhibited type IV allergic reaction in mice (P<0.05). Rosa hybrida showed an analgesic effect against hot plate-induced thermal stimulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These results provide support for the use of Rosa hybrida in relieving inflammatory pain, and insight into the development of new agents for treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:14522451
The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective. PMID:18404321
A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (?40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions. PMID:23498196
Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A
Objective: To investigate the effects of alcoholic extract of Allium sativum and Piper longum on the muscular activity of a parasitic amphistome, Gigantocotyle explanatum. Materials and Methods: Amphistomes were isometrically mounted to record the spontaneous muscular activity by using Chart 4 software program (Power Lab, AD Instruments, Australia) and to examine the effects of cumulative doses (100, 300, 1000, and 3000 ?g/ml) of the plant extracts on the amplitude (g), frequency (per 10 min), and baseline tension (g) of the spontaneous muscular activity of the amphistome. Results: Alcoholic extract of A. sativum produced significant reduction in the frequency and amplitude of contractile activity of the amphistome at 1000 and 3000 ?g/ml bath concentrations. Complete paralysis of the amphistome was observed after 15 min of addition of 3000 ?g/ml concentration. Alcoholic extract of P. longum also caused paralysis following 15-20 min exposure of the amphistome to 3000 ?g/ml concentration. In both the cases the amphistomes did not recover from paralysis following 2-3 washes. Conclusion: The observations demonstrate the paralytic effect of alcoholic extract of A. sativum and P. longum on G. explanatum.
Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1? mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions. PMID:23523831
Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) correlation approach to protein-protein docking can evaluate the energies of billions of docked conformations on a grid if the energy is described in the form of a correlation function. Here, this restriction is removed, and the approach is efficiently used with pairwise interaction potentials that substantially improve the docking results. The basic idea is approximating the interaction matrix by its eigenvectors corresponding to the few dominant eigenvalues, resulting in an energy expression written as the sum of a few correlation functions, and solving the problem by repeated FFT calculations. In addition to describing how the method is implemented, we present a novel class of structure-based pairwise intermolecular potentials. The DARS (Decoys As the Reference State) potentials are extracted from structures of protein-protein complexes and use large sets of docked conformations as decoys to derive atom pair distributions in the reference state. The current version of the DARS potential works well for enzyme-inhibitor complexes. With the new FFT-based program, DARS provides much better docking results than the earlier approaches, in many cases generating 50% more near-native docked conformations. Although the potential is far from optimal for antibody-antigen pairs, the results are still slightly better than those given by an earlier FFT method. The docking program PIPER is freely available for noncommercial applications. PMID:16933295
Kozakov, Dima; Brenke, Ryan; Comeau, Stephen R; Vajda, Sandor
The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.
Pate-Cornell, M.E. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))
The CHCl3-soluble extract of Piper guanacastensis (Piperaceae) was found to have noteworthy insecticidal activity to Aedes atropalpus mosquito larvae (LC50 80.5 micrograms/mL). Bioassay-guided fractionation afforded methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate (1) as the major bioactive constituent (LC50 20.5 micrograms/mL). The separation of compound 1 from its transesterification artifact (2), ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-(3'-methyl-2'-butenyl)benzoate, was achieved by recycling reversed-phase HPLC. The flavonoids acacetin, chrysin, and pinostrobin were also isolated from the active fraction but did not display insecticidal properties. PMID:9090871
Pereda-Miranda, R; Bernard, C B; Durst, T; Arnason, J T; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; San Román, L
Biopesticides, including botanicals, can offer a safe and effective alternative to conventional insecticides for controlling major insect pests within an integrated pest management program. The current study highlights the practical application of a botanical insecticide for controlling a major insect pest of turfgrass: European chafer, Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky). Greenhouse and field trials were conducted to test the efficacy of a botanical formulation based on black pepper, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), seed extracts to R. majalis larvae. The 7-d P. nigrum extract LC50 for R. majalis third instars was 2.5%. Successful treatment in the field was accomplished with the application of a 2% P. nigrum formulation to turfgrass infested with R. majalis second and third instars, whereas 4% extract was required in a second field trial with older third instars. The 2% pepper extract activity was comparable with the conventional insecticide diazinon in the first field trial. However, the 4% pepper extracts significantly affected the earthworm populations in treated plots compared with diazinon in the second field trail. The analysis of soil residues for piperamides in the P. nigrum extract determined a half-life of 1 - 2.6 d in the first and second field trials, respectively. This confirmed the expectation that under field conditions the residual activity would be less than conventional insecticides, thereby reducing the environmental risk associated with pesticide use. We recommend the pepper formulation for spot treatment applications when population densities reveal an epicenter of infestation rather than broadcasting over large areas, thus helping to minimize cost and negative affects on nontarget invertebrates. PMID:16022313
Scott, I M; Gagnon, N; Lesage, L; Philogène, B J R; Arnason, J T
This study aimed to investigate the role of Salvia triloba L. and Piper nigrum extracts in ameliorating neuroinflammatory insults characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an experimentally induced rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into Group 1 (n=10): normal healthy animals serving as the negative control group; Group 2 (n=60): the AD-induced group. After AD induction, animals in the AD-induced group were divided randomly and equally into 6 subgroups. The first subgroup served as AD control; the second one, which served as positive control, was treated orally with the conventional therapy for AD (rivastigmine) at a dose of 0.3?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 3 months. The third and fourth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the S. triloba extract at a dose of 750 and 375?mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. The fifth and sixth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the P. nigrum extract at a dose of 187.5 and 93.75?mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. Levels of brain acetylcholine (Ach), serum and brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), total nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of AchE activity, CRP, NF-?B, and MCP-1 accompanied with a significant depletion in the Ach level. Treatment of AD rats with each of the selected medicinal plant extracts caused marked improvement in the measured biochemical parameters. In conclusion, S. triloba and P. nigrum methanolic extracts have potent anti-inflammatory effects against neuroinflammation characterizing AD. PMID:23631499
Ahmed, Hanaa H; Salem, Ahmed M; Sabry, Gilane M; Husein, Ahmed A; Kotob, Soheir E
In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg?1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77?ng?mL?1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL?1, Tmax 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.
Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)
...certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P...stated which of the affected model airplanes are equipped with two...sentence to ``After further research, we determined that Model PA-46-350P (Mirage)...
We studied nitrate reductase (NR) activity in six species of the genus Piper (Piperaceae) growing under a broad range of light availabilities. Field measurements were made on plants growing naturally in rainforest at the Los Tuxtlas Tropical Biological Preserve, Veracruz, Mexico at high- and lowlight extremes for each species. Foliar nitrogen on an area basis was positively related to the
Arthur L. Fredeen; Kevin Griffin; Christopher B. Field
At approximately 2140 e.d.t. on August 19, 1971, Downeast Airlines Flight 88, a scheduled air taxi flight, utilizing a Piper PA-31, N595DE, crashed about 4 miles short of Augusta State Airport while attempting an approach to Runway 17. The approach was be...
Twelve healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind crossover study to assess the effects of oxazepam and an extract of kava roots (Piper methysticum) on behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) in a recognition memory task. The subjects task was to identify within a list of visually presented words those that were shown for the first time and those that were
Radopholus similis is a serious threat to black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) cultivation being the main causal organism of slow decline disease. Because of its migratory nature most fungal and bacterial antagonists are ineffective in suppressing R. similis. The presence of a number of endophytic bacteria in black pepper tissues has been proved in earlier studies. This study was undertaken
R. Aravind; S. J. Eapen; A. Kumar; A. Dinu; K. V. Ramana
We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one
The conservation of rare plant species hinges on our ability to identify the underlying mechanisms that limit rare plant populations. Theory on rarity suggests that both predispersal seed predation and competition can be important mechanisms influencing abundance and/or distribution of rare plant populations. Yet few studies have tested these interactions, and those that have evaluated each mechanism independently. Astragalus sinuatus Piper (Whited's milkvetch) is a narrow endemic plant species restricted to eight populations within a 10-km2 area in eastern Washington. We used experimental and observational methods to test the effects of native insect predispersal seed predators and an invasive grass (Bromus tectorum L. [cheatgrass]) on seed set and population density of A. sinuatus. We quantified per capita seed production and pod predation rates across four sites and among four years. Seed predation rates were high across four sites (66-82%) and all years (65-82%). Experimental reduction of predispersal seed predators significantly increased per capita seed set of A. sinuatus (164-345%) at two experimental sites. Concurrently, two seed addition experiments demonstrated the effect of seed loss and presence of B. tectorum on seedling recruitment and establishment of A. sinuatus over four growing seasons. In the first seed addition experiment, we found no difference in recruitment and establishment between low (40) and high (120) seed addition levels. In the second addition experiment (one level of addition; 40 seeds), we found that recruitment and survivorship increased 200% in plots where B. tectorum was removed compared to plots where B. tectorum was present. Thus, seed addition had no impact in the presence of B. tectorum; conversely, in the absence of B. tectorum, seed addition was highly effective at increasing population numbers. Results suggest that, in areas where B. tectorum is present, recruitment is site limited, and it is seed limited when B. tectorum is absent. We recommend that managers reduce B. tectorum in an effort to increase population growth of A. sinuatus; in areas where B. tectorum is absent, short-term reduction of insect predators should be considered as a strategy to increase population growth of this rare species. PMID:22073639
Combs, Julie K; Reichard, Sarah H; Groom, Martha J; Wilderman, David L; Camp, Pamela A
A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro plantlets, producing metabolites of interest with substantial applications for the conservation of germplasm. PMID:23354497
Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina
|The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) gives employees the right to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for medical or family reasons. Provides key provisions of FMLA as they apply to schools and advises districts to consult school attorneys to help ensure compliance with the act and with the interim regulations issued last summer. (MLF)|
This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general
National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.
Three important medicinal fruits generally used by the people of Pakistan for the treatment of different diseases have been studied for their mineral contents. Twenty-two major and minor trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were identified in Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) and Piper cubeba L. (cubeb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The studied medicinal herbs are a good source of the essential elements while toxic elements are found in trace amounts. K is detected as a major element in pomegranate, jujube and cubeb with respective values of 1.20%, 1.18% and 2.01%. Pomegranate has significant concentrations of Na, Zn, Cr and Se; jujube has high Cl, Zn, Mn and Co contents while cubeb is a good source of K and Fe. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of mineral elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal herbs. PMID:22017565
The Piper Aircraft Corporation/Vero Beach Water and Sewer Department National Priorities List Site covers 8 acres in Vero Beach, Indiana River County, Florida. The facility began assembling and painting light aircraft in 1957. Chemicals utilized in these operations are stored on-site in underground storage tanks. In 1978, routine sampling and analysis of the city water supply revealed the presence of four volatile organic compounds: trichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene, cis/trans-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. Based on available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substance via contaminated groundwater, aerated groundwater that is being discharged to the surface water, and air contaminants released from the groundwater aeration process.
Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.
Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Sintia; Thiago Juca Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco
...a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program Â§ 630.1104...
5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01...Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs...1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank...
... Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 630.1205 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave Â§ 630.1205 Intermittent...including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C....
Spinach leaves contain an enzyme system which catalyses the hydroxylation of L-beta-phenylalanine to tyrosine. The crude active extract has been partially purified by fractional precipitation with acetone, adsorption on DEAE-cellulose, and with calcium ph...
... use only. Maternity leave: Tips for returning to work By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... Sign up Maternity leave: Tips for returning to work Maternity leave passes quickly. Find out what you ...
The antinociceptive properties of some fractions and two pure compounds, conocarpan and orientin, obtained from P. solmsianum leaves were investigated in several models of pain in mice. The results indicated that this plant exhibits a promising antinociceptive\\u000a profile, as it produces active principles which are several times more active than some reference drugs used for comparison.\\u000a The main compound tested,
Rosi Zanoni Da Silva; Rosendo Augusto Yunes; Márcia Maria de Souza; Franco Delle Monache; Valdir Cechinel-Filho
Allylpyrocatechol (APC) is responsible for the antiinflammatory activity exhibited by the methanolic extract of leaves of Piperbetle. As antiinflammatory compounds may display antioxidant properties and vice versa, we investigated the antioxidant effect of APC. APC effectively reduced phorbol-myristate-acetate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and superoxide in murine peritoneal macrophages as well as inhibited Escherichia-coli-induced phagocytic activity of macrophages. Furthermore, pBluescript SK(+) plasmid DNA damage induced by addition of sodium ascorbate was attenuated by APC as it inhibited transformation of the supercoiled form to a relaxed form. In addition, APC increased the enzymatic (catalase) and nonenzymatic (GSH) antioxidant components of murine macrophages. Taken together, APC exhibited an antioxidant activity which was mediated both via decreased generation of free radicals along with increase in cellular antioxidants. PMID:22585425
The methanolic extract from the fruit of Piper chaba (Piperaceae) was found to have a hepatoprotective effect on d-galactosamine (d-GalN)\\/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. From the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, a new amide constituent named piperchabamide E together with twenty known amide constituents (e.g., piperine, piperchabamides AD, and piperanine) and two aromatic constituents were isolated as the hepatoprotective constituents. With
We studied the echolocation and foraging behavior of two Neotropical frugivorous leaf-nosed bats (Carollia perspicillata, C. castanea: Phyllostomidae) in a flight cage. To test which cues Carollia uses to detect, identify, and localize ripe Piper fruit, their preferred natural food, we conducted experiments under semi-natural conditions with ripe, unripe, and artifical\\u000a fruits. We first offered the bats ripe fruits and
Wibke Thies; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler
There are many who would insist that the best laws from Washington, D.C., are those that aren't passed. A singular problem with many of the laws that are placed on the books is that their intended achievements are frequently largely overcome by unintended results. Such may be the case with the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. For all the good this law has done for those who need to take leaves of absence, it has added greatly to the woes of those who remain behind, the author says. Managers, she insists, will have to work diligently with the reactions of those who must accept additional workloads to accommodate the leaves of their colleagues. PMID:10139605
...reflected in the regulatory text. We are therefore addressing that oversight in these regulations. One agency believed it is too generous to allow up to 104 hours (13 days) of advanced sick leave for an employee's own medical, dental or optical...
