Sample records for piper betle leaves

  1. Drying of Betel Leaves (Piper betle L.): Quality and Drying Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Pin; T. G. Chuah; A. Abdull Rashih; C. L. Law; M. A. Rasadah; T. S. Y. Choong

    2009-01-01

    This work studied the effects of drying temperature on the quality and drying kinetics of betel leaves (Piper betle L.). As the drying process applies heat on the product, this might lead to the degradation and decomposition of valuable phytochemicals within the herbs. In this study, the effect of drying temperature on the quality of dried leaves was studied by

  2. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ? 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

  3. Antioxidant activity of Piper betle L. leaf extract in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabasree Dasgupta; Bratati De

    2004-01-01

    Piper betle leaves are used as masticatory in Asian countries. In the present study, antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of three local varieties of P. betle leaves were evaluated by several in vitro systems, e.g. DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity in a riboflavin\\/light\\/NBT system, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 in

  4. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

  5. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    ALAM, BADRUL; MAJUMDER, RAJIB; AKTER, SHAHINA; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05). Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in the extract-treated mice compared with the EAC control mice. MPBL and EPBL treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05) and restored GSH, SOD and CAT levels towards normal compared with the EAC control. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that Piper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential. PMID:25624910

  6. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Intzar Ali; Farrah G Khan; Krishan A Suri; Bishan D Gupta; Naresh K Satti; Prabhu Dutt; Farhat Afrin; Ghulam N Qazi; Inshad A Khan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous leaf extract of Piper betle L., (Piperaceae) was investigated for its antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. The leaves of this plant have been long in use tropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of

  7. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  8. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  9. [Alkaloids and lignans from stems of Piper betle].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangzhong; Yin, Yan; Huang, Wenquan; Sun, Kuizong; Cheng, Chunmei; Bai, Lian; Dai, Yun

    2010-09-01

    Alkaloids and lignans from the stems of Piper betle were studied. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. From the ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the 70% acetone extract, ten compounds were isolated and identified as piperine (1), pellitorine (2), N-isobutyl-2E,4E-dodecadienamide (3), dehydropipernonaline (4), piperdardine (5), piperolein-B (6), guineensine (7), (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4-heptadienamide (8), syringaresinol-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9),pinoresinol (10). All Compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time, and compounds 9 and 10 were isolated firstly from the genus. PMID:21137339

  10. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  11. Identification of sex-specific DNA markers in betel vine ( Piper betle L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanghamitra Samantaray; Arunkumar Phurailatpam; Ashok Kumar Bishoyi; K. A. Geetha; Satyabrata Maiti

    The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to amplify DNA segments, with the objective of finding markers\\u000a linked to sex determination in male and female plants of Piper betle L. Two bulks of DNA were made drawing one each from male and female, by pooling an equal volume of DNA samples from each\\u000a group of individual contributing to

  12. Genetic diversity amongst landraces of a dioecious vegetatively propagated plant, betelvine ( Piper betle L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjali Verma; Nikhil Kumar; S. A. Ranade

    2004-01-01

    Betelvine (Piper betle L., family Piperaceae) is an important, traditional and widely cultivated crop of India. The cultivators and consumers recognize\\u000a more than 100 cultivars (landraces) based on regional and organoleptic considerations, while in terms of phytochemical constituents\\u000a only five groups have been identified for all the landraces. Since betelvine is an obligate vegetatively propagated species,\\u000a genomic changes, if any,

  13. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

  14. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg?mL?1; (iii) 3 mg?mL?1; and (iv) 6 mg?mL?1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)?mL?1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  15. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde levels can be modulated by Piper betle, tocotrienol rich fraction and Chlorella vulgaris in aging C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Aliahmat, Nor Syahida; Noor, Mohd Razman Mohd; Yusof, Wan Junizam Wan; Makpol, Suzana; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and plasma malondialdehyde levels in aging mice and to evaluate how these measures are modulated by potential antioxidants, including the tocotrienol-rich fraction, Piper betle, and Chlorella vulgaris. METHOD: One hundred and twenty male C57BL/6 inbred mice were divided into three age groups: young (6 months old), middle-aged (12 months old), and old (18 months old). Each age group consisted of two control groups (distilled water and olive oil) and three treatment groups: Piper betle (50 mg/kg body weight), tocotrienol-rich fraction (30 mg/kg), and Chlorella vulgaris (50 mg/kg). The duration of treatment for all three age groups was two months. Blood was withdrawn from the orbital sinus to determine the antioxidant enzyme activity and the malondialdehyde level. RESULTS: Piper betle increased the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in the young, middle, and old age groups, respectively, when compared to control. The tocotrienol-rich fraction decreased the superoxide dismutase activity in the middle and the old age groups but had no effect on catalase or glutathione peroxidase activity for all age groups. Chlorella vulgaris had no effect on superoxide dismutase activity for all age groups but increased glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity in the middle and the young age groups, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris reduced lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde levels) in all age groups, but no significant changes were observed with the tocotrienol-rich fraction and the Piper betle treatments. CONCLUSION: We found equivocal age-related changes in erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity when mice were treated with Piper betle, the tocotrienol-rich fraction, and Chlorella vulgaris. However, Piper betle treatment showed increased antioxidant enzymes activity during aging. PMID:23295600

  16. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA ?-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA ?-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  17. Piper betle induces phase I & II genes through Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from wild type and Nrf2 knockout cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a primary transcription factor, protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating a number of antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Dietary components such as sulforaphane in broccoli and quercetin in onions have been shown to be inducers of Nrf2. Piper betle (PB) grows well in tropical climate and the leaves are used in a number of traditional remedies for the treatment of stomach ailments and infections among Asians. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of Piper betle (PB) leaves extract in Nrf2 signaling pathway by using 2 types of cells; mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (N0) mice. Methods WT and N0 cells were treated with 5 and 10 ?g/ml of PB for 10 and 12-h for the determination of nuclear translocation of Nrf2 protein. Luciferase reporter gene activity was performed to evaluate the antioxidant response element (ARE)-induction by PB. Real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted on both WT and N0 cells after PB treatment for the determination of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and heme-oxygenase (HO-1)], phase I oxidoreductase enzymes [NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)] and phase II detoxifying enzyme [glutathione S-transferase (GST)]. Results Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 by PB in WT cells was better after 10 h incubation compared to 12 h. Real time PCR and Western blot analysis showed increased expressions of Nrf2, NQO1 and GSTA1 genes with corresponding increases in glutathione, NQO1 and HO-1 proteins in WT cells. Reporter gene ARE was stimulated by PB as shown by ARE/luciferase assay. Interestingly, PB induced SOD1 gene and protein expressions in N0 cells but not in WT cells. Conclusion The results of this study confirmed that PB activated Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway which subsequently induced some phase I oxidoreductase, phase II detoxifying and antioxidant genes expression via ARE reporter gene involved in the Nrf2 pathway with the exception of SOD1 which may not be dependent on this pathway. PMID:24559113

  18. Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-08-15

    The study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (EO) of Piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. A total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and Aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. Eleven aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) producing strains of A. flavus were recorded from the samples. Eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugenol (14.05%) were the major components of 32 constituents identified from the Piper betle EO through GC and GC-MS analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. betle EO was found 0.7 microl/ml against A.flavus. The EO reduced AFB(1) production in a dose dependent manner and completely inhibited at 0.6 microl/ml. This is the first report on efficacy of P. betle EO as aflatoxin suppressor. EO also exhibited strong antioxidant potential as its IC(50) value (3.6 microg/ml) was close to that of ascorbic acid (3.2 microg/ml) and lower than that of the synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytouene (BHT) (7.4 microg/ml) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (4.5 microg/ml). P. betle EO thus exhibited special merits possessing antifungal, aflatoxin suppressive and antioxidant characters which are desirable for an ideal preservative. Hence, its application as a plant based food additive in protection and enhancement of shelf life of edible commodities during storage and processing is strongly recommended in view of the toxicological implications by synthetic preservatives. PMID:20621374

  19. Antifungal amide from leaves of Piper hispidum.

    PubMed

    Alécio, A C; da Silva Bolzani, V; Young, M C; Kato, M J; Furlan, M

    1998-05-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) yielded a new pyrrolidine amide, N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine 1, in addition to two known amides N-[5-(3', 4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E)-pentadienoyl] pyrrolidine and N-[2-(3', 4'-methylenedioxy-6'-methoxyphenyl)-2(Z)-propenoyl]pyrrolidine. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of spectral data, including ES-MS. Compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:9599264

  20. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination. PMID:26028728

  1. Rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper (Piper guineense) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Okpala, Laura C; Ekechi, Constance A

    2014-01-01

    The rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper leaves were investigated at hydration temperatures of 28, 60, 70, and 80°C. Four treatments were given to the leaves: blanched and sun dried, unblanched and sun dried, blanched and shade dried, and unblanched and shade dried. The hydration process of the dehydrated leaves was adequately described by the Peleg's equation. As the hydration temperature increased from 28 to 70°C, there was a significant decrease in the Peleg's constant K1, while for most of the leaves the Peleg's constant K2 varied with temperature. Rehydration ratio values ranged from 3.75 in blanched shade dried leaves to 4.26 in unblanched sun dried leaves with the unblanched leaves generally exhibiting higher ratios than the blanched leaves. PMID:25493183

  2. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Standardized Dichloromethane Extract from Piper umbellatum L. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Paula Araújo; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; Sousa, Ilza Maria de Oliveira; Foglio, Mary Ann; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in anticancer drug discovery field, the worldwide cancer incidence is remarkable, highlighting the need for new therapies focusing on both cancer cell and its microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment offers multiple targets for cancer therapy, including inflammation. Nowadays, almost 75% of the anticancer agents used in chemotherapy are derived from natural products, and plants are an important source of new promising therapies. Continuing our research on Piper umbellatum species, here we describe the anticancer (in vitro antiproliferative activity and in vivo Ehrlich solid tumor model) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema and peritonitis models) activities of a standardized dichloromethane extract (SDE) from P. umbellatum leaves, containing 23.9% of 4-nerolidylcatechol. SDE showed in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity, reducing Ehrlich solid tumor growth by 38.7 and 52.2% when doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg, respectively, were administered daily by oral route. Daily treatments did not produce signals of toxicity. SDE also reduced paw edema and leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced inflammation models, suggesting that the anticancer activity of SDE from Piper umbellatum leaves could involve antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. These findings highlight P. umbellatum as a source of compounds against cancer and inflammation. PMID:25713595

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract, fractions and amides from the leaves of Piper ovatum Vahl (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Silva, D; Baroni, S; Svidzinski, A E; Bersani-Amado, C A; Cortez, D A G

    2008-03-28

    Leaves of Piper ovatum are known in folk medicine as "joão burandi" or "anestésica" and in traditional Brazilian medicine are used to treat inflammatory disease. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions, and a mixture of piperovatine (1) and piperlonguminine (2) in a proportion of 2:3 obtained from Piper ovatum were assayed for anti-inflammatory activity by means of carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. The hydroalcoholic extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fraction constituents were evaluated by phytochemical screening, and the mixture of amides (1 and 2) was identified by analyses of spectral data of (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. Acute toxicity of the extract also was evaluated. At 500mg/kg, the hydroalcoholic extract of Piper ovatum leaves did not reduce the volume of inflammatory pleural exudates compared with control animals. However, the hydroalcoholic extract and fractions F1-F3 at doses of 5.0mg/ear and a mixture of piperovatine (1) and piperlonguminine (2) at doses of 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625mg/ear significantly reduced the degree of ear edema. Taken together, the results indicate that the amide fractions piperovatine and piperlonguminine showed the greatest inhibitory activity of topical inflammation induced by croton oil. PMID:18289815

  4. Isolation and identification of antiplatelet aggregatory principles from the leaves of Piper lolot.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Damu, Amooru Gangaiah; Lee, E-Jian; Wu, Tian-Shung; Dung, Nguyen Xuan; Thang, Tran Dinh; Thanh, Le

    2007-11-14

    The methanolic extract of Piper lolot, having shown potent inhibitory activity on platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet activating factor (PAF), was subjected to activity-guided isolation to yield twelve new amide alkaloids, piperlotine A-L (1-12), along with twenty-nine known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity on the rabbit platelet aggregation. The compounds piperlotine A (1), piperlotine C (3), piperlotine D (4), piperlotine E (5), 3-phenyl-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one (21), 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-1-one (22), 1-trans-cinnamoylpyrrolidine (24), sarmentine (26), pellitorine (27), methyl 3-phenylpropionate (32), and (10S)-10-hydroxypheophorbide a methyl ester (40) showed potent antiplatelet aggregation activity. PMID:17941696

  5. In vitro schistosomicidal effects of aqueous and dichloromethane fractions from leaves and stems of Piper species and the isolation of an active amide from P. amalago L. (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Carrara, V S; Vieira, S C H; de Paula, R G; Rodrigues, V; Magalhães, L G; Cortez, D A G; Da Silva Filho, A A

    2014-09-01

    Dichloromethane and aqueous fractions from leaves and stems of Piper arboreum Aubl., P. aduncum L., P. amalago L., P. crassinervium H.B. & K., P. diospyrifolium Kunth, P. hispidum Sw. and P. xylosteoides (Kunth) Steud. were tested against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. The in vitro activity was evaluated in terms of mortality, number of separated worms and number of worms with reduced motor activity. Most dichloromethane fractions from all Piper species showed moderate schistosomicidal activity, but aqueous fractions were not active. The dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves (at 100 ?g/ml) showed the highest activity, resulting in worm mortality, the separation of worm pairs and reduced motor activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves led to the isolation of its major compound, which was also tested against adults of S. mansoni. The isolated piperamide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine, at 100 ? m, resulted in the mortality of all adult worms after 24 h of incubation. The findings suggest that species of Piper are potential sources of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:23561585

  6. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25532337

  7. Polyphenols and alkaloids from piper species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virinder S Parmar; Subhash C Jain; Sangita Gupta; Sangeeta Talwar; Vivek K Rajwanshi; Rajesh Kumar; Abul Azim; Sanjay Malhotra; Naresh Kumar; Rajni Jain; Nawal K Sharma; Om D Tyagi; Stephen J Lawrie; William Errington; Oliwer W Howarth; Carl E Olsen

    1998-01-01

    Thirty eight compounds of different types have been isolated from twelve Piper species. The ether extract of the leaves of P. aduncum yielded eleven compounds, out of which 2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol was isolated for the first time from the genus Piper and 2-acetoxy-1,3-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)benzene is a new compound. The petrol extract of the stems and leaves of P. attenuatum furnished a novel long

  8. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. L. Ee; C. M. Lim; C. K. Lim; M. Rahmani; K. Shaari; C. F. J. Bong

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3?,4?-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds

  9. Antifungal amides from Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum.

    PubMed

    Vasques da Silva, Renata; Navickiene, Hosana M Debonsi; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Méda, Christiane I; Young, Maria Claudia M; Furlan, Maysa

    2002-03-01

    In continuation of our study of the Piperaceae we have isolated several amides, mainly those bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts from leaves of Piper arboreum yielded two new amides, N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(E),9(Z)-pentadienoyl]-pyrrolidine (1), arboreumine (2) together with the known compounds N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(E)-pentaenoyl]-pyrrolidine (3) and N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7(E),9(E)-pentadienoyl]-pyrrolidine (4). Catalytic hydrogenation of 3 yielded the amide N-[10-(13,14-methylenedioxyphenyl)-pentanoyl]-pyrrolidine (5). We also have isolated six amides (6-11) and two antifungal cinnamoyl derivatives (12, 13) from seeds and leaves of Piper tuberculatum. Compounds 1-11 showed antifungal activity as determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum while compounds 3-4 and 6-13 also showed antifungal activity against C. cladosporioides. PMID:11853747

  10. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Lim, C M; Lim, C K; Rahmani, M; Shaari, K; Bong, C F J

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds was achieved through NMR and MS techniques. Cytotoxic activity screening of the plant extracts indicated some activity. PMID:19809914

  11. Antifungal amides from Piper scutifolium and Piper hoffmanseggianum.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joaquim V; Kitamura, Rodrigo O Saga; Lago, João Henrique G; Young, Maria Claudia M; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kato, Massuo J

    2007-12-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of a dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Piper scutifolium yielded two new isobutyl amides, scutifoliamide A ( 1) and scutifoliamide B ( 2), together with the known compounds piperolactam C ( 3), piperovatine ( 4), piperlonguminine ( 5), corcovadine ( 6), isopiperlonguminine ( 7), and isocorcovadine ( 8). From the dichloromethane extract from the leaves of P. hoffmannseggianum two new isobutyl amides, hoffmannseggiamide A ( 9) and hoffmannseggiamide B ( 10), were obtained together with the known compounds isopiperlonguminine ( 7) and isocorcovadine ( 8), sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The inhibitory activity of compounds 1-10 against the growth of the fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. cladosporioides was determined by bioautography. PMID:18031016

  12. Lignan profile of Piper cubeba, an Indonesian medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elfahmi; Komar Ruslan; Sieb Batterman; Rein Bos; Oliver Kayser; Herman J. Woerdenbag; Wim J. Quax

    2007-01-01

    The lignan profile of the aerial part of Piper cubeba L. (Piperaceae) was determined using GC, GC–MS and HPLC. The number of lignans found in the leaves was 15, followed by berries and the stalks with respectively 13 and five lignans. This is the first investigation of lignans from the leaves and the stalks of P. cubeba. Cubebin, hinokinin, yatein,

  13. Antifungal amides from Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hosana Maria D. Navickiene; Alberto Camilo Alécio; Massuo Jorge Kato; Vanderlan da S. Bolzani; Maria Claudia M. Young; Alberto José Cavalheiro; Maysa Furlan

    2000-01-01

    Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum accumulate amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. The isolation and characterization of several representatives including two hitherto unreported amides were performed by chromatographic techniques and by analysis of spectroscopic data. The antifungal activity of each amide was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum.

  14. Antifungal amides from Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, H M; Alécio, A C; Kato, M J; Bolzani, V D; Young, M C; Cavalheiro, A J; Furlan, M

    2000-11-01

    Piper hispidum and Piper tuberculatum accumulate amides bearing isobutyl, pyrrolidine, dihydropyridone and piperidine moieties. The isolation and characterization of several representatives including two hitherto unreported amides were performed by chromatographic techniques and by analysis of spectroscopic data. The antifungal activity of each amide was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. PMID:11130674

  15. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...AD) that applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate...

  16. Cytotoxic and antibacterial dihydrochalcones from Piper aduncum.

    PubMed

    Orjala, J; Wright, A D; Behrends, H; Folkers, G; Sticher, O; Rüegger, H; Rali, T

    1994-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a CH2Cl2 extract from the leaves of Piper aduncum afforded three new dihydrochalcones, piperaduncins A [3], B [4], and C [5], as well as two known dihydrochalcones, 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone [1] and 2',6',4-trihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone [2] (asebogenin), together with sakuranetin, anodendroic acid methyl ester, and the carotenoid lutein. The structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D- and 2D nmr spectroscopy. The proposed stereochemistry for compound 4 was deduced by NOESY spectroscopy and the corresponding energy minimum was established by molecular modelling calculations and translated into a 3D structure. PMID:8158163

  17. 77 FR 56993 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-24, PA-24-250...identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero...

  18. Prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper aduncum L. and P. hostmannianum C. DC. (Piperaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Henrique G. Lago; Alessandra Chen; Maria Claudia M. Young; Elsie F. Guimarães; Alberto de Oliveira; Massuo J. Kato

    2009-01-01

    The bioactivity-guided fractionation of the crude extracts from leaves of Brazilian species Piper aduncum and Piper hostmannianum by means of bioautography using the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum afforded prenylated methyl benzoate, chromenes, and dihydrobenzopyran derivatives as antifungal compounds. The isolation and structural elucidation of a new compound methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(2?-hydroperoxy-3?-methyl-3?-butenyl)benzoate were performed by application of chromatographic techniques and spectroscopic

  19. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  20. Antifungal flavanones and prenylated hydroquinones from Piper crassinervium Kunth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Paula Danelutte; João Henrique G Lago; Maria Claudia M Young; Massuo J Kato

    2003-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from leaves of Piper crassinervium yielded three prenylated hydroquinones together with two known flavanones naringenin and sakuranetin. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analysis (NMR, IR, UV and MS) including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments (1H–1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). The antifungal activity was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium cladosporioides and

  1. Antifungal flavanones and prenylated hydroquinones from Piper crassinervium Kunth.

    PubMed

    Danelutte, Ana Paula; Lago, João Henrique G; Young, Maria Claudia M; Kato, Massuo J

    2003-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from leaves of Piper crassinervium yielded three prenylated hydroquinones together with two known flavanones naringenin and sakuranetin. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic analysis (NMR, IR, UV and MS) including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy experiments (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). The antifungal activity was determined by direct bioautography against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. PMID:12943774

  2. Phytochemistry of the genus Piper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virinder S. Parmar; Subhash C. Jain; Kirpal S. Bisht; Rajni Jain; Poonam Taneja; Amitabh Jha; Om D. Tyagi; Ashok K. Prasad; Jesper Wengel; C. E. Olsen; Per M. Boll

    1997-01-01

    The secondary metabolites isolated from Piper species for the period 1907 to June 1996 have been reviewed. Nearly six hundred chemical constituents belonging to different classes of bioactive compounds are listed together with their source(s) and references. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  3. Antifungal Compounds from Piper Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xing-Cong

    2013-01-01

    This review documents chemical structures and antifungal activities of 68 compounds isolated from 22 Piper species of the plant family Piperaceae. These compounds include amides, flavonoids, prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, lignans, phenylpropanoids, butenolides, and cyclopentendiones. Some of them may serve as leads for potential pharmaceutical or agricultural fungicide development. PMID:24307889

  4. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32,...

  5. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Models PA-31T and...

  6. Antileishmanial amides and lignans from Piper cubeba and Piper retrofractum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hardik S. Bodiwala; Gaganmeet Singh; Ranvir Singh; Chinmoy Sankar Dey; Shyam Sundar Sharma; Kamlesh Kumar Bhutani; Inder Pal Singh

    2007-01-01

    The n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and acetone extracts of Piper cubeba Linn. and P. retrofractum Vahl. (Piperaceae) were evaluated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani, and all exhibited significant in vitro activity at 100 ?g\\/ml. Two lignans, cubebin and hinokinin, were isolated from the\\u000a hexane extract of P. cubeba; and one bis-epoxy lignan, (?)-sesamin, and two amides, pellitorine and piplartine,

  7. 76 FR 60367 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ...Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-23, PA-23-160, PA-23-235...identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach,...

  8. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum decreases atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterolemic experimental rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel A Amran; Zaiton Zakaria; Faizah Othman; Srijit Das; Santhana Raj; Nor-Anita MM Nordin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Piper sarmentosum (P.s) has flavonoid component in its leaves which has antioxidative effect. To date, its effect on atherosclerosis has not been studied histologically. AIM: The study aimed to investigate the effect of P.s on atherosclerotic changes in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. METHODS: Forty two male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into seven groups. C - control group fed normal

  9. Chemical constituents of the roots of Piper sarmentosum.

    PubMed

    Tuntiwachwuttikul, Pittaya; Phansa, Photchana; Pootaeng-On, Yupa; Taylor, Walter Charles

    2006-02-01

    Sixteen compounds were isolated from the fresh roots of Piper sarmentosum. Seven of these have been previously isolated from the fruits and leaves of this plant: the aromatic alkene (1), 1-allyl-2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene (4), beta-sitosterol, pyrrole amide (6), sarmentine (10), sarmentosine (13) and pellitorine (14). (+)-Sesamin (2), horsfieldin (3), two pyrrolidine amides 11 and 12, guineensine (15) and brachystamide B (16) are new for P. sarmentosum. Sarmentamide A, B, and C (7-9) are new natural products. Compounds 1--4 and 6--16 were tested for antiplasmodial, antimycobacterial and antifungal activities. PMID:16462055

  10. Caldensinic acid, a prenylated benzoic acid from Piper caldense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovana C. Freitas; Rodrigo O. Saga Kitamura; João Henrique G. Lago; Maria Claudia M. Young; Elsie F. Guimarães; Massuo J. Kato

    2009-01-01

    The CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts from leaves of Piper caldense were subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford the new prenylated benzoic acid, caldensinic acid (3-[(2?E,6?E,10?E)-11?-carboxy-3?,7?,15?-trimethylhexadeca-2?,6?,10?,14?-tetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) whose structure was determined by spectral analysis, mainly NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC) and ESI-MS. The natural compound and derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by

  11. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne polarimeter that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background to search for evidence for inflation. PIPER will observe more than half of the sky in four frequency bands from 200 to 600 GHz with a beam size of 21 arcminutes at the lowest frequency. PIPER simultaneously measures all four Stokes parameters using four co-aligned 32 by 40 element planar bolometer arrays. We give an instrument overview and report on the current status of the instrument.

  12. Two amides from Piper tuberculatum fruits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emidio V. Leitão da-Cunha; Maria Célia de Oliveira Chaves

    2001-01-01

    The fruits of Piper tuberculatum yielded pellitorine, N-isobutyl-2E,4E-decadienamide (1), and piperidide-2E,4E-decadienamide (2). Their complete NMR analysis, based on one- and two-dimensional experiments, is reported.

