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1

Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. Material and Methods S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. Results It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm2 glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. Conclusion The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved. PMID:21552715

RAHIM, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; THURAIRAJAH, Nalina

2011-01-01

2

Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ? 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ? 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ? 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

2014-01-01

3

Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

2011-01-01

4

Diseases of Pan (Piper betle ) in Sylhet, Assam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Sclerotial wilt ofpan (Piper betle, Lin.) due toSclerotium rolfsi Sacc. is a serious disease and occurs in villages Purangaon, Phulbari, Faua, Erangabaj and Kumrakapan. The percentage of\\u000a mortality has been found to vary from 4 to 31 in the different villages.\\u000a \\u000a The syptoms of the disease have been described. The incidence of the disease has been studied and it has

S. Chowdhury

1945-01-01

5

Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties  

PubMed Central

Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds. PMID:23519352

Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

6

C-fiber-evoked autonomic cardiovascular effects after injection of Piper betle inflorescence extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piper betle inflorescence extracts contain eugenol (6.2%) and safrole (78.9%). Intravenous injections of water extracts of P. betle inflorescence (PBE), eugenol, and safrole in rats induced hypotensive and bradycardiac effects, whereas both intraarterial and intrathecal injections of PBE, eugenol and safrole resulted in hypotensive and tachycardiac effects. Moreover, the effects of intravenous injections of PBE were reversed or inhibited by

S. J. Chen; B. N. Wu; J. L. Yeh; Y. C. Lo; I. S. Chen; I. J. Chen

1995-01-01

7

Piper betle-mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we report the novel use of the ethonolic leaf extract of Piper betle for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis. The successful formation of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, and different parameters such as leaf extract concentration (2%), gold salt concentration (0.5 mM), and time (18 s) were optimized. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized with different biophysical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM experiments showed that nanoparticles were of various shapes and sizes ranging from 10 to 35 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that AuNPs were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group -NH2, carbonyl group, -OH groups, and other stabilizing functional groups. EDX showed the presence of the elements on the surface of the AuNPs. FT-IR and EDX together confirmed the presence of biomolecules bounded on the AuNPs. Cytotoxicity of the AuNPs was tested on HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and they were found to be nontoxic, indicating their biocompatibility. Thus, synthesized AuNPs have potential for use in various biomedical applications.

Punuri, Jayasekhar Babu; Sharma, Pragya; Sibyala, Saranya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

2012-08-01

8

The Antimicrobial Activity, Mosquito Larvicidal Activity, Antioxidant Property and Tyrosinase Inhibition of Piper betle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and methanolic and aqueous extracts of Piper betle L. were assayed for their anti- microbial activity, mosquito larvicidal activity, antioxidant property and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition. The methanolic and aquaous extracts showed strong activity against the yeasts: C. albicans ,a ndM. pachydermatis. The crude essential oil exhibited a broad-spectrum strong antimicrobial activity against all test organisms. The strongest

Li-Ching Morgan Row; Jiau-Ching Ho

9

Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers  

PubMed Central

The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

2012-01-01

10

Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 ?g/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells could alter the antioxidant defense system, potentially contributing towards the anti-proliferative effect. There is great potential for the ethyl acetate extract of P. betle leaf as a source of natural antioxidants and to be developed as therapeutics in cancer treatment. PMID:23153283

2012-01-01

11

Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats  

PubMed Central

Hypercholesterolemia is a dominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the putative antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were evaluated in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 (300?mg/kg?b.wt) in Wistar rats. Saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats revealed significantly higher mean blood/serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and of serum hepatic marker enzymes; in addition, significantly lower mean serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly lower mean activities of enzymatic antioxidants and nonenzymatic antioxidants were noted in hepatic tissue samples from saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats, compared to controls. However, in hypercholesterolemic rats receiving the Piper betle extract (500?mg/kg?b.wt) or eugenol (5?mg/kg?b.wt) for seven days orally, all these parameters were significantly better than those in saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. The hypercholesterolemia-ameliorating effect was better defined in eugenol-treated than in Piper betle extract-treated rats, being as effective as that of the standard lipid-lowering drug, lovastatin (10?mg/kg?b.wt). These results suggest that eugenol, an active constituent of the Piper betle extract, possesses antihypercholesterolemic and other activities in experimental hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. PMID:24523820

Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Ruban, Vasanthakumar Vasantha; Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Anandhi, Ramalingam; Thomas, Philip A.; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

2014-01-01

12

Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

Milton Prabu, S.; Muthumani, M.; Shagirtha, K.

2012-01-01

13

Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

Milton Prabu, S; Muthumani, M; Shagirtha, K

2012-04-01

14

Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1) in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) Species.  

PubMed

The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 10(6)?cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37?°C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C). Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6?mg/mL for 24?h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1?mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product. PMID:23853657

Wan Harun, Wan Himratul Aznita; Jamil, Nur Alyaa; Jamaludin, Nor Hazwani; Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal

2013-01-01

15

Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1) in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) Species  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 106?cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37?°C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C). Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6?mg/mL for 24?h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1?mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product. PMID:23853657

Jamil, Nur Alyaa; Jamaludin, Nor Hazwani; Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal

2013-01-01

16

Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

2014-01-01

17

Estrogenic and serotonergic butenolides from the leaves of Piper hispidum Swingle (Piperaceae)  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Our previous work has demonstrated that several plants in the Piperaceae family are commonly used by the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala to treat amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and pain. Extracts of Piper hispidum Swingle (Piperaceae), bound to the estrogen (ER) and serotonin (5-HT7) receptors. Aim of the study To investigate the estrogenic and serotonergic activities of P. hispidum extracts in functionalized assays, identify the active chemical constituents in the leaf extract, and test these compounds as agonists or antagonists of ER and 5-HT7. Materials and methods The effects of the P. hispidum leaf extracts were investigated in estrogen reporter gene and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells to determine if the extracts acted as an estrogen agonist or antagonist. In addition, the active compounds were isolated using ER- and 5-HT7 receptor bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of the purified compounds were identified using high-resolution LC-MS and NMR spectroscopic methods. The ER- and 5-HT7-agonist effects of the purified chemical constituents were tested in a 2ERE-reporter gene assay in MCF-7 cells and in serotonin binding and functionalized assays. Results Three butenolides including one new compound (1) were isolated from the leaves of P. hispidum, and their structures were determined. Compound 1 bound to the serotonin receptor 5-HT7 with IC50 values of 16.1 and 8.3 ?M, respectively, and using GTP shift assays, compound 1 was found to be a partial agonist of the 5-HT7 receptor. The P. hispidum leaf extracts, as well as compounds 2 and 3 enhanced the expression of estrogen responsive reporter and endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, demonstrating estrogen agonist effects. Conclusions Extracts of P. hispidum act as agonists of the ER and 5-HT7 receptors. Compound 1, a new natural product, identified as 9, 10-methylenedioxy-5,6-Z-fadyenolide, was isolated as the 5-HT7 agonist. Compounds 2 and 3 are reported for the first time in P. hispidum, and identified as the estrogen agonists. No inhibition of CYP450 was observed for any of these compounds in concentrations up to 1 ?M. These activities are consistent with the Q’eqchi traditional use of the plant for the treatment of disorders associated with the female reproductive cycle. PMID:20304039