Most leaves appear simple at first sight and they consist of only a few cell types. Despite that, many developmental processes are involved in leaf ontogeny, including positioning and initiation of leaf primordia, specification of leaf identity, establishment of dorsiventrality, the control of cell ...
Leaves are beautifully specialized organs that enable plants to intercept light necessary for photosynthesis. The light is dispersed among a large array of chloroplasts that are in close proximity to air and yet not too far from vascular tissue, which supplies water and exports sugars and other metabolites. To control water loss from the leaf, gas exchange occurs through pores
Stable silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions with a Paan (Piper betel) leaf petiole extract in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The reaction process was simple and convenient to handle, and was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Absorbance of Ag-nanoparticles increases with the concentrations of Paan leaf extract, acts as reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. The polyphenolic groups of petiole extract are responsible to the rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions into metallic Ag(0). The results indicated that the shape of the spectra, number of peaks and its position strongly depend on the concentration of CTAB, which played a shape-controlling role during the formation of silver nanoparticles in the solutions, whereas SDS has no significant effect. The morphology (spherical, truncated triangular polyhedral plate and some irregular nanoparticles) and crystalline phase of the particles were determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). PMID:22652360
Although Piper sarmentosum (PS) is known to possess the antidiabetic properties, its efficacy towards diabetic cardiovascular tissues is still obscured. The present study aimed to observe the electron microscopic changes on the cardiac tissue and proximal aorta of experimental rats treated with PS extract. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated control group (C), PS-treated control group (CTx), untreated diabetic group (D), and PS-treated diabetic group (DTx). Intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50?mg/kg body weight) was given to induce diabetes. Following 28 days of diabetes induction, PS extract (0.125?g/kg body weight) was administered orally for 28 days. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, and urine glucose levels were measured at 4-week interval. At the end of the study, cardiac tissues and the aorta were viewed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). DTx group showed increase in body weight and decrease in fasting blood glucose and urine glucose level compared to the D group. Under TEM study, DTx group showed lesser ultrastructural degenerative changes in the cardiac tissues and the proximal aorta compared to the D group. The results indicate that PS restores ultrastructural integrity in the diabetic cardiovascular tissues.
5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...Section 630.1117 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program Â§ 630.1117...
... FMLA Wage and Hour Division (WHD) Family and Medical Leave Act Overview The FMLA entitles eligible employees ... unpaid, job-protected leave for specified family and medical reasons with continuation of group health insurance coverage ...
Pressurized gas transport with flow rates of 1.1 to 1.81 gas h-1 plant-1 have been detected in the floating-leaved aquatic macrophyte Euryale ferox on sunny days. The younger leaves gave the highest pressurization, but the gas flow was initiated mainly by the middle-aged leaves of the plants. The gas through-flow was shown to be highly beneficial for floating-leaved plants. It
Rationale \\u000a Piper methysticum (Kava) has been withdrawn in European, British, and Canadian markets due to concerns over hepatotoxic reactions. The WHO\\u000a recently recommended research into aqueous extracts of Kava.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective The objective of this study was to conduct the first documented human clinical trial assessing the anxiolytic and antidepressant\\u000a efficacy of an aqueous extract of Kava.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and participants The Kava Anxiety
J. Sarris; D. J. Kavanagh; G. Byrne; K. M. Bone; J. Adams; G. Deed
|This essay highlights one pregnant middle school teacher's experiences with taking a mid-year leave. She used entries from her personal diary to reflect on how she felt about her leave, while her students wrote letters and notes expressing their anxieties about her leaving. The discussion of planning a pregnancy and the stages of pregnancy, along
Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H2O2 (01000 µmol/L) and it was observed that 180 µmol/L H2O2 reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H2O2-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 µg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H2O2-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HUVECs.
Hafizah, Abdul Hamid; Zaiton, Zakaria; Zulkhairi, Amom; Mohd Ilham, Adenan; Nor Anita, Megat Mohd Nordin; Zaleha, Abdullah Mahdy
Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H(2)O(2) (0-1000 micromol/L) and it was observed that 180 micromol/L H(2)O(2) reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H(2)O(2)-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 microg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H(2)O(2)-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H(2)O(2)-induced HUVECs. PMID:20443214
Hafizah, Abdul Hamid; Zaiton, Zakaria; Zulkhairi, Amom; Mohd Ilham, Adenan; Nor Anita, Megat Mohd Nordin; Zaleha, Abdullah Mahdy
Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus! Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care.
Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
Bacterial contamination is a serious problem that causes severe loss of in vitro grown cultures of a number of plants. This problem becomes even more acute if the bacterial contamination is of endophytic origin. In such cases, identification and characterization of the contaminants is essential for achieving specific control of the contaminants through selective use of antibiotic agents, especially if the routinely used contamination control methods practiced elsewhere in tissue culture studies are ineffective. Such is the case with the bacterial contamination observed in the present study. The five endophytic bacteria associated with Piper nigrum and Piper colubrinum, four endophytic bacteria associated with Taxus baccata subsp. wallichiana, two endophytic bacteria associated with Withania somnifera, and two bacteria common to all these plant species were isolated and characterized based on morphological and biochemical tests. Their taxonomic positions based on similarity indices were determined. A control strategy against these bacteria has been developed based on bacteriostatic or bactericidal actions of 12 antibiotics at three different concentrations by solid and liquid antibiogramme assays. PMID:17496951
Kulkarni, Anjali A; Kelkar, S M; Watve, M G; Krishnamurthy, K V
The magnoliids represent the largest basal angiosperm clade with four orders, 19 families and 8,500 species. Although several recent angiosperm molecular phylogenies have supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence has resulted in phylogenies supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. This is one of the most important remaining issues concerning relationships among basal angiosperms. We sequenced the chloroplast genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other completed angiosperm chloroplast genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids. The Drimys and Piper chloroplast genomes are nearly identical in size at 160,606 and 160,624 bp, respectively. The genomes include a pair of inverted repeats of 26,649 bp (Drimys) and 27,039 (Piper), separated by a small single copy region of 18,621 (Drimys) and 18,878 (Piper) and a large single copy region of 88,685 bp (Drimys) and 87,666 bp (Piper). The gene order of both taxa is nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Comparisons of angiosperm chloroplast genomes indicate that GC content is not uniformly distributed across the genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34-39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions (both intergenic spacers and introns). Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Across the genome, GC content is highest in the inverted repeat due to the presence of rRNA genes and lowest in the small single copy region where most NADH genes are located. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes. Trees from both analyses provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. The phylogenies also provided moderate to strong support for the basal position of Amborella, and a sister relationship of magnoliids to a clade that includes monocots and eudicots. The complete sequences of three magnoliid chloroplast genomes provide new data from the largest basal angiosperm clade. Evolutionary comparisons of these new genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genome, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots.
Two proteases active in the senescing first leaves of oat seedlings (Avena sativa cv. Victory) have been purified approximately 500-fold by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on hemoglobin-Sepharose, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex. The enzymes show pH optima of 4.2 and 6.6 with denatured hemoglobin as substrate, and the molecular weights of both are about 76,000. Their optimum temperatures are close to 50 C. Small amounts of a third enzyme, active at pH 3.5, may also be present. The enzyme active at pH 6.6 shows evidence of a sulfhydryl residue in the active site. Images
This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693
This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.
Photoacoustic measurements of photosynthetic energy storage were conducted on water infiltrated pea and sugar maple leaves. The samples were vacuum infiltrated with pure water or with a suitable buffer. The use of such methodology permitted an accurate determination of the energy storage parameter at low modulation frequencies, where in non-infiltrated leaves oxygen evolution dominates the photoacoustic signal and does not
THE retention of leaves by beechen hedges referred to by your correspondent in NATURE, April 10, is by no means confined to those on elevated ground. It may commonly be observed in hedges of this tree whatever their situation. In Northumberland the beech is not infrequently used as a hedge, and always retains its leaves throughout the winter. Young beech
The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724
Congress has newly enacted the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. The Federal law requires employers with 50 or more employees to provide workers with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave a year for the birth or adoption of a child, or for the foster care of...
Eighty percent (80%) aqueous acetone extract from fruit of Piper chaba (Piperaceae) was found to have a hepatoprotective effect on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Among the isolates, several amide constituents inhibited D-GalN/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced death of hepatocytes, and the following structural requirements were suggested: i) the amide moiety was essential for strong activity; ii) the 1,9-decadiene structure between the benzene ring and the amide moiety tended to enhance the activity. Moreover, a principal constituent, piperine, exhibited strong in vivo hepatoprotective effect at a dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o. and its mode of action was suggested to depend on the reduced sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha. PMID:20519856
The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984
The temporal pattern of endophyte infection in the leaves of Plumeria rubra, a tropical deciduous tree, was studied by sampling the leaves of an individual tree for a period of one year. Endophytes could be isolated from the leaves throughout the study period. Older leaves were more densely colonised than the younger leaves. Hyphomycetes dominated the endophyte assemblage of the
...employees to take such vacation time. (b) Leave...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal reasons...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal...
...employees to take such vacation time. (b) Leave...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal reasons...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal...
...employees to take such vacation time. (b) Leave...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal reasons...types of leave: (1) Vacation leave. Absence approved...supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal...
By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DEAE Sephacel, and hydroxyapatite chromatography, one form of glutamine synthetase has been identified in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Monstrueux de Viroflay) leaves. It is localized only inside the chloroplast. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity and specific antibodies against the protein were raised by immunization of rabbits. The intracellular localization of glutamine synthetase in spinach leaves was studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy on thin-sectioned spinach leaves. It has been demonstrated that the enzyme is specifically associated with the chloroplasts of parenchymatous cells. Images
Hirel, Bertrand; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Suzuki, Akira; Vidal, Jean; Gadal, Pierre
The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm. PMID:23678643
Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U
|An evaluation of the food industry's role in educating children on nutrition raises the question of how objective this instruction is, and whether the industry should be engaged in nutrition education at all. (JD)|
Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.
|Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)|
The complexities of the federal Family and Medical Leave Act can pose administrative headaches and legal liability for managers unaware of its provisions. Worse, managers have no legal precedents to guide their FMLA decisions.
Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract
Srinivasa, U.; Rao, J. Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A.M.; Shanmukhappa, S.
This animation describes how herbicides are taken up by leaves and illustrates how physico-chemical characteristics alter their movement across cuticles. Passive and active mechanisms of herbicide absorption across plant membranes into cells are shown as well.
The natural abundance of carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition, expressed as a ?13C value of plant dry matter and cellulose in the hypsophylls (husk leaves) of maize (Zea mays L.) was measured and compared with that of leaves and cobs. The ?13C values of outer hypsophylls were usually 2 to 3% more negative than leaves or other tissues, and became more negative with increasing chlorophyll content, indicating significant local C3 pathway fixation of CO2 in the outer hypsophylls. The ?D values indicated a significant part of hypsophyll cellulose was derived from heterotrophic sources (sucrose from C4 photosynthesis in other tissues). Isotopic mass balance calculations allowed quantitative estimation of these carbon sources and, in the samples examined, about 16% of hypsophyll cellulose was derived from local C3 photosynthesis, about 62% from local C4 photosynthesis, and about 22% from sucrose imported from other leaves.
...Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence Â§ 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a) Purpose of leave of...
...false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825...OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer...employer to determine whether the leave qualifies under the Act. If the employee fails...
Summary Root formation was obtained on the petioles of detached leaves of several leguminous plants, particularly on the primary leaves\\u000a of bean. Root formation is easily obtained in artificial light at a temperature of 22 to 24°C. In the greenhouse it is optimal\\u000a in early spring and late autumn. During hot summer seasons no roots but callus was formed on the
Almost a quarter of entering public-school teachers leave teaching within their first three years. High attrition would be particularly problematic if those leaving were the more able teachers. The goal of this paper is estimate the extent to which there is differential attrition based on teachers' value-added to student achievement. Using data for New York City schools from 20002005, we
Donald Boyd; Pamela Grossman; Hamilton Lankford; Susanna Loeb; James Wyckoff
Recently it has been demonstrated that detached leaves show glyoxysomal enzyme activities when incubated in darkness for several days. In this report glyoxylate-cycle enzymes have been detected in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum durum L.) from either naturally senescing or dark-treated plants. Isolated peroxisomes of rice and wheat show isocitrate lyase (EC 184.108.40.206), malate synthase (EC
The old adage "ignorance of the law is no defense," is certainly true when dealing with the Family Medical leave Act. That is, lack of knowledge does not excuse the failure of the employer to properly designate the leave. Therefore, as an employer, one must be sure to know and follow the Family Medical Leave Act requirements. Not doing so may be a costly mistake. PMID:10169014
In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.
...occasional basis for medical appointments, or leave taken several days at a time spread over a period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for...
Since phenolic compounds have been known as strong antioxidants, studies on olive leaves have attracted the investigators due to the richness of phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Recently, olive leaves are used in medicine, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical products. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. In this study, the importance of olive leaves is
To examine the colonization of living leaves from buds and twigs by phyllosphere fungi of Japanese beech, the mycobiota were investigated on buds and twigs and on leaves covered with well-ventilated bags before budbreak. Ten phyllosphere fungi were isolated from rolled-up leaves within buds, bud scales, and twigs. However, frequencies of phyllosphere fungi on expanded leaves were reduced markedly when
... 2013-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act Â§ 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...
... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act Â§ 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...
... 2009-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act Â§ 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...