  13. Chemical constituents and bioactivity of Piper sarmentosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thitima Rukachaisirikul; Puttan Siriwattanakit; Kanchanawadee Sukcharoenphol; Chanika Wongvein; Phongpan Ruttanaweang; Phaopong Wongwattanavuch; Apichart Suksamrarn

    2004-01-01

    Eight amides, pellitorine (1), guineensine (2), brachystamide B (3), sarmentine (4), brachyamide B (5), 1-piperettyl pyrrolidine (6), 3?,4?,5?-trimethoxycinnamoyl pyrrolidine (7) and sarmentosine (8), two lignans, (+)-asarinin (9) and sesamin (10), and four other compounds, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1E-tetradecene (11), methyl piperate (12) and a mixture of ?-sitosterol (13) and stigmasterol (14), were isolated from the fruits of Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae). This is the

  14. Molecular and Physiological Analysis of the Role of Osmolyte Transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC in Growth of Listeria monocytogenes at Low Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H.; Sleator, Roy D.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Hill, Colin; Abee, Tjakko

    2004-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous food-borne pathogen found widely distributed in nature as well as an undesirable contaminant in a variety of fresh and processed foods. This ubiquity can be at least partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow at high osmolarity and reduced temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate osmo- and cryoprotective compounds termed osmolytes. Single and multiple deletions of the known osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC significantly reduce growth at low temperatures. During growth in brain heart infusion broth at 7°C, Gbu and OpuC had a more pronounced role in cryoprotection than did BetL. However, upon the addition of betaine to defined medium, the hierarchy of transporter importance shifted to Gbu > BetL > OpuC. Upon the addition of carnitine, only OpuC appeared to play a role in cryoprotection. Measurements of the accumulated osmolytes showed that betaine is preferred over carnitine, while in the absence of a functional Gbu, carnitine was accumulated to higher levels than betaine was at 7°C. Transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding BetL, Gbu, and OpuC revealed that each transporter is induced to different degrees upon cold shock of L. monocytogenes LO28. Additionally, despite being transcriptionally up-regulated upon cold shock, a putative fourth osmolyte transporter, OpuB (identified by bioinformatic analysis and encoded by lmo1421 and lmo1422), showed no significant contribution to listerial chill tolerance. Growth of the quadruple mutant LO28?BCGB (?betL ?opuC ?gbu ?opuB) was comparable to the that of the triple mutant LO28?BCGsoe (?betL ?opuC ?gbu) at low temperatures. Here, we conclude that betaine and carnitine transport upon low-temperature exposure is mediated via three osmolyte transporters, BetL, Gbu, and OpuC. PMID:15128551

  15. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ...Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325...Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA- 31, PA-31-325...10-power magnifying glass (inspection procedure...which mate with the transition), the transition, the tail pipe,...

  16. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models...replacement of the fuel selector valve...review the Piper Aircraft, Inc. service...replacement of the fuel selector valve...Subject Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC...Code, 2823; Fuel...

  17. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3?,3?-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

  18. Acción biocida de plantas de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. sobre Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidóptera, Pyralidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gladys V. Soberón; Consuelo Rojas; Jorge Saavedra; Massuo J. Kato; Guillermo E. Delgado

    The biocid action of DCM:MeOH (2:1), EtOH and aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and mature spikes (with fruits and seeds) of field plants and DCM:MeOH (2:1) extract of in vitro plants of Piper tuberculatum on III larval stage of Diatraea saccharalis was evaluated. The method was by inoculating the previously eluted extract with distillate water as topic applications on the

  19. Activity-guided isolation of antiplasmodial dihydrochalcones and flavanones from Piper hostmannianum var. berbicense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bénédicte Portet; Nicolas Fabre; Vincent Roumy; Heinz Gornitzka; Geneviève Bourdy; Séverine Chevalley; Michel Sauvain; Alexis Valentin; Claude Moulis

    2007-01-01

    The bioassay-guided purification of an n-hexane extract from the leaves of Piper hostmannianum var. berbicense led to the isolation of four monoterpene or prenyl-substituted dihydrochalcones (1a, 1b, 2, 3) as well as the known compounds 2?,6?-dihydroxy-4?-methoxydihydrochalcone (4), linderatone (5), strobopinin (6), adunctin E (7) and (?)-methyllinderatin (8). Their structures were established on the basis of NMR and X-ray analysis. (?)-Methyllinderatin,

  20. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIPER combines cold (1.5 K) optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V parameters at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz (wavelengths 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns) covering 85% of the sky. We describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the mission.

  1. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogut, Alan; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Brad; Lazear, Justin; Lowe, Luke; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-09-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the gravitational wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIPER combines cold (1.5 K) optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V parameters at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz (wavelengths 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 ?m) covering 85% of the sky. The high sky coverage allows measurement of the primordial B-mode signal in the `reionization bump" at multipole moments l < 10 where the primordial signal may best be distinguished from the cosmological lensing foreground. We describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the mission.

  2. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a ba1loon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIPER will measure the CMB polarization at 4 frequencies (l per flight) using a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 by 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive.

  3. Two amides from Piper tuberculatum fruits.

    PubMed

    Leitão da-Cunha, E V; de Oliveira Chaves, M C

    2001-02-01

    The fruits of Piper tuberculatum yielded pellitorine, N-isobutyl-2E,4E-decadienamide (1), and piperidide-2E,4E-decadienamide (2). Their complete NMR analysis, based on one- and two-dimensional experiments, is reported. PMID:11223237

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE PIPER CENOCLADUM SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Gershon

    A set of experiments were conducted to determine the natural rate coefficients of several parameters in a system of equations. The system models the Piper cenocladum and Pheidole bicornis plant-ant symbiosis at the La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. The first equation in the system, which describes the density of ant -infested plants, was analyzed by deriving estimators for

  5. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  6. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  7. Anticancer principles from medicinal piper ( hú ji?o) plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper ( Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  8. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM SEAL STACKS CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the polarized imprint of gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. The discovery of such a signal would provide direct evidence for inflation, and its characterization would provide a means to explore energy scales orders of magnitude larger than any conceivable particle accelerator. PIPER will consist of two cryogenic telescopes-one for each of the Q and U Stokes parameters. Each will use a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) as its first element. This architecture is designed to minimize both T->B and E->B systematics. The detectors will be four 32x40 arrays of BUG detectors, utilizing transition-edge sensors and time-domain multiplexing. Each flight will observe approximately 25% of the sky at a single frequency. Additional flights will increase the frequency coverage.

  10. Chemical constituents and bioactivity of Piper sarmentosum.

    PubMed

    Rukachaisirikul, Thitima; Siriwattanakit, Puttan; Sukcharoenphol, Kanchanawadee; Wongvein, Chanika; Ruttanaweang, Phongpan; Wongwattanavuch, Phaopong; Suksamrarn, Apichart

    2004-08-01

    Eight amides, pellitorine (1), guineensine (2), brachystamide B (3), sarmentine (4), brachyamide B (5), 1-piperettyl pyrrolidine (6), 3',4',5'-trimethoxycinnamoyl pyrrolidine (7) and sarmentosine (8), two lignans, (+)-asarinin (9) and sesamin (10), and four other compounds, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1E-tetradecene (11), methyl piperate (12) and a mixture of beta-sitosterol (13) and stigmasterol (14), were isolated from the fruits of Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae). This is the first reported isolation of compounds 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 12 from this plant species. Their structures were established from spectral data. These compounds were evaluated in antituberculosis and antiplasmodial tests. The results showed that compounds 4 and 6 exhibited both activities while compounds 1, 2, 5, 8 and 11 showed only antituberculosis activity. This is the first report of the antituberculosis and antiplasmodial activities for these compounds. PMID:15234750

  11. Alkamides from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum displaying potent cell adhesion inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Woong Lee; Young Kook Kim; Koanhoi Kim; Hyun Sun Lee; Jung Ho Choi; Woo Song Lee; Chang-Duk Jun; Jee Hun Park; Jeong Min Lee; Mun-Chual Rho

    2008-01-01

    Eight alkamides 1–8 were isolated by bioassay-guided isolation of EtOH extracts of the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigum (Piperaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR, and ESI-MS) as follows: guineensine (1), retrofracamide C (2), (2E,4Z,8E)-N-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (3), pipernonaline (4), piperrolein B (5), piperchabamide D (6), pellitorin (7), and dehydropipernonaline (8). Their compounds 3–5, 7, and

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Piper ovatum Vahl.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Endo, Eliana Harue; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Claudia M; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piperovatum Vahl by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents found were delta-amorphene (16.5 %), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (14.29 %) and gamma-muurolene(13.26%). The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl, essential oil andamides isolated from leaves were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. All extracts and amides were active against Bacillus subtilis andCandida tropicalis, including clinical strains. Essential oil was active against C. tropicalis.These amides showed an inhibitory effect on the adherence of C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 on cover glasses at 10 microg/mL, but did not show morphological alterations at the tested concentrations. Amides were identified as piperovatine and piperlonguminine, and showed MIC values of 15.6 and 31.2 microg/mL to B. subtilis and 3.9 microg/mL to C. tropicalis, and low toxic effects to Vero cells and macrophages. PMID:19325517

  13. SPECTRUM Summer Internship, Piper Communications Piper Communications is in need of two summer interns to staff and

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    SPECTRUM Summer Internship, Piper Communications Piper at SPECTRUM Tuesday-Friday, 12:30-6:30pm, some Saturday's 9:30am-3:30pm and the potential phones and television/DVD players About SPECTRUM: SPECTRUM's interactive exhibit

  14. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jackson, Michael L.; Jah, Muzariatu A.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kogut, Alan J.; Lowe, Luke; McCullagh, Nuala; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is it balloon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (C-N-113). Each flight will be configured for a single frequency, but in order to aid in the removal of the polarized foreground signal due to Galactic dust, the filters will be changed between flights. In this way, the CMB polarization at a total of four different frequencies (200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz) will be, measured on large angular scales. PIPER consists of a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 x 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the linear Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive. There are several advantages to this architecture. First, by modulating at the front of the optics, instrumental polarization is unmodulated and is therefore cleanly separated from source polarization. Second, by implementing this system with the appropriate symmetry, systematic effects can be further mitigated. In the PIPER design, many of the. systematics are manifest in the unmeasured linear Stokes parameter for each telescope and this can be separated from the desired signal. Finally, the modulation cycle never mixes the Q and U linear Stokes parameters, and thus residuals in the modulation do not twist the observed polarization vector. This is advantageous because measuring the angle of linear polarization is critical for separating the inflationary signal from other polarized components.

  15. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  16. WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ON A SHORT CONVEYOR THAT TRANSPORTS IT TO WAITING STORAGE BOXES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper septuplinervium and P. subtomentosum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Ávila Murilloa, Mónica Constanza; Cuca Suareza, Luis Enrique; Cerón Salamanca, Jairo Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils of Piper subtomentosum (leaves and inflorescences) and Piper septuplinervium (aerial parts) were analyzed by GC-MS; sixty-three compounds were determined, representing 92.0%, 86.9 %, and 91.8 % of the total relative oil composition of the leaves, inflorescences, and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant component in the aerial parts and inflorescence oils was ?-pinene (27.3%, 21.0%, respectively), and ?-cadinene was the main component of the leaf oil. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils were determined on the Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae; the essential oil from the aerial parts of P. septuplinervium was the most active against insect pests (LC50= 9.4 ?L/L of air). Statistical analysis by direct Pearson correlation showed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oils was primarily due to camphene and ?- and ?-pinene. The effect of the oils on the insect life cycle was also evaluated, and in some cases, a delay in growth and inhibition of the oviposition in the females were observed. PMID:25522553

  18. Analysis of amide compounds in different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl by high-performance liquid chromatographic

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel R.; Brenzan, Mislaine A.; Kambara, Lauro M.; Cortez, Lucia E. R.; Cortez, Diógenes A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Piper ovatum (Piperaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations and as an analgesic. Previous studies have showed important biological activities of the extracts and amides from P. ovatum leaves. Objective: In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of the amides in different parts of Piper ovatum. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Metasil ODS column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5?m) at room temperature. HPLC conditions were as follows: acetonitrile (A), and water (B), 1.0% acetic acid. The gradient elution used was 0–30 min, 0-60% A; 30–40 min, 60% A. Flow rate used was 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. Results: The validation using piperlonguminine, as the standard, demonstrated that the method shows linearity (linear correlation coefficient = 0.998), precision (relative standard deviation <5%) and accuracy (mean recovery = 103.78%) in the concentration range 31.25 – 500?g/mL. The limit of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 4.03?g/mL, respectively. This method allowed the identification and quantification of piperlonguminine and piperovatine in the hydroethanolic extracts of P. ovatum obtained from the leaves, stems and roots. All the extracts showed the same chromatographic profile. The leaves and roots contained the highest concentrations of piperlonguminine and the stems and leaves showed the most concentrations of piperovatine. Conclusion: This HPLC method is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of amides in extracts of Piper ovatum and phytopharmaceuticals containing this herb. PMID:24174818

  19. Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum in rainforests of

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum.S.A. Abstract. 1. Caterpillar assemblages feeding on two alien plants, Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum, were alien Piper increased with its host range from 3% for the species feeding on a single plant family to 92

  20. Multiple Deletions of the Osmolyte Transporters BetL, Gbu, and OpuC of Listeria monocytogenes Affect Virulence and Growth at High Osmolarity

    PubMed Central

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, Henrike H.; Wouters, Jeroen A.; Sleator, Roy D.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin; Abee, Tjakko

    2002-01-01

    The success of Listeria monocytogenes as a food-borne pathogen owes much to its ability to survive a variety of stresses, both in the food environment and, after ingestion, within the animal host. Growth at high salt concentrations is attributed mainly to the accumulation of organic solutes such as glycine betaine and carnitine. We characterized L. monocytogenes LO28 strains with single, double, and triple deletions in the osmolyte transport systems BetL, Gbu, and OpuC. When single deletion mutants were tested, Gbu was found to have the most drastic effect on the rate of growth in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth with 6% added NaCl. The highest reduction in growth rate was found for the triple mutant LO28BCG (?betL ?opuC ?gbu), although the mutant was still capable of growth under these adverse conditions. In addition, we analyzed the growth and survival of this triple mutant in an animal (murine) model. LO28BCG showed a significant reduction in its ability to cause systemic infection following peroral coinoculation with the wild-type parent. Altering OpuC alone resulted in similar effects (R. D. Sleator, J. Wouters, C. G. M. Gahan, T. Abee, and C. Hill, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:2692-2698, 2001), leading to the assumption that OpuC may play an important role in listerial pathogenesis. Analysis of the accumulation of osmolytes revealed that betaine is accumulated up to 300 ?mol/g (dry weight) when grown in BHI broth plus 6% NaCl whereas no carnitine accumulation could be detected. Radiolabeled-betaine uptake studies revealed an inability of BGSOE (?betL ?gbu) and LO28BCG to transport betaine. Indeed, for LO28BCG, no accumulated betaine was found, but carnitine was accumulated in this strain up to 600 ?mol/g (dry weight) of cells, indicating the presence of a possible fourth osmolyte transporter. PMID:12324311

  1. Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500?g/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920

  2. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date. PMID:24596490

  3. Antimicrobial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic compounds from Piper chaba.

    PubMed

    Naz, Tarannum; Mosaddik, Ashik; Rahman, Motiur; Muhammad, Ilias; Haque, Ekramul; Cho, Somi Kim

    2012-01-01

    The petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the root of Piper chaba showed antimicrobial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities. Further bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of Bornyl piperate (1), piperlonguminine (2) and piperine (3). This is the first report of isolation of compounds (1) and (2) from P. chaba. It was observed that the isolated compounds (1 and 2) showed potent antifungal activity when compared with standard drug Nystatin, and significant cytotoxic activity with the IC?? values of 0.76 and 0.83?µg?mL?¹, respectively. These compounds were also found to have weak antibacterial and antileishmanial activities. This is the first report about the antileishmanial activity of Piper isolates. PMID:21834629

  4. Antileishmanial activity evaluation of adunchalcone, a new prenylated dihydrochalcone from Piper aduncum L.

    PubMed

    Dal Picolo, Camilla R; Bezerra, Mariana P; Gomes, Kaio S; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Laurenti, Marcia D; Martins, Euder Glendes A; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2014-09-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of EtOH extract from the leaves of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) afforded a new dihydrochalcone, named adunchalcone. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data, primarily NMR and MS. Adunchalcone was evaluated against promastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (L.) chagasi and displayed 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 11.03, 26.70, and 11.26 ?M, as well as selective indexes of 4.86, 2.01, 4.76 and 0.50, respectively. This compound was also tested against intracellular forms of L. (L.) amazonensis, displaying weak activity, in comparison to reference drug amphotericin B. However, despite reduced effect of adunchalcone against amastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis, this work opens the perspective to use this particular molecule as a scaffold for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for neglected diseases, mainly leishmaniasis. PMID:24862066

  5. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY CORE BOX UNDER A FULL MAGAZINE AND THE FULL CORE BOX TO AN OPEN POSITION TO ALLOW CORE REMOVAL. WILLIAM SEAL STACK CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Synthesis and antihyperlipidemic activity of piperic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    A, Rong; Bao, Narisu; Sun, Zhaorigetu; Borjihan, Gereltu; Qiao, Yanjiang; Jin, Zhuang

    2015-02-01

    A series of piperic acid derivatives were designed and synthesized from piperine/piperlonguminine, and their antihyperlipidemic activities evaluated in diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats with respect to simvastatin. Two promising analogues 3 and 10 were discovered and their antihyperlipidemic activities were comparable to or better than those of simvastatin. PMID:25920263

  7. Antihyperlipidemic compounds from the fruit of Piper longum L.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhuang; Borjihan, Gereltu; Zhao, Ruiguo; Sun, Zhaorigetu; Hammond, Gerald B; Uryu, Toshiyuki

    2009-08-01

    A bioassay-guided isolation of an ethanol extract of the fruit of Piper longum L. yielded piperlonguminine, piperine and pipernonaline, as the main antihyperlipidemic constituents. They exhibit appreciable antihyperlipidemic activity in vivo, which is comparable to that of the commercial antihyperlipidemic drug, simvastatin. PMID:19172581

  8. Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Piper caninum Blume

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the fresh leaves and stems oils of Piper caninum were investigated. A total of forty eight constituents were identified in the leaves (77.9%) and stems (87.0%) oil which were characterized by high proportions of phenylpropanoid, safrole with 17.1% for leaves and 25.5% for stems oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using ?-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. Stems oil showed the highest inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation (114.9 ± 0.9%), compared to BHT (95.5 ± 0.5%), while leaves oil showed significant total phenolic content (27.4 ± 0.5 mg GA/g) equivalent to gallic acid. However, the essential oils showed weak activity towards DPPH free-radical scavenging. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity revealed that both oils exhibited strong activity against all bacteria strains with MIC values in the range 62.5 to 250 ?g/mL, but weak activity against fungal strains. These findings suggest that the essential oils can be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for therapeutic, nutraceutical industries and food manufactures. PMID:22174627

  9. LEAVE POLICIES LEAVE REPORTING

    E-print Network

    ://taurus.cnr.colostate.edu/apps/saleave by selecting "Receive My Report Via E-mail." If an employee does not have an e-mail address, the report://taurus.cnr.colostate.edu/apps/saleave using your eID. If you are unable to submit your leave electronically, send a hardcopy report fax or e-mail to CEMML Human Resources. These forms are also available on the CEMML website at http

  10. Antibacterial constituents from the berries of Piper nigrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venkat Reddy; Pullela V. Srinivas; B. Praveen; K. Hara Kishore; B. China Raju; U. Suryanarayana Murthy; J. Madhusudana Rao

    2004-01-01

    Piper nigrum finds an extensive application in antibacterial preparations belonging to Ayurvedic system of medicine. A bioguided extraction and fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the berries of P. nigrum afforded 2E, 4E, 8Z-N-isobutyleicosatrienamide (1), pellitorine (2), trachyone (3), pergumidiene (4) and isopiperolein B (5). Pergumidiene and trachyone are isolated for the first time from P. nigrum. All the

  11. Evaluation of biological activities of Piper nigrumoil against Tribolium castaneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay; Gayatri Jaiswal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The essential oil of Piper nigrum (L.) was evaluated for its repellent, insecticidal and developmental inhibitory activities against an important wheat grain pest Tribolium castaneum,(Herbst). Adults of T. castaneumwere,repelled significantly by P. nigrumat 0.2% concentration (v:v) and above in filter paper test. The LC50values for larvae and adults were calculated to be 14.022 µl and 15.262 µl respectively.The oil

  12. Assignment C 10 Tom was a piper's son.

    E-print Network

    Ward, Nigel

    Assignment C 10 Tom was a piper's son. He learned to play when he was young. He pleased both C 9 They've all gone away. Pussy­cat, where have you been? I've been to London to visit the queen. Pussy­cat, what did you do there? I frightened a little mouse under her chair. Rain, go away. Come again

  13. Photosynthetic light acclimation in two rainforest Piper species with different ecological amplitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Walters; C. B. Field

    1987-01-01

    Piper auritum (H.B. & K.), a pioneer tree restricted to open sites and Piper hispidum (Swartz), a shrub common in sites ranging from recent clearings to shaded understory, both adjust photosynthetic characteristics in response to light availability during growth. The sensitivity of photosynthetic capacity to light availability during growth was indistinguishable for the two species growing in their natural habitat.

  14. 76 FR 29176 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42...directive (AD) that applies to Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42...affect the handling and performance of the aircraft. It could also allow baggage to be...

  15. Antibacterial constituents from the berries of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Venkat; Srinivas, Pullela V; Praveen, B; Kishore, K Hara; Raju, B China; Murthy, U Suryanarayana; Rao, J Madhusudana

    2004-11-01

    Piper nigrum finds an extensive application in antibacterial preparations belonging to Ayurvedic system of medicine. A bioguided extraction and fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the berries of P. nigrum afforded 2E, 4E, 8Z-N-isobutyleicosatrienamide (1), pellitorine (2), trachyone (3), pergumidiene (4) and isopiperolein B (5). Pergumidiene and trachyone are isolated for the first time from P. nigrum. All the isolated compounds were active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, and Staphylococcus aureus amongst Gram + ve bacteria, and Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum among Gram -ve bacterial strains. PMID:15636188

  16. Modelling the piper field using layer cross flow at faults

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, K.N.B.; De Boer, E.T.; Waldren, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Piper Field, located in U.K. Block 15/17, 110 miles northeast of Aberdeen in the North Sea produces from Jurassic sandstones. A special finite difference simulator was coded and used to model the field, which is a large faulted reservoir consisting of layers of contrasting but high permeability. The formulation allows any number of connections between grid blocks providing the flexibiligy to include fault throw as a variable during three-dimensional history matching. Because correspondence between geological and model layers in preserved, model cost and complexity are reduced. 8 refs.

  17. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication. PMID:21035316

  18. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid from Piper multiplinervium.