Michel, Joanna L; Chen, Yegao; Zhang, Hongjie; Huang, Yue; Krunic, Alecjev; Orjala, Jimmy; Veliz, Mario; Soni, Kapil K.; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Caceres, Armando; Perez, Alice; Mahady, Gail B

2010-01-01

18

Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale  

PubMed Central

The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhaes, Chaiana Froes; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Goncalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assuncao

2013-01-01

19

Molecular dissection of the interaction between the transcriptional activator ZmMRP-1 and the promoter of BETL-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the transfer cell specific transcriptional activator ZmMRP-1 and the promoter of the transfer cell specific gene BETL-1 constitutes an exceptionally robust system. Reporter constructs containing the BETL-1 promoter are virtually silent in a variety of cell types, from maize leaves to yeast. The introduction of ZmMRP-1 in co-transformation assays leads to the transactivation of the reporter construct

Cristina Barrero; Luis M. Muñiz; Elisa Gómez; Gregorio Hueros; Joaquín Royo

2006-01-01

20

Chemical composition and cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic activities of the essential oil from Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the chemical composition of Piper gaudichaudianum essential oil, as well as its cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects in V79 cells. The chemical analyses showed that the major compounds are (E)-nerolidol (22.4%), ?-humulene (16.5%), (E)-caryophyllene (8.9%) and bicyclogermacrene (7.4%). Dose-dependent cytotoxic effects were observed in V79 cells treated with essential oil by using clonal survival, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide

V. F. Péres; D. J. Moura; A. R. M. Sperotto; F. C. Damasceno; E. B. Caramão; C. A. Zini; J. Saffi

2009-01-01

21

Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf.  

PubMed

Previously we reported that Piper nigrum leaf extract showed a potent stimulation effect on melanogenesis and that (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2) were isolated as active constituents. As a part of our continuous studies on Piper species for the development of cosmetic hair-care agents, testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of six Piper species, namely Piper nigrum, P. methysticum, P. betle, P. kadsura, P. longum, and P. cubeba, were examined. Among them, the extracts of P. nigrum leaf, P. nigrum fruit and P. cubeba fruit showed potent inhibitory activity. Activity-guided fractionation of P. nigrum leaf extract led to the isolation of 1 and 2. Fruits of P. cubeba contain 1 as a major lignan, thus inhibitory activity of the fruit may be attributable to 1. As a result of further assay on other known constituents of the cited Piper species, it was found that piperine, a major alkaloid amide of P. nigrum fruit, showed potent inhibitory activity, thus a part of the inhibitory activity of P. nigrum fruit may depend on piperine. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities of 1 and piperine were found for the first time. In addition, the P. nigrum leaf extract showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using the hair regrowth assay in testosterone sensitive male C57Black/6CrSlc strain mice. PMID:18057734

Hirata, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

2007-12-01

22

Melanogenesis stimulation in murine B16 melanoma cells by Kava (Piper methysticum) rhizome extract and kavalactones.  

PubMed

Melanogenesis stimulation activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of five Piper species, namely Piper longum, P. kadsura, P. methysticum, P. betle, and P. cubeba, were examined by using cultured murine B16 melanoma cells. Among them, the extract of P. methysticum rhizome (Kava) showed potent stimulatory effect on melanogenesis as well as P. nigrum leaf extract. Activity-guided fractionation of Kava extract led to the isolation of two active kavalactones, yangonin (2) and 7,8-epoxyyangonin (5), along with three inactive kavalactones, 5,6-dehydrokawain (1), (+)-kawain (3) and (+)-methysticin (4), and a glucosylsterol, daucosterin (6). 7,8-Epoxyyangonin (5) showed a significant stimulatory effect on melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. Yangonin (2) exhibited a weak melanogenesis stimulation activity. PMID:16595931

Matsuda, Hideaki; Hirata, Noriko; Kawaguchi, Yoshiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Takata, Takanobu; Oyama, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Kubo, Michinori

2006-04-01

23

Subcellular localisation of BETL-1, -2 and -4 in Zea mays L. endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

. In maize, the endosperm region next to the placento-chalaza is characterised by the presence of cells with extensive cell wall ingrowths (transfer cells). Specific genes, collectively named as BETL (for Basal Endosperm Transfer Layer) genes, are expressed in these cells in a way that coincides with the temporal development of the transfer cell layer. The BETL-1 gene encodes a

Giampiero Cai; Claudia Faleri; Cecilia Del Casino; Gregorio Hueros; Richard D. Thompson; Mauro Cresti

2002-01-01

24

Piper J-3 Cub  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piper J-3 Cub: This Piper J-3 Cub was used to test a fixed-pitch propeller at the NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. These tests took place in late September and early October 1939. The NACA installed test instrumentation including the sensors mounted on the boom above the cockpit. Mounted in this manner, the sensors were free of the accelerated airflow around the Cub.

1939-01-01

25

Identification of a Promoter Sequence from the BETL1 Gene Cluster Able to Confer Transfer-Cell-Specific Expression in Transgenic Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maize (Zea mays L.) betl1 locus, encoding a basal endosperm transfer layer-specific protein, has been mapped and molecularly cloned in its entirety. The locus is shown to consist of three gene copies in the maize inbred line A69Y. To distinguish the three transcription units from the locus name, we have termed them BETL1a, BETL1b, and BETL1c. Two of the

Gregorio Hueros; Elisa Gomez; Nordine Cheikh; Janice Edwards; Marcia Weldon; Francesco Salamini; Richard D. Thompson

1999-01-01

26

Leaving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

Jones, Robyn L.

2011-01-01

27

Constituents from Piper marginatum fruits.  

PubMed

The hexane extract of the dried fruits of Piper marginatum yielded 1-(1Z-propenyl)-2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene, a new natural product, besides 3-farnesyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:12385887

de Oliveira Chaves, M C; de Oliveira Santos, B V

2002-10-01

28

Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management  

PubMed Central

Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

2012-01-01

29

Antifungal Compounds from Piper Species  

PubMed Central

This review documents chemical structures and antifungal activities of 68 compounds isolated from 22 Piper species of the plant family Piperaceae. These compounds include amides, flavonoids, prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, lignans, phenylpropanoids, butenolides, and cyclopentendiones. Some of them may serve as leads for potential pharmaceutical or agricultural fungicide development. PMID:24307889

Xu, Wen-Hui; Li, Xing-Cong

2013-01-01

30

Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract  

PubMed Central

Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel. PMID:20046756

Nair, R.; Chanda, Sumitra

2008-01-01

31

Antimicrobial Activity of Terminalia catappa, Manilkara zapota and Piper betel Leaf Extract.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L., Manilkara zapota L. and Piper betel L. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 Gram positive, 12 Gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, Candida tropicalis. Piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. The three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. The methanolic extract was considerably more effective than aqueous extract in inhibiting the investigated microbial strains. The most active antimicrobial plant was Piper betel. PMID:20046756

Nair, R; Chanda, Sumitra

2008-01-01

32

PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER will observe at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz to separate the CMB from polarized dust emission. I will describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the project.

Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

2014-01-01

33

Piper J-3L50 Cub  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Piper J-3L50 Cub: The Piper J-3 Cub was evaluated at Langley by the NACA in late 1939 to early 1940. The J-3 was used by many World War II pilots as the airplane in which they were first introduced to flight. Note that the extended NACA use of the Cub led to its markings in NACA colors of yellow and blue, with the Committee's shield on the rudder.

1942-01-01

34

TOXICITY AND ANTITERMITE ACTIVITIES OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM PIPER SARMENTOSUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Piper sarmentosum were hydrodistilled using the modified Clevenger-type apparatus, and an average yield of essential oil of 1.10% (v\\/dry weight) was obtained. The leaf oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 31 components were identified. Spathulenol (21.0%), myristicin (18.8%), ?-caryophyllene (18.2%) and (E,E)-farnesol (10.5%) were the major compounds found in the leaf oil. The

T. C. Chieng; Z. B. Assim; B. A. Fasihuddin

35

Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.  

PubMed

The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3?,3?-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

2014-01-24

36

Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected Piper species.  

PubMed

Piper species, commonly used in diet and traditional medicine were assessed for their antioxidant potential. Catalase activity was predominated in Piper longum, followed by Piper cubeba, green pepper, Piper brachystachyum and Piper nigrum. P. nigrum was richest in glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, green pepper was richest in peroxidase and vitamin C while vitamin E was more in P. longum and P. nigrum. P. brachystachyum and P. longum were rich sources of vitamin A. All the Piper species had GSH content of around 1 to 2 nM/g tissue. The antioxidant components of Piper species constitute a very efficient system in scavenging a wide variety of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant potential of Piper species was further confirmed by their ability to curtail in vitro lipid peroxidation by around 30-50% with concomitant increase in GSH content. PMID:15255605

Karthikeyan, J; Rani, P

2003-02-01

37

Heterologous expression of BetL, a betaine uptake system, enhances the stress tolerance of Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118.  

PubMed

Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotic cultures, improving the technological robustness of what are often process-sensitive cultures is an important biological goal. The nisin-controlled expression system was used to direct the heterologous expression of the listerial betaine uptake system BetL in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118. Following nisin induction, strains expressing betL exhibited a significant increase in resistance to several stresses, including elevated osmo-, cryo-, baro-, and chill tolerance, as well as increased resistance to spray- and freeze-drying. The ability to confer additional stress tolerance on a probiotic culture may be an important step in delivering viable cultures for maximal efficacy. PMID:16517668

Sheehan, Vivien M; Sleator, Roy D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin

2006-03-01

38

Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.  

PubMed

Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will work as a short-term repellent and feeding deterrent. It is recommended that the use of Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

2004-08-01

39

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a ba1loon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIPER will measure the CMB polarization at 4 frequencies (l per flight) using a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 by 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive.

Chuss, David T.

2010-01-01

40

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0:2 on 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales ? =~0:6° to 90°, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0:007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32x40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 mK. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variable- delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I; Q;U; V ) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

Lazear, Justin; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward J.

2014-07-01

41

Differential induction of chitinase in Piper colubrinum in response to inoculation with Phytophthora capsici, the cause of foot rot in black pepper  

PubMed Central

Plant chitinases have been of particular interest since they are known to be induced upon pathogen invasion. Inoculation of Piper colubrinum leaves with the foot rot fungus, Phytophthora capsici leads to increase in chitinase activity. A marked increase in chitinase activity in the inoculated leaves was observed, with the maximum activity after 60 h of inoculation and gradually decreased thereafter. Older leaves showed more chitinase activity than young leaves. The level of chitinase in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) upon inoculation was found to be substantially high when compared to P. colubrinum. RT–PCR using chitinase specific primers revealed differential accumulation of mRNA in P. colubrinum leaves inoculated with P. capsici. However, hyphal extension assays revealed no obvious differences in the ability of the protein extracts to inhibit growth of P. capsici in vitro. PMID:23961037

Sandeep Varma, R.; Johnson George, K.; Balaji, S.; Parthasarathy, V.A.

2009-01-01

42

Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? H? Ji?o) Plants  

PubMed Central

The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2014-01-01

43

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Piper ovatum Vahl.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piperovatum Vahl by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents found were delta-amorphene (16.5 %), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (14.29 %) and gamma-muurolene(13.26%). The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl, essential oil andamides isolated from leaves were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. All extracts and amides were active against Bacillus subtilis andCandida tropicalis, including clinical strains. Essential oil was active against C. tropicalis.These amides showed an inhibitory effect on the adherence of C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 on cover glasses at 10 microg/mL, but did not show morphological alterations at the tested concentrations. Amides were identified as piperovatine and piperlonguminine, and showed MIC values of 15.6 and 31.2 microg/mL to B. subtilis and 3.9 microg/mL to C. tropicalis, and low toxic effects to Vero cells and macrophages. PMID:19325517

Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Endo, Eliana Harue; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Claudia M; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

2009-01-01

44

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)  

E-print Network

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. BICEP2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on ~2 degree scales. If the BICEP2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. PIPER is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the BICEP2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales $\\theta$ = ~0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. PIPER will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a ...

Lazear, Justin; Benford, Dominic; Bennett, Charles L; Chuss, David T; Dotson, Jessie L; Eimer, Joseph R; Fixsen, Dale J; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J; Miller, Timothy M; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Sharp, Elmer; Staguhn, Johannes G; Switzer, Eric R; Tucker, Carole E; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward J

2014-01-01

45

In vitro antifungal activity of extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The present study was designated to evaluate the in vitro antidermatophyte activity of extracts from leaves of Piper regnellii as well as of the bioactivity-directed isolation of neolignans. The antifungal assay was performed by microdilution techniques. The hydroalcoholic extract of Piper regnellii leaves presented a strong activity against the dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum with MICs of 15.62, 15.62, 15.62 and 62.5 microg/ml, respectively. On light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of nail fragments not exposed to hydroalcoholic extract of Piper regnelli leaves, well-formed and extensive mycelial growth was seen. On nail fragments exposed to hydroalcoholic extract at concentrations more than 1.2mg/ml and then inoculated with spore suspension, growth was not seen. The hydroalcoholic extract was fractionated on silica gel in to nine fractions. The active chloroform fraction was lyophilized and chromatographed by column chromatography on silica gel. Structures were established by comparison with literature data and identified as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5. The pure compounds showed strong activity on Trichophyton rubrum with MIC of 50 and 6.2 microg/ml, respectively. Comparing the activity of the active chloroform fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic crude extract with that of isolated compound eupomatenoid-5, it is clear that this showed the same results against Trichophyton rubrum. The results showed that the plant could be explored for possible antifungal agents and provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. PMID:18394835