Seven years after the Family and Medical Leave Act, more employees are taking leave for family or medical reasons, and fewer report that they need leave, but are unable to take it; many employers offer leave over and above that required by the Act, and most report no adverse effects on their business
The US Family and Medical Leave Act (Public Law 103-3, or 29 CFR 825) and similar policies throughout the world, such as maternity leave policies (PL507 Rev 4) in the UK, or Maternity and Parental leave in Canada, are policies that require employers to provide an employee with a period of leave for the birth or adoption of a child,
In 1993, President Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Similar to the 12 states that already had maternity leave mandates, the FMLA guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid leave for eligible mothers. I evaluate the effects of maternity leave legislation on employment and wages, taking advantage of variation created by state legislation and the FMLA. My results show
Piper laetispicum C.DC. (Piperaceae), is an endemic climbing, glabrous plant distributed in the southern part of China. A novel alkaloid amide, Laetispicine, from it has been proven to possess antidepressant activity. In this present study, antidepressant and antinociceptive effects of the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of P. laetispicum have been studied in forced swimming, open field, acetic acid writhing and formalin tests in KM mice. A significantly antidepressant-like effect was showing at doses of higher than 60 mg/kg, which was not due to an increase in locomotive activity. The EAE also presented an analgesic effect, in our studies. At lower doses (30 mg/kg) the antinociceptive effect was likely mediated via peripheral inflammation and changes in central processing, and at higher doses (120 mg/kg) that was due to both central and peripheral pathways. We also quantitatively analyzed the major components of EAE by HPLC and approached the structure-activity relationship between structure of amide alkaloids and its antidepressant activities. The antidepressant effective components of EAE might be Leatispiamide A and Laetispicine. In their molecular structures, the isolated double bond from benzene ring and conjugated double bond located at 2-3 and 4-5 were necessary for its antidepressant activity. PMID:21787850
The yeast population upon the leaves of pasture plants in New Zealand has been investigated in relation to season, soil yeast flora, and incidence of facial eczema toxin in autumn pasture. Leaf yeasts were shown to be taxonomically distinct from soil yeasts and to vary with season but not to vary with the localities sampled. During most of the year
|As participation in outdoor recreation grows, natural resources suffer a variety of environmental and social impacts. A minimum-impact back country educational program first developed during the 1970s, Leave No Trace (LNT), has been revitalized by the National Outdoor Leadership School, six federal agencies, and members of the outdoor products
Despite the fact that fish are a common component of coastal and other aquatic archaeological sites, cut marks are rarely reported on archaeological fish remains. To assess whether butchering practices leave cut marks on fish bones, we butchered 37 fish using stone tools and a metal knife following methods provided in ethnographic accounts and by modern fish processors. In contrast
Exposure of spinach plants to high temperature (35° C) increased the heat resistance of the leaves by about 3° C. This hardening process occurred within 4 to 6 h, whereas dehardening at 20°\\/15° C required 1 to 2 days. At 5° C dehardening did not take place. Hardening and dehardening occurred in both the dark and the light. The hardiness
Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:2069701
1) . There are essentially two basic types: financial instruments (tax deductions, credits, benefits, etc.) and formal, non-financial instruments (such as social recognition of the importance of motherhood and par- enthood). One of the first policy provisions that families with children encounter is maternity leave (ML) and the financial assistance that accompanies it. This policy provision combines both aspects: for-
A mixture of 3-substituted alkyl- and alkenylphenols including nine new compounds (cardanols) was isolated from leaves of the Yemenian plant Rhus thyrsiflora (Anacardiaceae) and identified by GC-MS. The position of the double bond in the compounds bearing a monolefinic side chain was determined by their typical MS fragmentation patterns after hydroxylation and trimethylsilylation. PMID:11488469
Abies webbiana Lindl. (Pinaceae), commonly called Talispatra in Bengali and Hindi, Talispatram in Sanskrit and Indian Silver Fir in English, is a large evergreen tree found in the Himalayan region from Kashmir to Assam in India. In India, this plant has been traditionally used as a drug for several ailments. The leaves of this plants have different indications in Ayurveda,
In this article the influence of the family background on the transition to leaving parental home for the first time is studied. The focus lies on the influences of a number of explanatory determinants in the field of family structure and family characteristics and on the differences in these effects for men and women. A distinction is made between individuals
Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)
|Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)|
|Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in
In April 1995 final regulations for the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 were issued. The act is very detailed, complicated, and difficult to implement for home care agencies. Agencies need to gain a good working understanding of the FMLA to avoid inadvertent violations. PMID:10166264
Data on the diurnal rhythms, severance from the root system, photosynthetic capacity, light and carbon dioxide responses of single leaves of E. fastigata, E. robertsonii, and the hybrid E. fastigata × E. robertsonii arc presented. Diurnal rhythms are not conspicuous. Severance from the root system makes subsequently measured rates of photosynthesis erratic. The light climate under which seedlings are grown
2 Abstract: Flexible working times become common in shift-work and have sincere implications on the treat- ment of leave in working time accounting. Consider, for example, a working time arrangement where the hours to be worked on a specific day cannot be given in advance. If an employee gets sick, it is unclear how many hours should be credited to
This chapter summarizes recent Canadian and international research on the outcomes for youth after they age out of the child welfare system. It paints a disturbing picture for this small and vulnerable population. Youth leaving care face many challenges in making the transition from state care to independence and adulthood. They bear the emotional scars of childhood neglect or abuse. They do not have a family support network, have limited or no financial resources, are often lacking in life skills, and usually have not completed school. Despite these setbacks, we expect them to function independently once they reach age eighteen. Research shows that once youth leave care, they do not fare as well as their peers. They are at much greater risk of relying on social assistance, becoming homeless, engaging in substance abuse, becoming single parents, experiencing mental health problems, or coming into contact with the criminal justice system. Some youth aging out, however, have more successful transitions. These typically have completed high school, have role models, have access to postsecondary opportunities, refrain from alcohol or drug use, and obtain life skills and independent living training. Having stable placements while in care is also critical in ensuring more positive outcomes. Canada does not have the capacity to track the outcomes of youth as they leave the child welfare system, nor can it identify the types of interventions showing the most promise in helping them achieve better outcomes. Canadian governments need to improve their transitional planning for youth in care who are approaching the age of majority. Some recommendations include extending the age for services and financial assistance to age twenty-four, developing standards to prepare youth for leaving care, and exploring ways to enable youth to pursue higher education or training. Finally, Canada should develop a national longitudinal survey to monitor the outcomes of youth after they leave care. PMID:17523520
Photosynthetic and respiratory activities have been measured in leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. var. Manchuria (barley) after infection with Erysiphe graminis var. hordei (powdery mildew). Two isogenic lines, one resistant to infection and the other highly susceptible, were examined.These isogenic lines showed very different physiological responses following infection. Photosynthesis and the chlorophyll content of resistant leaves was unaffected by infection. Respiration increased slightly and this was accompanied by small increases in activities of enzymes of glycolysis, the pentose-P pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.The infection of susceptible leaves resulted in a slight increase in photosynthesis 48 hours after inoculation, but subsequently there was a progressive decrease in the photosynthesis of these leaves compared with that of noninfected leaves. The capacity of infected leaves for partial reactions of photosynthesis such as the Hill reaction and the photoreduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(1)) decreased during the later stages of infection. The levels of chlorophyll, NADPH-diaphorase and aldolase also declined. There was no detectable difference in the respiration of infected and noninfected leaves until 48 hours after inoculation. After this time, the infected leaves showed a higher respiration, the maximum difference occurring about 144 hours after inoculation. The respiratory increase was not accompanied by significant changes in the levels of enzymes of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with the exception of malate dehydrogenase which was lower in infected leaves. In contrast, the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase showed changes similar to that observed for respiration.The respiration and the activities of glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and 6-P-gluconate dehydrogenase did not increase in infected leaves of etiolated plants, even when excellent growth of the fungus was established by growing the plants in White's basal medium supplemented with sucrose. The respiration of a susceptible mutant barley (the yellow-green virescent mutant of the variety Himalaya) when grown in the light at 11 degrees was not changed by infection although the characteristic respiratory rise occurred in plants grown at 15 degrees . At the lower temperature chloroplasts fail to develop in this mutant, although development is normal at 15 degrees .It is suggested that the pathogen is not directly responsible for the increase in respiration in green leaves, rather that this is a response in the host cells to a loss of photosynthetic capacity. PMID:16656253
The mutually exclusive relationship between ARP and KNOX1 genes in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia in simple leaved plants such as Arabidopsis has been well characterized. Overlapping expression domains of these genes in leaf primordia have been described for many\\u000a compound leaved plants such as Solanum lycopersicum and Cardamine hirsuta and are regarded as a characteristic of compound
Kanae Nishii; Michael Möller; Catherine Kidner; Alberto Spada; Raffaella Mantegazza; Chun-Neng Wang; Toshiyuki Nagata
To explore the alternative material for the stems of Evodia lepta used in clinic, the leaves extract of E. lepta was chemically investigated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS column chromatographies, and preparative HPLC and the structures of the compounds were identified mainly by spectroscopic methods. Ten known compounds 4-hydroxy-4, 7-dimethyl-1-tetralone (1), (6R, 7E) -4, 7-megastigmadien-3, 9-dione (2), 4-megastigmen-3, 9-dione (3), formononetin (4), daidzein (5), oroxylin A (6), wogonin (7), 5, 7-dihydroxy-3, 4'-dimethoxyflavone (8), N-trans-coumaroyltyranine (9) and (E) -p-hydroxycinnamic acid (10), have been obtained and identified. All these compounds were isolated from this species for the first time. The results revealed that there is a considerate chemical difference between the stems and leaves of E. lepta. PMID:23944034
Employers are recognizing the impact of lost productivity on total benefit costs. In a recent report based on 2002 benefit data, lost productivity represented 71% of the full cost of health/absence benefits (Integrated Benefits Institute, 2004). Occupational health nurse managers can develop FMLA leave management policies and programs to assure that leave is provided when appropriate, to help curb FMLA abuse and fraud, and to assist employers in defending adverse employment actions based on attendance. A review of employer policies and FMLA implementation also assesses compliance with the Act and provides the basis for appropriate responses in the case of legal actions and employee complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor. PMID:15635929
Ten phenolic compounds (1-10) were isolated from a methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves including two new ones, lawsoniasides A (1) and B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR and FTICRMS) in combination with acid hydrolysis and GC analyses. Compounds 4 and 5 showed a significant inhibition on receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone-marrow macrophages. PMID:20634065
Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Dat, Nguyen Tien; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Huong, Le Mai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Won, Ji-Hee; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Young Ho
Ten phenolic compounds (110) were isolated from a methanol extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves including two new ones, lawsoniasides A (1) and B (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR and FTICRMS) in combination with acid hydrolysis and GC analyses. Compounds 4 and 5 showed a significant inhibition on receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand-induced osteoclast formation in
Nguyen Xuan Cuong; Nguyen Xuan Nhiem; Nguyen Phuong Thao; Nguyen Hoai Nam; Nguyen Tien Dat; Hoang Le Tuan Anh; Le Mai Huong; Phan Van Kiem; Chau Van Minh; Ji-Hee Won; Won-Yoon Chung; Young Ho Kim
1.In etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves, the development of the microbody enzymes catalase, hydroxypyruvate reductase, and glycolate oxidase was specifically stimulated by short treatments of the seedlings with red light, although the increases were less than observed after treatment with continuous white light. A comparison of the effects of short red and far-red exposures indicated the involvement of phytochrome.2.Continuous
The flash-induced electrochromic shift, measured by the amplitude of the rapid absorbance increase at 518 nanometers (?A518), was used to determine the amount of charge separation within photosystems II and I in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. The recovery time of the reaction centers was determined by comparing the amplitudes of ?A518 induced by two flashes separated by a variable time interval. The recovery of the ?A518 on the second flash revealed that 20% of the reaction centers exhibited a recovery half-time of 1.7 ± 0.3 seconds, which is 1000 times slower than normally active reaction centers. Measurements using isolated thylakoid membranes showed that photosystem I constituted 38% of the total number of reaction centers, and that the photosystem I reaction centers were nearly fully active, indicating that the slowly turning over reaction centers were due solely to photosystem II. The results demonstrate that in spinach leaves approximately 32% of the photosystem II complexes are effectively inactive, in that their contribution to energy conversion is negligible. Additional evidence for inactive photosystem II complexes in spinach leaves was provided by fluorescence induction measurements, used to monitor the oxidation kinetics of the primary quinone acceptor of photosystem II, QA, after a short flash. The measurements showed that in a fraction of the photosystem II complexes the oxidation of QA? was slow, displaying a half-time of 1.5 ± 0.3 seconds. The kinetics of QA? oxidation were virtually identical to the kinetics of the recovery of photosystem II determined from the electrochromic shift. The key difference between active and inactive photosystem II centers is that in the inactive centers the oxidation rate of QA? is slow compared to active centers. Measurements of the electrochromic shift in detached leaves from several different species of plants revealed a significant fraction of slowly turning over reaction centers, raising the possibility that reaction centers that are inefficient in energy conversion may be a common feature in plants.
The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. We examined how factors related to wage, work, job satisfaction\\/dissatisfaction,\\u000a and workplace or demographic factors were associated with nurses intentions to switch from health care to non-health-care\\u000a roles. Wage and share of income from shift work were negatively and statistically significantly related to nurses intention\\u000a to leave the health care
Two unusual triterpenoids, (24S)-24-methyl-25,32-cyclo-5alpha-lanosta-9(11)-en-3beta-ol and (24S)-24-methyl-25,32-cyclo-cycloartane-3beta-ol, were isolated from leaves of Pandanus boninensis along with known triterpenoids and lignans. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods and X-ray analysis. PMID:16229870
The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression.Pre-treatment of water extract (300mg\\/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation
B. V. Ghule; G. Murugananthan; P. D. Nakhat; P. G. Yeole
Two new triterpenoids have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander and their structures elucidated as 3?,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide and 3?,22?,28-trihydroxy-25-nor-lup-1 (10),20(29)-dien-2-one. Elucidation of the structures was based on spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR (COSY-45, NOESY and J-resolved).
The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks.