    PubMed

    Malami, Ibrahim; Gibbons, Simon; Malkinson, John P

    2014-03-01

    3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid is an antibacterial agent isolated from the leaves of Piper multiplinervium. This compound has activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. This research aimed to synthesize a natural antibacterial compound and its analogs. The synthesis of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid consists of three steps: straightforward synthesis involving protection of phenolic hydroxyl group, coupling of suitable isoprenyl chain to the protected aromatic ring at ortho position followed by carboxylation with concomitant deprotection to give the derivatives of the salicylic acid. All the three prenylated compounds synthesized were found to exhibit spectrum of activity against S. aureus (ATCC) having MIC: 5.84×10(-3), 41.46×10(-2) and 6.19×10(-1) ?mol/ml respectively. The compounds also displayed activity against resistance strain of S. aureus (SA1119B) having MIC: 5.84×10(-3), 7.29×10(-3) and 3.09×10(-1) ?mol/ml respectively. This synthesis has been achieved and accomplished with the confirmation of it structure to that of the original natural product, thus producing the first synthesis of the natural product and providing the first synthesis of its analogs with 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid having biological activity higher than that of the original natural product. PMID:24444894

  19. Standardization and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of fruit and leaf of Piper sarmentosum.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazilah

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate standardized ethanol extracts of fruit and leaves of Piper sarmentosum for their in vivo antioxidant activity in rats using a CCl (4)-induced oxidative stress model. The standardization was based on the quantification of the markers pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and determination of total primary and secondary metabolites. The rats, divided into 7 groups each (n = 6), were used as follows: group 1 (CCl (4), negative control), group 2 (untreated, control), groups 3 and 4 (fruit extract 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), groups 5 and 6 (leaf extract 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively) and group 7 (vitamin-E 100 mg/kg, positive control). The doses were administered orally for 14 days; 4 h following the last dose, a single dose of CCl (4) (1.5 mg/kg) was given orally to all the groups except group 2, and after 24 h, blood and liver of each animal were obtained. Analysis of plasma and liver homogenate exhibited significant preservation of markers of antioxidant activity, total plasma antioxidant activity (TPAA), total protein (TP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), in the pretreated groups as compared to the CCl (4) group (p < 0.05). Histology of the liver also evidenced the protection of hepatocytes against CCl (4) metabolites in the pretreated groups. The results of this study indicate the IN VIVO antioxidant activity of both extracts of the plant, which may be valuable to combat diseases involving free radicals. PMID:19862670

  20. Piper sarmentosum enhances fracture healing in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats: a radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit; Fadzilah, Fazalina Mohd; Majedah Idrus Alhabshi, Sharifah; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Osteoporotic fractures are common during osteoporotic states. Piper sarmentosum extract is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVES: To observe the radiological changes in fracture calluses following administration of a Piper sarmentosum extract during an estrogen-deficient state. METHODS: A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) the sham-operated group; (ii) the ovariectomized-control group; (iii) the ovariectomized + estrogen-replacement therapy (ovariectomized-control + estrogen replacement therapy) group, which was supplemented with estrogen (100 µg/kg/day); and (iv) the ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum (ovariectomized + Piper sarmentosum) group, which was supplemented with a water-based Piper sarmentosum extract (125 mg/kg). Six weeks after an ovariectomy, the right femora were fractured at the mid-diaphysis, and a K-wire was inserted. Each group of rats received their respective treatment for 6 weeks. Following sacrifice, the right femora were subjected to radiological assessment. RESULTS: The mean axial callus volume was significantly higher in the ovariectomized-control group (68.2±11.74 mm3) than in the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups (20.4±4.05, 22.4±4.14 and 17.5±3.68 mm3, respectively). The median callus scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups had median (range, minimum - maximum value) as 1.0 (0 - 2), 1.0 (1 - 2) and 1.0 (1 - 2), respectively, which were significantly lower than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (2 - 3). The median fracture scores for the sham-operated, estrogen-replacement-therapy and Piper sarmentosum groups were 3.0 (3 - 4), 3.0 (2 - 3) and 3.0 (2 - 3), respectively, which were significantly higher than the ovariectomized-control group score of 2.0 (1 - 2) (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The Piper sarmentosum extract improved fracture healing, as assessed by the reduced callus volumes and reduced callus scores. This extract is beneficial for fractures in osteoporotic states. PMID:21789393

  1. Plants feed ants: food bodies of myrmecophytic Piper and their significance for the interaction with Pheidole bicornis ants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate C. Fischer; Andreas Richter; Wolfgang Wanek; Veronika Mayer

    2002-01-01

    Several species of Piper (Piperaceae) live in symbiosis with Pheidole bicornis (Formicidae-Myrmicinae) on the southern Pacific slope of Costa Rica. These plants produce small single-celled food bodies (FBs) in leaf domatia, formed by the petiole bases and roofing leaf sheaths. In the present study the dependency of ants on FBs of Piper fimbriulatum as a food source was analysed by

  2. Anticholinesterase and Antityrosinase Activities of Ten Piper Species from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Hashim, Nur Athirah; Ahmad, Farediah; Heng Yen, Khong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and antityrosinase activities of extracts from ten Piper species namely; P. caninum, P. lanatum, P. abbreviatum, P. aborescens, P. porphyrophyllum, P. erecticaule, P. ribesioides, P. miniatum, P. stylosum, and P. majusculum. Methods: Anticholinesterase and antityrosinase activities were evaluated against in vitro Ellman spectroscopy method and mushroom tyrosinase, respectively. Results: The EtOAc extract of P. erecticaule showed the highest AChE and BChE inhibitory with 22.9% and 70.9% inhibition, respectively. In antityrosinase activity, all extracts of P. porphyrophyllum showed the highest inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase, compared to standard, kojic acid. Conclusion: This study showed that P. erecticaule and P. porphyrophyllum have potential AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibition activities. The respective extracts can be explored further for the development of novel lead as AChE/BChE and tyrosinase inhibitors in therapeutic management of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25671185

  3. A benzoic acid derivative and flavokawains from Piper species as schistosomiasis vector controls.

    PubMed

    Rapado, Ludmila N; Freitas, Giovana C; Polpo, Adriano; Rojas-Cardozo, Maritza; Rincón, Javier V; Scotti, Marcus T; Kato, Massuo J; Nakano, Eliana; Yamaguchi, Lydia F

    2014-01-01

    The search of alternative compounds to control tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis has pointed to secondary metabolites derived from natural sources. Piper species are candidates in strategies to control the transmission of schistosomiasis due to their production of molluscicidal compounds. A new benzoic acid derivative and three flavokawains from Piper diospyrifolium, P. cumanense and P. gaudichaudianum displayed significant activities against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Additionally, "in silico" studies were performed using docking assays and Molecular Interaction Fields to evaluate the physical-chemical differences among the compounds in order to characterize the observed activities of the test compounds against Biomphalaria glabrata snails. PMID:24762961

  4. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-01-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  5. [Oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter prevents cholesterol gallstone formation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuang; Hu, Jin-Feng; Chu, Shi-Feng; Han, Ning; Li, Jing-Wei; Li, Yue-Ting; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To observe the effect of various doses of oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter (OPUM) to cholesterol gallstones in experimental mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 60) were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group, model group, OPUM (15, 30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, administered for 10 weeks. The level of serum lipid and liver function enzymes were tested. The gallbladder was removed and bile was obtained by centrifugation. Next, the levels of the bile total cholesterol (TC), phospholipid (PL) and bile acid (TBA) were measured. The indicators of lipid peroxidation were determined and cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated. The liver histological changes were observed by HE staining. The results showed that serum TC, TG (triglycerides) and AST (aspartate transaminase) contents, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of SOD decreased significantly and MDA content increased significantly in liver (P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the hepatic cord disorder and intracellular lipid droplets increased significantly. All results indicate that lithogenic diet lead to the formation of cholesterol gallstones. In OPUM (30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, serum TC, TG and AST content, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI decreased significantly, the activity of SOD increased significantly and MDA content decreased significantly. HE staining results showed that OPUM can improve the morphology of liver cell, reduce the degree of hepatic cord disorders and restore the cell morphology close to normal. The cause of OPUM prevents cholesterol gallstone formation maybe due to protect the integrity of the liver cells, lower CSI, and reduce cholesterol crystal formation and hence prevent cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:24133988

  6. Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Hussain; Zhari Ismail; Amirin Sadikun; Pazillah Ibrahim

    In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of

  7. Susceptibility of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to pellitorine, an amide isolated from Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Ednilson; Hosana Maria Debonsi; Regina Helena

    The acute toxicity of pellitorine, an amide isolated from Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae) which is studied as a biopesticide in European corner borer, was evaluated on larvae and newly emerged adults of honeybee Apis mellifera by means of contact and ingestion bioassays. Workers in the larval and adult phase were separated in groups, which received pellitorine in different concentrations. The larvae

  8. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with Kava ( Piper methysticum Forst. f.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Anke; Iqbal Ramzan

    2004-01-01

    Kava kava, a beverage or extract prepared from the rhizome of the kava plant (Piper methysticum Forst. f.), was used for many centuries as a traditional beverage in the Pacific Islands. During the past few decades, kava has also gained popularity in Western countries as well, due to its anxiolytic and sedative properties. However, in recent years, kava has been

  9. [Piper methysticum (kava) under discussion: observations on quality, effectiveness and safety].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Nahrstedt, A; Lüpke, N P

    2002-01-01

    Worldwide the application for a drug registration follows three basic principles: the proof of quality, efficacy and safety. In the following the applicability of these three principles on extracts from roots of the medicinal plant Kava (Piper methysticum) will be examined in the light of the current discussion of possible hepatic side effects ratio. PMID:12244883

  10. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  11. Pressurized fluid extraction of carotenoids from Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones from Piper methysticum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith R Denery; Klaus Dragull; C. S Tang; Qing X Li

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) was examined as an alternative technology for the extraction of carotenoids in the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina and kavalactones in Piper methysticum. The extraction process was optimized by varying the key extraction factors of solvent, sample-solvent ratio, temperature, and time. The selectivity and efficiency of extraction parameters were determined with high performance liquid

  12. Antiplatelet effects of acidamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-S. Park; D.-J. Son; Y.-H. Park; T. W. Kim; S.-E. Lee

    2007-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of four acidamides, piperine, pipernonaline, piperoctadecalidine, and piperlongumine, isolated from the fruits of Piper longum L. on washed rabbit platelet aggregation were examined. All of the four tested acidamides showed dose-dependent inhibitory activities on washed rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid (AA), and platelet-activating factor (PAF), except for that induced by thrombin. Piperlongumine, in particular,

  13. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Use Piper sarmentosum as an effective antidiabetic supplement in South East Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Zar, C T; Teoh, S L; Das, S; Zaiton, Z; Farihah, H S

    2012-11-01

    Herbs with antidiabetic activity have a potential role to play. Herbal medicines have been widely used in South East Asia because of lesser side effects and cost effectiveness. The main aim of this review article was to disseminate important information regarding the use of herbal products in oxidative stress involved in diseases like diabetes mellitus. The article highlights some of the traditional medicinal plants which have been widely used in South East Asia with special emphasis on Piper sarmentosum. Piper sarmentosum have been reported to possess varying degree of hypoglycemic, antidiabetic and other additional properties. The antioxidant properties of the herbs may be effective in controlling the oxidative damage produced during diabetes mellitus. The review article highlights the positive role of traditional herbs towards diabetes mellitus and also describes its complications. PMID:23306747

  15. Investigations of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Piper cubeba, Physalis angulata and Rosa hybrida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Mi Choi; Jae-Kwan Hwang

    2003-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activities of Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower) and Rosa hybrida (flower) were determined by carrageenan-induced paw edema, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and formaldehyde-induced arthritis in mice. The anti-allergic and analgesic activities of these plants were also studied by using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) and hot plate test in mice, respectively. These plant extracts clearly

  16. ACAT inhibition of alkamides identified in the fruits of Piper nigrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mun-Chual Rho; Seung Woong Lee; Hye Ran Park; Jung-Ho Choi; Ji Yun Kang; Koanhoi Kim; Hyun Sun Lee; Young Kook Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, via a bioactivity-guided fractionation of MeOH extracts of the fruits of Piper nigrum, alkamide (5) and five previously-identified alkamides were isolated. Their structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR and ESI-MS), as follows: retrofractamide A (1), pipercide (2), piperchabamide D (3), pellitorin (4), dehydroretrofractamide C (5) and dehydropipernonaline (6). The IC50 values determined for the

  17. A new conjugated amide-dimer from the aerial parts of Piper submultinerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saksit Nobsathian; Patoomratana Tuchinda; Darunee Soorukram; Manat Pohmakotr; Vichai Reutrakul; Chalobon Yoosook; Jitra Kasisit; Chanita Napaswad

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the aerial parts of Piper submultinerve led to the isolation of a new conjugated amide-dimer, submultinamide A (1), along with 11 known compounds. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Among the tested compounds, pellitorine (2), guineensine (4), N-benzylcinnamide (6) and aristolactam BII (8) showed significant activities in the anti-syncytium assay using

  18. Studies on the neuroprotective role of Piper longum in C6 glioma induced rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umadevi Subramanian; Sharmila Poongavanam; A. J. Vanisree

    2010-01-01

    Summary  Many naturally occurring substances of plant origin ingested in human diet, exhibit anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects.\\u000a One of the active phytochemical which shows the active anticarcinogenic role is Piper longum Linn. (Pl). Pl is widely used in ayurvedic industry due to its property in healing some of the bodily ailments. Despite being\\u000a known for the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects,

  19. Constituents of Chinese Piper species and their inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen R. Stöhr; Pei-Gen Xiao; Rudolf Bauer

    2001-01-01

    The n-hexane extracts of 19 Piper species, predominantly from China, were screened for their 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitory potential. Many of them showed considerable inhibitory activity against at least one of these two key enzymes of the arachidonic acid metabolism, especially against COX-1. The best results in inhibiting the formation of leukotrienes were obtained with the extract of

  20. Enhanced cognitive performance and cheerful mood by standardized extracts ofPiper methysticum(Kava-kava)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Thompson; Willibald Ruch; Rüdiger U. Hasenöhrl

    2004-01-01

    The acute effects of the herbal anxiolytic Kava-kava (Piper methysticum G. Forster) on emotional reactivity and cognitive performance were investigated in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial involving healthy volunteers. Sub- jects' reports of mood change were assessed with the state-trait-cheerfulness-inventory, which measures the three concepts of cheerfulness, seriousness and bad mood as both traits and states. Cognitive performance was examined

  1. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Piper capense essential oil against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josphat C. Matasyoh; Euty M. Wathuta; Samuel T. Kariuki; Regina Chepkorir

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil from Kenyan Piper capense (Piperaceae) was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and evaluated for larvicidal activity against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. The oil consisted mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons which accounted for 43.9% of the oil. The major sesquiterpenes were ?-cadinene (16.82%), ?-bisabolene (5.65%), and bicyclogermacrene (3.30%). The oil also had appreciable amounts of monoterpene

  2. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Hermoso; Ignacio A Jiménez; Zulma A Mamani; Isabel L Bazzocchi; José E Piñero; Angel G Ravelo; Basilio Valladares

    2003-01-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3–7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8–27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1–11 that proved to

  3. Studies on bio-accumulation of 51 Cr by Piper nigrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Nayak; K. Ghosh; S. Lahiri

    2009-01-01

    The present study is performed to examine the accumulation efficiency of 51Cr(III) and 51Cr(VI) by the alkaloid piperine, derived from the fruits of Piper nigrum (Family Piperaceae) as well as using the fruit commonly known as black pepper by radiometric technique. The pH dependence\\u000a and the effect of the concentration of chromium on the accumulation have also been examined. The

  4. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Periconia sp. Isolated from Piper longum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay C Verma; Emil Lobkovsky; Alan C Gange; Santosh K Singh; Satya Prakash

    2011-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Periconia sp. produces piperine (5-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1-piperidinopent-2, 4-dien-1-one) under liquid culture. This is the first report of the alternative source for this chemical other than its host, Piper longum. The highly functionalized fungus-derived piperine exhibits strong antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmetis with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.74 and 2.62 ?g ml?1, respectively. The compound was

  5. Methylpiperate derivatives from Piper longum and their inhibition of monoamine oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seon A. Lee; Ji Sang Hwang; Xiang Hua Han; Chul Lee; Min Hee Lee; Sang Gil Choe; Seong Su Hong; Dongho Lee; Myung Koo Lee; Bang Yeon Hwang

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that piperine, a known piperidine alkaloid from Piper longum, competitively inhibited mouse brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities. Piperine also showed in vivo antidepressant-like activity against the tail suspension test. In the present study, we further expanded on the identification\\u000a of MAO inhibitors from the fruit of P. longum. Activity-guided fractionation of a methylene chloride soluble extract

  6. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.

    PubMed

    Lago, João Henrique G; Ramos, Clécio Sousa; Casanova, Diego Campos C; Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Debora Cristina B; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa; Guimarães, Elsie F; Young, Maria Claudia M; Kato, Massuo J

    2004-11-01

    Piper crassinervium, P. aduncum, P. hostmannianum, and P. gaudichaudianum contain the new benzoic acid derivatives crassinervic acid (1), aduncumene (8), hostmaniane (18), and gaudichaudianic acid (20), respectively, as major secondary metabolites. Additionally, 19 known compounds such as benzoic acids, chromenes, and flavonoids were isolated and identified. The antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated by bioautographic TLC assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. PMID:15568762

  7. Antiplatelet effects of acidamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum L.

    PubMed

    Park, B-S; Son, D-J; Park, Y-H; Kim, T W; Lee, S-E

    2007-12-01

    The inhibitory effects of four acidamides, piperine, pipernonaline, piperoctadecalidine, and piperlongumine, isolated from the fruits of Piper longum L. on washed rabbit platelet aggregation were examined. All of the four tested acidamides showed dose-dependent inhibitory activities on washed rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid (AA), and platelet-activating factor (PAF), except for that induced by thrombin. Piperlongumine, in particular, showed stronger inhibitory effects than other acidamides to rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, AA and PAF. PMID:17689230

  8. Proteomic evaluation on antiplatelet activity of piperlongumine derived from Piper longum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Eun Lee; Byeoung-Soo Park; Tae-Lin Huh; Eun-Woo Lee; Jong Hwa Yum

    2010-01-01

    Piperlongumine (PL) abundantly present in Piper longum fruits strongly inhibited platelet cell aggregation. Proteomic studies using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis\\u000a (2D-PAGE) and LC-MS\\/MS analysis showed that PL inhibited collagen-induced aggregation in rabbit platelet cells induced by\\u000a collagen. Addition of PL protected aggregation of rabbit platelet cells from collagen induction and mediated proteomic changes\\u000a as 33 proteins decreased and 24 proteins

  9. Constituents of Chinese Piper species and their inhibitory activity on prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, J R; Xiao, P G; Bauer, R

    2001-05-01

    The n-hexane extracts of 19 Piper species, predominantly from China, were screened for their 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitory potential. Many of them showed considerable inhibitory activity against at least one of these two key enzymes of the arachidonic acid metabolism, especially against COX-1. The best results in inhibiting the formation of leukotrienes were obtained with the extract of Piper kadsura. In the terms of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition, the extract of Piper boehmeriifolium var. tonkinense was found to have the strongest activity. Furthermore, an analytical investigation by means of TLC, HPLC-DAD and GC-MS resulted in the identification of 20 constituents. Most of them were amides with an interesting variety of amine moieties. Among them were pellitorine, and four higher homologues, piperlonguminine, dihydropiperlonguminine, futoamide, chingchengenamide, the retrofractamides A, B and D, guineensine, brachystamide B, piperanine, piperine, piperdardine, sarmentine, pipataline and benzylbenzoate. In 96 cases, these constituents were new for the particular plant. PMID:11297843

  10. Toxicity of extracts and isobutyl amides from Piper tuberculatum: potent compounds with potential for the control of the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, Hosana M Debonsi; Miranda, José E; Bortoli, Sérgio A; Kato, Massuo J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Furlan, Maysa

    2007-04-01

    The isobutyl amides pellitorine (compound 1) and 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine (compound 2) were extracted from the seeds of Piper tuberculatum Jacq. (Piperaceae) in yields of 6.10 and 4.45% respectively. The acute toxicities to the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), of extracts of seeds, leaves and stems of P. tuberculatum, and of compounds 1 and 2, were evaluated by means of contact bioassays. The extracts caused 80% mortality when doses higher than 800.00 microg insect(-1) of extract of seeds, leaves and stems were administered to the velvetbean caterpillars. Compounds 1 and 2 showed 100% mortality at doses of 200 and 700 microg insect(-1) respectively. The LD(50) and LD(90) values were respectively 31.3 and 104.5 microg insect(-1) for compound 1, and 122.3 and 381.0 microg insect(-1) for compound 2. The potential value of extracts and amides derived from P. tuberculatum as efficient insecticides against velvetbean caterpillars is discussed. PMID:17323416

  11. Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155

    E-print Network

    Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean (Flood, Piper, Klaus, et al., 1995) in most of the recovered sediments. Sedimentation during the late rates occurred on the Amazon Fan. Deep-sea fan environments of the world's major rivers play

  12. Larvicidal activity of isobutylamides identified in Piper nigrum fruits against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Ji-Doo; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2002-03-27

    The insecticidal activity of materials derived from the fruits of Piper nigrum against third instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens, Aedes aegypti, and A. togoi was examined and compared with that of commercially available piperine, a known insecticidal compound from Piper species. The biologically active constituents of P. nigrum fruits were characterized as the isobutylamide alkaloids pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide, and retrofractamide A by spectroscopic analysis. Retrofractamide A was isolated from P. nigrum fruits as a new insecticidal principle. On the basis of 48-h LC(50) values, the compound most toxic to C. pipiens pallens larvae was pipercide (0.004 ppm) followed by retrofractamide A (0.028 ppm), guineensine (0.17 ppm), and pellitorine (0.86 ppm). Piperine (3.21 ppm) was least toxic. Against A. aegypti larvae, larvicidal activity was more pronounced in retrofractamide A (0.039 ppm) than in pipercide (0.1 ppm), guineensine (0.89 ppm), and pellitorine (0.92 ppm). Piperine (5.1 ppm) was relatively ineffective. Against A. togoi larvae, retrofractamide A (0.01 ppm) was much more effective, compared with pipercide (0.26 ppm), pellitorine (0.71 ppm), and guineensine (0.75 ppm). Again, very low activity was observed with piperine (4.6 ppm). Structure-activity relationships indicate that the N-isobutylamine moiety might play a crucial role in the larvicidal activity, but the methylenedioxyphenyl moiety does not appear essential for toxicity. Naturally occurring Piper fruit-derived compounds merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or as lead compounds. PMID:11902925

  13. Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava ( Piper methysticum ) roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Dang Xuan; Masakazu Fukuta; Ao Chang Wei; Abdelnaser Abdelghany Elzaawely; Tran Dang Khanh; Shinkichi Tawata

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane,\\u000a chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl\\u000a ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol,\\u000a 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester,

  14. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil and Extracts of Piper chaba Hunter Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atiqur Rahman; Sharif M. Al-Reza; Sun Chul Kang

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the essential oil and various leaf extracts of Piper chaba Hunter was evaluated for controlling the growth of some important phytopathogenic fungi. The hydrodistilled essential oil\\u000a was analysed by GC–MS. Fifty-three compounds representing 95.1% of the total oil were identified, of which ?-humulene (16.4%), caryophyllene oxide (12.2%), viridiflorol (8.1%), globulol (7.4%), ?-selinene (7.1%), spathulenol (6.2%), (E)-nerolidol (5.1%),

  15. Chemical constituents from tiger's betel, Piper porphyrophyllum N.E.Br. (Fam. Piperaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emrizal Rajudin; Farediah Ahmad; Hasnah M. Sirat; Dayar Arbain; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein

    2010-01-01

    Seven flavonoid compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts of tiger's betel (Piper porphyrophyllum), which were identified as 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 4?,5,7-trimethoxy-flavone, 3?,4?,5,7-tetramethoxyflavone, 4?-hydroxy-3?,5,7-trimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-3?,4?,7-trimethoxyflavone, 4?,5-dihydroxy-3?,7-dimethoxyflavone and 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone. The identification of all compounds was achieved by physical properties and spectroscopically. These data were also confirmed by comparison with previously reported spectral data. Flavonoid compounds with high content in P. porphyrophyllum can

  16. Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper longum linn. fruit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Kamboj, Jitpal; Suman; Sharma, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    Herbal remedies have become popular, due in part to the lower risk of adverse reactions. Thousands of plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases. Among them, species of the genus Piper are important medicinal plants used in various systems of medicine. The Piper longum fruit has been used in traditional medicine, including the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Although there are numerous indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its efficacy. The primary constituents isolated from various parts of P. longum are piperine, piperlongumine, sylvatin, sesamin, diaeudesmin piperlonguminine, pipermonaline, and piperundecalidine. It is most commonly used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma, constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, diarrhea, cholera, chronic malaria, viral hepatitis, respiratory infections, stomachache, bronchitis, diseases of the spleen, cough, and tumors. This study provides detailed information about the P. longum fruit, including phytochemistry, pharmacological profile and safety profile. In view of the commercial, economic, and medicinal importance of the P. longum plant, it is useful for researchers to study the plant in detail. PMID:21704957

  17. HPLC assisted chemobiological standardization of ?-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory constituents from Piper longum Linn-An Indian medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivas V. Pullela; Ashok K. Tiwari; UmaMaheswara S. Vanka; Anuradha Vummenthula; Hari B. Tatipaka; Krishna R. Dasari; Ikhlas A. Khan; Madhusudana R. Janaswamy

    2006-01-01

    Formulations of traditional medicines are usually made up of complex mixture of herbs. However, effective quality control methods in order to select right quality materials are lacking. Though Piper longum is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases, there is no analytical method in the literature so far which can help in selecting the right

  18. Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vidadala Rama Subba Rao; Sagi Satyanarayana Raju; Vanka Umamaheswara Sarma; Fouriner Sabine; Kothapalli Hari Babu; Katragadda Suresh Babu; Janaswamy Madhusudana Rao

    2011-01-01

    Piper nigrum L. is a traditional medicine widely used in India for illnesses such as constipation, diarrhoea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay and toothaches. In this study, six bioactive compounds, namely piperine (1), pellitorine (2), guineensine (3), pipnoohine (4), trichostachine (5) and piperonal (6)

  19. Fungicidal activity of pipernonaline, a piperidine alkaloid derived from long pepper, Piper longum L., against phytopathogenic fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Eun Lee; Byeoung-Soo Park; Moo-Key Kim; Won-Sik Choi; Heung-Tae Kim; Kwang-Yun Cho; Sang-Guei Lee; Hoi-Seon Lee

    2001-01-01

    Fungicidal activity of Piper longum L. fruit-derived materials toward six phytopathogenic fungi, Pyricularia oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cineria, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita, and Erysiphe graminis, was tested using a whole plant method in vivo. It was compared with synthetic fungicides (chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid and mancozeb) and four commercially available compounds (eugenol, piperine, piperlongumine, and piperettine) derived from P. longum. The response

  20. Piperlongumine, a constituent of Piper longum L., inhibits rabbit platelet aggregation as a thromboxane A 2 receptor antagonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaya Iwashita; Nobuaki Oka; Satoko Ohkubo; Masaki Saito; Norimichi Nakahata

    2007-01-01

    Piper longum L. has been used as a crude drug for the treatment of the disorder of peripherally poor blood circulation in Asia. In the present study, we examined the effect of piperlongumine, a constituent of P. longum L., on rabbit platelet aggregation. Piperlongumine concentration-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, but it only slightly inhibited

  1. Biomass and nutrient accumulation of Piper aduncum and Imperata cylindrica fallows in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred E. Hartemink

    2001-01-01

    Shifting cultivation with short fallow periods (<3 years), is an important form of land use in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea. The secondary forest vegetation is dominated by the shrub Piper aduncum which originates from South America, and Imperata cylindrica grasslands in areas where annual bush fires are common. No information is available on the rate of biomass

  2. Soil seed banks and growth rates of an invasive species, Piper aduncum, in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard M. Rogers; Alfred E. Hartemink

    2000-01-01

    Secondary fallow vegetation in parts of the Papua New Guinea lowlands is dominated by the shrub Piper aduncum L. that originates from South America. Here we report on its seed bank, growth rate and biomass accumulation. P. aduncum accounted for 69 % (408 m[minus sign]2) of the seed bank in the forest and 53 % (1559 m[minus sign]2) of the

  3. Donated Leave ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    absence from work due to the donation of an organ (which shall include, for example, the donation of bone resulting from a serious health condition or injury, or donation of an organ. 2. When the DepartmentDonated Leave 1 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 7/9/2010 DONATED LEAVE PROGRAM DONATED LEAVE PROCEDURES

  4. Effect of the hexane extract of Piper auritum on insulin release from ?-cell and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez

    2012-01-01

    Background: The large-leafed perennial plant Piper auritum known as Hoja Santa, is used for its leaves that because of their spicy aromatic scent and flavor have an important presence in Mexican cuisine, and in many regions, this plant is known for its therapeutic properties. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from Piper auritum on cell culture system and the effect in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats treated by 28 days on the physiological, metabolic parameters and oxidative stress. Results: The hexane extract of P. auritum (HS) treatment significantly reduced the intake of both food, water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increase HDL-cholesterol. After 4-week administration of HS antioxidant enzyme as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx in pancreas were determined. These enzyme increased significantly compared with those of the diabetic rats control and normal animals. For all estimated, the results of HS treated groups leading to a restoration of the defense mechanism. The treatment also improves pancreatic TBARS–reactive substance level and serum NO and iNOS. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the serum and pancreatic sections were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant increase in serum and pancreas tissue insulin. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the HS extract increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. In cultured RIN-5F cells, we examined whether hexane extract of P. auritum would protect the pancreas-derived ?-cells from oxidative stress. Moreover, HS could protect pancreatic ?-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress. Conclusion: From these results, HS is suggested to show anti-diabetic effect by stimulating insulin-dependent and by protecting pancreatic ?-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24082635

  5. Preparative isolation and purification of amides from the fruits of Piper longum L. by upright counter-current chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shihua Wu; Cuirong Sun; Saifeng Pei; Yanbin Lu; Yuanjiang Pan

    2004-01-01

    A versatile counter-current chromatography (CCC) with upright type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge, named upright CCC, was applied to the isolation and purification of amides from Piper longum L., which is widely used as an anodyne and a treatment for stomach disease in China. After the saponification by KOH of the ethanol extracts solution of 15kg of crude drug “Piper Longi

  6. EFEITO INSETICIDA DE AMIDAS NATURAIS DE Piper E DO DERIVADO SINTÉTICO TETRAIDROPIPERINA SOBRE Lucilia cuprina (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE) E Musca domestica (DIPTERA: MUSCIDAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ÉLIO BARBIERI JUNIOR; CLEBER B. BARRETO JUNIOR; ROBERTA CRISTIANE RIBEIRO; VÍTOR HUGO; S. DE OLIVEIRA; MARCO EDILSON FREIRE DE LIMA; GONZALO E. MOYA-BORJA

    6 ABSTRACT:- BARBIERI JUNIOR, E.; BARRETO JUNIOR, C.B.; RIBEIRO, R.C.; OLIVEIRA, V.H.S. DE; LIMA, M.E.F. DE; MOYA-BORJA, G.E. (Insecticide effects of natural amides from Piper and of the synthetic derivative tetrahydropiperine on Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)). Efeito inseticida de amidas naturais de Piper e do derivado sintético tetraidropiperina sobre Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) e Musca

  7. CSU Leave Program Types of Leave Programs

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    · Family Medical Leave Act ­ 29 United States Code, Sections 2601 et seq. · California Family Rights Act duty, or call to active duty, in the U.S. Armed Forces in support of a contingency operations as spouse, parent, child, or domestic partner · Medical, dental, and vision benefits continue while on FML

  8. A new conjugated amide-dimer from the aerial parts of Piper submultinerve.

    PubMed

    Nobsathian, Saksit; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Soorukram, Darunee; Pohmakotr, Manat; Reutrakul, Vichai; Yoosook, Chalobon; Kasisit, Jitra; Napaswad, Chanita

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the aerial parts of Piper submultinerve led to the isolation of a new conjugated amide-dimer, submultinamide A (1), along with 11 known compounds. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Among the tested compounds, pellitorine (2), guineensine (4), N-benzylcinnamide (6) and aristolactam BII (8) showed significant activities in the anti-syncytium assay using (?Tat/Rev)MC99 virus and 1A2 cell line system, whereas 2 was most active (EC?? 35.1?µM and selectivity index 4.7). In the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay, only 4 was active with IC?? 50.8?µM. PMID:22117113

  9. Neolignans from Piper futokadsura and their inhibition of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tenji; Konoshima, Takao; Daikonya, Akihiro; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    From a MeOH extract of the aerial part of Piper futokadsura, the tetrahydrofuran lignans, futokadsurin A [(7S,8S,7'S,8'R)-3,4,3'-trimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-7,7'-epoxylignan], futokadsurin B [(7R,8R,7'R,8'S)-3,4-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-7,7'-epoxylignan], and futokadsurin C [(7R,8R,7'S,8'S)-3,4-methylenedioxy-3',4'-dimethoxy-7,7'-epoxylignan] were isolated, together with nine known neolignans. In addition, L-tryptophan, pellitorine, phytol, elemicin, and 1,2,4-trimethoxyphenyl-5-aldehyde were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. These lignans inhibited nitric oxide production by a murine macrophage-like cell line (RAW 264.7), which was activated by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma. PMID:15635246

  10. ACAT inhibition of alkamides identified in the fruits of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Seung Woong; Park, Hye Ran; Choi, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ji Yun; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2007-03-01

    In this study, via a bioactivity-guided fractionation of MeOH extracts of the fruits of Piper nigrum, alkamide (5) and five previously-identified alkamides were isolated. Their structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis ((1)H, (13)C NMR and ESI-MS), as follows: retrofractamide A (1), pipercide (2), piperchabamide D (3), pellitorin (4), dehydroretrofractamide C (5) and dehydropipernonaline (6). The IC(50) values determined for the compounds were 24.5 (1), 3.7 (2), 13.5 (3), 40.5 (4), 60 (5) and 90 microM (6), according to the results of an ACAT enzyme assay system using rat liver microsomes. These compounds all inhibited cholesterol esterification in HepG2 cells. PMID:17188313

  11. GC/MS investigations of the minor constituents of Piper guineense stem.

    PubMed

    Adesina, S K; Adebayo, A S; Adesina, S K O; Gröning, R

    2002-09-01

    Chemical investigations by GC/MS-analysis of stem extracts of Piper guineense resulted in the detection and identification of thirty-nine new constituents of the stem, apart from previously isolated constituents. These are isobutyl, pyrrolidyl and piperidyl amide alkaloids. Fifteen new natural products have been identified. Four of these natural products have been designated iyeremide A and B (these are pyrrolidine and piperidine analogues of pellitorine) and cycloguineense A and B, which are also piperidine analogues of cyclostachine A and B. There is a need to confirm the structures of some of these new constituents by synthesis. Apart from these amide alkaloids, many volatile oil components-monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, terpenoids, lignans and sterols--were detected. PMID:12369450

  12. Antileishmanial activities of dihydrochalcones from piper elongatum and synthetic related compounds. Structural requirements for activity.

    PubMed

    Hermoso, Alicia; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Mamani, Zulma A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Piñero, José E; Ravelo, Angel G; Valladares, Basilio

    2003-09-01

    Two dihydrochalcones (1 and 2) were isolated from Piper elongatum Vahl by activity-guided fractionation against extracellular promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis in vitro. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Derivatives 3-7 and 20 synthetic related compounds (8-27) were also assayed to establish the structural requirements for antileishmanial activity. Compounds 1-11 that proved to be more active that ketoconazol, used as positive control, were further assayed against promastigotes of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum. Compounds 7 and 11, with a C(6)-C(3)-C(6) system, proved to be the most promising compounds, with IC(50) values of 2.98 and 3.65 microg/mL, respectively, and exhibited no toxic effect on macrophages (around 90% viability). Correlation between the molecular structures and antileishmanial activity is discussed in detail. PMID:12927858

  13. Compounds from the aerial parts of Piper bavinum and their anti-cholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Dung, Hoang Viet; Cuong, To Dao; Chinh, Nguyen Minh; Quyen, Do; Kim, Jeong Ah; Byeon, Jeong Su; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sui; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-05-01

    A new alkenylphenol, bavinol A (1), together with six known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bavinum (Piperaceae). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR spectroscopy. The anti-Alzheimer effects of compounds 1-7 were evaluated from acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity assays. Bavinol A (1), ampelopsin (3), and violanthin (4) exhibited AChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 29.80, 59.47 and 79.80 ?M. Compound 1 also showed the most potent BChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 19.25 ?M. PMID:25005067

  14. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronauts (from left) Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. She and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  15. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronaut Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Waiting at left are Astronauts Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper and Steven W. Lindsey. Mrs. Clinton and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  16. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  17. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  18. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  19. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  20. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117...returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks....

  1. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Il-Kwon Park

    2011-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD50 values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4?µg\\/?) followed by guineensine (1.9?µg\\/?), retrofractamide A (2.4?µg\\/?) and pipercide (3.2?µg\\/?).

  2. Bioactivity of Piper guineense Schum. & Thonn seed and Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder against Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Adelani Babarinde; Olufemi O. Richard Pitan; Adekunle Tosin Ogunfiade

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate bioactivity of Piper guineense seeds and Moringa oleifera leaf powders applied singly or in a mixture against larvae and adult Trogoderma granarium Everts in airtight containers. Three levels (0.0 g, 0.5 g, and 1.0 g\\/20 g groundnut seeds) of the plant powders were used and pirimiphos-methyl was applied at 0.01 g\\/20 g seeds (recommended dose). Another control consisting of

  3. Analysis of Piperaceae germplasm by HPLC and LCMS: a method for isolating and identifying unsaturated amides from Piper spp extracts.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ian M; Puniani, Evaloni; Jensen, Helen; Livesey, John F; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T

    2005-03-23

    A method for extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS) analysis of the medicinally important genus Piper (Piperaceae) was developed. This allows for a rapid and accurate measure of unsaturated amides, or piperamides, in black pepper, Piper nigrum L., and in wild species from Central America. Reflux extraction provided the highest recovery of piperine (>80%) from leaf and peppercorn material. HPLC analysis using a binary gradient of acetonitrile and water separated the major amide peaks between 5 and 12 min. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS improved the detection limit to 0.2 ng, 10-fold below the 2 ng limit of the HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) based on linear standard curves between 0.1 and 250 microg/mL (R2 = 0.999). The HPLC-MS method identified pellitorine, piperylin, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, piperlonguminine, 4,5-dihydropiperine, piperine, and pipercide. The biological activity of six Costa Rican Piper species assessed by mosquito larval bioassays correlated well with piperamide content. PMID:15769112

  4. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aaron D. Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students pondered the mechanics of leaves' solar-collecting abilities, they began to understand plant behavior in a meaningful way.

  5. Leaves and Air Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

  6. Complete plastid genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, and Piper: implications for the phylogenetic relationships of magnoliids

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengqiu; Penaflor, Cynthia; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Leebens-Mack, James; Carlson, John E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

    2006-01-01

    Background The magnoliids with four orders, 19 families, and 8,500 species represent one of the largest clades of early diverging angiosperms. Although several recent angiosperm phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence resulted in phylogenetic reconstructions supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. We sequenced the plastid genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other angiosperm plastid genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids and to examine patterns of variation of GC content. Results The Drimys, Liriodendron, and Piper plastid genomes are very similar in size at 160,604, 159,886 bp, and 160,624 bp, respectively. Gene content and order are nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm plastid genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34–39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions. Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and likelihood methods and sequences of 61 protein-coding genes provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. Strong support is reported for monocots and eudicots as sister clades with magnoliids diverging before the monocot-eudicot split. The trees also provided moderate or strong support for the position of Amborella as sister to a clade including all other angiosperms. Conclusion Evolutionary comparisons of three new magnoliid plastid genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genomes, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots. PMID:17020608

  7. MEDICAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    MEDICAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY 1. Discuss your Leave of Absence with your Supervisor. 2. For additional information on Leaves of Absence, and to obtain the UCF Medical Leave Request of Medical Leave Request Form" which is part of the Request form. Be sure you understand your

  8. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  9. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Constituents of Piper sarmentosum Using a Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential Assay

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Matthew, Susan; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; de Blanco, Esperanza J. Carcache; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum collected in Vietnam, monitored by a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) assay using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This led to the isolation of four new C-benzylated dihydroflavones, sarmentosumins A-D (1-4), as well as 14 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Among these compounds, 1-4 as well as five known C-benzylated dihydroflavones (5-9), and pipercallosine, a piperamide (11), were found to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells by moderately reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m), with ED50 values ranging from 1.6 to 13.6 ?M. Furthermore, 7-methoxydichamanetin (8) and pinocembrin (10) exhibited proteasome inhibitory activities in a human 20S proteasome bioassay with IC50 values of 3.45 ± 0.18 ?M and 2.87 ± 0.26 ?M, respectively. This is the first time that C-benzylated dihydroflavones have been reported to demonstrate an apoptotic effect associated with disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. PMID:21973101

  10. MHPT.BAS: a computer program for modified Hill Piper diagram for classification of ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Srinivasa

    1998-12-01

    The Hill-Piper diagram is a widely used trilinear diagram to represent the chemical composition of natural waters, which aids the interpretation of the genesis of the chemical character of the groundwater in an aquifer. Handa extended this diagram by combining it with a modified U.S. Salinity Research Laboratory diagram, representing salinity by a single point in an extended diamond field instead of a circle, whose diameter is equivalent to its total dissolved solids. This modified diagram can also be used to determine the suitability of water for irrigation purpose. The code MHPT.BAS is written in BASIC. It gives either descriptive or graphic output, or both. For descriptive output, the program takes about 2 s to classify the data of 1000 water samples if it runs on Pentium under WINDOWS 95 and for the same data the program takes about 15 s if it runs under MSDOS. The graphic output can be obtained on dot matrix, inkjet or laser printers. The use of the program is demonstrated with a case study of the lower Vamsadhara river basin.

  11. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity. PMID:17147171

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67?g/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. PMID:24268240

  13. Protective Effect of Piper aduncum Capsule on DMBA-induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Acevedo, J; Chávez-Asmat, RJ; Anampa-Guzmán, A; Donaires, R; Ráez-Gonzáles, José

    2015-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Piper aduncum capsule on DMBA (dimethylbenz[?]anthracene)-induced breast cancer in rats was assessed by monitoring the tumor and lung metastases incidence and recording hematological and biochemical parameters and frequency of micronuclei. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced in 36 female Holtzman rats by providing a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA. Oral administration of P. aduncum capsule lowered adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases incidence. Pulmonary metastasis was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). Hematological indicators showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Also, P. aduncum capsule significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P < 0.01). Considering the antitumorigenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties of P. aduncum capsule, we conclude that it has a protective effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats. PMID:26157333

  14. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  15. In vivo growth inhibition of sarcoma 180 by piperlonguminine, an alkaloid amide from the Piper species.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Daniel P; Pessoa, Cláudia; Moraes, Manoel Odorico de; Alencar, Nylane M N de; Mesquita, Rodney O; Lima, Michael W; Alves, Ana Paula N N; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L; Chaves, João Henrique; Silveira, Edilberto R; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2008-07-01

    Many authors have already emphasized that phytochemicals from spices have biological applications. Piperlonguminine is a known alkaloid amide from peppers, including Piper divaricatum. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of piperlonguminine in experimental models. In order to evaluate the toxicological aspects related to piperlonguminine treatment, hematological, biochemical, histopathological and morphological analyses of treated animals were performed. Piperlonguminine did not show any significant in vitro cytotoxic effect at experimental exposure levels, but showed an in vivo antitumor effect. After 7 days of treatment, the inhibition rates were 38.71% and 40.68% at doses of 25 mg kg(-1) and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. The histopathological analysis suggests that the liver and kidney were only weakly affected by piperlonguminine treatment. Neither the enzymatic activity of transaminases (AST and ALT) nor the urea levels were significantly altered. In the hematological analysis, all parameters analysed remained constant after piperlonguminine treatment. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of spice components. PMID:17975786

  16. Methylpiperate derivatives from Piper longum and their inhibition of monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon A; Hwang, Ji Sang; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Chul; Lee, Min Hee; Choe, Sang Gil; Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Myung Koo; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2008-06-01

    We have previously reported that piperine, a known piperidine alkaloid from Piper longum, competitively inhibited mouse brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities. Piperine also showed in vivo antidepressant-like activity against the tail suspension test. In the present study, we further expanded on the identification of MAO inhibitors from the fruit of P. longum. Activity-guided fractionation of a methylene chloride soluble extract led to the isolation of three known piperine-related compounds, methylpiperate (1), guineensine (2), and piperlonguminine (3). Of these, methylpiperate (1) and guineensine (2) showed significant MAO inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 3.6 and 139.2 microM, respectively. Furthermore, methylpiperate (1) exhibited a selective inhibitory effect against MAO-B (IC50 value: 1.6 microM) than MAO-A (IC50 value: 27.1 microM). The kinetic study using the Lineweaver-Burk plots analysis suggested that methylpiperate (1) competitively inhibits MAO-A and MAO-B activities with the Ki values of 23.5 and 1.3 microM, respectively. PMID:18563347

  17. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure. PMID:22352449

  18. Complete genome sequencing of Piper yellow mottle virus infecting black pepper, betelvine, and Indian long pepper.

    PubMed

    Deeshma, K P; Bhat, A I

    2015-02-01

    The complete genome of the Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV), a Badnavirus belonging to the family Caulimoviridae, was sequenced from three naturally infected hosts namely, black pepper, betelvine, and Indian long pepper. The genome length of the three virus strains (one from each of the three host species) varied from 7,559 to 7,584 nucleotides, and all the three strains possessed four open reading frames (ORFs) I to IV that potentially encode proteins of 15.67, 17.08, 218.6, and 17.22 kDa, respectively. ORF III encodes a polyprotein consisting of viral movement protein, trimeric dUTPase, zinc finger, aspartic protease, reverse transcriptase, and RNase H whereas ORF I, II, and IV encode proteins of unknown functions. The complete genome sequences at the nucleotide level were 89-99 % identical with one available sequence of PYMoV and 39-56 % identical with other badnaviruses, indicating that all three are strains of PYMoV. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of ORF I-IV and of the intergenic region (IR) were 80-100 % identical among PYMoV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF III amino acid sequences showed the PYMoV strains forming a distinct cluster well separated from other badnaviruses. Among other badnaviruses, Fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1) was the one most closely related to PYMoV. PMID:25331343

  19. Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Pate-Cornell, M.E. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  1. Paper Chromatography with Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-08

    In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

  2. Pellitorine, a potential anti-cancer lead compound against HL6 and MCT-7 cell lines and microbial transformation of piperine from Piper Nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Lim, Chyi Meei; Rahmani, Mawardi; Shaari, Khozirah; Bong, Choon Fah Joseph

    2010-04-01

    Pellitorine (1), which was isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum, showed strong cytotoxic activities against HL60 and MCT-7 cell lines. Microbial transformation of piperine (2) gave a new compound 5-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-pent-2-ene piperidine (3). Two other alkaloids were also found from Piper nigrum. They are (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (4) and 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (5). These compounds were isolated using chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated using MS, IR and NMR techniques. PMID:20428051

  3. Fatigue in Brazilian cancer patients, caregivers, and nursing students: a psychometric validation study of the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dálete D. C. F. Mota; Cibele A. M. Pimenta; Barbara F. Piper

    2009-01-01

    Goals of work  The objective of this study was to validate the Piper Fatigue Scale-Revised (PFS-R) for use in Brazilian culture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Translation of the PFS-R into Portuguese and validity and reliability tests were performed. Convenience samples in Brazil\\u000a we as follows: 584 cancer patients (mean age 57?±?13 years; 51.3% female); 184 caregivers (mean age 50?±?12.7 years; 65.8%\\u000a female); and 189 undergraduate

  4. Matric Potentials of Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, J. S.

    1967-01-01

    A pressure chamber was used to measure matric potentials of frozen and thawed leaves. Significant matric potentials were demonstrated in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), yew (Taxus cuspidata Sieb. and Zucc.), and rhododendron (Rhododendron roseum Rehd.). Matric potentials were particularly negative in rhododendron and were correlated with the amount of cell wall present and with the volume of water outside the leaf protoplasts at comparable matric potentials. It was concluded that matric forces in leaves are associated mainly with cell walls, at least within the physiological range of water contents. Calculations indicated that the water potential of the solution in the cell wall could be estimated for living tissue from the sum of matric and osmotic potentials acting on water outside the protoplasts. PMID:16656497

  5. Cytotoxic Activity of Piper cubeba Extract in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Graidist, Potchanapond; Martla, Mananya; Sukpondma, Yaowapa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a crude extract of Piper cubeba against normal and breast cancer cell lines. To prepare the extract, P. cubeba seeds were ground, soaked in methanol and dichloromethane and isolated by column chromatography. Fractions were tested for cytotoxicity effects on normal fibroblast (L929), normal breast (MCF-12A) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231). The most effective fraction was selected for DNA fragmentation assay to detect apoptotic activity. The results showed that the methanolic crude extract had a higher cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 than a dichloromethane crude extract. Then, the methanolic crude extract was separated into six fractions, designated A to F. Fraction C was highly active against breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 value less than 4 ?g/mL. Therefore, Fraction C was further separated into seven fractions, CA to CG. The 1H-NMR profile showed that Fraction CE was long chain hydrocarbons. Moreover, Fraction CE demonstrated the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.69 ± 0.09 ?g/mL and lower cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast L929 cells with an IC50 value of 4.17 ± 0.77 ?g/mL. Finally, DNA fragmentation with a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis was observed in MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and L929 cells, but not in MCF-12A cells. PMID:25867951

  6. Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazillah

    2011-01-01

    In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg(-1) orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) 34.77?ng?mL(-1) ± 1.040, time to achieve C(max) (T(max)) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t(1/2)) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed C(max) 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL(-1), T(max) 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t(1/2) 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19770264

  7. Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazillah

    2011-01-01

    In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg?1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77?ng?mL?1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL?1, Tmax 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19770264

  8. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources for the isolation of new oral anti hypoglycemic agent(s). PMID:23414307

  9. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, ??,?-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids. PMID:25660876

  10. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.

  11. Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155

    E-print Network

    SEDIMENTS: CALCULATION FROM INDEX PROPERTIES AND VARIATION WITH CLAY CONTENT1 Roger D. Flood,2 Carlos PirmezFlood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean experiments, from velocity measurement on recovered sediment, or through velocity calculation from index

  12. Flood, R.D., Piper, D.J.W., Klaus, A., and Peterson, L.C. (Eds.), 1997 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155

    E-print Network

    Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 155 653 41. AMAZON FAN SEDIMENTATION: THE RELATIONSHIP.W. Piper3 ABSTRACT Seventeen sites on the Amazon Fan were drilled during Leg 155. Although the oldest. Leg 155 has demonstrated both the feasibility and value of high-resolution drilling on continental

  13. DIAGNÓSTICO DA AMBIÊNCIA ORGANIZACIONAL DA COMUNIDADE DE PRODUTORES DE PIMENTA LONGA (PIPER HISPIDINERVUM) UNIÃO DA LINHA SEIS DO PROJETO DE COLONIZAÇÃO HUMAITÁ EM PORTO ACRE – AC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solange Maria Chalub Bandeira Teixeira; Lucas Araujo Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o resultado parcial de uma pesquisa maior sobre a avaliação ambiental e sócio-econômica da produção de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum) de uma comunidade de produtores de um projeto de colonização do INCRA. Trata-se da sistematização do que foi levantado em campo, através de pesquisa realizada com 10 (dez) produtores rurais, pertencentes a uma associação de produtores do

  14. Rev: Leaving Home

    E-print Network

    Armitage, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    for the evolution of dis­ persal. It describes especially how those models apply to presaturation dispersal: dispersers that leave home before the habitat's carrying capacity is reached. Part six consists of chapters on 170 Bioscience Vol. 43 No. 3 dispersal... with the various contrivances by which seeds and fruits are moved about. Because of the near ubiquity of dis­ persal in the life histories of organ­ isms, I was surprised to find no refer­ ences to it in the index of a recent book on the evolution of life...

  15. Classify the trees/Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary Walsh

    This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

  16. Policy Guidelines Faculty Development Leave

    E-print Network

    Boas, Harold P.