Koroishi, Andrea M; Foss, Simone R; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito P

2008-05-01

46

LEAVE POLICIES LEAVE REPORTING  

E-print Network

of medical appointments in advance. BEREAVEMENT LEAVE With prior Director approval, employees may be granted up to 40 work hours of bereavement leave to attend the funeral service and memorials of an immediate

47

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Each flight will be configured for a single frequency, but in order to aid in the removal of the polarized foreground signal due to Galactic dust, the filters will be changed between flights. In this way, the CMB polarization at a total of four different frequencies (200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz) will be measured on large angular scales. PIPER consists of a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 × 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the linear Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive. There are several advantages to this architecture. First, by modulating at the front of the optics, instrumental polarization is unmodulated and is therefore cleanly separated from source polarization. Second, by implementing this system with the appropriate symmetry, systematic effects can be further mitigated. In the PIPER design, many of the systematics are manifest in the unmeasured linear Stokes parameter for each telescope and thus can be separated from the desired signal. Finally, the modulation cycle never mixes the Q and U linear Stokes parameters, and thus residuals in the modulation do not twist the observed polarization vector. This is advantageous because measuring the angle of linear polarization is critical for separating the inflationary signal from other polarized components.

Chuss, David T.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jackson, Michael L.; Jah, Muzariatu A.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kogut, Alan J.; Lowe, Luke; McCullagh, Nuala; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carole E.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.; Zeng, Lingzhen

2010-07-01

48

75 FR 43809 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...be absorbed by Piper. Several aircraft owners disagreed with covering...for a Piper mistake. Several aircraft owners/operators felt that Piper failed to manufacture the aircraft to design specification and their...

2010-07-27

49

Analysis of amide compounds in different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl by high-performance liquid chromatographic  

PubMed Central

Background: Piper ovatum (Piperaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations and as an analgesic. Previous studies have showed important biological activities of the extracts and amides from P. ovatum leaves. Objective: In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of the amides in different parts of Piper ovatum. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Metasil ODS column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5?m) at room temperature. HPLC conditions were as follows: acetonitrile (A), and water (B), 1.0% acetic acid. The gradient elution used was 0–30 min, 0-60% A; 30–40 min, 60% A. Flow rate used was 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. Results: The validation using piperlonguminine, as the standard, demonstrated that the method shows linearity (linear correlation coefficient = 0.998), precision (relative standard deviation <5%) and accuracy (mean recovery = 103.78%) in the concentration range 31.25 – 500?g/mL. The limit of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 4.03?g/mL, respectively. This method allowed the identification and quantification of piperlonguminine and piperovatine in the hydroethanolic extracts of P. ovatum obtained from the leaves, stems and roots. All the extracts showed the same chromatographic profile. The leaves and roots contained the highest concentrations of piperlonguminine and the stems and leaves showed the most concentrations of piperovatine. Conclusion: This HPLC method is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of amides in extracts of Piper ovatum and phytopharmaceuticals containing this herb. PMID:24174818

Silva, Daniel R.; Brenzan, Mislaine A.; Kambara, Lauro M.; Cortez, Lucia E. R.; Cortez, Diogenes A. G.

2013-01-01

50

Derivatives of pheophorbide-a and pheophorbide-b from photocytotoxic Piper penangense extract.  

PubMed

In our screening program for new photosensitizers from Malaysian biodiversity for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer, MeOH extracts of ten terrestrial plants from Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia, were tested. In a short-term 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 20 ?g/ml each of these extracts were incubated in a pro-myelocytic leukemia cell-line, HL60, with or without irradiation with 9.6 J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light. Three samples, Labisia longistyla, Dichroa febrifuga, and Piper penangense, were photocytotoxic by having at least twofold lower cell viability when irradiated compared to the unirradiated assay. The extract of the leaves of Piper penangense, a shrub belonging to the family Piperaceae and widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions in the world, was subsequently subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using standard chromatography methods. Eight derivatives of pheophorbide-a and -b were identified from the fractions that exhibited strong photocytotoxicity. By spectroscopic analysis, these compounds were identified as pheophorbide-a methyl ester (1), (R,S)-13(2) -hydroxypheophorbide-a methyl ester (2 and 3), pheophorbide-b methyl ester (4), 13(2) -hydroxypheophorbide-b methyl ester (5), 15(2) -hydroxylactone pheophorbide-a methyl ester (6), 15(2) -methoxylactone pheophorbide-a methyl ester (7), 15(2) -methoxylactone pheophorbide-b methyl ester (8). PMID:21404433

Kamarulzaman, Fadzly Adzhar; Shaari, Khozirah; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Lajis, Nordin Haji; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

2011-03-01

51

Acaricidal activity and repellency of essential oil from Piper aduncum and its components against Tetranychus urticae.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oil of leaves of Piper aduncum L., growing wild in a fragment of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in northeastern Brazil, was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acaricidal activity and repellency of the essential oil and its components [dillapiole (0.28 g/ml), ?-humulene (0.016 g/ml), (E)-nerolidol (0.0007 g/ml) and ?-caryophyllene (0.0021 g/ml)] were evaluated in the laboratory against adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch. The mites were more susceptible to the oil in fumigation tests (LC(50) = 0.01 ?l/l of air) than in contact test with closed Petri dish (LC(50) = 7.17 ?l/ml); mortality was reduced by approximately 50 % in the latter test. The repellent action of the oil and toxicity by fumigation and contact did not differ significantly from the positive control (eugenol). The repellent activity was attributed to the components (E)-nerolidol, ?-humulene and ?-caryophyllene, whereas toxicity by fumigation and contact was attributed to ?-caryophyllene. The effect of Piper oil and the role of its components regarding host plant preference with a two-choice leaf disk test are also discussed. PMID:22415244

Araújo, Mário J C; Câmara, Cláudio A G; Born, Flávia S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Badji, César A

2012-06-01

52

Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum in rainforests of  

E-print Network

Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum.S.A. Abstract. 1. Caterpillar assemblages feeding on two alien plants, Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum, were alien Piper increased with its host range from 3% for the species feeding on a single plant family to 92

Weiblen, George D

53

Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500?g/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920

Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

2009-01-01

54

Antileishmanial activity evaluation of adunchalcone, a new prenylated dihydrochalcone from Piper aduncum L.  

PubMed

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of EtOH extract from the leaves of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) afforded a new dihydrochalcone, named adunchalcone. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data, primarily NMR and MS. Adunchalcone was evaluated against promastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (L.) chagasi and displayed 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of 11.03, 26.70, and 11.26 ?M, as well as selective indexes of 4.86, 2.01, 4.76 and 0.50, respectively. This compound was also tested against intracellular forms of L. (L.) amazonensis, displaying weak activity, in comparison to reference drug amphotericin B. However, despite reduced effect of adunchalcone against amastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis, this work opens the perspective to use this particular molecule as a scaffold for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for neglected diseases, mainly leishmaniasis. PMID:24862066

Dal Picolo, Camilla R; Bezerra, Mariana P; Gomes, Kaio S; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Laurenti, Marcia D; Martins, Euder Glendes A; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

2014-09-01

55

Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.  