The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using (14)C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212
Moing, A; Carbonne, F; Rashad, M H; Gaudillère, J P
The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms.
Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.
...for sick leave within such time limits as the agency may require. The employee must request advance approval for sick leave for the purpose of receiving medical, dental, or optical examination or treatment and, to the extent possible, for...
...FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies Â§ 502.72 Petition for leave to intervene. (a) A petition for leave to intervene may be...
... Worse Outcomes Seen When Patients Leave Hospital Against Medical Advice Large study found more readmissions, higher death ... HealthDay News) -- Patients who leave the hospital against medical advice are more likely to be readmitted or ...
The alkaloids of Piper longum L. (PLA) improved motor dysfunction and dopamine depletion in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. A rapid, accurate, simple, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated to simultaneously detect three P. longum L. antiparkinsonian alkaloids (piperine (PPR), piperlonguminine (PPL), and ??,?-dihydropiperlonguminine (DPPL)) in rat plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain tissues. Rat plasma and tissue homogenates were pretreated with methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) using a simple protein precipitation method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50mm×2.00mm, 5?m) with a gradient mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water or acetonitrile. The elution was pumped at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min, and the injection volume was 10?l with a total running time of 4min. The analysis was performed by selected reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 285.9?201.1, m/z 274.3?209.9, and m/z 276.2?134.9 for PPR, PPL, and DPPL, respectively. All three analytes showed good linearity (R>0.995) in plasma and tissue homogenates, and the lower limit of quantification was 0.20ng/ml. The distribution of PPR, PPL and DPPL in all 7 tissues was examined. The highest concentrations for PPR and PPL were observed in the liver, while the highest DPPL concentration was observed in the kidney. Following oral administration, the highest levels of PPR, PPL and DPPL in different tissues were found at approximately 2h. PPR, PPL and DPPL could cross the blood-brain barrier. The present study provides evidences for that PPR, PPL and DPPL may play roles in improving motor dysfunction and dopamine depletion. PMID:23603295
Three grain forms (whole grains, broken grains and wholemeal flour) of three improved varieties (ICMV-N89305, GB8735 and Sosat) developed at ICRISAT (Patancheru, India), one cultivar which originated in Zimbabwe (Zimbabwean dwarf) and two local cultivars (Ex-borno and Gwagwa), of pearl millet were compared for their susceptibility to the rust-red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) under tropical storage conditions. The biological effects of Piper guineense seed oil were also investigated on T. castaneum confined on similar forms of millet (Ex-borno) contained in ventilated or unventilated devices. Mortality of adult flour beetles was significantly higher on whole grains of GB8735 (99.7%), Gwagwa (92.3%) and Ex-borno (77.7%) stored in unventilated glass jars than on whole grains of Zimbabwean dwarf (52.7%) stored in a similar device. The number of adult progeny was significantly higher in wholemeal flour than in broken grains; the number in broken grains was significantly higher than that in whole grains. Development of the beetle was significantly longer in GB8735 than in Zimbabwean dwarf and the overall susceptibility of Zimbabwean dwarf was significantly higher than that of ICMV-N89305. Susceptibility of the cultivars increased with decreasing grain particle size; susceptibility indices for the whole grains, broken grains and wholemeal flour were 2.52, 12.14 and 14.16, respectively. Significantly fewer beetles developed in grains/products treated with P. guineense seed oil than in untreated grains/products. The unventilated glass jar retained the biological efficacy of the two lower dosages (20 and 40 mg/10 g) of P. guineense seed oil significantly more than the ventilated clay pot or polypropylene sack. PMID:11124370
|Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other
This paper evaluates a maternity leave policy designed to reduce gender inequality in the labor market. It examines the extent to which Malaysia's paid maternity leave policy provides working women with leave as a condition of their employment. Since all women are not the same, a policy may benefit some women and not others. Using data from the Second Malaysian
...son, daughter, or parent with a serious health...son, daughter, or parent is a military member...any employee's first FMLA leave under...FMLA leave at any time in the fixed...period would begin the first time FMLA leave is...
Purpose Paid parental leave for both mothers and fathers has fed countless debates. Four years after the implementation of a new parental leave policy in Quebec, this paper aims to assess how parental leave is perceived in the workplace. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Using data from employee surveys carried out in a municipal police service, the paper employs analysis of variance
We have measured radiocarbon contents in leaves collected from 15 sites in Japan, including mountain areas and big city areas for last three years. Comparing the radiocarbon contents in various areas, high 14C concentrations (80- 100 as ?14C) are seen for the leaves from the mountain and country sites. On the contrary, low concentrations (5-40) were observed for the leaves
...RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department...certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15...to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the FMLA made by the...
After nearly twenty years of participating in the Federal Depository Library Program as a selective depository library, Suffolk University Law Library chose to leave the program. The authors examine the rationales behind the decision to leave, including a balancing of the expense of participating in the program versus the costs of replacing materials upon leaving the pro- gram. They also
Elizabeth M. McKenzie; Elizabeth Gemellaro; Caroline Walters
The coefficient for heat transfer from apple tree leaves was measured from the energy balance of leaves which were prevented from transpiring by applying Vaseline (petroleum jelly). Vaseline had negligible effect on the absorption of short-wave radiation by the leaves. The Nusselt number (Nu) describing heat flux from a leaf in terms of its average temperature was related to Reynolds
Spectral reflectance of maple, chestnut and beech leaves in a wide range of pigment content and composition was investigated to devise a nondestructive technique for total carotenoid (Car) content estimation in higher plant leaves. Reciprocal reflectance in the range 510 to 550 nm was found to be closely related to the total pigment con- tent in leaves. The sensitivity of
Anatoly A. Gitelson; Yoav Zur; Olga B. Chivkunova; Mark N. Merzlyak
Agriculture can be seen as an occupational sector in which the workers are exposed to many health risks that may result in sick leave and working disability. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the problem of sick leave among Dutch farmers. A risk analysis of sick leave was performed in the agricultural branches to address the
Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other
Solanum macrocarpon (eggplant) leaves are used as soup condiment in Nigeria either in their processed or unprocessed forms. In this study, fresh leaves of eggplant were subjected to different conventional food processing techniques: soaking, blanching, abrasion with or without salt. The nutrients, antinutrients (phytate and cyanide), minerals (Ca and Zn), zinc bioavailability and haemolytic properties of the leaves were subsequently
|There has been little litigation since the Family Medical Leave Act's inception in 1993. This article highlights FMLA's scope of coverage, leave requirements, notice and verification, special rules for employees and local education agencies, employment and leave entitlements, and enforcement. Employers violating the FMLA may have to reinstate and
When the detached first leaves of green or etiolated oat (Avena sativa cv. Victory) seedlings senesce in the dark, their oxygen consumption shows a large increase, beginning after 24 hours and reaching a peak of up to 2.5 times the initial rate by the 3rd day. This effect takes place while the chlorophyll of green leaves, or the carotenoid of etiolated leaves, is steadily decreasing. Kinetin, at a concentration which inhibits the decrease in pigment, completely prevents the respiratory rise; instead, the oxygen consumption drifts downwards. Lower kinetin concentrations have a proportional effect, 50% reduction of respiration being given by about 0.1 mg/l. About one-fifth of the respiratory rise may be attributed to the free amino acids which are liberated during senescence; several amino acids are shown to cause increases of almost 50% in the oxygen consumption when supplied at the concentrations of total amino acid present during senescence. A smaller part of the rise may also be due to soluble sugars liberated during senescence, largely coming from the hydrolysis of a presumptive fructosan. The remainder, and the largest part, of the increase is ascribed to a natural uncoupling of respiration from phosphorylation. This is deduced from the fact that dinitrophenol causes a similar large rise in the oxygen consumption of the fresh leaves or of leaf segments kept green with kinetin, but causes only a very small rise when the oxygen consumption is near its peak in senescent controls. The respiration of these leaves is resistant to cyanide, and 10 mm KCN even increases it by some 30%; in contrast, etiolated leaves of the same age, which undergo a similar rise in oxygen consumption over the same time period, show normal sensitivity to cyanide. The respiratory quotient during senescence goes down as low as 0.7, both with and without kinetin, though it is somewhat increased by supplying sugars or amino acids; glucose or alanine at 0.3 m bring it up to 1.0 and 0.87, respectively. N6-Benzylaminopurine and ?-2-isopentenylaminopurine act similarly to kinetin in repressing the respiratory rise, the former being five times as active as kinetin, while the latter has only 1% of the activity of kinetin. Zeatin also powerfully prevents senescence. Because the repression of the respiratory rise is shown by each cytokinin at the concentration at which it inhibits senescence, the action is ascribed in both cases to the maintenance of a tight coupling between respiration and phosphorylation. It is pointed out that such an effect would explain many features of cytokinin action. A change in the methodology of the senescence experiments is described and compared with the method previously used, and the influence of temperature and age of the plants on the course of leaf senescence are presented in detail.
From the leaves of Miliusa mollis Pierre (Annonaceae), five new dihydrobenzofuran neolignans, namely miliumollin, 7-methoxymiliumollin, 3'-methoxymiliumollin, 4'-O-methylmiliumollin and miliumollinone, and a new 8-O-4' neolignan named miliusamollin were isolated, and their structures were elucidated through analysis of spectroscopic data. Miliumollin, 3'-methoxymiliumollin, miliumollinone and decurrenal exhibited weak cytotoxicity against KB, MCF7 and NCI-H187 cells. Miliumollinone possessed weak inhibitory effects against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. None of the isolates displayed inhibitory activity against avian influenza H5N1 neuraminidase. PMID:23305777
Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Ribes nigrum resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds, including four 7,7'-epoxylignans, three tetrahydrofuran-type sesquilignans, and a spirocyclic dilignan. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and by chemical transformations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using superoxide anion scavenging assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Ribesin D and ribesin G showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity with EC50 values of 1.24 and 1.12?M, respectively, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. PMID:23958345
To study the xanthones from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn., several chromatography methods were employed to isolate the constituents. Investigation on the CHCl3 extract led to the isolation of a new xanthone named inophyxanthone A (1) and four known compounds, which were pancixanthone A (2), gerontoxanthone B (3), jacareubin (4) and pyranojacareubin (5). Among them, compound 2 was obtained from this plant firstly, and compound 3 was obtained for the first time from this genus. The structure of inophyxanthone A (1) was identified as 1, 3, 5-trihydroxy-2-(1, 1-dimethylallyl)xanthone by spectral analysis. PMID:19408685
Eleven compounds were isolated from the leaves of Epimedium pubescens by means of various chromatographic techniques such as silica gel, MCI, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified as anhydroicaritin (1), icariside II (2), 2'''-O-rhamonosyl-icariside II (3), desmethylanhydroicaritin (4), baohuosaide II (5), epimedokoreanin B (6), acuminatin (7), tricin(8), kaempferol (9), daidzein (10) and 4-hydroxy ethyl benzoate (11) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them, compound 11 was isolated from Epimedium species for the first time, and other compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:24066589
Five dibenzocycloheptatrienes (1-3, 5, and 6) and one dibenzocycloheptadiene (8) together with 16 known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium. Application of HPLC-SPE-NMR to a selected fraction afforded two additional dibenzocycloheptatrienes (4, 7). The glycosides 2-7 comprise two diastereomers because of the chiral glycosyl moiety and the axial chirality of the biphenyl system. Their structures were elucidated via ECD and 2D NMR analyses and chemical degradation. Subavenosides D (5) and E (6) showed moderate inhibitory activity against ?-glucosidase type IV from Bacillus stearothermophilus with IC?? values of 50.7 and 19.0 ?M, respectively. PMID:23025417
Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.
Luo Han Guo (LHG) fruits (Siraitia grosvenorii Swingle) have been used as traditional medicine in China for centuries to treat sore throats and coughs. However, LHG leaves are seldom used and minimal scientific information is available on them. In our recent study on the leaves of S. grosvenorii, the bioactive compounds ?-amyrin (2), aloe emodin (5), aloe-emodin acetate (6), 5?,8?-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (7) and p-hydroxyl benzyl acid (8), accompanied by n-hexadecaoic acid (1), 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4) and daucosterol (9) were first obtained. Their structures have been identified on the basis of spectroscopic studies. The activities of these compounds were evaluated in vitro against the growth of oral bacterial species Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and the yeast Candida albicans, and their minimum inhibition concentrations were determined. Furthermore, the activity against S. mutans is likely to be due to the inhibition of glucosyltransferase. The experimental data provide important information on bioactive phytochemicals in the leaf of S. grosvenorii, which shows that the leaf can be a new resource as an antibacterial agent. PMID:21547839
Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. PMID:18844259
Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.
Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de
The present study was undertaken to explore the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. (family: Capparidaceae) leaves on neutrophil adhesion test, humoral response to sheep red blood cells, delayed-type hypersensitivity, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Pre-treatment of water extract (300 mg/kg, oral) of Capparis zeylanica evoked a significant increase in neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres. The augmentation of humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells by ethanolic and water extracts (150-300 mg/kg) is evidenced by increase in antibody titres in mice. A dose-related increase in both primary and secondary antibody titre was observed. Oral administration of ethanolic and water extracts of Capparis zeylanica leaves, at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg in mice, dose dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Immunomodulatory activity was also assessed by serological and haematological tests. Capparis zeylanica extracts prevented myelosuppression in mice treated with cyclophosphamide drug. The study comprised the acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanol and water extracts. PMID:16766150
Ghule, B V; Murugananthan, G; Nakhat, P D; Yeole, P G
In the young leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants, there was a diurnal variation in the levels of amino acids. In the light, total amino nitrogen increased for the first few hours, then stabilized; in the dark, there was a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery. Asparagine, homoserine, alanine, and glutamine accounted for much of these changes. The incorporation of 15N into various components of the young leaves was followed after supply of 15N-nitrate. 15N appeared most rapidly in ammonia, due to reduction in the leaf, and this process took place predominantly in the light. A large proportion of the primary assimilation took place through the amide group of glutamine, which became labeled and turned over rapidly; labeling of glutamic acid and alanine was also rapid. Asparagine (amide group) soon became labeled and showed considerable turnover. Slower incorporation and turnover were found for aspartic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, and homoserine. Synthesis and turnover of all of the amino acids continued at a low rate in the dark. ?-Aminobutyric acid was the only compound found to label more rapidly in the dark than in the light.