    "FDL Policy Guidelines" and "Department & College Application Procedures" · Leave Period for FacultyPolicy Guidelines Faculty Development Leave Program FY 14 Updated 9/3/2012 #12;Texas A&M System. #12;· All Faculty Development Leave FY14 guidelines are located at http://dof.tamu.edu/node/13 under

  17. Invasive competitor and native seed predators contribute to rarity of the narrow endemic Astragalus sinuatus Piper.

    PubMed

    Combs, Julie K; Reichard, Sarah H; Groom, Martha J; Wilderman, David L; Camp, Pamela A

    2011-10-01

    The conservation of rare plant species hinges on our ability to identify the underlying mechanisms that limit rare plant populations. Theory on rarity suggests that both predispersal seed predation and competition can be important mechanisms influencing abundance and/or distribution of rare plant populations. Yet few studies have tested these interactions, and those that have evaluated each mechanism independently. Astragalus sinuatus Piper (Whited's milkvetch) is a narrow endemic plant species restricted to eight populations within a 10-km2 area in eastern Washington. We used experimental and observational methods to test the effects of native insect predispersal seed predators and an invasive grass (Bromus tectorum L. [cheatgrass]) on seed set and population density of A. sinuatus. We quantified per capita seed production and pod predation rates across four sites and among four years. Seed predation rates were high across four sites (66-82%) and all years (65-82%). Experimental reduction of predispersal seed predators significantly increased per capita seed set of A. sinuatus (164-345%) at two experimental sites. Concurrently, two seed addition experiments demonstrated the effect of seed loss and presence of B. tectorum on seedling recruitment and establishment of A. sinuatus over four growing seasons. In the first seed addition experiment, we found no difference in recruitment and establishment between low (40) and high (120) seed addition levels. In the second addition experiment (one level of addition; 40 seeds), we found that recruitment and survivorship increased 200% in plots where B. tectorum was removed compared to plots where B. tectorum was present. Thus, seed addition had no impact in the presence of B. tectorum; conversely, in the absence of B. tectorum, seed addition was highly effective at increasing population numbers. Results suggest that, in areas where B. tectorum is present, recruitment is site limited, and it is seed limited when B. tectorum is absent. We recommend that managers reduce B. tectorum in an effort to increase population growth of A. sinuatus; in areas where B. tectorum is absent, short-term reduction of insect predators should be considered as a strategy to increase population growth of this rare species. PMID:22073639

  18. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along monocot leaf blades, except at the leaf tip and giving the uncertainties on measurements and model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed differences between C3 and C4 plants reflect more mesophyll tortuosity rather than leaf length or interveinal distance. Using measurements of non-steady-state, spatially varying leaf water enrichment we show that spatial patterns are in steady state around midday only, just as observed for bulk leaf water, but can be easily up-scaled to the whole leaf level, independent of the degree of heterogeneity. This together suggests that regardless of the heterogeneity of leaf water enrichment, it is appropriate to take simple models of leaf water enrichment weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux for applications involving leaf water isotope enrichment. References Cuntz M, Ogée J, Farquhar GD, Peylin P & Cernusak LA (2007) Modelling advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 892-909 Farquhar GD & Cernusak LA (2005) On the isotopic composition of leaf water in the non-steady state, Functional Plant Biology 32, 293-303 Ogée J, Cuntz M, Peylin P & Bariac T (2007) Non-steady-state, non-uniform transpiration rate and leaf anatomy effects on the progressive stable isotope enrichment of leaf water along monocot leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 367-387

  19. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  20. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4?µg/?) followed by guineensine (1.9?µg/?), retrofractamide A (2.4?µg/?) and pipercide (3.2?µg/?). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03?µg/?. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17?µg/?) than in retrofractamide A (1.5?µg/?), guineensine (1.7?µg/?), and pipercide (2.0?µg/?). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014?µg/?. PMID:22010905

  1. A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by Stefanyshyn-Piper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  2. The roles of echolocation and olfaction in two Neotropical fruit-eating bats, Carollia perspicillata and C. castanea , feeding on Piper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wibke Thies; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    1998-01-01

    We studied the echolocation and foraging behavior of two Neotropical frugivorous leaf-nosed bats (Carollia perspicillata, C. castanea: Phyllostomidae) in a flight cage. To test which cues Carollia uses to detect, identify, and localize ripe Piper fruit, their preferred natural food, we conducted experiments under semi-natural conditions with ripe, unripe, and artifical\\u000a fruits. We first offered the bats ripe fruits and

  3. See the Colors in Leaves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-22

    Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

  4. Oranges - Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Five orange blossoms against a backdrop of citrus leaves and a mature orange produced by the previous year's blossoms. One blossom has already been pollinated and has lost its surrounding petals leaving the pistil isolated. Photograph taken March 15-16, 2008....

  5. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...an employee for his or her own medical, dental, or optical examination or treatment...leave for an employee's own medical, dental or optical examination or treatment...or a family member receiving medical, dental or optical examination or...

  6. Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors

    E-print Network

    Saffman, Mark

    Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors As a supervisor, it is important for you to know how & Medical Leave Act (FMLA) &/or Wisconsin Family & Medical Leave Act (WFMLA) and to know what to do with confidential medical information. FMLA and WFMLA are leave entitlements for reasonable, job-protected leave

  7. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported. PMID:23107941

  8. Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vidadala Rama Subba; Raju, Sagi Satyanarayana; Sarma, Vanka Umamaheswara; Sabine, Fouriner; Babu, Kothapalli Hari; Babu, Katragadda Suresh; Rao, Janaswamy Madhusudana

    2011-08-01

    Piper nigrum L. is a traditional medicine widely used in India for illnesses such as constipation, diarrhoea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay and toothaches. In this study, six bioactive compounds, namely piperine (1), pellitorine (2), guineensine (3), pipnoohine (4), trichostachine (5) and piperonal (6) were quantified in different extracts of P. nigrum L. and compared with those of P. longum L. and P. chaba Hunter. To evaluate the quality of P. nigrum, a simple, accurate and precise HPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the above-mentioned six compounds. The separation was achieved by Phenomenex Luna RP C(18) column (150?×?4.6?mm, 5?µm, Phenomenex Inc, CA, USA) with a binary gradient solvent system of water-acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 1.0?mL?min(-1) and detected at 210, 232, 262 and 343?nm. All six calibration curves showed good linearity (R (2)?>?0.9966). The method was reproducible with intra- and inter-day variations of less than 2% and 5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that this method is simple, reliable and suitable for the quality control of these plants. PMID:21854175

  9. Effect of Piper sarmentosum Extract on the Cardiovascular System of Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats: Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Thent, Zar Chi; Seong Lin, Teoh; Das, Srijit; Zakaria, Zaiton

    2012-01-01

    Although Piper sarmentosum (PS) is known to possess the antidiabetic properties, its efficacy towards diabetic cardiovascular tissues is still obscured. The present study aimed to observe the electron microscopic changes on the cardiac tissue and proximal aorta of experimental rats treated with PS extract. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated control group (C), PS-treated control group (CTx), untreated diabetic group (D), and PS-treated diabetic group (DTx). Intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50?mg/kg body weight) was given to induce diabetes. Following 28 days of diabetes induction, PS extract (0.125?g/kg body weight) was administered orally for 28 days. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, and urine glucose levels were measured at 4-week interval. At the end of the study, cardiac tissues and the aorta were viewed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). DTx group showed increase in body weight and decrease in fasting blood glucose and urine glucose level compared to the D group. Under TEM study, DTx group showed lesser ultrastructural degenerative changes in the cardiac tissues and the proximal aorta compared to the D group. The results indicate that PS restores ultrastructural integrity in the diabetic cardiovascular tissues. PMID:23304208

  10. Accelerated Stability and Chemical Kinetics of Ethanol Extracts of Fruit of Piper sarmentosum Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Hussain; Zhari, Ismail; Amirin, Sadikun; Pazilah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Piper sarmentosum, a medicinal plant, are being used to prepare phytopharmaceuticals while the information about chemical kinetics of constituents of the extract is unavailable to assign precise shelf life (t90) and find optimum storage conditions of the product for patient safety, and to avoid economic repercussions of launching an unstable product. The extract was exposed to three different conditions of high temperature and relative humidity (RH) for six months. The samples were then analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine as markers. Different chemical kinetic parameters of the markers were evaluated by Arrhenius equation to predict shelf life (t90) at different storage conditions and at room temperature. The markers in the extract followed the zero order degradation, and the activation energy, pre exponential factor and rate constant of the reaction of the markers were found to be varying in samples stored at different conditions. The contents of the markers were found to be decreasing at high temperature and humidity with the passage of time. The predicted shelf life (t90) of the markers at room temperature was found to be 16 months approximately. Results of this study indicate that extracts of the plant are stable at room temperature for 16 months. Moreover, the chemical kinetic data of the markers and the analytical method used to quantify the markers may be useful for phytopharmaceutical industry to produce efficacious and stable products from extracts of the plant. PMID:24250372

  11. Accelerated Stability and Chemical Kinetics of Ethanol Extracts of Fruit of Piper sarmentosum Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Hussain; Zhari, Ismail; Amirin, Sadikun; Pazilah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    The extracts of Piper sarmentosum, a medicinal plant, are being used to prepare phytopharmaceuticals while the information about chemical kinetics of constituents of the extract is unavailable to assign precise shelf life (t90) and find optimum storage conditions of the product for patient safety, and to avoid economic repercussions of launching an unstable product. The extract was exposed to three different conditions of high temperature and relative humidity (RH) for six months. The samples were then analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine as markers. Different chemical kinetic parameters of the markers were evaluated by Arrhenius equation to predict shelf life (t90) at different storage conditions and at room temperature. The markers in the extract followed the zero order degradation, and the activation energy, pre exponential factor and rate constant of the reaction of the markers were found to be varying in samples stored at different conditions. The contents of the markers were found to be decreasing at high temperature and humidity with the passage of time. The predicted shelf life (t90) of the markers at room temperature was found to be 16 months approximately. Results of this study indicate that extracts of the plant are stable at room temperature for 16 months. Moreover, the chemical kinetic data of the markers and the analytical method used to quantify the markers may be useful for phytopharmaceutical industry to produce efficacious and stable products from extracts of the plant. PMID:24250372

  12. A new flavonol C-glycoside and a rare bioactive lignanamide from Piper wallichii Miq. Hand.-Mazz.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Xia, Wen; Han, En-Ji; Xiang, Lan

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical constituents of Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. and evaluate their biological activity. Compounds were isolated by various column chromatographic methods, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical characteristics and spectral data. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory activity of the compounds were evaluated. Five compounds were obtained and identified as 8-C-?-D-glucopyranosylkaempferol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), 1, 2-dihydro-6,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-1-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N(1), N(2)-bis-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2, 3-naphthalene dicarboxamide (2), goniothalactam (3), aristololactam A IIIa (4) and piperlonguminine (5). Compound 1 was a new flavonol C-glycoside, 2 was a rare lignanamide, which was isolated from the family Piperaceae for the first time, and compound 3 was isolated from this plant for the first time. Among them, 2 showed potent DPPH-scavenging activity, with IC50 of 31.38 ± 0.97 ?mol·L(-1); Compounds 2, 3, and 4 showed AChE inhibitory activity at 100 ?mol·L(-1), with inhibition rates of 28.57% ± 1.47%, 18.48% ± 2.41% and 17.4% ± 3.03%, respectively. PMID:24856762

  13. A natural piper-amide-like compound NED-135 exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on the invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sook; Cho, Hyunkyung; Lim, Chaemin; Lee, Joo-Youn; Lee, Da-In; Kim, Sanghee; Moon, Aree

    2015-07-25

    Invasiveness and metastasis are the primary factors indicating poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. To identify a novel lead compound for the development of therapeutics for the treatment of breast cancer through inhibiting invasion, we screened the natural piper amide-like compounds library that we previously constructed. Among the compounds tested, (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl)acrylamide (NED-135) showed potent inhibitory effects on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and invasiveness of MCF10A human breast epithelial cells treated with an inflammatory lipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). The invasive phenotypes of MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer cells were significantly inhibited by NED-135. NED-135 efficiently inhibited the S1P-induced MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level with a comparable degree to FTY720, a known antagonist of S1P. We further showed that NED-135 significantly inhibited activation of S1P-induced signaling molecules, Akt, ERKs, and p38 MAPK. Computational similarity analysis led us to postulate that NED-135 and FTY720 may exert anti-invasive effects on breast cells possibly via different mechanisms. Due to its novel structural and functional features, we suggest that NED-135 can be used as a novel lead compound against breast cancer in an inflammatory microenvironment and highly invasive triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:25980589

  14. Pay Plus for leave Request for additional leave Under Pay Plus for leave, the University provides a number of days of additional leave to the employee.

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    Pay Plus For Leave. Pay Plus for leave ­ Request for additional leave Under Pay Plus for leave considered to be about 1/260th of a year. You are able to join Pay Plus for leave by 30 September, to claimJob and on your payslip as `Employee Number'. #12;2 I confirm that I want to participate in Pay Plus for leave. I

  15. Effect on oxidative stress, glucose uptake level and lipid droplet content by Apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether isolated from Piper longum L.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Mahesh S; Joy, Beena; Sundaresan, A

    2015-06-01

    Piper longum L. (Family: Piperaceae), is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases. Potential of the plant material as an antidiabetic and cardio protective agent has not been evaluated so far. In the study, we designed experiments to evaluate antioxidant, glucose uptake potential and lipid content regulating potential of extracts and compound from P. longum fruits. Solvent extracts from Piper longum fruits using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, 70 % methanol-water were taken and apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether (ADE) was isolated from ethyl acetate extract. Antioxidant activity, glucose uptake potential and adipocyte differentiation assay was performed with extract and pure compound. Antioxidant activity in terms of TRP (196.03 ?g/mg GAE), DPPH assay (IC50-173.09 ?g/mL), hydroxyl radical scavenging assay (IC50-20.42 ?g/mL), inhibiting LDL oxidation (IC50-51.99 ?g/mL) and to enhance SOD activity (25.3 %) was higher in ethyl acetate extract (EAP). Phenolic and flavonoid content was measured and showed a positive correlation with antioxidant activity. Presence of apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether (ADE) and piperine (Pip) in EAP was determined by HPTLC analysis and was isolated. ADE inhibited ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase enzymes and enhanced 2-NBDG uptake in L6 cells. Hypolipidemic effect of ADE on mouse pre-adipocyte (3T3L1) cell lines also showed a dose dependent reduction on lipid droplet content and effective concentration range was determined as 1-2.5 ?g/mL. The results suggested that Piper longum fruits can provide a natural source of antioxidants with antidiabetic and anti obesity potential. PMID:26028738

  16. Why Are Programs Leaving CEDA?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Gary

    A survey of all 38 current members of the (newly formed) National Educational Debate Association investigated why these directors opted to drop their Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) programs. Responses were received from 20 directors. The use of excessive speed in CEDA debate was mentioned as a reason for leaving CEDA by more of the…

  17. Benefits Briefing Faculty Development Leave

    E-print Network

    Boas, Harold P.

    Benefits Briefing Faculty Development Leave August and September 2012 HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION OF FINANCE #12;Human Resources Benefits Briefing August and Sept ember 2012 Page 2 Division of Finance Or ­ One-half academic year at full salary #12;Human Resources Benefits Briefing August and Sept ember 2012

  18. A flight investigation of the ultra-deep-stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radiocontrolled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. S., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ultradeep stall descent and spin recovery characteristics of a 1/6 scale radio controlled model of the Piper PA38 Tomahawk aircraft was investigated. It was shown that the full scale PA38 is a suitable aircraft for conducting ultradeep stall research. Spin recovery was accomplished satisfactorily by entry to the ultradeep stall mode, followed by the exit from the ultradeep stall mode. It is concluded that since the PA38 has excellent spin recovery characteristics using normal recovery techniques (opposite rudder and forward control colum pressure), recovery using ultradeep stall would be beneficial only if the pilot suffered from disorientation.

  19. Separation of insecticidal components from an extract of the roots of male Piper guineense (west African black pepper) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gbewonyo, W S; Candy, D J

    1992-09-01

    A petroleum ether extract of Piper guineense male roots showed insecticidal activity when tested against Musca domestica. Gas chromatography of the extract yielded four active fractions, one of which was a pure component which was identified by spectral and chemical methods as pellitorine (N-isobutyl-2E,4E-decadienamide). The root extract lost about half of its insecticidal potency during passage down the GLC column, and much of the residual activity was due to the presence of pellitorine. It was concluded that GLC facilitates the isolation of active components in a pure form, but causes some insecticidal components of the root extract to be lost. PMID:1440640

  20. Quantitative determination of anti-fungal and insecticide amides in adult plants, plantlets and callus from Piper tuberculatum by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Navickiene, Hosana M Debonsi; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Kato, Massuo J; Pereira, Ana Maria S; Bertoni, Bianca Waléria; França, Suzelei Castro; Furlan, Maysa

    2003-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reliable reverse-phase HPLC method was used for the quantitative determination of the anti-fungal and insecticide amides, dihydropiplartine (1), piplartine (2), deltaalpha,beta-dihydropiperine (3) and pellitorine (4) in plants in natura, in plantlets in vitro and ex vitro, and in callus of Piper tuberculatum. Well-resolved peaks were obtained with good detection response and linearity in the range of 15.0-3000 microg/mL. The plants in natura contained compounds 1-4, the plantlets ex vitro and in vitro accumulated compounds 1-2 and 1-4, respectively, while only amide 4 was found in callus. PMID:14515999

  1. In vitro inhibitory effect of piperlonguminine isolated from Piper longum on human cytochrome P450 1A2.

    PubMed

    Song, Min; Hwang, Jae Yun; Lee, Min Young; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, You Mie; Bae, Jong-Sup; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Sangkyu

    2014-08-01

    Piperlonguminine (PL), a major alkaloid isolated from Piper longum fruits, shows several biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects. Although there have been studies of the biological effects of PL, the potential drug-interaction effect of PL following evaluation of inhibitory effects of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities was not investigated. Here, to investigate the inhibitory effects of PL on the activities of CYP isoforms, CYP inhibition assays were conducted using a cocktail of probe substrates in pooled human liver microsome (HLMs) and human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP. PL strongly inhibited CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation with an IC50 value of 8.8 ?M, as NADPH-independent inhibition, while other CYPs were not significantly inhibited. A Lineweaver-Burk plot resulted in the inhibition mechanism of PL being divided into two different modes, reversible competitive inhibition in a low concentration range of 0-16 ?M with a Ki value of 1.39 ?M and uncompetitive inhibitory behavior at a high concentration range of 16-40 ?M. In addition, PL only decreased CYP 1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase activity with IC50 values of 10.0 ?M in human recombinant cDNA-expressed 1A2, not 1A1. Overall, this is the first investigation of potential herb-drug interactions associated with PL conducted by identifying the competitive inhibitory effects of PL on CYP1A2 in HLMs. PMID:24194261

  2. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  3. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  4. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. An emergency...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. An emergency...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111...of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. An emergency...

  7. Triterpenoids from Psidium guajava leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Siddiqui, Bina S; Hassan, Syed Imran

    2002-06-01

    Three pentacyclic triterpenoids including one new guajavanoic acid (2) and two known obtusinin (1) and goreishic acid I (3) have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. The new constituent 2 has been characterized as 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-p-E-coumaroyloxyurs-12, 18-dien-28-oic acid through 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR (broad band and DEPT). This is the first report of isolation of compound 1 and 3 from the genus Psidium. PMID:12049217

  8. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Leaving Home: Crisis and Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    McSherry, James

    1986-01-01

    “Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!” Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care. PMID:21267231

  10. Piper sarmentosum inhibits ICAM-1 and Nox4 gene expression in oxidative stress-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (AEPS) is known to possess antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities but the mechanism responsible for it remains unclear. In early part of atherosclerosis, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) induces the expression of cellular adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is the predominant source of superoxide in the endothelial cells whereas superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the antioxidant enzymes responsible for inactivating reactive oxygen species. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of AEPS on the gene expression of NF-?B, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, Nox4, SOD1, CAT and GPx in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods HUVECs were divided into four groups:- control; treatment with 180 ?M hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); treatment with 150 ?g/mL AEPS and concomitant treatment with AEPS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted from all the groups of HUVEC using TRI reagent. Subsequently, qPCR was carried out to determine the mRNA expression of NF-?B, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, Nox4, SOD1, CAT and GPx. The specificity of the reactions was verified using melting curve analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results When stimulated with H2O2, HUVECs expressed higher level of ICAM-1 (1.3-fold) and Nox4 (1.2-fold) mRNA expression. However, AEPS treatment led to a reduction in the mRNA expression of ICAM-1 (p < 0.01) and Nox4 (p < 0.05) in the H2O2-induced HUVECs. AEPS also upregulated the mRNA expression of SOD1 (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.01) and GPx (p < 0.05) in oxidative stress-induced HUVECs. There was no significant change in the mRNA expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Conclusion The expressional suppression of ICAM-1 and Nox4 and induction of antioxidant enzymes might be an important component of the vascular protective effect of AEPS. PMID:21496279

  11. Healing property of the Piper betel phenol, allylpyrocatechol against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration and mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, S; Banerjee, D; Bauri, AK; Chattopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, SK

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective activity of allylpyrocatechol (APC), the major antioxidant constituent of Piper betel, against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in the rat model and correlates with its antioxidative and mucin protecting properties. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Normal control rats (group?I) were given the vehicle oral dose of gum acacia in distilled water (1 mL per rat); ulcerated control and treated rats (groups II-V) were given a single dose of indomethacin (30 mg/kg body wt.); group II rats were sacrificed 4 h after indomethacin administration; groups III-V rats were given the vehicle (1 mL per rat) or APC (2 mg/kg body wt.) or misoprostol (1.43 ?g/kg body wt.) once daily by oral intubation for 7 d starting from 4 h after the indomethacin administration. After 7 d, the stomach tissues were excised for histological examination and biochemical analysis. RESULTS: Treatment with APC (2 mg/kg body wt per day) and misoprostol (1.43 ?g/kg body wt per day) for 7 d could effectively heal the stomach ulceration as revealed from the ulcer index and histopathological studies. Compared to the zero day ulcerated group, treatment with APC and misoprostol reduced the ulcer index by 93.4% and 85.4% respectively (P < 0.05). Both APC and misoprostol accelerated ulcer healing observed in natural recovery (P < 0.05), their respective healing capacities not being significantly different. The healing capacities of APC and misoprostol could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to enhance the mucin content of the gastric tissues. Compared to the ulcerated untreated rats, those treated with APC and misoprostol showed near normal MDA levels, while the protein levels were 86% and 78% of the normal value respectively (P < 0.05). Likewise, both APC and misoprostol increased the SOD, catalase, and mucin levels significantly (P < 0.05), the effect of APC being better. CONCLUSION: APC can protect indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration due to its antioxidative and mucin protecting properties. PMID:17659730

  12. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention. PMID:24341824

  13. Paid Leave Programs Policy 6.27

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    vacation, sick, parental, jury duty/court appearance and organ donation leave to respond to employee needs. Vacation donation provides financial assistance during approved unpaid leaves for: life- threatening

  14. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  15. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  16. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  17. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...1) If hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the...

  18. FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE (FML) INFORMATION SHEET

    E-print Network

    Gleixner, Stacy

    FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE (FML) INFORMATION SHEET HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One with the Federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the California Family Rights Act (CFRA). All leaves. ELIGIBILITY An employee may be eligible for FML for any of the following reasons: · To care for a child after

  19. University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    1/07 University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE Employee Information Name: Empl ID #: Home Address: City: ST: ZIP: Email Address: Phone: Type of Military Leave Dates of Leave Annual Reservist Training Military Duty Begin Date Expected End Date _____/_____/_____ _____/_____/_____ Certification

  20. Adipogenic effects of piperlonguminine in 3T3-L1 cells and plasma concentrations of several amide constituents from Piper chaba extracts after treatment of mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Itadaki; Matsuda, Hisashi; Zhang, Hailong; Hamao, Makoto; Yamashita, Chihiro; Kogami, Yuichiro; Kon'I, Haruka; Murata, Megumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study, piperlonguminine from the fruit of Piper chaba was reported to promote adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells like the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist, troglitazone. In the present study, the mode of action of piperlonguminine in cells was examined. Piperlonguminine increased mRNA levels of adiponectin, glucose transporter 4, and fatty acid-binding protein (aP2). It also increased mRNA levels of PPAR?2 but, unlike troglitazone, piperlonguminine did not activate PPAR? directly in a nuclear receptor cofactor assay. Analyses of plasma from mice treated with piperlonguminine, piperine, and retrofractamide A, and an extract of the fruit, showed that concentrations of piperlonguminine were higher than those of piperine and retrofractamide A, and that the "area-under-the-curve" of piperine increased following in vivo administration of the extract. PMID:23584920

  1. Preparative isolation and purification of amides from the fruits of Piper longum L. by upright counter-current chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shihua; Sun, Cuirong; Pei, Saifeng; Lu, Yanbin; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2004-06-25

    A versatile counter-current chromatography (CCC) with upright type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge, named upright CCC, was applied to the isolation and purification of amides from Piper longum L., which is widely used as an anodyne and a treatment for stomach disease in China. After the saponification by KOH of the ethanol extracts solution of 15 kg of crude drug "Piper Longi Fructus", the fruits of P. longum L., the solution was extracted with light petroleum and 500 g of red crude oil was obtained. Using 2.5 g of red crude oil as sample, the preparative upright CCC with a two-phase system composed of light petroleum (bp 60-90 degrees C)-ethyl acetate-tetrachloromethane-methanol-water (1:1:8:6:1, v/v) was successfully performed, which yielded nine fractions. Then these fractions were further purified by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with a glass column of 500 x 10 mm i.d. packed with reversed-phase silica gel. As a result, nine target amides with over 95% purity, i.e., 50 mg of (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4-dienamide, 150 mg of (2E,4E,14Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,14-trienamide, 110 mg of (2E,4E,12Z)-N-isobutyl-ocatadeca-2,4,12-trienamide, 50 mg of guineensine, 60 mg of pipernonaline, 75 mg of pellitorine, 63 mg of piperine, 45 mg of piperanine, and 40 mg of piperlonguminine were isolated, respectively. Structures of all compounds were identified by electrospray ionization MS, electron impact ionization MS, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra. PMID:15230526

  2. Fed Leaves Interest Rates Alone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Waters, Megan.

    This week's In the News looks at the recent Federal Reserve Board decision to leave interest rates unchanged. The eight resources discussed provide background information on interest rates and inflation, Federal Reserve news, and current US economic data. With the stock market at record highs and global economic crises fading, the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) showed increased concern about the risk of inflation this month at a May 18, 1999 meeting of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Although committee members ultimately decided not to raise the rate at which banks lend to each other, they cited a "tight" domestic labor market and "ongoing strength in demand in excess of productivity gains" as possible reasons for future rate hikes. Wall Street reacted to the Fed news with a 100 point Dow Jones Industrial Average fall on May 18 but recovered by the end of the day down just 16.52, and many market watchers expressed optimism over the FOMC action. Irwin Kellner, chief economist at CBS.MarketWatch.com, for example, deemed the decision "great" and praised the Fed for a flexible policy that is not locked into a particular course of action should the economy change unexpectedly.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of allylpyrocatechol in LPS-induced macrophages is mediated by suppression of iNOS and COX2 via the NF-?B pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debjani Sarkar; Piu Saha; Sunita Gamre; Surajit Bhattacharjee; Chellaram Hariharan; Sudipto Ganguly; Rupashree Sen; Goutam Mandal; Subrata Chattopadhyay; Subrata Majumdar; Mitali Chatterjee

    2008-01-01

    The crude ethanol extract of Piper betle leaf is reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity which has been suggested to be mediated by allylpyrocatechol (APC). In the present study, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of APC (10 mg\\/kg, p.o.) in an animal model of inflammation. To investigate the mechanism(s) of this anti-inflammatory activity, we examined its effects on the lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced

  4. The Pied Piper

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    An unusually thorough British pest identification website loaded with general arthropod information, most of it well illustrated. Sections dedicated to chemicals, and miscellaneous home intruders are especially nice additions. They also include a bit of their work ethic, which contributes nicely to the overall quality.