PubMed

We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date. PMID:24596490

Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

2014-01-01

56

78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by an FAA-approved aircraft inspection program...safety risk the current design poses is through mandating...applicability from Piper aircraft to include Lycoming...of the engine on the aircraft and not the type design of the engine. We...

2013-06-12

57

Child Sacrifice: Black America's Price of Paying the Media Piper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the sacrifice of African American children to the broadcast media and video games in terms of the players ("media pipers"), the messages ("piping"), and the consequences to children. Proposes some solutions for the problems associated with excessive television viewing and undesirable programming. (SLD)

Orange, Carolyn M.; George, Amiso M.

2000-01-01

58

Insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper hispidinervum C. DC.; Piper aduncum L. and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr.) Bur. & K. Shum against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils from Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C. DC. (Piperaceae) and Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb. Rodr.) Bur.& K. Shum (Bignoniaceae) were tested against Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 larvaes. Filter paper with different amounts of oils were employed for contact toxicity effects study. For topical effect study, aliquots of 5 mL of oils at different concentrations were applied on larvaes of

Murilo Fazolin; Joelma Lima; Vidal Estrela; Valdomiro Catani; Marcio Rodrigo Alécio; Marilene Santos de Lima

59

Acaricidal activity and chemical composition of the essential oil from three Piper species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Piper amalago, Piper mikanianum, and Piper xylosteoides was elucidated by gas chromatography (GC) and GC\\/mass spectrometry analyses. P. mikanianum and P. xylosteoides essential oils presented phenylpropanoids as their main compounds (67.89% and 48.53%, respectively) whereas P. amalago was rich in monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (84.95%).

Alexandre de B. F. Ferraz; João Marcio Balbino; Claudia Alcaraz Zini; Vera Lucia S. Ribeiro; Sérgio A. L. Bordignon; Gilsane von Poser

2010-01-01

60

Hepatoprotective activity of Piper longum traditional milk extract on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piper longum Linn. (Piperaceae) (fruits and roots powder) is given with boiled milk in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of liver ailments and jaundice. However, the biochemical basis and mechanism of hepatoprotective action of Piper longum milk extract is not scientifically studied. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Piper longum

Jagruti A. PATEL; Urvi S. SHAH

61

Chemical composition, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities against Aedes aegypti of essential oils from Piper marginatum Jacq. (Piperaceae).  

PubMed

The essential oils of leaves, stems and inflorescences of Piper marginatum, harvested in the Atlantic forest in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed the presence of 40 components accounting, respectively, for 99.6%, 99.7% and 99.1% of the leaf, stem and inflorescence oil, the most abundant being (Z)- or (E)-asarone and patchouli alcohol. The essential oil of the inflorescences exhibited potent activity against the 4th instar of Aedes aegypti with LC(10) and LC(50) values of 13.8 and 20.0 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, the inflorescence oil did not interfere in the oviposition of A. aegypti females when assayed at 50 ppm. These properties suggest that P. marginatum oil is a potential source of valuable larvicidal compounds for direct use or in conjunction with baits in traps constructed to capture eggs and larvae. PMID:19070480

Autran, E S; Neves, I A; da Silva, C S B; Santos, G K N; da Câmara, C A G; Navarro, D M A F

2009-04-01

62

Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae).  

PubMed

Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%). The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%). This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24 h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48 h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC?? obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48 h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity. PMID:24270836

Oliveira, Gisele L; Cardoso, Sheila K; Lara, Célio R; Vieira, Thallyta M; Guimarães, Elsie F; Figueiredo, Lourdes S; Martins, Ernane R; Moreira, Davyson L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

2013-01-01

63

Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid from Piper multiplinervium.  

PubMed

3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid is an antibacterial agent isolated from the leaves of Piper multiplinervium. This compound has activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. This research aimed to synthesize a natural antibacterial compound and its analogs. The synthesis of 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid consists of three steps: straightforward synthesis involving protection of phenolic hydroxyl group, coupling of suitable isoprenyl chain to the protected aromatic ring at ortho position followed by carboxylation with concomitant deprotection to give the derivatives of the salicylic acid. All the three prenylated compounds synthesized were found to exhibit spectrum of activity against S. aureus (ATCC) having MIC: 5.84×10(-3), 41.46×10(-2) and 6.19×10(-1) ?mol/ml respectively. The compounds also displayed activity against resistance strain of S. aureus (SA1119B) having MIC: 5.84×10(-3), 7.29×10(-3) and 3.09×10(-1) ?mol/ml respectively. This synthesis has been achieved and accomplished with the confirmation of it structure to that of the original natural product, thus producing the first synthesis of the natural product and providing the first synthesis of its analogs with 3-Farnesyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid having biological activity higher than that of the original natural product. PMID:24444894

Malami, Ibrahim; Gibbons, Simon; Malkinson, John P

2014-03-01

64

Nondestructive inspection of Piper PA25 forward spar fittings  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Aviation Administration`s (FAA`s) Aging Aircraft NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories applied two nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques to inspect a forward spar fuselage attachment fitting. The techniques used were based on radiography and ultrasonic test methods. The combination of these techniques did reveal material thinning of two spar fittings from Piper PA25 aircraft. However, crack detection near a notch design feature could not be performed. Based on the results of these experiments, an ultrasonic test procedure was subsequently developed for the material thinning. The procedure has since been incorporated by the FAA into a revision of Airworthiness Directive 93-21-12.

Moore, D.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01

65

The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER): optical design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The balloon-borne PIPER instrument will observe the polarization in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz. Two co-pointed telescopes are placed inside a 3000 L liquid helium dewar and cooled to 1.5 K. The telescopes are arranged so that one measures Stokes parameters Q and V while the other measures U and V . Each telescope consists of a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) as the primary optical element, two off-axis mirrors, a folding flat, and re-imaging optics with off-axis lenses that focus each of the orthogonal linear polarization signals through an analyzer grid and onto two bolometer arrays (one for each polarization state). A cold Lyot stop is imaged onto the VPM to define the entrance pupil of the telescope. Each telescope has a 6° × 4.7° field-of-view.

Eimer, Joseph R.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan J.; Mirel, Paul; Tucker, Carole E.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

2010-07-01

66

Inhibitory effect of Piper betel leaf extracts on copper-mediated LDL oxidation and oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation via inducing reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.  

PubMed

Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. PMID:23993539

Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi

2013-12-15

67

75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T...applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T...55677-340M with an improved design Eaton/Aeroquip P...applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T...55677-340M with an improved design Eaton/Aeroquip...

2010-07-26

68

CSU Leave Program Types of Leave Programs  

E-print Network

· Bereavement Leave · Organ Donor Leave (ODL) · Jury Duty #12;Sick Leave · Full-time employees earn 8 hours per or roommates) ­ Bereavement in the case of death of a person in the immediate family (when bereavement leave

de Lijser, Peter

69

Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.  