Bauer, Alfred; Urquhart, Aileen A.; Joy, Kenneth W.
Two different endopeptidases which digest the chromogenic substrate Azocoll were found in soybean leaves. Azocollase A has a molecular weight of 17,500 and a pI of 6.0. Azocollase B has a molecular weight of 52,000 and a pI of 9.0. Both digest Azocoll optimally at pH 9.0. Azocollase A is inhibited by 3 millimolar ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) and azocollase B by 100 micromolar parachloromercuribenzoate. Studies on whole plants grown in the greenhouse and in the field show that total azocollase activity gradually increased during leaf maturation when leaf protein and chlorophyll increased, and then declined again during leaf senescence. Young leaves which are still expanding contain mostly azocollase B and little azocollase A. Leaf maturation was associated with a dramatic increase in azocollase A (40- to 50-fold), while azocollase B activity increased more slowly. This increase in azocollase A occurred in the 2- to 3-week period following leaf expansion. Azocollase A, separated from other proteinases by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, digested denatured leaf protein and casein, resulting in the release of free ?-amino groups. Break-down of leaf proteins by autodigestion of extracts at pH 9.0 resulted in the release of free ?-amino groups and endopeptidic cleavage of polypeptides. However, polypeptide cleavage was not inhibited by parachloromercuribenzoate or EDTA indicating that the azocollases do not play a major role in the hydrolysis of leaf proteins in crude extracts. Images
Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves have been used in the treatment of asthma traditionally and we therefore undertook this study to scientifically validate its benefit in asthma using suitable animal models. Antihistaminic principles are known to be useful in the treatment of asthma; hence, in the present work, the antihistaminic activity of an ethanol extract of B. racemosa (at a dose of 50 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed using clonidine-induced catalepsy and haloperidol-induced catalepsy in Swiss albino mice. The results showed that the ethanol extract inhibits clonidine-induced catalepsy but there is no effect on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. This suggests that the inhibition is through an antihistaminic action and that there is no role of dopamine. Hence, we concluded that the ethanol extract has significant antihistaminic activity. The polar constituents in the ethanol extract of leaves of B. racemosa may be responsible for the antihistaminic activity and B. racemosa may therefore have a role in the treatment of asthma. PMID:21731358
The immunomodulatory bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.; syn. Lawsonia alba L.) leaves resulted in the isolation of seven compounds; three have been isolated for the first time from the genus, namely p-coumaric acid, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and apiin, along with the previously isolated compounds: lawsone, apigenin, luteolin, and cosmosiin. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was based upon their physical, chemical as well as spectroscopic characters. Their immuomodulatory profile was studied using an in vitro immunoassay, the lymphocyte transformation assay. The ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], free radical scavenging assay depicted that all isolated compounds exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. PMID:15813363
Mikhaeil, Botros R; Badria, Farid A; Maatooq, Galal T; Amer, Mohamed M A
Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.
Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.
Two new acylated flavonol pentaglycosides were isolated from the butanolic extract of Baphia nitida leaves by Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Structural elucidation of kaempferol 3-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl(1?3)-(4-O-E-p-coumaroyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?2))[?-d-glucopyranosyl(1?6)]-?-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) and kaempferol 3-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl(1?3)-(4-O-Z-p-coumaroyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1?2))[?-d-glucopyranosyl(1?6)]-?-d-galactopyranoside-7-O-?-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) was achieved using UV, NMR, and mass spectrometry, indicating the presence of trans or cis isomers of p-coumaric acid moiety in these novel structures. The antioxidant activity of the
Mehdi Chaabi; Philippe Chabert; Catherine Vonthron-Sénécheau; Bernard Weniger; Modibo Ouattara; Hugo Corstjens; Ilse Sente; Lieve Declercq; Annelise Lobstein
The United States' Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 was an effort to provide national support for families attempting to balance the demands of the workplace and the need to care for a new child, one's own health, or an ill child, spouse, or parent. It is seriously limited, however, in terms of its accessibility for many workers. We briefly compare the FMLA to the substantially broader policies of Western European countries. We highlight its reported benefits to workers but document disparities in employees' use of the FMLA by gender, race, and income level. We evaluate whether employers' fears of higher costs were justified. We point out current challenges that may limit the FMLA further. We close by examining the range of alternative policies in effect at the state level and proposals that would address the current limitations of the FMLA and broaden its coverage. PMID:17208739
Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 1422 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobis slums.
Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard
The effect of high temperatures on cytokinin levels in Phalaenopsishybrida leaves was investigated. Endogenous cytokinins were identified and quantified in Phalaenopsis leaves grown under high temperature conditions (30\\/25 °C day\\/night) using high performance liquid chromatography, bioassay and gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry. After 5 and 20 d of low temperature (25\\/20 °C day\\/night), zeatin, zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin levels in the leaves were
Many issues surround the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Employer concerns focus on eligibility, lost work hours, and the conditions of granting leave. Employees would like to know what their new rights are, how the Act affects their benefits, and what documentation they must present to demonstrate a need for leave. Both agency administrators and home care workers will find clarification here. PMID:10132665
The dynamics of leaving home for youth from migrant families in the Netherlands are examined using individual administrative\\u000a data on the 1977 and 1983 birth cohorts for the period 19992004. A competing-risks approach is applied to distinguish leaving\\u000a home for union formation, to live independently, and to share with others. Migrant youth, and particularly Turkish and Moroccan\\u000a youth, leave home
Farmers in developing countries cannot afford inorganic fertilizers. Multipurpose tree leaves or livestock manure are major\\u000a sources of nutrients for soil fertility replenishment. Nutrient release from these organic inputs depends on their chemical\\u000a composition and on soil properties. This study determined the chemical composition of leaves of four African browse species\\u000a and manure from goats fed leaves as protein supplements,
Enzyme activities of tobacco leaves were compared in detergent extracts. Highest levels of chlorogenic acid oxidase, malate-NAD oxidoreductase, and acid phosphatase were obtained from bud tissues. Peroxidase activity was least in young leaves and highest in senescent leaves yellowed with Ethrel. Peroxidase zymograms obtained by means of disc electrophoresis showed differences in isozyme composition among all five samples examined. Although protease was found in material extracted from buds, upper, middle, and lower leaf positions, none could be demonstrated in Ethrel-treated mature leaves. PMID:16658253
Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers. PMID:19353982
Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.
Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130
Wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L.) at the moment of their maximum expansion were detached and put in darkness. Their protein, RNA and DNA contents, as well as their rates of protein synthesis and degradation, were measured at different times from 0 to 5 days after detachment. Rates of protein synthesis were measured by incorporation into proteins of large amounts of [3H]leucine. Fractional rates of protein degradation were estimated either from the difference between the rates of synthesis and the net protein change or by the disappearance of radioactivity from proteins previously labeled with [3H]leucine or [14C]proline. Protein loss reached a value of 20% during the first 48 hours of the process. RNA loss paralleled that of protein, whereas DNA content proved to be almost constant during the first 3 days and decreased dramatically thereafter. Measurements of protein synthesis and degradation indicate that, in spite of a slowdown in rate of protein synthesis, an increased rate of protein breakdown is mainly responsible for the observed rapid protein loss.
Lamattina, Lorenzo; Lezica, Rafael Pont; Conde, Ruben D.
Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.
Plants provide an excellent system to study CO(2) diffusion because, under light saturated conditions, photosynthesis is limited by CO(2) availability. Recent findings indicate that CO(2) diffusion in leaves can be variable in a short time range. Mesophyll CO(2) conductance could change independently from stomata movement or CO(2) fixing reactions and it was suggested that, beside others, the membranes are mesophyll CO(2) conductance limiting components. Specific aquaporins as membrane intrinsic pore proteins are considered to have a function in the modification of membrane CO(2) conductivity. Because of conflicting data, the mechanism of membrane CO(2) diffusion in plants and animals is a matter of a controversy vivid debate in the scientific community. On one hand, data from biophysics are in favor of CO(2) diffusion limiting mechanisms completely independent from membrane structure and membrane components. On the other, there is increasing evidence from physiology that a change in membrane composition has an effect on CO(2) diffusion. PMID:22300606
This activity is takes place in nature and in the classroom. Students are gathering different types of leaves and naming characteristics of each then sorting them by those characteristics. Students then make a picture with leaves and writes 2-3 sentences about their picture using the characteristic words.
According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.
Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.
Cotyledon leaves of 81 samples of world gene pool of tartary buckwheat were investigated. Their linear parameters were measured; their morphological description was submitted. High positive corre lation was established between linear parameters of cotyledon leaves and weight of 1000 grains. The distribution of samples on groups was conducted on the basis of these parameters.
Ultrastructural and biochemical approaches were used to investigate the mode of action of tagetitoxin, a nonhost-specific phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (Hellmers) Young, Dye and Wilkie, which causes chlorosis in developing but not mature leaves. Tagetitoxin has no effect on the growth rate or morphology of developing leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Its cytological
This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid, which is a caffeic acid derivatized with tartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid was
|The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social
Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:
Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan
Green leafy vegetables are the most underexploited class of vegetablesdespite high nutritional value. Reports on nutritional composition andstorage of some of the fresh leaves are available but the storage behaviorof dehydrated leaves apparently has not been studied. Therefore, in thepresent study, two green leafy vegetables, savoy beets (Beta vulgarisvar. bengalensis) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) were dehydrated in a low temperature
Contaminated salad leaves have emerged as important vehicles for the transmission of enteric pathogens to humans. A recent outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg (S. Senftenberg) in the United Kingdom has been traced to the consumption of contaminated basil. Using the outbreak strain of S. Senftenberg, we found that it binds to basil, lettuce, rocket and spinach leaves showing a
Cedric N Berger; Robert K Shaw; Derek J Brown; Henry Mather; Simon Clare; Gordon Dougan; Mark J Pallen; Gad Frankel
|What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their
In June 1996, the EU directive on parental leave came into force. A major consideration in the introduction of this directive was its advantages for the reconciliation of work and family life. However, there is little systematic knowledge about the practical significance of parental leave arrangements in the European Union for equal opportunities policy. Given this situation, the main focus
The extractability of tannin from fresh, lyophilized, and dried leaves collected at various times in the growing season was determined using the radial diffusion assay for protein-precipitating phenolics. The amount of tannin extracted depended on the method of leaf preservation and on the maturity of the leaf. Early in the season, more tannin was extracted from lyophilized leaves than from
This article uses data from employer surveys and the March Current Population Survey to investigate the impact of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on coverage, leave-taking, employment, and earnings. The variation in state laws prior to the FMLA and the variation in coverage under the FMLA provides a natural experiment in which the effect of the law can
This article summarizes the provisions of the Family and Medical Leave Act, its possible effects on labor markets, and the resulting changes in the ability of workers to take leave. The author concludes that the actual provisions of the act are quite modest and have yielded neither large benefits to workers nor imposed significant costs on employers. One reason for
Genistein, pinocembrin, prunetin, 6-prenylnaringenin, licoflavanone and wighteone were isolated from the leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra collected on the west coast of Anatolia, whereas lupiwighteone was found only in the leaves of G. glabra growing in middle or east Anatolia. The G. glabra plants growing in different areas of Turkey could be classified into two types according to the occurrence of
The study addresses the questions of 'What is the frequency and trend of unplanned leave by nursing staff on weekends'. 'What is the associated overtime cost for for such leave'. 'Is a recommendation for Saturday premium pay justified'. The occurrences of...
This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070
The report responds to a request for a cost estimate of H.R. 925, The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1987, as amended. The bill permits employees to take up to 10 weeks of unpaid leave over a 2-year period upon the birth, adoption, or serious illness of ...
Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.
Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic ?-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-?-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482
Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars Florida Lanai, Crown Jewel, Ailsa Craig and the transgenic line Sp5 of Ailsa Craig were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar Ailsa Craig and decreased fastest on/in Florida Lanai leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.
Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.
Objective To investigate the doseresponse relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one prospective cohort study. A distinction was made between duration, frequency and intensity of physical activity. The outcome measure was the number of days of sick leave. Analyses of variance were used to compare sick leave (in days) for workers with different amounts of physical activity, in particular workers meeting the physical activity recommendations v those who did not. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to obtain effect estimates in the prospective cohort study, with the generalised estimating equation (GEE) method. Results No relation was found between moderate physical activity and sick leave. In two databases, workers meeting the recommendation of vigorous physical activity (active at a vigorous level for at least three times a week) had significantly less sick leave: more than one day over two months and more than four days over a year. The duration of vigorous physical activity was not associated with sick leave. Conclusion Physical activity at a vigorous intensity level for at least three times a week, as in the CDC/ACSM recommendation, has a positive effect on sick leave.