  5. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

  6. 5 CFR 630.1113 - Using donated annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...leave recipient for advanced annual or sick leave used because of the adverse effects...emergency. The agency may advance annual or sick leave, as appropriate (even if the employee has available annual and sick leave), so that the emergency...

  7. 5 CFR 630.402 - Requesting sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting sick leave. 630.402 Section 630.402 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.402 Requesting sick leave. An employee must file an...

  8. 5 CFR 630.209 - Refund for unearned leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.209 Refund for unearned leave. (a) When an employee who is indebted for unearned leave is...

  9. Extended Leaves of Absence for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Extended leave of absence policies for classroom teachers in 129 school systems with enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. A table lists, in order of descending frequency, the following purposes for which leaves are granted: (1) Military service, (2) professional study, (3) maternity, (4) exchange teaching…

  10. Department of Genetics Graduate Student Leave Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Department of Genetics Graduate Student Leave Guidelines The Department's graduate student leave provisions are in alignment with those of the Graduate School, and are universally applied to all Genetics' graduate students, even if they are not financially supported through the Department or University. When

  11. FLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program)

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    and values by themselves. Program overview This program is based on the gap year system of universitiesFLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program) The University of Tokyo introduces the new FLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program), starting from the 2013 academic year. This program enables undergraduate

  12. A versatile scattering model for deciduous leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa A. Karam; GenCorp Aerojet

    1998-01-01

    A versatile, multi-frequency scattering model is developed for deciduous leaves. The model gains its versatility from estimating the field inside the leaves, which are represented by elliptic discs, through employing a technique bridging the generalized Rayleigh-Gans (GRG) and the physical optics (PO) approximations. Analytic and numerical results are presented to illustrate the model versatility

  13. Why Are Experienced Teachers Leaving the Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye, Barbara Benham; O'Brien, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses several reasons teachers give for leaving or considering leaving the profession: Pressures of increased accountability, workload issues, student attitudes, lack of parent support, tension between faculty and administration, and low status of the profession. Suggests strategies to improve working conditions for teachers. (Contains 23…

  14. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  15. Brody School of Medicine Faculty Vacation Leave and Travel Policy

    E-print Network

    Brody School of Medicine Faculty Vacation Leave and Travel Policy Recommended by the Executive for Annual leave / Vacation Leave, Community Service Leave, Administrative or Professional Service Activities Leave and Professional Leave. According to the ECU Faculty Manual, Part VI, II.K. "Vacation and Sick

  16. Division of Human Resources COMPLETION OF LEAVE DOCUMENTS

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources COMPLETION OF LEAVE DOCUMENTS Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Completion of Leave Documents Form questions: (813) 974-5717 Rev. 8/2008 Hours Worked - for Staff and represented on the applicable leave documents. Leave Balances Recorded in ALT- sick leave balances are carried

  17. MEDICAL LEAVE/CRISIS RESPONSE POLICIES Mandated Medical Leave of Absence for Physiological Reasons Policy

    E-print Network

    MEDICAL LEAVE/CRISIS RESPONSE POLICIES Mandated Medical Leave of Absence for Physiological Reasons Policy A student will be placed on mandatory medical leave if the following has occurred: · It has been determined by a Health Service clinician (NP or MD) that the student requires more intensive medical care

  18. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...leave may be taken for absences where the employee...the birth of a healthy child or placement of a healthy...after the birth of a child, or takes leave in several...leave during which the mother has a serious health...with the birth of her child or if the newborn...

  19. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  20. Paid Sick Leave and Nonfatal Occupational Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Pana-Cryan, Regina; Rosa, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between US workers’ access to paid sick leave and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries from the employer’s perspective. We also examined this association in different industries and occupations. Methods. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the business value of offering paid sick leave. Data from the National Health Interview Survey were used to test the hypothesis that offering paid sick leave is associated with a reduced incidence of occupational injuries. We used data on approximately 38?000 working adults to estimate a multivariate model. Results. With all other variables held constant, workers with access to paid sick leave were 28% (95% confidence interval?=?0.52, 0.99) less likely than workers without access to paid sick leave to be injured. The association between the availability of paid sick leave and the incidence of occupational injuries varied across sectors and occupations, with the greatest differences occurring in high-risk sectors and occupations. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that, similar to other investments in worker safety and health, introducing or expanding paid sick leave programs might help businesses reduce the incidence of nonfatal occupational injuries, particularly in high-risk sectors and occupations. PMID:22720767

  1. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE in vitro DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE Piper auritum Kunth (PIPERACEAE) DIFUNDIDA EN LA COSTA COLOMBIANA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEJANDRO GARCÍA RÍOS; MIGUEL ANTONIO LEYVA; ELENA E. STASHENKO

    2007-01-01

    The essential oil of leaves and inflorescences of Pipper auritum, was obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) and analyzed by means of high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The extraction yield was 2,3% (leaves) and 2,4% (inflorescences). The main components were safrol (94,0% in leaves and 90,3% in inflorescences) and myristycin, (3,2% in leaves and 5,8% in inflorescences).

  2. Why Women Leave Interview Protocol Demographics: Name

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Why Women Leave Interview Protocol Demographics: Name Age Length of time at UW Promoted? Title in the [NAME] department. Best things, worst things. 3. Describe your experience on campus. Best things, worst

  3. Revised February 2013 UF Paid Parental Leave

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    or adoption of a child or the initial placement of a child in the foster care of the employee. Who is Eligible months from the first date of absence. If being used for foster care, the paid parental leave must

  4. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  5. Biosynthesis of Caffeine in Leaves of Coffee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ashihara; Ana Maria Monteiro; Fiona M. Gillies; Alan Crozier

    lhe levels of endogenous caffeine and theobromine were much higher in buds and young leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv Kent than in fully developed leaves. Biosynthesis of caffeine from 14C-labeled adenine, guanine, xanthosine, and theobromine was observed, whereas other studies (H. Ashihara, A.M. Monteiro, 1. Moritz, F.M. Cillies, A. Crozier (19961 Planta 198: 334-339) have indicated that there is

  6. Hypoglycemic Effect of the Methanol flower Extract of Piper Claussenianum and the Major Constituent 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Marques, A M; Pereira, S L; Paiva, R A; Cavalcante, C V; Sudo, S Z; Tinoco, L W; Moreira, D L; Guimaraes, E F; Sudo, R T; Kaplan, M A C; Sudo, G Z

    2015-01-01

    Piper claussenianum inflorescences crude methanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels of rats treated with methanol extract were reduced from 318.4±28.1 mg/dl before treatment to 174.2±38.3 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). Phytochemical studies were carried out on inflorescences methanol crude extract in order to investigate the possible metabolites responsible for the pharmacological properties of the extract. After chromatographic procedures, three flavonoids were isolated and characterized. The major compound 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone was also tested. Rats that received the chalcone content also displayed a reduction in blood glucose levels from 277.4±7.7 mg/dl before treatment to 158.8±9.2 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). The results suggest this chalcone is one of the metabolite responsible for the blood glucose levels reduction in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The inflorescence crude extract of P. claussenianum was found to be composed mainly by flavonoids and may be a potential natural source of compounds with hypoglycemic properties. PMID:26009660

  7. HPLC assisted chemobiological standardization of alpha-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory constituents from Piper longum Linn-An Indian medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Pullela, Srinivas V; Tiwari, Ashok K; Vanka, UmaMaheswara S; Vummenthula, Anuradha; Tatipaka, Hari B; Dasari, Krishna R; Khan, Ikhlas A; Janaswamy, Madhusudana R

    2006-12-01

    Formulations of traditional medicines are usually made up of complex mixture of herbs. However, effective quality control methods in order to select right quality materials are lacking. Though Piper longum is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases, there is no analytical method in the literature so far which can help in selecting the right quality material with proper proportions of the active ingredients (alpha-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory principles). We employed a systematic bioassay guided fractionation method and isolated pipataline, pellitorine, sesamin, brachystamide B and guineensine as active principles. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to quantify these active principles in the plant material, which can serve as an effective quality control tool. The separation was carried out using a Discovery HS F5 C-18 (ODS) column and the solvent system used was a gradient comprising of (A) acetonitrile and (B) water with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The detection was performed using a PDA detector. Regression equation pertaining to all the bioactive isolates revealed a linear relationship (r2 > 0.9995). The detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.005 to 0.001 microg/ml. Of all the active isolates, sesamin was identified to be present in maximum quantities (0.91%) where as brachystamide B was found in minimum quantity (0.01%). PMID:16872768

  8. Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-? was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06?µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100?µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-?. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

  9. Comparative analysis of genetic variation in kava (Piper methysticum) assessed by SSR and DArT reveals zygotic foundation and clonal diversification.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Henri; Mournet, Pierre; Malapa, Roger; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Chaïr, Hana; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum) is a major cash crop in the Pacific. The aim of this study was to assess genetic variation among 103 accessions of kava using SSRs and DArTs. Genetic structure was determined using clustering analyses (WPGMA) and principal coordinate analyses (PCA). Thirteen SSR primers and 75 DArT markers were found polymorphic, and the two types of markers generated similar clustering patterns. Genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.65 with an average of 0.24 using SSRs and from 0 to 0.64 with an average of 0.24 using DArT. Eleven genotypes were identified with SSR while 28 genotypes were identified with DArT markers. By combining the two sets of markers, a total of only 30 distinct genotypes were observed. In the Vanuatu archipelago, noble cultivars originating from different islands clustered together within a very narrow genetic base despite their diversity of morphotypes. SSR and DArT fingerprints allowed the identification of kava cultivars unsuitable for consumption, so called two-days, and clearly differentiated the wild types classified as P. methysticum var. wichmannii from the cultivars as var. methysticum. Molecular data reveals that all noble cultivars evolved by the predominance of clonal selection. Although they are represented by clearly distinct morphotypes, these cultivars are genetically vulnerable and their potential to adapt to forthcoming changes is limited. These newly developed markers provide high resolution and will be useful for kava diversity analyses and quality assessment. PMID:25973616

  10. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460?nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50?nm and 9–30?nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

  11. Polar Concentration of Elements in Tree Leaves

    E-print Network

    James D. Brownridge

    2003-08-25

    A long-term study of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, S, Cl, Fe and Mn in leaves is in progress. The objective of this study is to develop a week-by-week profile of these elements in leaves during several growing seasons. The profile includes the following information: (1) Which elements each tree collects in its leaves. (2) The location in the leaf with the highest concentration, top side, under side or interior. (3) The week during the growing season when each element first appears in the leaves of each tree. (4) The change in the relative concentration from week to week. (5) The source of the element i.e., deposition from the atmosphere or the root system of the tree. This information is profile for each year and will be correlated with environmental conditions for that year. Leaves are collected weekly from first unfolding in early spring until leaf drop in the fall. They are from the 31 trees and 26 species in Broome County, NY. From time to time leaves from most of the 26 species are being randomly collected from trees growing throughout the northeastern US.

  12. More manganese accumulates in maple sun leaves than in shade leaves.

    PubMed

    McCain, D C; Markley, J L

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season. PMID:16666945

  13. Screening for the in vitro anti-tumor-promoting activities of edible plants from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murakami, A; Ali, A M; Mat-Salleh, K; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H

    2000-01-01

    A total of 114 methanol extracts from 42 plant families of edible Malaysian plants were screened for their inhibitory activities toward tumor promoter 12-O-hexadecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (HPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation in Raji cells. By testing at a concentration of 200 micrograms/ml, 74% of the 114 extracts inhibited EBV activation by 30% or more. This rate is comparable to those observed in the previous tests on edible Thai (60%) and Indonesian (71%) plants, and, importantly, much higher than that (26%) observed for Japanese edible plants. Approximately half of the Malaysian plants did not taxonomically overlap those from the other three countries, suggesting that Malaysian plants, as well as Thai and Indonesian plants, are an exclusive source of effective chemopreventive agents. Further dilution experiments indicated an extract from the leaves of Piper betle L. (Piperaceae) to be one of the most promising species. The high potential of edible Southeast Asian plants for cancer chemoprevention is collectively discussed. PMID:10705442

  14. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave recredit. 630.502 Section...LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.502 Sick leave recredit. (a) When an employee...employee transfers shall certify his or her sick leave account to the employing agency...

  15. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  16. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  17. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  18. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  19. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630...Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred annual leave...leave donors who, on the date leave restoration is made, are employed by a...

  20. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality. PMID:22982636

  1. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.208 Reduction in leave credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (1) Accrued or accumulated annual or sick leave under subchapter I of chapter 63 of title...regulations governing the granting and use of annual or sick leave; (2) Advanced annual or sick leave approved under the same terms and...

  3. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  4. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  5. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  6. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The...under this contract vacations of reasonable duration...no event shall such vacation leave be earned at...from international travel. Allowable vacation and sick leave...

  7. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

  8. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

  9. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

  10. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

  11. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.6340 Section 21.6340...Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may...

  12. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one of the...

  13. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  14. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act)

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) OMB in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: ______________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  15. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  16. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1499-1504. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25772371

  17. Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave (http://handbook.unc.edu/medical.html)

    E-print Network

    Crews, Stephen

    1 Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave to the Associate Dean for Student Affairs, Graduate School, CB 4010, 203 Bynum Hall. Date of application: __________________________________________ and academic department: ___________________________________________ Graduate School Parental Leave Application

  18. Tissue distribution profiles of three antiparkinsonian alkaloids from Piper longum L. in rats determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haolong; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiaoqing; Liu, Junhui; Bi, Ying; Zheng, Li; Wu, Xia

    2013-06-01

    The alkaloids of Piper longum L. (PLA) improved motor dysfunction and dopamine depletion in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. A rapid, accurate, simple, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and fully validated to simultaneously detect three P. longum L. antiparkinsonian alkaloids (piperine (PPR), piperlonguminine (PPL), and ??,?-dihydropiperlonguminine (DPPL)) in rat plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain tissues. Rat plasma and tissue homogenates were pretreated with methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) using a simple protein precipitation method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (50mm×2.00mm, 5?m) with a gradient mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water or acetonitrile. The elution was pumped at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min, and the injection volume was 10?l with a total running time of 4min. The analysis was performed by selected reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 285.9?201.1, m/z 274.3?209.9, and m/z 276.2?134.9 for PPR, PPL, and DPPL, respectively. All three analytes showed good linearity (R>0.995) in plasma and tissue homogenates, and the lower limit of quantification was 0.20ng/ml. The distribution of PPR, PPL and DPPL in all 7 tissues was examined. The highest concentrations for PPR and PPL were observed in the liver, while the highest DPPL concentration was observed in the kidney. Following oral administration, the highest levels of PPR, PPL and DPPL in different tissues were found at approximately 2h. PPR, PPL and DPPL could cross the blood-brain barrier. The present study provides evidences for that PPR, PPL and DPPL may play roles in improving motor dysfunction and dopamine depletion. PMID:23603295

  19. Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

    2012-01-01

    For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade. In 2010…

  20. Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula S. R. Rose; Ara Manukian; Robert R. Heath; James H. Tumlinson

    Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that at- tract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. lhe release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3

  1. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  2. Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

  3. Family & Medical Leave A Guide for Supervisors

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    ) immediately. Your DDR is a trained professional appointed to manage FMLA and medical leave in your division as needed. All confidential medical information is shared directly with the DDR. The DDR will provide you the job, etc. All Medical Information is Confidential. All medical information is shared directly

  4. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  5. SQL APPLICATION FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVING EXAMINATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Mariana MARCU

    2003-01-01

    This paper main objective is to present SQL power of use for a case of data management with heterogeneous data classification. The article is based on a PHP application developed to manage a real situation of secondary school leaving examination in August 2003 at Bra?ov city, Romania at exams center no. 29, where the first author was president of the

  6. PROCEDURAL MODELING AND CONSTRAINED MORPHING OF LEAVES

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    and support he has provided over years and most importantly for introducing me to my wife. Navendu Singh thank my wife for being so encouraging and supportive in last couple of years. Without her unconditional to use. With these methods, leaves of different shapes are either reconstructed from images individually

  7. New steroids from Solenostemma argel leaves.

    PubMed

    Hamed, A I

    2001-11-01

    Two new pregnane ester glycosides, named stemmoside A (1) and stemmoside B (2) and a third new polyhydroxy pregnane, named stemmin C (3), were isolated from Solenostemma argel leaves. The structures were achieved by extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. PMID:11677012

  8. Pharmacognosy of Cassia Alata Linn – leaves

    PubMed Central

    Mohideen, S.; Sasikala, E.; ARUHAJ, P.

    2005-01-01

    Cassia alata Linn, Commonly known as semaiagathi in Tamil is well known for its various medicinal properties in Indian systems of medicine. Various parts of this plant are used as vermicide, astringent, purgative, expectorant and to treat skin diseases. The present work deals with the anatomy, quantitative microscopy, physical constants and fluorescence analysis of the plant leaves. PMID:22557177

  9. Disaster Leave Office of Human Resources

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    Disaster Leave 6.28 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty, staff, and graduate associates for further direction and compensation information 1 . The Ohio State University ­ Office of Human Resources of Human Resources 614-292-2800 ohrc@hr.osu.edu hr.osu.edu/elr Benefits Customer Service Center, Office

  10. Stomata of apple leaves cultured in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Blanke; Ann R. Belcher

    1989-01-01

    Examination by scanning electron microscopy showed abaxial stomata on in vitro cultured apple (Malus pumila Mill.) leaves. With leaf ontogeny, most of these stomata appeared to lose their regulatory ability while developing wide vestibules of up to 20 µm in diameter. It is proposed that these deformed stomata may be a possible cause for the excessive transpirational water loss and

  11. HR & Payroll 05.16.2011 LEAVE OPTIONS @ MASON

    E-print Network

    Sickness and Disability Program depends upon the retirement option you select when hired.) ·Sick leave Leave ·Amount of leave is based upon court documentation ·Leave taken to serve on a jury, to appear as a witness in a court proceeding or deposition, as compelled by a subpoena or summons, or to accompany

  12. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...or used to liquidate an indebtedness for advanced annual or sick leave granted on or after a date fixed by the leave recipient's...period of medical emergency for which LWOP or advanced annual or sick leave was granted. (f) A leave recipient's employing...

  13. Medical Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Medical Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University Employee Name Request Justification: Medical leave without pay: Medical leave without pay may be granted for reasons including extenuating personal health problems or immediate family issues. Medical leaves of absence without

  14. Research progresses of the Surface Similar to Lotus Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su Changhong; Chen Qingmin

    The self-cleaning effect of lotus leaves has attracted great attention due to potential application in daily life and industrial processes. The self-cleaning effect of lotus leaves has been demonstrated to be cooperative effect of the surface structure and low surface energy material on the lotus leaves. Recently, many methods have developed to fabricate the surface similar to lotus leaves. In

  15. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

  16. Constituents of the leaves of Verbascum blattaria.

    PubMed

    Youn, I-Soo; Han, Ah-Reum; Roh, Mark S; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the dried leaves of Verbascum blattaria L. (Scrophulariaceae) led to the isolation and identification of five known compounds, E-harpagoside, laterioside, kaempferol 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and (2S)-liquiritigenin. The structures of these compounds were determined by physical and spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds were isolated from V blattaria for the first time. PMID:25924525

  17. Green leaves are the stuff of life.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly need to eat dark green leafy vegetables. These vegetables provide vitamin A which prevents night blindness and increases resistance to illness. The vitamin is also transferred to babies in breast milk; so mothers, in particular, need to consume these vegetables. Vitamin A is also contained in squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, mangoes, milk, eggs, and liver. Iron, which prevents tiredness and weakness, is found in meat, peas, beans, spinach, cassava leaves, and pumpkin leaves. Folic acid, which is necessary for healthy blood, is also found in dark green leafy vegetables. Pregnant women and the elderly especially need it. Protein is needed by all. Children need it for growth. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. However, protein is also found in dark green leafy vegetables, which can be grown or foraged, when the aforementioned sources are in short supply. Cultivated vegetable sources of protein include spinach, leeks, and the leaves of okra, cassava, papaya, hot peppers, beets, taro, and sweet potatoes. Wild vegetable sources are also available; however, care must be taken concerning plants that are poisonous or bitter. Some may require special preparation before eating. Vitamins and minerals escape with cooking, so a lid should be used and the time allotted should be as short as possible. Cooking water may be used for stew or soup, except when the leaves are poisonous before they are cooked (An example of this is cassava.). Children should begin eating these vegetables as soon as they stop breastfeeding. The vegetables can be mashed, ground, sieved or pureed in order for the children to eat them. PMID:12345402

  18. Pregnene derivatives from Solenostemma argel leaves.

    PubMed

    Hassan, H A; Hame, A I; El-Emary, N A; Springue, I V; Mitome, H; Miyaoka, H

    2001-06-01

    Two new pregnene derivatives 14beta-15alpha-dihydroxy-delta4pregnene-3,20 dione and 3beta-14beta,15alpha-16alpha hydroxy-20-oxo-delta5pregnene-tetra-ol, in addition to alpha- and beta-amyrin and beta-sitosterol, were isolated from Solenostemma argel leaves. The structures were established by extensive spectral analysis as well as comparison with reference materials. PMID:11394848

  19. Characterization of ?-Galactosidase from Cucumber Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Elizabeth L.; Pharr, David M.

    1980-01-01

    Two forms of ?-galactosidase (?-d-galactoside galactohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.22) which differed in molecular weight were resolved from Cucumis sativus L. leaves. The enzymes were partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex gel filtration, and diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography. The molecular weights of the two forms, by gel filtration, were 50,000 and 25,000. The 50,000-dalton form comprised approximately 84% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in crude extracts from mature leaves and was purified 132-fold. The partially purified 25,000-molecular weight form rapidly lost activity unless stabilized with 0.2% albumin and accounted for 16% of the total ?-galactosidase activity in the crude extract. The smaller molecular weight form was not found in older leaves. The two forms were similar in several ways including their pH optima which were 5.2 and 5.5 for the 50,000- and 25,000-dalton form, respectively, and activation energies, which were 15.4 and 18.9 kilocalories per mole for the larger and smaller forms. Both enzymes were inhibited by galactose as well as by excess concentrations of p-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactoside sub-strate. Km values with this substrate and with raffinose and melibiose were different for each substrate, but similar for both forms of the enzyme. With stachyose, Km values were 10 and 30 millimolar for the 50,000- and 25,000- molecular weight forms, respectively. PMID:16661511

  20. Carbon Fluxes in Mature Peach Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Moing, Annick; Carbonne, Francis; Rashad, Mohamed H.; Gaudillère, Jean-Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212

  1. Differential Localization of Antioxidants in Maize Leaves.

    PubMed

    Doulis, A. G.; Debian, N.; Kingston-Smith, A. H.; Foyer, C. H.

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the compartmentation of antioxidants between the bundle-sheath and mesophyll cells of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. Rapid fractionation of the mesophyll compartment was used to minimize modifications in the antioxidant status and composition due to extraction procedures. The purity of the mesophyll isolates was assessed via the distribution of enzyme and metabolite markers. Ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase were used as bundle-sheath markers and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was used as the mesophyll marker enzyme. Glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were almost exclusively localized in the mesophyll tissue, whereas ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were largely absent from the mesophyll fraction. Catalase, reduced glutathione, and monodehydroascorbate reductase were found to be approximately equally distributed between the two cell types. It is interesting that, whereas H2O2 levels were relatively high in maize leaves, this oxidant was largely restricted to the mesophyll compartment. We conclude that the antioxidants in maize leaves are partitioned between the two cell types according to the availability of reducing power and NADPH and that oxidized glutathione and dehydroascorbate produced in the bundle-sheat tissues have to be transported to the mesophyll for re-reduction to their reduced forms. PMID:12223757

  2. Leishmania donovani pteridine reductase 1: comparative protein modeling and protein-ligand interaction studies of the leishmanicidal constituents isolated from the fruits of Piper longum.