PubMed

Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved. PMID:22296348

Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2011-01-01

70

Potent CYP3A4 inhibitory constituents of Piper cubeba.  

PubMed

The EtOAc-soluble fraction of the water extract of Piper cubeba, having shown potent inhibitory activity on the metabolism mediated by CYP3A4, was subjected to activity-guided isolation to yield two new lignans, (8R,8'R)-4-hydroxycubebinone (1) and (8R,8'R,9'S)-5-methoxyclusin (2), and two new sesquiterpenes, (5 alpha,8 alpha)-2-oxo-1(10),3,7(11)-guaiatrien-12,8-olide (3) and (1 alpha,2 beta,5 alpha,8 alpha 10 alpha)-1,10-epoxy-2-hydroxy-3,7(11)-guaiadien-12,8-olide (4), along with 16 known compounds (5-20). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. The isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory activity on the metabolism mediated by CYP3A4 or CYP2D6 using [N-methyl-(14)C]erythromycin or [O-methyl-(14)C]dextromethorphan as a substrate, respectively. The compounds (8R,8'R,9'S)-5-methoxyclusin (2), (-)-clusin (10), (-)-yatein (13), ethoxyclusin (15), and (-)-dihydroclusin (17), having one methylenedioxyphenyl moiety in their structures, showed very potent and selective inhibitory activity against CYP3A4 with IC(50) values (0.44-1.0 microM) identical to that of the positive control, ketoconazole (IC(50), 0.72 microM). PMID:15679319

Usia, Tepy; Watabe, Tadashi; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

2005-01-01

71

UNIVERSITY OF ST ANDREWS -FAMILY FRIENDLY LEAVE (FLOWCHART) Maternity Leave Paternity Leave Adoption Leave Family Leave  

E-print Network

Adoption Leave Family Leave All female employees. To qualify, a member of staff must have completed 26 of childbirth. Employees whose partner is pregnant or adopting. Provided service conditions met then employees or placed (adoption) up to 8 weeks from that date in either a block of 2 weeks or 2 separate blocks of 1

Brierley, Andrew

72

[Oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter prevents cholesterol gallstone formation].  

PubMed

To observe the effect of various doses of oil of Piper longum unsaponifiable matter (OPUM) to cholesterol gallstones in experimental mice. C57BL/6 mice (n = 60) were randomly divided into 6 groups: control group, model group, OPUM (15, 30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, administered for 10 weeks. The level of serum lipid and liver function enzymes were tested. The gallbladder was removed and bile was obtained by centrifugation. Next, the levels of the bile total cholesterol (TC), phospholipid (PL) and bile acid (TBA) were measured. The indicators of lipid peroxidation were determined and cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated. The liver histological changes were observed by HE staining. The results showed that serum TC, TG (triglycerides) and AST (aspartate transaminase) contents, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI increased significantly (P < 0.05). In addition, the activity of SOD decreased significantly and MDA content increased significantly in liver (P < 0.05). HE staining results showed that the hepatic cord disorder and intracellular lipid droplets increased significantly. All results indicate that lithogenic diet lead to the formation of cholesterol gallstones. In OPUM (30 and 60 mg x kg(-1)) group, serum TC, TG and AST content, gallbladder cholesterol crystallization and CSI decreased significantly, the activity of SOD increased significantly and MDA content decreased significantly. HE staining results showed that OPUM can improve the morphology of liver cell, reduce the degree of hepatic cord disorders and restore the cell morphology close to normal. The cause of OPUM prevents cholesterol gallstone formation maybe due to protect the integrity of the liver cells, lower CSI, and reduce cholesterol crystal formation and hence prevent cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:24133988

Xu, Shuang; Hu, Jin-Feng; Chu, Shi-Feng; Han, Ning; Li, Jing-Wei; Li, Yue-Ting; Chen, Nai-Hong

2013-07-01

73

A COMPARISON OF FRUIT REMOVAL BY BATS AND BIRDS FROM PIPER HISfIDUM SW.  

E-print Network

unavailable to birds; ripe fruits typically remained on the plants for several days. If birds disseminate... ; A COMPARISON OF FRUIT REMOVAL BY BATS AND BIRDS FROM PIPER HISfIDUM SW. (PIPERACEAE. Central AlOOrica (Received: January 5, 1989) ABSTRAC,r I measured fruit removal by bats and birds from

O'Donnell, Sean

74

5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

2010-01-01

75

5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 145 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

2010-01-01

76

Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense insofar as nonsense is…

Blackburn, William

77

BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

78

Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos include Engle turning propeller while his son sits in the cockpit (34323); both Engle and son examine propeller (34324); Engle works on engine while his son sits in cockpit (34325).

1981-01-01

79

LEAVES (for detailed explanation of leave title, refer to Faculty Handbook) Abbreviation Full Name of Leave  

E-print Network

Leave public service or military SAB Leave sabbatical SPL Leave special SJL Leave special junior STL Leave special triennial TLA Leave triennial (one term only) WOS Leave without salary WOY Leave without Yale salary (unpaid leave-individual has obtained outside money) MOR Morse SFF Senior Faculty

80

Cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation of crude extracts and fractions from Piper jericoense with trypanocidal action.  

PubMed

The current Chagas disease treatment is based on two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, which is considered unsatisfactory, not only because of the narrow therapeutic range but also because of the associated toxicity. Natural products are considered an important source of biologically active compounds against various infectious organisms. Numerous Piper species are used in traditional medicine to treat parasitic diseases. In this paper, we study the activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Piper jericoense plant against epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In addition, we evaluated the cytotoxic, mutagenic and genotoxic activities of the F4 fraction obtained from one of the more promising extracts. We obtained four extracts, one of which presented low toxicity and high trypanocidal activity. This extract was separated into eight fractions, and the F4 fraction presented better results than the other extracts and had a higher selectivity index than the reference drug, benznidazole. This fraction was not cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic. PMID:24361641

Hamedt, A L; Ortiz, I C; García-Huertas, P A; Sáenz, J; de Araujo, A Caldeira; De Mattos, J C P; Rodríguez-Gazquez, M A; Triana-Chávez, O

2014-03-01

81

Describing Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners work in teams to investigate how scientists use physical characteristics to classify living things. First, learners examine drawings of a variety of leaves from different species of oak trees and work to develop the characteristics of a "typical" oak leaf. Then, learners examine samples of oak leaves and work to classify them. This activity uses drawings of leaves, but it could also work with a collection of real leaves.

History, American M.

2001-01-01

82

Fecundity, fruiting pattern, and seed dispersal in Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a bat-dispersed tropical shrub  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the nightly and seasonal production of ripe fruit by Piper amalago (Piperaceae), a patchily distributed, bat-dispersed forest shrub, at Parque Nacional Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Phenological observations over several years indicate that individuals produce a low (usually 1–3) and variable number of ripe fruit each night for 3–4 wks in the early wet season (June and July).