Proper, K I; van den Heuvel, S G; De Vroome, E M; Hildebrandt, V H; Van der Beek, A J
Abstract Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, work-related and organizational factors. Odds ratios for job loss were calculated in logistic regression models. Results: Job loss during sick leave is associated with mental disorder, a history of sick leave due to these disorders, lack of co-worker and supervisor support, job insecurity and working as a civil servant or a teacher. Associations vary for gender and for company size. Conclusions: Job loss during sick leave is associated with medical, work-related, organizational and socio-demographic factors. The findings of this study might help the OHP or other health professionals involved in the management of employees on sick leave to identify those employees who are at risk for job loss during sick leave, and might help policymakers to decide on priorities in prevention and treatment. Future studies should have a longitudinal, prospective design and include information about the type of contract, possible causes for job loss, severity and treatment of the disorder causing the sick leave. Implications for Rehabilitation The labor market moves to more and more flexible and temporary contracts. This leads to more precarious types of employment. The risk of job loss during sick leave is associated with medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors. Occupational health physicians and other professionals in the field of work rehabilitation should be aware of these associations to prevent job loss due to these factors. PMID:23350763
IN ADDITION TO SCHOOL POLICIES RELATING TO TEACHER LEAVES OF ABSENCE IN SOUTH DAKOTA, STATE BY STATE SUMMARIES OF EDUCATIONAL LEGISLATION REGARDING SICK LEAVE, MATERNITY LEAVE, AND SABBATICAL LEAVE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS DOCUMENT. OF THE 228 RESPONDING SCHOOLS IN SOUTH DAKOTA, 215 REPORTED EXISTING SICK LEAVE POLICIES. THE MAJORITY OF RESPONDING
We study the impact on children of increasing maternity leave benefits using a reform that increased paid and unpaid maternity leave in Norway in July 1977. Mothers giving birth before this date were eligible only for 12 weeks of unpaid leave, while those giving birth after were entitled to 4 months of paid leave and 12 months of unpaid leave.
Pedro Carneiro; Katrine V. Loken; Kjell G. Salvanes
According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219
There is much confusion among employers on how to interpret rights and responsibilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). In many cases, the guidelines seem contradictory. Labor attorney Christopher J. Collins says that the ADA is basically a civil rights act, designed to protect the disabled from discrimination, while FMLA is a labor standards and leave law. Commonly-asked questions are answered, including the amount of leave an employee is entitled to, the amount of information that can be requested from an employee, and the options for dealing with employees who cannot perform assigned tasks. PMID:11365955
Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace
Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological processes and key functional pathways in rice. PMID:21407816
Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll layer that decreases light capture by chloroplasts. Measurements of leaf absorbance demonstrated that red-senescing leaves absorbed more light of blue-green to orange wavelengths (495-644 nm) compared with yellow-senescing leaves. Using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, we observed that maximum photosystem II (PSII) photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered from a high-light stress treatment, whereas yellow-senescing leaves failed to recover after 6 h of dark adaptation, which suggests photo-oxidative damage. Because no differences were observed in light response curves of effective PSII photon yield for red- and yellow-senescing leaves, differences between red- and yellow-senescing cannot be explained by differences in the capacities for photochemical and non-photochemical light energy dissipation. A role of anthocyanins as screening pigments was explored further by measuring the responses PSII photon yield to blue light, which is preferentially absorbed by anthocyanins, versus red light, which is poorly absorbed. We found that dark-adapted PSII photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered rapidly following illumination with blue light. However, red light induced a similar, prolonged decrease in PSII photon yield in both red- and yellow-senescing leaves. We suggest that optical masking of chlorophyll by anthocyanins reduces risk of photo-oxidative damage to leaf cells as they senesce, which otherwise may lower the efficiency of nutrient retrieval from senescing autumn leaves. PMID:11598230
Caffeine is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For safety concerns, natural caffeine is preferred over synthetic products despite of its high cost. To explore more economical methods of acquiring natural caffeine, we adopted a microbial fermentation technique to increase the caffeine content of tea leaves. Our studies showed that the caffeine content in tea leaves increased reasonably after treating leaves with microorganisms for a period of time (i.e. orthodox pile-fermentation), and the amount of caffeine content increase varied significantly between black and green teas (27.57% and 86.41%). These results suggested that the change of caffeine content in tea leaves during the pile-fermentation depended not only on the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, but also on the tea composition. PMID:16131136
The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves. PMID:20184030
Three trijugin-type limonoids, sandrapins A, B and C, were isolated from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape and their structures, which are related to capensolactones, were elucidated by a detailed 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis. PMID:14629998
...member. (6) Rest and recuperation. To spend time with a...short-term, temporary, rest and recuperation leave during the period of deployment. Eligible...each instance of rest and recuperation. (7)...
Nitrogen had a greater effect than potassium or phosphorus on thin-leaved huckleberry seedling growth in greenhouse nutrient experiments, with high levels providing the best growth. Fertilization of wild huckleberry fields with ammonium sulfate stimulated...
Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV
The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves.
|Interviewed 990 urban elderly Canadians to examine factors influencing the desire for different housing. Results showed that housing conditions, living with children, and sickness influenced the wishes of the elderly to leave home, while functional impairment was not related. (JAC)|
The leaves of Melicope ptelefolia (Rutaceae) afforded a new acetophenone named 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone. The structure of the compound was established by mass and NMR spectroscopy. PMID:16644538
Shaari, Khozirah; Safri, Suryati; Abas, Faridah; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, D A
The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 to ensure that both employees' and agencies' rights are protected and their responsibilities fulfilled. PMID:11010688
...Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103 Section 630.1103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT...ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program Â§ 630.1103...
The effects of storage in different packages on the essential oil content and humidity of Brazilian lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves were studied. Lemon grass leaves were dried at 50°C to moisture content of 11% (d.b.) and stored for one year in three different plastic and paper packages. Oil content and its principal compounds were isolated by the hydro-distillation method
A. P. Martinazzo; E. C. Melo; A. Barbosa; F. F. Soares; R. P. Rocha; L. L. Randuz; P. A. Berbert
Cellular and subcellular volumes in mature leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. US Hybrid 424) were determined stereologically from light and electron micrographs. Forty-nine-day-old leaves of spinach\\u000a with a total leaf volume of 1177 ?L per mg chlorophyll (Chl) were found to be composed of 3% epidermis, 58% mesophyll, 1%\\u000a vascular tissue, 5% apoplasm and 32% gas space. In the
Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt
While parental leave is considered an important right for employees, its application in different work environments is not\\u000a always straightforward. It is worthwhile to study the implementation in the workplace of the parental leave policy introduced\\u000a in Québec, especially since this policy has unique characteristics not found anywhere else in North America. We chose to carry\\u000a out our study in
Plants were regenerated from the in vitro cultured explants of primary leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Primary leaves, including the intact petiole, were excised from three-day-old seedlings and cultured on Gamborg's B5 basal medium containing 8×10-7 M 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 1×10-2 M L-glutamine and 1×10-4 M adenine sulfate. Callus formed at the petiole end. Prolific shoot regeneration occurred when
Leaving home is a key life event in the transition to adulthood, but it has been relatively less explored in demographic studies of contemporary Japan. This paper examines the relationship between home-leaving intensities of young adults and the rapid social, economic, and demographic changes that took place in post-World War II Japan. By using event-history analysis, the study focuses on
Several deciduous woody plant species produce anthocyanins during leaf development in spring and again during leaf senescence\\u000a in autumn. The leaves of Betula pendula Roth (silver birch) commonly exhibit transient reddening in juvenile leaves under northern growing conditions, with the intensity\\u000a of the red colour varying among individual trees. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that
Kari Taulavuori; Henna Pihlajaniemi; Satu Huttunen; Erja Taulavuori
In this paper, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals were synthesized by using the leaves of the plant Scindapsus aureum. The resultant CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The biomolecules of Scindapsus aureum was confirmed by using UV-vis analysis. The results showed that the elongated rhombohedral calcite crystals were produced in the cells of Scindapsus aureum leaves.
Long Chen; Xiaoping Fang; Shineng Zhang; Xiayu Wu; Jingjing Wu; Qinqin Cui; Liqi Yu; Qingqing Wang
The overlap between the Family and Medical Leave Act and state leave laws can create complications. Employers, particularly those with multistate operations, may wish to consider an outsourced absence management system, which can remove the burden of day-to-day administration and the need to stay abreast of changing state regulations. However, employers cannot outsource the responsibility to set broad policy toward absence management. PMID:11859539
Andean Indians have used coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca and related species) for centuries to enhance physical performance. The benefits and disadvantages of using coca leaf have\\u000a been a subject of many political debates. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chewing coca leaves on biochemical\\u000a and physiological parameters. Cutaneous microdialysis catheters were used to estimate systemic
V. Casikar; E. Mujica; M. Mongelli; J. Aliaga; N. Lopez; C. Smith; F. Bartholomew
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of NaOCl and KMnO4 at two levels in reducing the microbial load of coriander leaves. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Fresh coriander leaves procured from various markets were intensively sampled and administered to wash treatments with tap water and sanitizers at two levels. Hi media pre plated plates were used for
This paper deals with the interpretation of leaves spectra following an approach based on modelling and laboratory studies.\\u000a First, the leaves structure and principal constituents are described together with the way they interact with light. The effects\\u000a of growth, senescence and environmental factors on the leaf optical properties are summarised. A laboratory study conducted\\u000a on drought stress of maize (Zea
Jean Verdebout; Stephane Jacquemoud; Guido Schmuck
In higher plants formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 220.127.116.11.) is a mitochondrial, NAD-dependent enzyme. We previously reported that in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) FDH expression is high in tubers but low in green leaves. Here we show that in isolated tuber mitochondria FDH is involved in formate-dependent O2 uptake coupled to ATP synthesis. The effects of various environmental and chemical factors on FDH expression in leaves were tested using the mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase as a control. The abundance of FDH transcripts is strongly increased under various stresses, whereas serine hydroxymethyltransferase transcripts decline. The application of formate to leaves strongly enhances FDH expression, suggesting that it might be the signal for FDH induction. Our experiments using glycolytic products suggest that glycolysis may play an important role in formate synthesis in leaves in the dark and during hypoxia, and in tubers. Of particular interest is the dramatic accumulation of FDH transcripts after spraying methanol on leaves, as this compound is known to increase the yields of C3 plants. In addition, although the steady-state levels of FDH transcript increase very quickly in response to stress, protein accumulation is much slower, but can eventually reach the same levels in leaves as in tubers.
Hourton-Cabassa, Cecile; Ambard-Bretteville, Francoise; Moreau, Francois; de Virville, Jacques Davy; Remy, Rene; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine
The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 520 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic watermethanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 7080 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the LambertBeer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated.
Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi
The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701
Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi
Handheld SPAD meter is often used to measure chlorophyll content of plant and nitrogen level for some species. For plant production automation, however, it loses its popularity due to its point-by-point checking. The authors need to monitor the growing conditions of plant remotely, instantly and nondestructively. In the test, we examined optical fiber reflection spectroscopy used to measure chlorophyll content of some plant leaves, or for their SPAD prediction. The authors picked 120 leaves randomly from our campus ground or trees, among which 70 samples were chosen as calibration set and others as verification set. Each sample was water-cleaned and air-dried. To locate each measuring point precisely when using SPAD meter and spectrometer, the authors drew a circle with a diameter of 10 mm on each leave to be measured. By comparing the spectral curves of various leaves, the authors found that the spectral band between 650-750 nm was significant for SPAD modeling since this range of spectral data of leaves with the same SPAD reading was close to each other. It was showed that leave color was an unnecessary factor for SPAD prediction by reflection spectroscopy. Besides, the authors discovered that LED's narrow spectral range used by SPAD meter should be concerned because optical fiber spectrometer has much more wide spectral range. Based on this awareness, the authors designed an adjustment factor of light to linearly rebuild spectrometer's reflective intensity so that it reached zero outside the band 650-750 nm. Moreover, leave thickness was another influential factor for SPAD prediction since the light of SPAD meter goes through the leave while the reflective spectrometer does not. First, an equation for SPAD prediction was built with uncertain parameters. Then, a standard genetic algorithm was designed with Visual Basic 6.0 for parameter optimization. As a result, the optimal reflection band was narrowed within 683.24-733.91 nm. The result showed that leave thickness strongly affects the precision of SPAD prediction. Through the modification of leave thickness, the regression coefficient (R2) of calibration set and verification set reached 0.865 8 and 0.916 1 respectively. The test showed that optical fiber reflection spectroscopy is useful for SPAD prediction and can be used to develop remote SPAD sensor. PMID:19810542
Emerging leaves in evergreen tree species are supplied with carbon (C) from the previous year's foliage. In deciduous trees, no older leaves are present, and the early phase of leaf development must rely on C reserves from other tissues. How soon developing leaves become autotrophic and switch from being C sinks to sources has rarely been studied in mature forest trees, and simultaneous comparisons of species are scarce. Using a canopy crane and a simple (13)CO(2)-pulse-labelling technique, we demonstrate that young leaves of mature trees in three European deciduous species (Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) start assimilating CO(2) at a very early stage of development (10-50% expanded). One month after labelling, all leaves were still strongly (13)C enriched, suggesting that recent photosynthates had been incorporated into slow turnover pools such as cellulose or lignin and thus had contributed to leaf growth. In line with previous studies performed at the same site, we found stronger incorporation of recent photosynthates into growing tissues of T. platyphyllos compared with F. sylvatica and Q. petraea. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations analysed for one of the three study species (F. sylvatica) showed that sugar and starch pools rapidly increased during leaf development, suggesting that newly developed leaves soon produce more NSC than can be used for growth. In conclusion, our findings indicate that expanding leaves of mature deciduous trees become C autonomous at an early stage of development despite the presence of vast amounts of mobile carbohydrate reserves. PMID:20688879
Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.
Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes. To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection, proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification. Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (>1.5-fold, p<0.05) in mock- and C. fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point. Notably, 2-DE analysis revealed that C. fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves, and western blotting confirmed the induction of ?-1,3-glucanase and a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C. fragariae infection. During the late phase of infection, proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression. The abundance changes, putative functions, and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogen-responsive protein network in C. fragariae-infected strawberry leaves. Together, these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, especially those found in non-model plant species. PMID:22634039
Seven species of juniper grow in Azerbaijan. The examination of leaves and fruits of Juniperus oxycedrus L. growing in Azerbaijan was conducted. It was found that Juniperus oxycedrus L is widespread in Azerbaijan. The biologically active substances of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves have been studied. It was found that the main biologically active substances in leaves are flavonoids -1,61% and lipids -57,8%; in fruits - ethereal oil 1,2%. The flavonoid composites include luteolin, kaempferol, quercetine, izoquercitrin, rutin. They also possess the diuretic and anti-inflammation effects. Ethereal oil of fruits consist of 20 components, prevailing are alpha-beta-pinen, alpha-fellandren, alpha-terpineol and it also possesses high antimicrobial and antibacterial effect. Lipoid fraction includes tokoferols, karotinoids, xlorofils and lipoid acids: linol, linolen, olein, stearin and palmithin. There are also macroelements K,Ca, Mg,Na,and mikroelements Si, Fe, Al. It was found that the period of maximum accumulation of flavonoids in leaves and ethereal oil in fruit is in Autumn in the period of fruit maturation and ripening. Juniperus oxycedrus L is a good material for new antiseptic remedy. Flavonoids from the leaves of Juniperus oxycedrus L have anti-inflammatory and diuretic effect; fungicide, antimicrobial and antibacterial characteristics. PMID:19359735
Spectral reflectance of maple, chestnut and beech leaves in a wide range of pigment content and composition was investigated to devise a nondestructive technique for total carotenoid (Car) content estimation in higher plant leaves. Reciprocal reflectance in the range 510 to 550 nm was found to be closely related to the total pigment content in leaves. The sensitivity of reciprocal reflectance to Car content was maximal in a spectral range around 510 nm; however, chlorophylls (Chl) also affect reflectance in this spectral range. To remove the Chl effect on the reciprocal reflectance at 510 nm, a reciprocal reflectance at either 550 or 700 nm was used, which was linearly proportional to the Chl content. Indices for nondestructive estimation of Car content in leaves were devised and validated. Reflectances in three spectral bands, 510+/-5 nm, either 550+/-15 nm or 700+/-7.5 nm and the near infrared range above 750 nm are sufficient to estimate total Car content in plant leaves nondestructively with a root mean square error of less than 1.75 nmol/cm2. PMID:11950093
Gitelson, Anatoly A; Zur, Yoav; Chivkunova, Olga B; Merzlyak, Mark N
Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa. PMID:17610142
Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M
This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves. PMID:23533545
Insects are fascinating to watch but difficult to catch, so are falling leaves. The diverse maneuver executed by insects and the flutter and tumbling motion of leaves are manifestations of complex interactions between the moving surfaces and the surrounding unsteady air. Despite the long tradition in fluid dynamics, relatively few quantitative descriptions and basic mechanisms are known about these two everyday phenomena. In this talk, I will describe some of the lessons we learned by analyzing them. In particular, I will show 1)a basic two dimensional mechanism of insect hovering and the associated vortical flow and forces, 2) the use of drag in insect hovering, in contrast to helicopter,3) the rise of falling leaves and the lift mechanism which is responsible for the center of mass elevation, 4) a model of fluid forces, different from the classical theory, for falling objects in fluid, and 5) computer experiments of three dimensional elastic flapping wings driven by muscles.
This article examines parallel models of union joining and leaving using individual-level longitudinal panel data collected over a 5-year period. The authors utilized objective measures of joining and leaving collected from union and organizational records and took into account time by using event history analysis. The results indicated that union joining was negatively related to procedural justice and higher performance appraisals and positively related to partner socialization and extrinsic union instrumentality. Conversely, members were most likely to leave the union when they perceived lower procedural justice, where there was no union representative present in the workplace, and where they had individualistic orientations. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice for trade unions. PMID:17484562
Buttigieg, Donna M; Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D
Investigation on the biosynthesis of S-methyl-L-cysteine in radish leaves has shown that it is formed by the methylation of cysteine. This conclusion is based on: A) the relatively high recovery of radioactivity in methylcysteine sulfoxide after the administration of cysteine or methyl-labeled methionine to radish leaves; B) the nearly complete recovery of label from methyl-labeled methionine in the methyl group of methylcysteine sulfoxide; and C) the similarity in the ratio of tritium to (14)C in methylcysteine sulfoxide and in its methyl group to this ratio in the methyl group of methionine given to radish leaves. Direct evidence for the synthesis of methylcysteine in radishes was obtained for the first time.Conclusive evidence against the formation of methylcysteine from serine and a thiomethyl group from methionine as suggested for garlic was the more efficient incorporation of the methyl group of methionine as compared to the sulfur atom into methylcysteine sulfoxide. PMID:16656400
Khat (qat) leaves are chewed for their psychostimulative effects; there is an unconfirmed suggestion that they contain a high concentration of fluoride (F). Khat samples from Yemen were suspended in deionized water, spun, and the supernatants exposed to a chelator that decomplexes F, which was assayed with an F(-)-electrode coupled to an ion analyser. F released into whole saliva after chewing khat for 15 min and from khat suspended in stimulated whole saliva for 1.5 h in vitro was measured also. Total F in dried khat leaves and their ash was assayed by the acid-hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion method. All methods demonstrated negligible amounts of F in or from khat leaves (<0.02 microg F/ml leached into water or saliva; 0.06 microg F/ml in saliva after chewing; 0.93 microg total F/g in dried leaf, 2.07 microg total F/g in ash). PMID:10761879
This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves.
The Labor Department issued its final regulations to clarify the interplay between the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. The regulations clarify leaves of absences, the employee's rights to return to work after a leave, and confidentiality of medical records. Other ADA-related aspects of the FMLA regulations state that when an employer violates both the FMLA and ADA, an employee may be able to recover under either or both statutes but may not be awarded double relief for the same loss; and FMLA does not modify or affect any law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability, as does the ADA. Final FMLA regulations become effective April 6, 1995. A comparative list of ADA and FMLA laws is provided. More information can be obtained by consulting the Federal Register for Jan 6. PMID:11362276
Mature leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (red kidney bean), Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur), and Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) were used to study accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) during water stress. The water status of individual, detached leaves was monitored while the leaves slowly wilted, and samples were cut from the leaves as they lost water. The leaf sections were incubated
Sickness leave is a major source of societal costs in depression treatment. However, very little is known about the rationale behind sick leave and their effects on depressive symptoms. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of sick leave on treatment outcome and the association of sick leave with patient, depression and treatment-related factors. For this we compared
Isaac Bermejo; Levente Kriston; Frank Schneider; Wolfgang Gaebel; Ulrich Hegerl; Mathias Berger; Martin Härter
Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.
|The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies new federally mandated employee leave provisions to institutions. Schools must formulate leave policies, communicate them to all staff, and document all FMLA-related actions. Offers a guide to planning and implementing FMLA leave. (MLF)|
Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.
Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.
In order to find the nutritive value of oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) leaves, native to temperate and humid Himalayan ranges (29°25?N and 79°35?E), containing (% DM basis) 9.49, CP; 94.86, OM; 4.07, EE; 64.20, NDF; 50.60, ADF; 1.60, Ca; 0.2, P and 4.40, tannins; four male pashmina kids (56 months age and 12.9±1.39 kg body weight) were fed freshly lopped green-leaves
To study the chemical constituents in the twigs and leaves of Melodinus hemsleyanus. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Fourteen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of M. hemsleyanus. Their structures were identified as 11-hydroxytabersonine (1), venalstonid (2), sandine (3), oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), betulin (6), (+)-pinoresinol (7), (-)-syringaresinol (8), 8-hydroxypinoresinol (9), (-)-latifolin (10), cirsilineol (11), loganin (12), dibutylterephthalate (13), and beta-sitosterol (14). Compounds 4-14 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:23947135
To study the chemical constituents in the twigs and leaves of Melodinus hemsleyanus. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Fourteen compounds were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of M. hemsleyanus. Their structures were identified as 11-hydroxytabersonine (1) , venalstonid (2), sandine (3), oleanolic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), betulin (6) , (+)-pinoresinol (7), (-)-syringaresinol (8), 8-hydroxypinoresinol (9), (-)-latifolin (10) , cirsilineol (11) , loganin (12) , dibutylterephthalate (13) , and beta-sitosterol(14). Compounds 4-14 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:23944075
A rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves is described. The kinetics of both enzymes are reported in relation to their possible roles in the production of oxalate. Lettuce lactate dehydrogenase behaves like mammalian dehydrogenase, catalyzing the dismutation of glyoxylate to glycolate and oxalate. A model is proposed in which glycolate oxidase in the peroxisomes and lactate dehydrogenase in the cytosol are involved in the production of oxalate. The effect of pH on the balance between oxalate and glycolate produced from glyoxylate suggests that in leaves lactate dehydrogenase may function as part of an oxalate-based biochemical, pH-stat.
Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (?4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition.
The plant growth and N behaviour %Ndfs and %Ndff of main Xinjiang legume forage crops could be observed when its of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa and main gramineous forage grasses in monoculture and mixed culture were investigated in potting and pastu...
The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons why college-educated women leave organizations after childbirth. Results from 228 women who participated in a study of intention to work following childbirth indicated specific work and family factors that differentiated mothers who returned to work from mothers who stayed home after childbirth. Comparisons were also made between women who had
During antifungal screening of higher plants, the leaves of Lawsonia inermis were found to exhibit strong fungitoxicity. On chemical investigation, the antifungal factor was found to be 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone). The minimum effective dose against test organism was found to be 1000 ppm. Lawsone was found to exhibit fungicidal activity, wide fungitoxic spectrum and nonphytotoxicity. PMID:620734
Summary During antifungal screening of higher plants, the leaves ofLawsonia inermis were found to exhibit strong fungitoxicity. On chemical investigation, the antifungal factor was found to be 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone). The minimum effective dose against test organism was found to be 1000 ppm. Lawsone was found to exhibit fungicidal activity, wide fungitoxic spectrum and nonphytotoxicity.
...reasonable effort to schedule medical treatment so as not to disrupt...that an employee reschedule medical treatment, subject to the...regardless of how far in advance the leave is being requested...foreseeableâe.g., a medical emergency or the...
|Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)|
|This case study asks readers to consider what leadership actions might help to sustain success for immigrant students in a small urban high school when the leader leaves. Principal Michael Perez, the founding principal of Romero High School, has been recruited to become the superintendent of a first-ring suburban district with rapidly changing
The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves. PMID:20435903
The nuclear DNA content of rye leaf cells was cytophotometrically determined. At the commencement of differentiation nuclei in rye leaves remain standing at G1 phase. With further differentiation a remarkable diminution of nuclear DNA content occurs in diploid cells. The largest number of cells showing a loss of nuclear DNA content were found in the top of the leaf. The
Although many studies have examined college student attrition, no extant literature examines the phenomenon of undergraduates who discontinue their enrollment in college during a semester of their senior year. This study used both institutional and self-reported survey data to examine the rationale behind seniors' decision to leave college during
Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO2 concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO2 diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study
Roland Pieruschka; Andres Chavarria-Krauser; Ulrich Schurr; Siegfried Jahnke
The transition from cell proliferation to cell expansion is critical for determining leaf size. Andriankaja et al. (2012) demonstrate that in leaves of dicotyledonous plants, a basal proliferation zone is maintained for several days before abruptly disappearing, and that chloroplast differentiation is required to trigger the onset of cell expansion. PMID:22264727
|Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their
Two new andirobin-type limonoids, named sandoripin A and sandoripin B, were isolated from the leaves of Sandoricum koetjape collected in Thailand. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, as well as by comparison with reported data of closely related compounds. PMID:19140068
Pancharoen, Orasa; Pipatanapatikarn, Anchalee; Charles Taylor, Walter; Bansiddhi, Jaree
A recent United State Supreme Court ruling upheld a California law requiring employers to grant female employees up to four months of unpaid maternity leave and make reasonable efforts to reinstate them when they return to work. The decision and its implications are discussed. (MSE)
A new assay for the evaluation of spermidine (Spd) synthase activity was developed. It involves a coupled reaction and avoids the use of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine, which is unstable and not easily available. This assay was applied to assess changes in enzyme activity in oat leaves subjected to osmotic stress in the dark. The results indicate that osmotically-induced putrescine (Put) accumulation
|Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure
The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...
Vegetables have a natural defense against external factors synthesizing phenolic compounds, which depends on the maturity stage and on the climate. Total phenol grades were extracted from mature and young coffee leaves and were analyzed in relation to yield, phenology and climate. The climatic conditions were described by air temperature, global radiation and daily insolation. Evaluations were made on height,
Paula Rodrigues Salgado; José Laércio Favarin; Roseli Aparecida Leandro; Oscar Fontão de Lima Filho
From the chloroform part of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot, leaves five constituents were isolated: tyrosol, esculetine, kempferol-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetine-3-O-glucoside, and quercetine. Further six constituents (probably malvidine, two secoiridoid glycosides, caffeic acid monosaccharide ester, quercetine monoglycoside (no hyperoside), and quercetine diglycoside (no rutinoside)) were isolated from the methanolic part of above mentioned drug. PMID:11797198
Spectral reflectance and transmittance of leaves to ultraviolet irradiation were determined under laboratory conditions for seven species of hardwood trees, namely red oak ( Quercus rubra, L), black oak ( Q. velutina, Lamarch), white oak ( Q. alba, L.), sugar maple ( Acer saccharum), Norway maple ( A. plantanoides), hickory ( Carya tomemtosa), sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua), and black oak
Xiusheng Yang; Gordon M. Heisler; Michael E. Montgomery; Joseph H. Sullivan; Edward B. Whereat; David R. Miller
Spectral reflectance and transmittance of leaves to ultraviolet irradiation were determined under laboratory conditions for seven species of hardwood trees, namely red oak (Quercus rubra, L), black oak (Q. velutina, Lamarch), white oak (Q. alba, L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), Norway maple (A. plantanoides), hickory (Carya tomemtosa), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and black oak litter. The experimental system consisted of a
Xiusheng Yang; Gordon M. Heisler; Michael E. Montgomery; Joseph H. Sullivan; Edward B. Whereat; David R. Miller
High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)
...401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No vessel shall proceed out of a lock until the exit gates, ship arresters and the bridge, if any,...
...401.47 Leaving a lock. (a) Mooring lines shall only be cast off as directed by the officer in charge of a mooring operation. (b) No vessel shall proceed out of a lock until the exit gates, ship arresters and the bridge, if any,...
Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge
50. STARBOARD VIEW LEAVING HOMEPORT IN MEMPHIS TO TRAVEL TO CURTIS BAY, MARYLAND. PRIOR TO CONVERSION TO NEW HOISTING SYSTEM, 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL
|This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education
Research on the process of leaving an abusive male partner has focused on surviving abuse and the crisis of leaving. Little is known about the experience of women who have left abusive male partners and not gone back. In this feminist grounded theory study of women leaving abusive partners, the researchers discovered the basic social-psychological process of reclaiming self in which women voyaged through 4 stages: counteracting abuse, breaking free, not going back, and moving on. The focus of this paper is the last stage, moving on, during which women move beyond framing their lives as survivors of an abusive relationship through the processes of figuring it out, putting it in its rightful place, launching new relationships, and taking on a new image. The findings extend our knowledge of the leaving process by delineating the ways in which the abuse experience and the survival process are displaced as the centre of the woman's intra-psychic, interpersonal, and social existence. Questions are raised about how nurses and other health professionals can avoid revictimizing women who have moved on. PMID:11928303
|Although many studies have examined college student attrition, no extant literature examines the phenomenon of undergraduates who discontinue their enrollment in college during a semester of their senior year. This study used both institutional and self-reported survey data to examine the rationale behind seniors' decision to leave college during
Although over 70% of American mothers are part of the workforce, the maternity leave policy in the United States is of twelve unpaid weeks, and only covers about half of the workforce. The amount of time a mother is able to spend with her infant before she negotiates separation and re-entry to work is expected to play a role in
Analysis of the volatiles isolated from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum L., Lamiaceae, by capillary GC and GC\\/MS resulted in the identification of 25 components comprising 98.7% of the total oil. Eugenol (53.4%), ?-caryophyllene (31.7%) and ?-elemene (6.2%) were the major components found.
P. M. Raju; Mohamed Ali; Arturo Velasco-Negueruela; María José Pérez-Alonso
Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that ac- cumulate during development and are thought to function as con- stitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita L.) leaves and investigated
Jonathan Gershenzon; Marie E. McConkey; Rodney B. Croteau
The pattern of peltate glandular trichome initiation and ontogeny on expanding peppermint (Mentha 3 piperita) leaves was defined by surveying the populations of peltate glands in each of seven developmental stages within sampling areas of leaf apical, mid-, and basal zones for both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. It was shown that new peltate glands continue to form until leaf expansion
Glenn W. Turner; Jonathan Gershenzon; Rodney B. Croteau
Relations between the water potential, osmotic potential, pressure potential, and relative water content have been derived on the basis of 2 simple assumptions. Measurements of these quantities were made on leaves of cotton, sunflower, pepper, and birdsfoot trefoil to test the validity of these relations. Within the precision of the data, the assumption that the osmotic potential is inversely proportional
Three acylated flavonol glycosides have been identified from leaves of Planchonia grandis Ridley. They possess kaempferol as aglycone and two triglycosidic chains substituting hydroxyl groups at the 3- and 7-positions. The first glycosidic unit of each chain is esterified by a cis or trans p-coumaric acid. Structural elucidation was achieved by means of UV, NMR and mass spectrometry. PMID:12943780
Three acylated flavonol glycosides have been identified from leaves of Planchonia grandis Ridley. They possess kaempferol as aglycone and two triglycosidic chains substituting hydroxyl groups at the 3- and 7-positions. The first glycosidic unit of each chain is esterified by a cis or trans p-coumaric acid. Structural elucidation was achieved by means of UV, NMR and mass spectrometry.
To disclose the interplay between psychosocial antecedents of adolescents' deci- sions to leave their parental home in an ecologically sensitive region, we used struc- tural equation modeling to analyze data from in-person interviews of members of 220 households in Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas (China). We further divided our data into two sub-samples by gender to test the hypothesis
To disclose the interplay between psychosocial antecedents of adolescents' decisions to leave their parental home in an ecologically sensitive region, we used structural equation modeling to analyze data from in-person interviews of members of 220 households in Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas (China). We further divided our data into two sub-samples by gender to test the hypothesis that model
Two flavonol glycosides have been isolated and characterised from leaves of Syzygium samarangense. One is the rare mearnsitrin (1) while the second, 2?-C-methyl-5?-O-galloylmyricetin-3-O-a-l-rhamnopyranoside (2), is new. Detailed spectral data are provided for both.
A. G. R Nair; S Krishnan; C Ravikrishna; K. P Madhusudanan
The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Co- toneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), dif- fering in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus
Mark N. Merzlyak; Olga B. Chivkunova; Alexei E. Solovchenko; K. Razi Naqvi
Khat (qat) leaves are chewed for their psychostimulative effects; there is an unconfirmed suggestion that they contain a high concentration of fluoride (F). Khat samples from Yemen were suspended in deionized water, spun, and the supernatants exposed to a chelator that decomplexes F, which was assayed with an F?-electrode coupled to an ion analyser. F released into whole saliva after
Summary Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa. Here, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for glucosinolate accumulation in B. rapa leaves in two novel
Ping Lou; Hongju He; Corrie Hanhart; Dunia Pino Del Carpio; Ruud Verkerk; Jan Custers; Maarten Koornneef; Guusje Bonnema
This paper examines parental leave policy from the perspective of infant and young child health. Factors assisting the successful integration of breastfeeding and maternal employment are outlined. Health effects of day care attendance are also explored as an integral component of this assessment. It is suggested that the potential health disadvantages associated with lack of, or inability to access, parental
Plant leaves possess microscopic valves, called stomata, that enable control of transpirational water loss. In case of water shortage, stomata close, resulting in decreased transpirational cooling. The ensuing temperature increase is readily visualized by thermography. Salicylic acid, a central compound in the defense of plants against pathogens, also closes stomata in several species. In previous work, thermography permitted to monitor
Laury Chaerle; Martin J. vande Ven; Roland L. Valcke; Dominique Van Der Straeten
Classification trees and neural networks are widely used individually, yet little is known about the effect of combining these two techniques. Earlier work has shown that using k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) inside the leaves of a tree can increase classificat...
The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27-0.85?GAE?mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25-7.96?CE?mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC?? and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4-56.2? ?g/ml and 40.1-70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79-4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824
Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M; De Feo, Vincenzo
The LIBS spectra of holly leaves produced by Nd:YAG nanosecond laser has been investigated. More than 20 elements and molecules were identified from the spectra. The influence of laser wavelength upon analysis of plant samples via LIBS technique has been investigated. The comparison of LIBS spectra shows that the spectrum for 1064 nm irradiation is more intense than the one
D. C. Zhang; X. Ma; W. Q. Wen; H. P. Liu; P. J. Zhang
The nature and correlates of perceived deterrents to leaving a relationship were examined in a sample of both partners (N ¼ 314) from gay male, lesbian, and heterosexual couples. Partners rated the extent to which self-identified features of their relationship were regarded as either attractions to the relationship or deterrents to ending that relationship. The deterrents identified included features that
The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia L. (Turneraceae) from Cuba was studied by GC and GC/MS. Sixty-four volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were beta-caryophyllene (21.5%) and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (18.4%). PMID:21213992
RECENTLY, Stewart, Bergren and Redemann1 and Stewart2 have extracted from the leafy cotyledons of radish seedlings a substance which retards the growth of oat coleoptiles. They extracted by a method devised by van Overbeek3 for extracting auxin, leaving the material in purified other without grinding it up, and then drying the extract by distillation and evaporation; and they tested the
Caffeine synthase is an enzyme that catalyses the final two steps in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway. We have cloned the gene encoding caffeine synthase from young leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), opening up the possibility of creating tea and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants that are naturally deficient in caffeine. Consumers concerned about the possible adverse effects of caffeine consumption will
Misako Kato; Kouichi Mizuno; Alan Crozier; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Hiroshi Ashihara
The authors propose diagnostics for ARIMA model fitting for time series formed by deleting observations from the data and measuring the change in the estimates of the parameters. The use of leave-one out diagnostics is a well established tool in regressio...
A new dipyranocoumarin, ?-hydroxytomentolide A (1) was isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum apetalum together with the known compounds friedelin (2), apetalactone (3), inophyllum C (4) and canophyllol (5). The structure of the new compound was established by spectroscopic studies which include (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, NOESY, HetCOSY, COLOC experiments and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:23577701
The reflectance spectra of higher plant leaves are considered with special reference to remote sensing of chlorophyll concentration. Wavelengths with maximum sensitivity to chlorophyll content were found in the wide spectral range from 530 to 630 nm and near 700 nm. The wavelength of the red edge position of the reflectance spectrum correlated very closely with the reflectance at 550
The methanol extract of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, the cough inhibition (39.4 and 65.0%, respectively) being comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o., respectively). PMID:12165335
A new cinnamic acid-derived bisamide 1 and a new oplopanone-type sesquiterpenoid diglycoside 2, together with 11 known compounds, were isolated from the 95% ethanolic extract of the leaves of Aglaia perviridis. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:20390768
|This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three
|In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that
|Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the
Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffeaarabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked whether the dominant fungi are the same in both communities,
Childhood vaccination is a proven and cost-effective way to reduce childhood mortality; however, participation in vaccination programs is not universal even where programs are free or low cost. Studies in diverse countries have reported work conflicts as limiting parents' ability to vaccinate their children. Using policy data for 185 UN member countries, we explore the hypothesis that an increased opportunity for parents to bring children to vaccination sites will translate into higher childhood vaccination rates. To do so, we use OLS regression to examine the relationship between the duration of adequately paid maternal leave and the uptake of vaccines. We find that a higher number of full-time equivalent weeks of paid maternal leave is associated with higher childhood vaccination rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita, health care expenditures, and social factors. Further research is needed to assess whether this association is upheld in longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as whether other forms of leave such as paid leave to care for the health of family members is effective at increasing the ability of parents to bring children for needed preventive care. PMID:22196248
The reciprocal relationship between diurnal changes in organic acid and storage carbohydrate was examined in the leaves of three Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. It was found that depletion of leaf hexoses at night was sufficient to account quantitatively for increase in malate in Ananas comosus but not in Sedum telephium or Kalanchoë daigremontiana. Fructose and to a lesser extent glucose underwent the largest changes. Glucose levels in S. telephium leaves oscillated diurnally but were not reciprocally related to malate fluctuations. Analysis of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles from leaves of A. comosus and S. telephium revealed that vacuoles contain a large percentage (>50%) of the protoplast glucose, fructose and malate, citrate, isocitrate, ascorbate and succinate. Sucrose, a major constituent of intact leaves, was not detectable or was at extremely low levels in protoplasts and vacuoles from both plants. In isolated vacuoles from both A. comosus and S. telephium, hexose levels decreased at night at the same time malate increased. Only in A. comosus, however, could hexose metabolism account for a significant amount of the nocturnal increase in malate. We conclude that, in A. comosus, soluble sugars are part of the daily maintenance carbon cycle and that the vacuole plays a dynamic role in the diurnal carbon assimilation cycle of this Crassulacean acid metabolism plant.
Kenyon, William H.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.
The effect of Fe chlorosis on the mineral composition of field grown peach tree leaves was studied in two different areas. No significant differences in total Fe content were found, whereas 2,2 bipyridyl extractable Fe, K and the K\\/Ca ratio were significantly affected in both experiments. Phosphorus and the P\\/Fe ratio were significantly affected only in one experiment.
J. Abadía; J. N. Nishio; E. Monge; L. Montañés; L. Heras
Legislative activity regarding parental and family medical leave has been intense, with heated debate, in both national and state political arenas. Proponents of legislation report that policy is needed because of women's increasing rate of labor force participation and the concomitant shortage of substitute infant care. Benefits of policy are presumed to include women's health and parent-child bonding. However, no
Patricia McGovern; Dwenda K. Gjerdingen; Debra Froberg
At $60 billion per year, the workers' compensation system has come under increased scrutiny as firms, insurers, and researchers study the dynamics of claim filing. The Family and Medical Leave Act also covers most workers, and there has been very little research concerning the effects of FMLA legislation on employment. One hitherto neglected research area in both workers' compensation and
Harold H. Gardner; Nathan L. Kleinman; Richard J. Butler
Intermittent unscheduled absenteeism often challenges employers to meet the needs of their employees, control direct absenteeism costs, and maintain the staff needed to serve customers. Occupational health nurses have opportunities to play an important role in addressing this challenge. Measurable financial impacts have been demonstrated from integrating the management of intermittent FMLA leave with an employer's existing absence management program. PMID:18578187
[Excerpt] Congress passed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a means of helping individuals more easily balance their family and work obligations. Over the past few decades, married mothers with young children increasingly have strived to fulfill both workplace and child-rearing obligations. With the enactment of welfare reform legislation, greater numbers of single parents also have had to
Sets out the provisions of the US Family and Medical Leave Act, and summarizes the exceptions clause which defines which employees are excepted from these provisions. Explains how the Act works in practice and the duties it places on the employer. Gives examples from cases brought under the Act to illustrate how it is working in practice. Discusses how the
Provides a brief overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act and discusses the implications for employees. Considers the problems experienced by employers as they attempt to comply with the act and the reaction of organisations to the extension of this act in relation to unemployment benefit. Gives recommendations for employers to help with some of the administrative problems faced
In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing mens caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that as
|This document provides a summary description of the most important provisions of the Family and Medical Leave Act that affect members of the American Federation of Teachers. Twenty-eight chapters examine the details of employer and employee obligations: (1) "General Overview"; (2) "FMLA Checklist"; (3) "Key Definitions"; (4) "How To Apply for
Abraham, John D.; Strom, David J.; Sloan, Monica; McElroy, Liz
The effect of nutrient supply on the caffeine content of coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) leaves was investigated. Seeds were germinated in nutrient-agar media lacking N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B or Mo. The control treatment contained all essential nutrients. The caffeine concentration was determined seven months after seed sowing when the seedlings have 3 to 4 pair