    PubMed

    Sahi, Shakti; Tewatia, Parul; Ghosal, Sabari

    2012-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is caused by the dimorphic parasite Leishmania donovani in the Indian subcontinent. Treatment options for kala-azar are currently inadequate due to various limitations. Currently, drug discovery for leishmaniases is oriented towards rational drug design; the aim is to identify specific inhibitors that target particular metabolic activities as a possible means of controlling the parasites without affecting the host. Leishmania salvages pteridin from its host and reduces it using pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1, EC 1.5.1.33), which makes this reductase an excellent drug target. Recently, we identified six alkamides and one benzenoid compound from the n-hexane fraction of the fruit of Piper longum that possess potent leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes as well as axenic amastigotes. Based on a homology model derived for recombinant pteridine reductase isolated from a clinical isolate of L. donovani, we carried out molecular modeling and docking studies with these compounds to evaluate their binding affinity. A fairly good agreement between experimental data and the results of molecular modeling investigation of the bioactive and inactive compounds was observed. The amide group in the conjugated alkamides and the 3,4-methylenedioxystyrene moiety in the benzenoid compound acts as heads and the long aliphatic chain acts as a tail, thus playing important roles in the binding of the inhibitor to the appropriate position at the active site. The remarkably high activity of a component containing piperine and piperine isomers (3.36:1) as observed by our group prompted us to study the activities of all four isomers of piperine-piperine (2E,4E), isopiperine (2Z,4E), isochavicine (2E,4Z), and chavicine (2Z,4Z)-against LdPTR1. The maximum inhibitory effect was demonstrated by isochavicine. The identification of these predicted inhibitors of LdPTR1 allowed us to build up a stereoview of the structure of the binding site in relation to activity, affording significant information that should prove useful during the structure-based design of leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:22752544

  3. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Hassan, Syed Imran; Siddiqui, Bina S; Shaheen, Farhana; Ghayur, M Nabeel; Gilani, Anwar H

    2002-10-01

    Two triterpenoids, 20beta-acetoxy-2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (guavanoic acid, 3), and 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxy-24-p-z-coumaroyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (guavacoumaric acid, 7), along with six known compounds 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid (1), jacoumaric acid (2), isoneriucoumaric acid (4), asiatic acid (5), ilelatifol D (6) and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), have been isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic methods. Compound 5 showed dose-dependent (10-500 microg/ml) spasmolytic activity in spontaneously contracting isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. PMID:12377233

  4. Iridoids from Spathodea campanulata P. Beauvais leaves.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Yaser G

    2009-06-01

    Three new and four known iridoids have been isolated from the leaves of Spathodea campanulata, the structures of the new compounds were determined as 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-decinnamoyl globularimin, 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-asystasioside E and 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside and provisionally named as spatheosides A (1), B (2) and C (3) respectively. The known iridoids were identified as verminoside (4), 6'-O-trans-caffeoyl-loganic acid (5), catalpol (6) and ajugol (7). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic methods. PMID:19634315

  5. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  6. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  7. 5 CFR 831.302 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused sick leave. 831.302 Section 831.302...Credit for Service § 831.302 Unused sick leave. (a) For annuity computation...annuity is increased by the days of unused sick leave to his credit under a formal...

  8. PERSONAL LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type, or Write Legibly

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    PERSONAL LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type, or Write Legibly Check one: New Leave of Absence: ________________________________ For Use by Department and Human Resources Department (Supervisor) must complete (Please type or print: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ For HR/Provost Use Only The Provost has Final Approval for all Faculty personal leave of absence requests

  9. LSUHSC Department of Genetics Request for Leave Graduate Students

    E-print Network

    LSUHSC Department of Genetics Request for Leave ­ Graduate Students SECTION I. TO BE COMPLETED of Genetics Graduate Student Leave Guidelines The Department's graduate student leave provisions are in alignment with those of the Graduate School, and are universally applied to all Genetics' graduate students

  10. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ...proposes revisions to the Family and Medical Act (FMLA...implement amendments to the military leave provisions of...availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of...provisions; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain...

  11. P-83 OLVERSION 5/2012 Employee Request for Leave

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    days) Court Leave Military Leave Death in Family FMLA (___Self ___Family Member ___Military with appropriate attachments to the Benefits Office. Beginning Date: Ending Date: Total Hours Requested: Brief. Signature of Employee (Sign original in blue ink) Date Sick leave of over three (3) days must be submitted

  12. Georgia Southern University Medical Leave Assistance Program Membership Form

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Georgia Southern University Medical Leave Assistance Program Membership Form Name of Donor (Print: ____________________________________________________ Telephone #: _______________________________ I wish to become a member of the Medical Leave Assistance- transferable and cannot be withdrawn. I will abide by the Medical Leave Assistance Program policy (LINK

  13. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  14. Azoxyglycoside content and ?-glycosidase activities in leaves of various cycads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Yagi

    2004-01-01

    Azoxyglycoside contents in leaves of 32 cycad species belonging to 10 cycad genera and the seeds of 4 Encephalartos species were analyzed by HPLC with a YMC-PA03 amide column. Azoxyglycosides were detected in mature leaves of 14 cycad species including 2 Bowenia, 2 Lepidozamia, 1 Microcycas, and 1 Stangeria species, but not in mature leaves of 18 other cycad species;

  15. The Economic Consequences Of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons From Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the economic consequences of rights to paid parental leave in nine European countries over the 1969 through 1993 period. Since women use virtually all parental leave in most nations, men constitute a reasonable comparison group, and most of the analysis examines how changes in paid leave affect the gap between female and male labor market outcomes. The

  16. RESTORATION OF ANNUAL LEAVE CHECKLIST Exigency of the Smithsonian

    E-print Network

    RESTORATION OF ANNUAL LEAVE CHECKLIST Exigency of the Smithsonian Employee schedules use year. Employee submits a request for restoration because of exigency through the supervisor of the leave year, but no later than January 31 of the new leave year The request for restoration should

  17. Parents' Workplace Situation and Fathers' Parental Leave Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how the workplace situation of both parents affects fathers' parental leave use. We used parental leave-taking register data from Statistics Sweden for dual-earner couples who resided in Stockholm and had children in 1997 (n=3,755). The results indicate that fathers shorten their parental leave if their workplaces are such that…

  18. Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty Human Resources / Attendance and Leave recalled to active duty, it is critical that the Division of Human Resources is immediately notified. A military leave impacts terms and conditions of employment and staff and the Division of Human Resources

  19. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...conductor is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time, the entire period that the employee is forced to be absent is designated as...

  20. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time and no equivalent position is available, the entire period that the employee...

  1. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time and no equivalent position is available, the entire period that the employee...

  2. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...conductor is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time, the entire period that the employee is forced to be absent is designated as...

  3. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...conductor is scheduled to work aboard an airplane or train, or a laboratory employee is unable to enter or leave a sealed “clean room” during a certain period of time, the entire period that the employee is forced to be absent is designated as...

  4. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  5. Three chromone components from Aloe vera leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Okamura; Noriko Hine; Satomi Harada; Toshihiro Fujioka; Kunihide Mihashi; Akira Yagi

    1996-01-01

    Three new chromone components, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera. Their structures have been established from spectroscopic studies; the structures of 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol, isoaloeresin D and aloeresin E were shown to be 8-C-?-d- glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone and 8-C-?-d-[2?-O-(E)-cinnamoyl]glucopyranosyl-2-[(S)-2-hydroxy]propyl-7-methoxy-5-methylchromone, respectively. The inhibitory action of these compounds against tyrosine oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase was examined.

  6. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2015-08-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol ? methyl viologen ? O2) and PS II (H2O ? parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH ? O2; succinate ? O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and reduction of O2. PMID:25366828

  7. CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE DUTY

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE by THE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS/LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OR OTHER WORK UNIT NAME OF UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE UNIVERSITY that you submit a timely, complete, and sufficient certification to support a request for FMLA leave due

  8. BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Leave CPT Comp time taken MTH Military Leave-Temp DNO Organ Donation-Temp-Salary MTS Military Leave-Temp-Salary DNR Organ Donor-Regular OCE On Call Earned DNA Organ Donor-Salary OCH On Call Hours-Paid DNT Organ

  9. Douglas H. Green Piper & Marbury

    E-print Network

    , EPA's Office of Solid Waste (OSW) will recommend in writing to the EPA Regions and the RCRA-in or processing of final RCRA Part B permits at power plants subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act a policy that treats violations of the "land ban storage restrictions" of section #12;3004(j) of RCRA

  10. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    PubMed

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division. PMID:15161195

  11. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    PubMed

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions. PMID:15027834

  12. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  13. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  14. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, ?ukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

  15. Reversal of chromoplasts to chloroplasts in Buxus leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Koiwa; Taiji Ikeda; Yoshio Yoshida

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in plastids ofBuxus sempervirens L. leaves were observed during their seasonal yellowing and regreening. The disintegration of chloroplasts into globular\\u000a type chromoplasts in yellowing leaves and their direct restoration to functional chloroplasts again in regreening leaves were\\u000a followed.\\u000a \\u000a The results presented an example of recent information indicating the essential sense of the reversible reciprocation of plastid\\u000a transformation.

  16. Leaf life span of floating-leaved plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tsuchiya

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthetic capacity of floating-leaved plants is relatively high comparable with terrestrial herbaceous plants, though floating-leaved plants have a much smaller biomass with a leaf area index seldom exceeding 2m2m-2. Their rather small biomass accumulation is related to higher turnover of leaf biomass or shorter leaf life span. Life span of floating leaves reported in the literature ranged mostly from 13

  17. The bionomics of Liriomyza Trifolii on Gypsophila and Bean Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanine H. W. M. Van Elferen; Shoshana Yathom

    1989-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the distribution of feeding and oviposition punctures made byLiriomyza trifolii Burgess on gypsophila(Gypsophila paniculata ) and bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, and the development times of the immature stages on these plants. The absolute number of punctures per leaf area\\u000a was much greater on bean leaves than on gypsophila leaves. The number of mines per

  18. Succession of microfungal communities on decaying leaves of Castanopsis fissa.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alvin M C; Jeewon, Rajesh; Hyde, Kevin D

    2005-11-01

    A total of 38 fungal taxa were identified on senescent untreated and autoclaved Castanopsis fissa leaves during a 4-month study period. Seventy-six percent of the fungal genera found in this survey have not previously been recorded from Castanopsis. Frequency and time of occurrence of fungal taxa occurring on untreated senescent leaves were clustered into four groups when analyzed by cluster analysis, suggesting the replacement of microfungi in stages of succession on naturally senescent leaves. Autoclaved leaves revealed significantly different fungal communities, with only 26% of overlap with the natural ones and no clear patterns of replacement of fungal communities. Factors regulating the rates of decomposition are also discussed. PMID:16333336

  19. Antiinflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumeria acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, UK; Gomathi, P; Selvan, V Thamil

    2006-01-01

    Backround Plumeria acuminata belonging to the family Apocynaceae is commonly known as 'perungalli' in Tamil and is widely distributed throughout the Southern parts of India. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. The plant material is widely used as a purgative, remedy for diarrhoea and cure for itch. The milky juice is employed for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatism. The bark has been reported to be useful in hard tumors, diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extract of leaves of Plumeria acuminata on carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin-induced inflammation in rat hind paw oedema models. Methods Acute and chronic inflammation models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g were used. In acute model carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin models were used to induce inflammation in rat hind paw and cotton pellet-induced granuloma method was used for chronic inflammation model. In each model four groups of six animals were used. In all the models Group I served as control (0.9% normal saline, 5 mlkg-1 b.w) and group IV as standard (Indomethacin 10 mgkg-1 b.w). Group II and III received extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mgkg-1 b.w respectively. Results The methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity on the tested experimental animal models. The extract (500 mgkg-1 b.w) exhibited maximum antiinflammatory effect i.e., 30.51, 47.06, 34.48 and 32.50% (P < 0.001) at the end of 3 h with carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin respectively. Administration of MEPA (500 mgkg-1 b.w) and indomethacin (10 mgkg-1 b.w) significantly reduced the formation of granuloma tissue induced by cotton pellet method at a rate of 45.06 and 51.57% respectively. The effect produced by the extract was comparable to that of indomethacin a prototype of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent. Conclusion The results obtained in this study indicated that the methanol extract of Plumeria acuminata possess potent antiinflammatory activity in both acute and chronic models. PMID:17081283

  20. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

  1. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. 630.403 Section 630.403...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant...

  2. 5 CFR 630.405 - Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. 630... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.405 Sick leave used in the computation of an...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  4. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  6. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  7. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  9. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  10. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103...SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program....

  11. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  12. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section...REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an emergency leave recipient. (a) An...

  13. Fluidized and vibrofluidized shallow beds of fresh leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata de Aquino Brito Lima; Maria do Carmo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamics behavior of shallow fluidized and vibrofluidized beds operating with fresh leaves was investigated with the aim of exploring drying applications in a modified conveyor belt (MCB) system, which may be operated in a fixed- or fluidized-bed mode. Leaves of the specimens Duranta repens, Schinus molle, Coleus barbatus, Buxus sempervirens, and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested with a range

  14. Your Rights Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

    E-print Network

    Your Rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 FMLA requires covered employers reasons: · to care for the employee's child after birth, or placement for adoption or foster care certification to support a request for leave because of a serious health condition, and may require second

  15. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  16. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    McGaughey, Alan

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on covered active duty or call to covered active duty

  17. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you can; terms: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  18. Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act in this section seek a response as to the frequency or duration of the qualifying exigency. Be as specific as you: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status

  19. First Grade Collecting Leaves with the book Leaf Man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is takes place in nature and in the classroom. Students are gathering different types of leaves and naming characteristics of each then sorting them by those characteristics. Students then make a picture with leaves and writes 2-3 sentences about their picture using the characteristic words.

  20. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  1. HYL1 gene maintains venation and polarity of leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Yu; Xuhong Yu; Ruijuan Shen; Yuke He

    2005-01-01

    For genetic analysis of the mechanism of leaf curvature, we chose hyl1 mutant of Arabidopsis as a model for dissection of leaf venation pattern and adaxial\\/abaxial polarity. In leaves of hyl1 mutants that were hyponastic and curved upward, the complexity of the secondary veins was reduced, and the discontinuity of veins increased. In the lateral areas of the leaves where

  2. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  3. Page 1 of 8 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Page 1 of 8 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances of eligible faculty and staff: The Gift-Endowment Program (GEP. IMPLEMENTATION In order to ensure that campus records reflect an accurate furlough accrual balance, Departments

  4. ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances for faculty: The Clinical Coverage Program (CCP) is being used they are paid. This document will provide guidance only for manually adjusting furlough balances as a result

  5. Page 1 of 7 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Page 1 of 7 ADJUSTING FURLOUGH LEAVE ACCRUAL BALANCES DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS The following program affects the furlough leave accrual balances for faculty: Over-the-cap ("NIH-OTC") DOS codes are used, as in the example below, the increase to an individual's furlough accrual balance will be negligible (less than one

  6. Leave of Absence Policies in Business and Education. Administrative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafe, Doug

    Leave of absence policies in business and education and the rationale for offering these policies are examined. Most businesses and education agencies allow extended personal leaves of absence, which are usually unpaid. Most companies prefer to use general policy statements and to consider each request on an individual basis. According to a survey…

  7. Carbon monoxide photoproduction from rice and maize leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, S.; Morokuma, M.; Kawashima, S.; Tsuruta, H.

    We investigated CO photoproduction from intact leaves of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) by laboratory experiments. CO photoproduction showed positive correlation with light intensity and was positively dependent on oxygen concentration. The average CO photoproduction was 2.6±0.3×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from rice leaves and 2.2±0.1×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from maize leaves ( n=5) at a radiation intensity of 49 mW cm -2. CO photoproduction from senescent rice leaves was 9 times greater (25.7±1.5×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1, n=2) at the same radiation intensity than from live leaves, and responded slowly to changes in oxygen concentration and light intensity. CO photoproduction showed no correlation with CO 2 concentration or humidity. This indicates that CO photoproduction in leaves is not directly controlled by carbon metabolism or stomatal conductance. The lack of dependence on stomatal conductance leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of CO from inside the leaves to the atmosphere is not a controlling factor for CO photoproduction from rice and maize leaves.

  8. Leaving home: A study of laboratory mouse pup independence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Bechard; Georgia Mason

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile wild house mice leave their mothers at 8 weeks (+). In contrast, laboratory strains of mice (lab mice) are typically ‘weaned’ at postnatal day (PND) 21. Lab mice might mature faster than their wild forebears; but if they do not, standard laboratory weaning likely involves maternal deprivation. We therefore investigated when lab mice voluntarily leave their mothers. C57BL\\/6J families

  9. Disability & Medical Leave Resources A Guide for Employees

    E-print Network

    Saffman, Mark

    Disability & Medical Leave Resources A Guide for Employees This guide is a resource for you if you are experiencing difficulties at work related to a disability or chronic medical condition. For example, you may: have a serious health condition and need medical leave be returning to work with restrictions

  10. POLICY ON INVOLUNTARY LEAVE OF ABSENCE FOR MEDICAL REASONS

    E-print Network

    Carter, John

    for possible Involuntary Medical Leave if the Assistant Vice President for Student Development or a designee- 1 - POLICY ON INVOLUNTARY LEAVE OF ABSENCE FOR MEDICAL REASONS POLICY STATEMENT The University a student's behaviors associated with a psychiatric, psychological, or other medical condition interferes

  11. Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Kenagy

    1972-01-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

  12. 31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Unused sick leave. 29.332 Section 29.332 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary...for Credit Must Be Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. (a) For employees...

  13. FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) CERTIFICATION FORM Employee's Section

    E-print Network

    Swaddle, John

    FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) CERTIFICATION FORM Employee's Section Employee's Name): ______________________________________________________________ Medical Release-My signature authorizes the release of any medical information needed by the College __________________ (if patient is not employee): Reason for FMLA Leave: a. Employee's (your) own medical condition. b

  14. Reduction of nitrate in leaves of tomato during vegetative growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bellaloui; D. J. Pilbeam

    1990-01-01

    Activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase was shown to increase in young leaves of tomato until the leaves reached full expansion, and then it declined. The increase in activity was shown to be due both to an increase in enzyme activity per gram fresh weight and an increase in leaf weight, and the decline in activity was due to a

  15. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  16. Enumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of leaves or nodes in a rational tree. Let s be an IN-rational sequence of nonnegative numbers, that is a se in "Theoretical Computer Science 221, 1-2 (1999) 41-60" #12;A rational tree is a tree which has only a nite numberEnumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees Frederique Bassino Institut Gaspard

  17. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in willow leaves under field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erling Ögren

    1988-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence of leaves of a willow (Salix sp.) stand grown in the field in northern Sweden was measured on several occasions during the growing season of 1987. For leaves that received mostly full daylight, the FV\\/FP ratio declined roughtly 15% in the afternoon on cloudless days in July (FP is the fluorescence at the peak of the induction curve

  18. Division of Human Resources Compensatory Leave Pay Out

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Compensatory Leave Pay Out Questions (813) 974-7955 Payroll by the practice of the organizational unit. The maximum cash out of overtime compensatory leave is not to exceed of being earned should be cashed-out); · upon an employee's appointment to another organizational unit

  19. Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures Page | 1 Questions (813) 974 to access the HR A&L Website Home > A-Z Index > type in Human Resources in search box > HR Services/or the supervisor. #12;Division of Human Resources Attendance & Leave Audit Procedures Page | 2 Questions (813) 974

  20. Composition of epiphytic bacterial communities differs on petals and leaves.

    PubMed

    Junker, R R; Loewel, C; Gross, R; Dötterl, S; Keller, A; Blüthgen, N

    2011-11-01

    The epiphytic bacterial communities colonising roots and leaves have been described for many plant species. In contrast, microbiologists have rarely considered flowers of naturally growing plants. We identified bacteria isolated from the surface of petals and leaves of two plant species, Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae). The bacterial diversity was much lower on petals than on leaves of the same plants. Moreover, the bacterial communities differed strongly in composition: while Pseudomonadaceae and Microbacteriaceae were the most abundant families on leaves, Enterobacteriaceae dominated the floral communities. We hypothesise that antibacterial floral volatiles trigger the low diversity on petals, which is supported by agar diffusion assays using substances emitted by flowers and leaves of S. officinalis. These results suggest that bacteria should be included in the interpretation of floral traits, and possible effects of bacteria on pollination are proposed and discussed. PMID:21972888

  1. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Viškelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides. PMID:25302319

  2. The phenotype of grape leaves caused by acetochlor or fluoroglycofen, and effects of latter herbicide on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Liang, Ting; Li, Qingliang; Du, Yuanpeng; Zhai, Heng

    2014-09-01

    Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly. Chloroplast ultrastructure analysis showed that the gap between thylakoids layers in few chloroplasts of middle-node leaves increased, which was also observed in ones of upper-node leaves; the number and size of chloroplast increased. Analysis on the deformed leaves of grapevines treated with 375 g ai ha(-1) fluoroglycofen showed that the starch grain per cell was much more and larger than that in the same size control leaves; the dark green and yellow parts had more or fewer chloroplast than the control, respectively, but both with more grana per chloroplast and less layers per granum. Chloroplasts went larger and round. Taken together, these results suggested that fluoroglycofen caused the grape leaves become dark green, which might be associated with the changes of chloroplast; the growth inhibition in the second year might be due to accumulation of starch. PMID:25175657

  3. The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

  4. Monocot Leaves are Eaten Less than Dicot Leaves in Tropical Lowland Rain Forests: Correlations with Toughness and Leaf Presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER J. G RUBB; ROBYN V. J ACKSON; I G NAC; IO M. BA; J E NN; IE N. B E E

    † Background and Aims In tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) the leaves of most monocots differ from those of most dicots in two ways that may reduce attack by herbivores. Firstly, they are tougher. Secondly, the immature leaves are tightly folded or rolled until 50 -100 % of their final length. It was hypothesized that (a) losses of leaf area

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  6. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  7. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

  8. Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Cultivated Lycium barbarum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Z. Dong; Da Y. Lu; Y. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated\\u000a and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified\\u000a as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03–16.33 mg\\/g).

  9. Testing for correlates of intent to leave one's job versus intent to leave one's occupation among cancer registrars.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Susan A; Blau, Gary; Pred, Robert S; Lindler, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation involved a field study of cancer registrars (CRs), who collect data used by the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to study trends in cancer incidence and outcomes. Because of the forecasted shortage of CRs due to the aging of the CR workforce, the professional organization of CRs needed to research the factors related to the recruitment and retention of this workforce. From a national database of 3,393 CRs, data regarding intent to leave one's job and occupation, along with occupational commitment, were obtained from a sample of 374 CRs to meet this research need. The focus of this field study was to assess patterns of association between the correlates of "intent to leave" variables, including measures of job satisfaction and occupational commitment. Results showed that satisfaction with job rewards, interpersonal relations, and fringe benefits had a stronger negative relationship to intent to leave one's job compared with intent to leave one's occupation. Affective and normative occupational commitment facets had a stronger negative relationship to intent to leave one's occupation compared with intent to leave one's job. Beyond demographic control and perceptual variables, these attitudinal job satisfaction and occupational commitment variables together explained the greatest amount of variance in both "intent to leave" measures. PMID:19361020

  10. Transcriptome Phase Distribution Analysis Reveals Diurnal Regulated Biological Processes and Key Pathways in Rice Flag Leaves and Seedling Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological processes and key functional pathways in rice. PMID:21407816

  11. Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    REVIEW Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory Paul D imaging tech- nologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four

  12. Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory

    E-print Network

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    REVIEW Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory PAUL D tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis

  13. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...members deployed to duty in international waters have access to qualifying exigency leave...United States, including international waters. (4) A call to covered active duty...removing the phrase ``paragraph (c)'' everywhere it appears in newly designated...

  14. Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Student Pregnancy, Maternity, Adoption and Partner Leave Policy and Procedures 1. Introduction has significantly strengthened the legal protections for students during periods of pregnancy who is pregnant or has decided to terminate a pregnancy. The arrangements and procedures detailed

  15. Gemini 9 astronauts leave suiting trailer for launch pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime crew for the Gemini 9-A space flight, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (front), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, leave the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 in full space suits during prelaunch countdown.

  16. A flavonoid glycoside from the leaves of Polygonum sachalinense (II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sam Sik Kang; Won Sick Woo

    1982-01-01

    Quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucofuranoside, mp 243?6°, was isolated from leaves ofPolygonum sachalinense Fr. Schm. and characterized on the basis of its spectral data. This is the second report of its occurrence in nature.

  17. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  18. A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

    2011-10-05

    This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

  19. Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in barley leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

    1993-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a total leaf volume of 902 µL per mg

  20. QUALITY PARAMETERS OF CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS LEAVES DURING AMBIENT STORAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Martinazzo; E. C. Melo; A. Barbosa; F. F. Soares; R. P. Rocha; L. L. Randuz; P. A. Berbert

    The effects of storage in different packages on the essential oil content and humidity of Brazilian lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaves were studied. Lemon grass leaves were dried at 50°C to moisture content of 11% (d.b.) and stored for one year in three different plastic and paper packages. Oil content and its principal compounds were isolated by the hydro-distillation method

  1. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds from daylily ( Hemerocallis fulva) leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanjun Zhang; Robert H Cichewicz; Muraleedharan G Nair

    2004-01-01

    Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) have been used as food and in traditional medicine for thousands of years in eastern Asia. The leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation and jaundice. In studies of the aqueous methanol extracts of fresh Hemerocallis fulva leaves, 1?,2?,3?,4?-tetrahydro-5?-deoxy-pinnatanine (1), pinnatanine (2), roseoside (3), phlomuroside (4), lariciresinol (5), adenosine (6), quercetin 3-O-?-d-glucoside (7),

  2. Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

  3. Optimisation of Extraction and Identification of Gallotannins from Sumac Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Zalacain; M Prodanov; M Carmona; G. L Alonso

    2003-01-01

    The extraction of gallotannins from sumac leaves (Rhus coriaria L.) was studied and the best extraction conditions were found to be maceration of the ground leaves in water at 45°C for 60min without agitation. A full-scale pilot extraction plant with four vessels was designed to simulate a counter-current procedure. Water was added always to the vessel containing the almost fully

  4. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Andrén; Thomas Andrén

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick

  5. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  6. Photosynthesis in lightfleck areas of homobaric and heterobaric leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pieruschka, Roland; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Leaves within a canopy are exposed to a spatially and temporally fluctuating light environment which may cause lateral gradients in leaf internal CO2 concentration and diffusion between shaded and illuminated areas. In previous studies it was hypothesized that lateral CO2 diffusion may support leaf photosynthesis, but the magnitude of this effect is still not well understood. In the present study homobaric leaves of Vicia faba or heterobaric leaves of Glycine max were illuminated with lightflecks of different sizes, mimicking sunflecks. Photosynthetic properties of the lightfleck areas were assessed with combined gas exchange measurements and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Lateral diffusion in homobaric leaves with an interconnected intercellular air space stimulated photosynthesis and the effect was largest in small lightfleck areas, in particular when plants were under drought stress. Such effects were not observed in the heterobaric leaves with strongly compartmented intercellular gas spaces. It is concluded that lateral diffusion may significantly contribute to photosynthesis of lightfleck areas of homobaric leaves depending on lightfleck size, lateral diffusivity, and stomatal conductance. Since homobaric leaf structures have been reported for many plant species, it is hypothesized that leaf homobary may have an impact on overall plant performance under conditions with a highly heterogeneous light environment. PMID:20008895

  7. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves

    PubMed Central

    Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  8. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  9. Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.