Theodore H. Fleming

1981-01-01

83

Study of the glow curve structure of the minerals separated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inorganic mineral fraction extracted from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been analysed using a thermoluminescence (TL) method, investigating the glow curve structure, including an evaluation of the kinetic parameters. Different grain sizes, i.e. 10, 74, and 149 ?m, were selected from commercial black pepper. The X-ray diffraction of the inorganic fraction shows that quartz is the main mineral present

S. Guzmán; B. Ruiz Gurrola; E. Cruz-Zaragoza; A. Tufiño; C. Furetta; A. Favalli; F. Brown

2011-01-01

84

A review of Piper spp. (Piperaceae) phytochemistry, insecticidal activity and mode of action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical plant family Piperaceae has provided many past and present civilizations with a source of diverse medicines and\\u000a food grade spice. The secondary plant compounds that produce these desired qualities function also as chemical defenses for\\u000a many species in the genus Piper. The compounds with the greatest insecticidal activity are the piperamides. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of

Ian M. Scott; Helen R. Jensen; Bernard J. R. Philogène; John T. Arnason

2008-01-01

85

Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of Piper capense essential oil against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydro-distilled essential oil from Kenyan Piper capense (Piperaceae) was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and evaluated for larvicidal activity against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. The oil consisted mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons which accounted for 43.9% of the oil. The major sesquiterpenes were ?-cadinene (16.82%), ?-bisabolene (5.65%), and bicyclogermacrene (3.30%). The oil also had appreciable amounts of monoterpene

Josphat C. Matasyoh; Euty M. Wathuta; Samuel T. Kariuki; Regina Chepkorir

2011-01-01

86

Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Views of Astronaut (Col.) Joe Engle and son Jon with L-5 Piper Cub at Clover Airport. Photos includes Jon Engle sitting on side door frame working on portion of wing. Joe Engle is behind him working on a wing strut (34329); Joe Engle works on tightening bolt (34330); Jon Engle works on portion of wing which connects to the cockpit. Joe Engle works on connecting strut to wing (34331).

1981-01-01

87

Graphing Fall Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this biology lab extension, student will have already collected leaves from the playground and surrounding school areas and sorted them into categories according to leaf properties. Students will use the leave classifications/ sorts to graph the properties of the leaves.

Depeel, Bonnie

88

Why Leaves Turn Red  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthocyanins are plant pigments found in leaves, flowers and fruits. Most strikingly, they color autumn leaves red. Over more than a century, biologists have proposed a variety of hypotheses for why colorful autumn foliage should exist, but experiments over the last decade are finally yielding definitve explanations. Anthocyanins protect leaves from damage in at least two ways---by directly shielding chloroplasts

David Lee; Kevin Gould

2002-01-01

89

Look at Those Leaves!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson begins with students observing leaves in a hands-on activity. As they observe attributes, they will group the leaves and consider any patterns they see emerge. In the second part of this lesson, students will become more familiar with the seasonal changing of leaves.

Science Netlinks;

2002-02-14

90

HR Department ADOPTION LEAVE  

E-print Network

HR Department ADOPTION LEAVE JANUARY 2004 Approved by the Executive Board 27-Jan-04 Updated to adoption leave. Please contact your Human Resources Officer for further advice and information. Employees who become adoptive parents after 6 April 2003 are entitled to adoption leave and to receive Statutory

Doran, Simon J.

91

Directed seed dispersal of Piper by Carollia perspicillata and its effect on understory plant diversity and folivory.  

PubMed

Directed dispersal occurs when seeds are differentially deposited to sites where offspring survivorship is higher than at randomly chosen sites. Traditionally, characteristics of the dispersal target sites that could increase survivorship of the dispersed plants are thought to be intrinsic to the sites. If directed dispersal is constant over extended periods of time, however, it is likely that nonrandom patterns of dispersal could modify the ecological characteristics of the target site in ways that could increase survivorship and fitness of the dispersed plants. Here we report patterns of Piper diversity (richness, equitability, and similarity) and Piper folivory within plots near natural or artificial roosts of Carollia perspicillata vs. similar plots without bat roosts. Plots with bat roosts, both natural and artificial, had significantly higher Piper species diversity. Additionally, we found that plots with a higher Piper species diversity showed less specialist folivory, higher generalist folivory, and lower total herbivore leaf damage than plots with low Piper diversity. Finally, plots with bat roosts also showed less specialist folivory, lower generalist folivory, and lower total folivory when compared to plots without roosts. We propose that long-lasting nonrandom patterns of seed dispersal can change the local ecological characteristics of target sites via changes in plant diversity, and that these changes are likely to reduce the local rates of folivory and, therefore, increase seed and adult plant survivorship. PMID:24400496

Salazar, Diego; Kelm, Detlev H; Salazar, Diego

2013-11-01

92

Insecticidal activity of Piper essential oils from the Amazon against the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

Pepper plants in the genus Piper (Piperales: Piperaceae) are common in the Brazilian Amazon and many produce compounds with biological activity against insect pests. We evaluated the insecticidal effect of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper marginatum (chemotypes A and B), Piper divaricatum and Piper callosum against workers of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), as well as their chemical composition by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The lowest median lethal concentration (LC50) in 48 h was obtained with the oil of P. aduncum (58.4 mg/L), followed by the oils of P. marginatum types A (122.4 mg/L) and B (167.0 mg/L), P. divaricatum (301.7 mg/L), and P. callosum (312.6 mg/L). The major chemical constituents were dillapiole (64.4%) in the oil of P. aduncum; p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (39.0%), 3,4-methylenedioxypropiophenone (19.0%), and (E)-?-ocimene (9.8%) in P. marginatum chemotype A and (E)-isoosmorhizole (32.2%), (E)-anethole (26.4%), isoosmorhizole (11.2%), and (Z)-anethole (6.0%) in P. marginatum chemotype B; methyleugenol (69.2%) and eugenol (16.2%) in P. divaricatum; and safrole (69.2%), methyleugenol (8.6%), and ?-pinene (6.2%) in P. callosum. These chemical constituents have been previously known to possess insecticidal properties. PMID:23949677

Souto, R N P; Harada, A Y; Andrade, E H A; Maia, J G S

2012-12-01

93

Amygdalin in Prunus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin was found for the first time in the leaves of mature trees of several Prunus taxa: P. serotina and P. virginiana cv. Schubert of subg. Padus and P. ilicifolia and P. lyonii of subg. Laurocerasus. Leaves of other taxa in both subgenera contained only the monoglucoside prunasin. Amygdalin production was inherited in hybrids between P. padus

Frank S. Santamour

1998-01-01

94

Types of Oak Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This printable key to oak leaves helps students see the variety of shapes and sizes found within a plant family. The one-page PDF handout has 12 hand drawings of leaves. You can find the scientific names (genus and species) for all of them in the Biodiversity Counts Educators Guide.