    PubMed

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

    2008-01-01

    The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

  10. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    SciTech Connect

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  11. Intercellular Diffusion Limits to CO2 Uptake in Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, David F.; Mott, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    We studied plants of five species with hypostomatous leaves, and six with amphistomatous leaves, to determine the extent to which gaseous diffusion of CO2 among the mesophyll cells limits photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In helox (air with nitrogen replaced by helium), the diffusivities of CO2 and water vapor are 2.3 times higher than in air. For fixed estimated CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf (pi), assimilation rates in helox ranged up to 27% higher than in air for the hypostomatous leaves, and up to 7% higher in the amphistomatous ones. Thus, intercellular diffusion must be considered as one of the processes limiting photosynthesis, especially for hypostomatous leaves. A corollary is that CO2 pressure should not be treated as uniform through the mesophyll in many leaves. To analyze our helox data, we had to reformulate the usual gas-exchange equation used to estimate CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf; the new equation is applicable to any gas mixture for which the diffusivities of CO2 and H2O are known. Finally, we describe a diffusion-biochemistry model for CO2 assimilation that demonstrates the plausibility of our experimental results. PMID:16667792

  12. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  13. Effects of epiphyton onPotamogeton crispus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K H; Breen, C M

    1981-12-01

    Potamogeton crispus L. grows as a winter producing annual in the shallow lakes of the Pongolo Floodplain, South Africa. Colonization of leaves by algal and bacterial epiphytes, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, followed the established pattern of increasing diversity and density with leaf age. It was apparent from the micrographs that the primary and subsequent colonizers were present even after death of the host leaf. Cross sections of leaves, viewed by transmission electron microscopy, illustrated that bacterial attachment did not damage the surface of young leaves. There was, however, extensive inward swelling and disorganization of the epidermal walls, characteristic of a reaction to invasion by pathogens. In older leaves the swelling was also present in mesophyll cells, while bacteria had invaded and degraded the epidermal cell wall. The bacterial invasion was concomitant with signs of senescence, and in dead leaves the organisms had penetrated and degraded the epidermis and mesophyll cell walls. The epiphyton/ host relationship may therefore be considered necrotrophic with important consequences for the transfer of energy from producers to consumers during decomposition. PMID:24227551

  14. Inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K; Chen, S L; Wu, M G

    2001-04-01

    Betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in Taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, Piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. People say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. In this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle, and slaked lime paste) and extracts of the mixture of areca fruit and slaked lime paste exhibited marked effects on the volatility of methyl mercaptan, and the inhibition function increased when increasing amounts of slaked lime paste were added. The same condition (increased inhibition) was also found by replacing the slaked lime paste with alkaline salts (calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide). Areca fruit, the major ingredient of betel quid, contained abundant phenolics. However, the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit did not show any inhibitory activity on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Great inhibitory activity occurred only when the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit was treated with alkali. Further studies by using gel filtration determined that the effect probably came from the oxidative polymerization of phenolics of areca fruit after alkaline treatment. PMID:11308356

  15. Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, G J

    1972-12-01

    Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

  16. 76 FR 63354 - Proposed Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...2900-0034] Proposed Information Collection (Trainee Request for Leave) Activity: Comment...comments for information needed to evaluate a trainee's request for leave from Vocational...forms of information technology. Title: Trainee Request for Leave--Chapter 31,...

  17. Certification of Adoption or Foster Care Placement Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    Certification of Adoption or Foster Care Placement Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) SECTION I Foster care placement Date leave to begin: Date leave to end: Signature of employee: Date signed: SECTION

  18. 5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. 630.504 Section 630...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. (a) When an employee leaves...or her civilian position to enter the military service, the employing agency...

  19. 21 CFR 1304.32 - Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. 1304.32 Section 1304.32 ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. (a) Every manufacturer importing or manufacturing from raw coca leaves shall submit information...

  20. 21 CFR 1304.32 - Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. 1304.32 Section 1304.32 ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. (a) Every manufacturer importing or manufacturing from raw coca leaves shall submit information...

  1. 21 CFR 1304.32 - Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. 1304.32 Section 1304.32 ...Reports of manufacturers importing coca leaves. (a) Every manufacturer importing or manufacturing from raw coca leaves shall submit information...

  2. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    PubMed

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child. PMID:11712459

  3. Goniometric observations of light scattered from soils and leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestner, Joann M.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Irons, James R.; Smith, James A.; Brakke, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    The laboratory established at NASA-Goddard to measure and model the light-scattering properties of soil samples and individual plant leaves employs two goniometers: one for the measurement of directional reflectance and transmittance from vertically-mounted leaf samples, and the other for measurement of directional reflectance from such horizontal, semiinfinite particulate surfaces as soil samples. Sample observations of various soil minerals and plant leaves are presented; these goniometric data are compared to the results of a reflectance model from particulate surfaces and those of a ray-tracing model of leaf reflectance and transmittance.

  4. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

  5. Immediate IPTV channel leave by explicit user tracking in PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Yoshiuchi, Hideya; Yoshizawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel IPTV channel leave mechanism for Passive Optical Network (PON). By explicit user tracking and automatic differentiation of IGMP v2 and v3 users, the proposed mechanism can realize immediate channel leave in both Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) while avoiding removing the channel which still has users. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can significantly save the bandwidth consumption during "channel surf" by users, compared to the standard IGMP timeout mechanism.

  6. The uptake of elemental iodine vapour by bean leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, J. A.; Cox, L. C.

    Deposition of iodine vapour to leaves of phaseolus vulgaris was measured over a range of conditions of humidity, temperature and illumination. Transpiration measurements were used to deduce stomatal opening. The results showed that stomatal resistance controlled iodine absorption at relative humidities below 40 per cent, but that the rate of absorption of iodine increased by an order of magnitude when the relative humidity was raised to 80 per cent, presumably due to cuticular absorption. After exposure to iodine at high humidity, a substantial fraction of the iodine could be washed from the leaves. In Britain, cuticular uptake would probably dominate stomatal uptake of iodine on most occasions.

  7. Why Do the Colors of Leaves Change in the Fall?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. William A White (Arsenal Technical High School)

    2000-08-01

    The color change of the leaves on deciduous trees is one of the most striking signals that summer is ending and fall is beginning. What is it that causes this change in color? We all know that leaves contain chlorophyll Â? giving them their green-color but why do they change from green to the palette of colors we see in the fall? In this investigation students determine the pigment molecules that green plants contain and what happens to those molecules as the season progresses.

  8. Cycads from the Triassic of Antarctica: Permineralized Cycad Leaves

    E-print Network

    Hermsen, Elizabeth; Taylor, Thomas N.; Taylor, Edith L.; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2007-09-01

    to extant genera (Pant 1987, 2002). While cuticular anatomy may provide diagnostic fea- tures (e.g., of stomata and epidermal cells), cuticle is lacking in many fossil leaves. Compounding the problem is the fact that leaves of some other groups...). An additional specimen was collected from Triassic Fremouw Formation strata at the base of Mount Falla, also in the Beardmore Glacier area (Barrett et al. 1986). Peat blocks were cut into sections, and the flat surfaces were polished and then etched in 48...

  9. Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    1984-01-01

    High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)

  10. Rutin and Luteolin from Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bimakr; R. A. Rahman; F. S. Taip; L. T. Chuan; A. Ganjloo; J. Selamat; A. Hamid

    In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO ) extraction conditions were optimized for the 2 simultaneous separation of four bioactive flavonoids (catechin, CA; epicatechin, EP; rutin, RU; luteolin, LU) contained in spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaves. SC-CO extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature 2 and dynamic extraction time were optimized by Complete Randomize Design (CRD) full factorial. The optimum condition

  11. The analysis of pecan leaves by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morris W. Smith; J. Benton Storey

    1971-01-01

    The analysis of plant tissue, generally leaves, is considered to be an important step in diagnosing and confirming a mineral element deficiency. The mineral element status of the plant can be accurately measured by the analysis of plant tissue if the tissue is properly sampled. Tissue analysis is often the best indication for recommending fertilizer or supporting nutrient spray treatments.The

  12. Compartmental distribution and redistribution of abscisic acid in intact leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Slovik; Wolfram Hartung

    1992-01-01

    A computer model written for whole leaves and described in the preceding publication (Slovik et al. 1992, this volume) has been developed for calculating the distribution and fluxes of weak acids or bases amongst different leaf tissues and their compartments, considering membrane transport, transpiration-driven mass transport, symplasmic and apoplasmic diffusion, and metabolic turnover rates in specified compartments. The model is

  13. Wet fractionation for improved utilization of alfalfa leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of alfalfa could be greatly improved if protein-rich leaves were efficiently separated and preserved from fibrous stems. This work envisions a new harvest scheme combining three processes: mechanical leaf separation, dewatering, and fermentation. Gross plant fractionation is accomplished...

  14. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  15. Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

  16. Leave of Absence Request Checklist Student Name: _____________________________________ WSU ID: ____________________________

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    a cancellation form to the Office of Records and Registration (318 Mazurek) Review of Leave Information I have to supply all requested information and complete all required steps. I do not receive financial aid (To be confirmed by the Financial Aid Office) I receive financial aid and will meet with someone from the Financial

  17. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the Daniellia oliveri leaves.

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, A; Haruna, A K; Garba, M; Ehinmidu, J O; Sarker, S D

    2004-12-01

    The n-butanol soluble part and four chromatographic fractions of the aqueous ethanolic extract of the leaves of Daniellia oliveri were investigated for antimicrobial properties. All fractions showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. A chromatographic fraction showed significant activity against the fungus Tricophyton rubrum. PMID:15567251

  18. Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves

    PubMed Central

    Noblin, X.; Mahadevan, L.; Coomaraswamy, I. A.; Weitz, D. A.; Holbrook, N. M.; Zwieniecki, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The long evolution of vascular plants has resulted in a tremendous variety of natural networks responsible for the evaporatively driven transport of water. Nevertheless, little is known about the physical principles that constrain vascular architecture. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks in a polymeric material layer, permeable to water, to study the mechanisms of and the limits to evaporation-driven flow. We show that the flow rate through our biomimetic leaves increases linearly with channel density (1/d) until the distance between channels (d) is comparable with the thickness of the polymer layer (?), above which the flow rate saturates. A comparison with the plant vascular networks shows that the same optimization criterion can be used to describe the placement of veins in leaves. These scaling relations for evaporatively driven flow through simple networks reveal basic design principles for the engineering of evaporation–permeation-driven devices, and highlight the role of physical constraints on the biological design of leaves. PMID:18599446

  19. Enumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees

    E-print Network

    Bassino, Frédérique

    Monge, Universit'e de Marne­la­Vall'ee Marie­Pierre B'eal Institut Gaspard Monge, Universit'e Paris 7 et CNRS Dominique Perrin Institut Gaspard Monge, Universit'e de Marne­la­Vall'ee httpEnumerative sequences of leaves and nodes in rational trees Fr'ed'erique Bassino Institut Gaspard

  20. A new chromone from the leaves of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell.

    PubMed

    Rattanaburi, Suthida; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Carroll, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    A new chromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2?-(hydroxymethyl)-6,8-dimethyl-chromen-4-one, named melachromone, together with 12 known compounds, including chromones, anthraquinone, flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, benzene derivatives, ellagic acids and terpenes, were isolated from the leaves of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. Their structures were characterised by spectroscopic methods. PMID:22424051

  1. Mineral composition of peach leaves affected by iron chlorosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Abadía; J. N. Nishio; E. Monge; L. Montañés; L. Heras

    1985-01-01

    The effect of Fe chlorosis on the mineral composition of field grown peach tree leaves was studied in two different areas. No significant differences in total Fe content were found, whereas 2,2’ bipyridyl extractable Fe, K and the K\\/Ca ratio were significantly affected in both experiments. Phosphorus and the P\\/Fe ratio were significantly affected only in one experiment.

  2. STS 41-G crew prepares to leave for KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The STS 41-G crew leaves the hanger at Ellington Air Force Base for departure for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the STS 41-G mission. From left to right are Astronauts Sally Ride, mission specialist; Robert Crippen, mission commander; Kathryn Sullivan, mission specialist; David Leestma, mission specialist; and Jon McBride, pilot.

  3. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate. PMID:23738442

  4. Morale Matters: Midlevel Administrators and Their Intent To Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsrud, Linda K.; Heck, Ronald H.; Rosser, Vicki, J.

    This study developed an empirical construct for the term "morale," and applied the resulting structural model in an investigation of the impact of morale on administrators' reported intentions to leave their positions. The paper identifies three common sources of frustration in these administrators: the midlevel nature of their role; the lack of…

  5. Convergence in defense syndromes of young leaves in tropical rainforests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Kursar; P. D. Coley

    2003-01-01

    In tropical forests, the majority of damage by herbivores or pathogens occurs on young leaves, yet the patterns of damage and the factors that influence them are poorly known. By measuring damage throughout leaf development and maturation for five species in a Panamanian forest, we showed that leaf toughening, which only occurs over a few days once the leaf is

  6. When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi

    E-print Network

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    ECOLOGY: When Fire Ants Move In, Others Leave Elizabeth Pennisi For Amy Arnett, getting a Ph, collecting ants at 33 sites along the way. They had set out to look at how the food resources for ant lions, insects that prey on ants, changed from north to south along the East Coast. But in the process

  7. Regulation of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Activity in Maize Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Doncaster, Helen D.; Leegood, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how light regulates the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in vivo in C4 plants. The properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were investigated in extracts which were rapidly prepared (in less than 30 seconds) from darkened and illuminated leaves of Zea mays. Illumination resulted in a significant decrease in the S0.5(phosphoenolpyruvate) but there was no change in Vmax. The form of the enzyme from illuminated leaves was less sensitive to malate inhibition than was the form from darkened leaves. At low concentrations of phosphoenolpyruvate, the activity of the enzyme was strongly stimulated by glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, triose-phosphate, alanine, serine, and glycine and was inhibited by organic acids. The enzyme was assayed in mixtures of metabolites at concentrations believed to be present in the mesophyll cytosol in the light and in the dark. It displayed low activity in a simulated `dark' cytosol and high activity in a simulated `light' cytosol, but activities were different for the enzyme from darkened compared to illuminated leaves. PMID:16665411

  8. Sick leave and workers' compensation for police officers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In Australia it has been necessary to enact specific provisions into industrial and employment laws to ensure workplace protection and coverage of police officers because at common law police officers have not been regarded as employees. Police unions in Australia have emerged as strong industrial players and have secured a range of terms and conditions of employment which do not apply to the broader workforce. However, the battle in relation to workers' compensation coverage and extended sick leave seems to be ongoing, particularly in Western Australia. The area of interaction between workers' compensation laws and sick leave entitlements is often neglected against the background of other industrial matters concerning police. This article investigates the entitlements of Australian police officers to these benefits against the historical background of industrial laws. It concludes that there is no uniformity in coverage for workers' compensation and sick leave and that the publicly available data in relation to absence from work of police officers due to sickness are generally incomplete and present challenges for cross-jurisdictional comparisons. The article points to future areas of research into police sick leave. PMID:20552944

  9. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...to timely designate leave does not cause harm or injury to the employee. In all cases...825.300 causes the employee to suffer harm, it may constitute an interference...promotion, or any other relief tailored to the harm suffered (see §...

  10. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Sharma, Anupam

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, the cough inhibition (39.4 and 65.0%, respectively) being comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o., respectively). PMID:12165335

  11. Antitussive activity of the methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamaldeep Dhawan; Anupam Sharma

    2002-01-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Passiflora incarnata (100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant antitussive activity on sulfur dioxide-induced cough in mice, the cough inhibition (39.4 and 65.0%, respectively) being comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 and 20 mg\\/kg, p.o., respectively).

  12. Child health: An underplayed variable in parental leave policy debates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Galtry

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines parental leave policy from the perspective of infant and young child health. Factors assisting the successful integration of breastfeeding and maternal employment are outlined. Health effects of day care attendance are also explored as an integral component of this assessment. It is suggested that the potential health disadvantages associated with lack of, or inability to access, parental

  13. Antimicrobial activity of UV-induced phenylamides from rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Lin; Yoo, Youngchul; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Cho, Man-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae). In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus). UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae), blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola) diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens. PMID:25383752

  14. "Who Leaves?" Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement. Working Paper 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attrition patterns among teachers in New York City public elementary and middle schools and explores whether teachers who transfer among schools, or leave teaching entirely, are more or less effective than those who remain. We find that the first-year teachers who are less effective in improving student math scores have higher…

  15. Intracellular localization of phosphorylases in spinach and pea leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Steup; Erwin Latzko

    1979-01-01

    Starch phosphorylase activity in extracts of spinach or pea leaves and of isolated chloroplasts was determined and separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. In spinach leaf extracts, a specific activity of 16 nmol glucose 1-phosphate formed per min per mg protein was found, whereas a lower value (6 nmol per min per mg protein) was observed in preparations of isolated

  16. Is your Medicare Advantage plan leaving the area?

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Is your Medicare Advantage plan leaving the area? You don't have to do it alone! If you need Medicare plans. Call to schedule an in-home appointment or to find a seminar near you. Humana is a Medicare Advantage organization with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in this Humana plan depends on contract renewal

  17. Family and Medical Leave Revised 06/06

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    , or placement for adoption or foster care; b. To care for the employee's spouse, child, or parent who has of a child for adoption or foster care shall expire at the end of the twelve months period beginning to utilize family medical leave for the following reasons: a. To care for the employee's child after birth

  18. before leaving for Taiwan notarizing your highest degree

    E-print Network

    will assist you to complete the necessary forms for applying Academia Sinica ID card, ARC, Post Office account and tuition fee payment) For NTHU students, on September 10 (Thursay). #12;You will get your student ID card·before leaving for Taiwan notarizing your highest degree buying four-month insurance policy

  19. "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "One of the big loads leaving Springville. Eighteen horses are marching along with 30,000 pounds on the wagon." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. I, No. 12, December 1913, p. 552 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  20. Plant biotechnology: Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misako Kato; Kouichi Mizuno; Alan Crozier; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Hiroshi Ashihara

    2000-01-01

    Caffeine synthase is an enzyme that catalyses the final two steps in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway. We have cloned the gene encoding caffeine synthase from young leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis), opening up the possibility of creating tea and coffee (Coffea arabica) plants that are naturally deficient in caffeine. Consumers concerned about the possible adverse effects of caffeine consumption will

  1. [Chemical constituents of the leaves of Acanthopanax trifoliatus (Linn) Merr].

    PubMed

    Du, J; Gao, L

    1992-06-01

    Nevadensin (A), kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (B), taraxerol (C) and taraxerol-acetate (D) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax trifoliatus. A and B were isolated for the first time. Pharmacological experiments have shown that nevadensin possesses expectorant and antitussive actions. PMID:1418581

  2. Quantitative trait loci for glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica rapa leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Lou; Hongju He; Corrie Hanhart; Dunia Pino Del Carpio; Ruud Verkerk; Jan Custers; Maarten Koornneef; Guusje Bonnema

    2008-01-01

    Summary • Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa.  Here, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for glucosinolate accumulation in B. rapa leaves in two novel

  3. A Statewide Analysis of RNs' Intention To Leave Their Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambur, Betty; Palumbo, Mary Val; McIntosh, Barbara; Mongeon, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Secondary analysis of registered nurse work force data from Vermont (n=4,418, 85% response) identified predictors of intention to leave current position. Differences in intention vary by educational attainment, hours worked, gender, practice role, and practice activity. Improving retention will require increased attention to compensation,…

  4. Effect of Rust Infection on Oxidative Phosphorylation of Wheat Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. Pozsár; Z. Király

    1958-01-01

    WE have already reported1,2 that the rate of consumption of oxygen by wheat leaves infected with stem rust fungus is not augmented by treatment with 2,4-dinitrophenol, in contrast with the great respiratory increase observed in healthy leaf tissue after treatment with dinitrophenol.

  5. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  6. Grafting Energy-Harvesting Leaves onto the Sensornet Tree

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    Grafting Energy-Harvesting Leaves onto the Sensornet Tree Lohit Yerva , Bradford Campbell , Apoorva the problem of augmenting battery-powered sen- sornet trees with energy-harvesting leaf nodes. Our results harvest enough energy from ambient sources to acquire and transmit sensor readings ev- ery minute, even

  7. Syncom IV-1 satellite leaving Discovery's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In a frisbee-type method, the Syncom IV-1 satellite leaves the Discovery's payload bay on its way into service for the U.S. Navy. Retrieval hardware and part of the pallet for securing the Palapa B-2 are pictured near the protective shield for the now vacated Telest-H/PAM-B.

  8. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  9. COLOR CHANGE KINETICS OF CELERY LEAVES UNDERGOING MICROWAVE HEATING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elçin Dem?rhan; Belma Özbek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of microwave output power and sample amount on color change kinetics of celery leaves (Apium graveolens L.) during microwave heating. The color parameters of the materials were quantified by the Hunter Lab system. These values were also used for calculation of the total color change, chroma, hue angle, and browning

  10. Alkaloids isolated from leaves of Prosopis juliflora against Xanthomonas pathovars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Raghavendra; S. Satish; K. A. Raveesha

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract, different solvent extracts and isolated constituents of leaves of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. (Fabaceae) were assayed for antibacterial activity by cup diffusion method against three phytopathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars viz., Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, X. a. pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria associated with angular leaf spot of cotton, common blight of bean and bacterial spot of tomato

  11. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C; Ambrose, Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development. PMID:24027574

  12. Development of Heat Insulating Materials Using Date Palm Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Al-Juruf; F. A. Ahmed; I. A. Alam; H. H. Abdel-Rahman

    1988-01-01

    The work presented in this paper aims at investigating the possibility of using dry leaves of date palm fronds and suitable binders to obtain thermal insulating products for buildings The paper presents the various steps attempted to arrive at some heat insulating materials. And, it illustrates how those materials were tested to measure their thermal conductivities. It can be generally

  13. Sesquiterpene lactones in juice of great burdock leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Savina; V. I. Sheichenko; Yu. V. Stikhin; V. A. Stikhin; T. A. Sokol’skaya; O. S. Anisimova; Ya. F. Kopyt’ko; E. I. Grodnitskaya; O. A. Cherkasov

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the juice of freshly collected great burdock (Arctium Lappa L.) leaves was studied. The main components in the ethyl acetate extract were determined. Adifference between the samples\\u000a collected in two successive years was found.

  14. Extraction of Essential Oil from Laurel Leaves by Using Microwaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beste Bayramoglu; Serpil Sahin; Gulum Sumnu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of microwave power and time in solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) on the yield and composition of the essential oil obtained from laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) leaves were studied. The extraction was also performed by hydrodistillation as a control. Specific gravities and refractive indices of the essential oils obtained by different methods and at various conditions were also examined.

  15. Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Leave a reply

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones Leave a reply The Windmill in Action At the University Page 1 of 2Micro Windmills to Recharge Cell Phones | MADE 2/3/2014http://themadeblog.com/micro-windmills-to-recharge-cell-phones in Architecture, Design and tagged Cell Phone, Design, JC Chiao, MADE BLOG, Micro Windmills, New, News, Recharge

  16. Department of Human Resources APPLICATION FOR DEFERRED SALARY LEAVE

    E-print Network

    Oyet, Alwell

    Department of Human Resources APPLICATION FOR DEFERRED SALARY LEAVE *Forward to the Director of Human Resources prior to January 31st DEFSAL 08/05 NAME DEPARTMENT ADDRESS PRESENT POSITION NUMBER to Employee Relations, Department of Human Resources, Arts and Administration Building, Memorial University

  17. School District Leave Policies, Teacher Absenteeism, and Student Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald G. Ehrenberg; Randy A. Ehrenberg; Daniel I. Rees; Eric L. Ehrenberg

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to reduce salary costs, many school districts have begun to offer teachers financial incentives to retire early. Often, however, these districts have limits on the number of cumulated unused sick leave days that teachers may receive cash payments, credits toward future health insurance, or retirement credits for, at retirement. Thus, one might expect that in addition to

  18. Fluorescence emission spectra of plant leaves and plant constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lang; F. Stober; H. K. Lichtenthaler

    1991-01-01

    Summary The UV-B radiation (e.g. 337 nm) induced blue fluorescence (BF) and red chlorophyll fluorescence spectra (RF) of green leaves from plants with different leaf structure were determined and the possible nature and candidates of the blue fluorescence emission investigated. The blue fluorescence BF is characterized by a main maximum in the 450 nm region and in most cases by

  19. Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation

    E-print Network

    An, Li

    correspondence to Li An, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources- ever, the psychological causes and effects of leaving one's parental home, and especially with observable conflicts between development and conversation goals, provides us an ex- cellent site to address

  20. Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves

    E-print Network

    Research Papers Leaf Processing by Wild Chimpanzees: Physically Defended Leaves Reveal Complex Andrews, Fife, Scotland Abstract The manual processing of eight species of leaf was investigated in the M-group chimpanzees of Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Leaf species varied in the extent to which physical