95

Problematising Early School Leaving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is…

Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

2013-01-01

96

Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava ( Piper methysticum ) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane,\\u000a chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl\\u000a ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol,\\u000a 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester,

Tran Dang Xuan; Masakazu Fukuta; Ao Chang Wei; Abdelnaser Abdelghany Elzaawely; Tran Dang Khanh; Shinkichi Tawata

2008-01-01

97

Effect of the hexane extract of Piper auritum on insulin release from ?-cell and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat  

PubMed Central

Background: The large-leafed perennial plant Piper auritum known as Hoja Santa, is used for its leaves that because of their spicy aromatic scent and flavor have an important presence in Mexican cuisine, and in many regions, this plant is known for its therapeutic properties. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from Piper auritum on cell culture system and the effect in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats treated by 28 days on the physiological, metabolic parameters and oxidative stress. Results: The hexane extract of P. auritum (HS) treatment significantly reduced the intake of both food, water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increase HDL-cholesterol. After 4-week administration of HS antioxidant enzyme as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx in pancreas were determined. These enzyme increased significantly compared with those of the diabetic rats control and normal animals. For all estimated, the results of HS treated groups leading to a restoration of the defense mechanism. The treatment also improves pancreatic TBARS–reactive substance level and serum NO and iNOS. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the serum and pancreatic sections were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant increase in serum and pancreas tissue insulin. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the HS extract increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. In cultured RIN-5F cells, we examined whether hexane extract of P. auritum would protect the pancreas-derived ?-cells from oxidative stress. Moreover, HS could protect pancreatic ?-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress. Conclusion: From these results, HS is suggested to show anti-diabetic effect by stimulating insulin-dependent and by protecting pancreatic ?-cells from advanced glycation end products-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24082635

Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez

2012-01-01

98

PERSONAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY  

E-print Network

PERSONAL LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY 1. Discuss your Leave of Absence with your supervisor. 2. For additional information on Leaves of Absence and to obtain the Personal Leave Request Form, visit the Human Resources website at http://hr.ucf.edu 3. Submit the completed Personal Leave Request

Wu, Shin-Tson

99

MILITARY LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY  

E-print Network

MILITARY LEAVE CHECKLIST EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITY 1. Discuss your Leave of Absence with your Supervisor. 2. For additional information on Leaves of Absence, and to obtain the Military Leave Request Form Responsibilities and Instructions for Completion of Military Leave Request Form" which is part of the Request form

Wu, Shin-Tson

100

PAYROLL/PERSONNEL SABBATICAL LEAVE / SPECIAL LEAVE OF ABSENCE  

E-print Network

FURLOUGH 16 FAMILY MEDICAL LEAVE WITH PAY 06 GOV'T/PUBLIC SERVICE 11 MILITARY 17 TEMPORARY LAYOFF 07 OF WORK WHILE ON LEAVE LEAVEOF ABSNCE 18. UC COMPENSATION WHILE ON LEAVE NO SALARY FULL SALARY OTHER % 19

Healy, Kevin Edward

101

FMLA: Family & Medical FLA: Family Leave Act  

E-print Network

Leave FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Who is · Faculty (9 month" in order to be eligible for up to 15 days of unpaid leave per deployment) · Women who take leave due FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Leave Restrictions · Runs

Borenstein, Elhanan

102

Piperine production by endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Piper nigrum.  

PubMed

Many endophytic fungi have been reported with the biosynthetic potential to produce same or similar metabolites present in host plants. The adaptations that might have acquired by these fungi as a result of the long-term association with their host plants can be the possible basis of their biosynthetic potential. The bioactive compounds originated from endophytes are currently explored for their potential applications in pharmaceutical, agriculture and food industries. Piper nigrum, a plant of the Piperaceae is very remarkable because of the presence of the alkaloid piperine. Piperine has been reported to have broad bioactive properties ranging from antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative to anticancer activities. Interestingly, piperine also plays a vital role in increasing the bioavailability of many drugs which again is a promising property. The current study was carried out to identify piperine producing endophytic fungus from Piper nigrum L. By screening various endophytic fungi, the isolate which was identified as member of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was found to have the ability to form piperine and was confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. Considering the broad bioactive potential of piperine, the piperine producing fungi identified in the study can expect to have much industrial potential. PMID:24268806

Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Sachidanandan, P; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

2014-03-15

103

Does Oral Ingestion of Piper sarmentosum Cause Toxicity in Experimental Animals?  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE) on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50?mg/kg, 300?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000?mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24228062

Zakaria, Zaiton; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Othman, Faizah

2013-01-01

104

Risk analysis and risk management for offshore platforms: Lessons from the Piper Alpha accident  

SciTech Connect

A probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) framework is used to identify the accident sequence of the 1988 Piper Alpha accident. This framework is extended to include the human decisions and actions that have influenced the occurrences of these basic events, and their organizational roots. The results of this preliminary analysis allow identification of a wide spectrum of possible risk reduction measures, ranging from classical technical solutions such as addition of redundancies, to organizational improvements such as a change in the maintenance procedures. An explicit PRA model is then developed to assess the benefits of some of these safety measures based, first, on the original contribution to the overall risk of the failure modes that these measures are designed to avert, and second, on the degree to which they can reduce the probabilities of these failure modes. PRA can then be used as a management tool, allowing optimization of risk management strategies based both on the qualitative information about causalities provided by the accident, and on the quantitative information about failure probabilities updated in the light of new events. It is shown how PRA can be used to assess, for example, the cost-effectiveness of safety measures designed to decrease the probability of severe fire damage onboard platforms similar to Piper Alpha.

Pate-Cornell, M.E. (Stanford Univ, CA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management)

1993-08-01

105

Synchronous EMG activity in the Piper frequency band reveals the corticospinal demand of walking tasks  

PubMed Central

Evidence indicates that the frequency-domain characteristics of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals are modulated according to the contributing sources of neural drive. Modulation of inter-muscular EMG synchrony within the Piper frequency band (30–60Hz) during movement tasks has been linked to drive from the corticospinal tract. However, it is not known whether EMG synchrony is sufficiently sensitive to detect task-dependent differences in the corticospinal contribution to leg muscle activation during walking. We investigated this question in seventeen healthy older men and women. It was hypothesized that, relative to typical steady state walking, Piper band EMG synchrony of the triceps surae muscle group would be reduced for dual-task walking (because of competition for cortical resources), similar for fast walking (because walking speed is directed by an intermediate locomotor pathway rather than by the corticospinal tract), and increased when taking a long step (because voluntary gait pattern modifications are directed by the corticospinal tract). Each of these hypotheses was confirmed. These findings support the use of frequency-domain analysis of EMG in future investigations into the corticospinal contribution to control of healthy and disordered human walking. PMID:23740367

Clark, David J.; Kautz, Steven A.; Bauer, Andrew R.; Chen, Yen-Ting; Christou, Evangelos A.

2013-01-01

106

Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piper nigrum L. is a traditional medicine widely used in India for illnesses such as constipation, diarrhoea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay and toothaches. In this study, six bioactive compounds, namely piperine (1), pellitorine (2), guineensine (3), pipnoohine (4), trichostachine (5) and piperonal (6)

Vidadala Rama Subba Rao; Sagi Satyanarayana Raju; Vanka Umamaheswara Sarma; Fouriner Sabine; Kothapalli Hari Babu; Katragadda Suresh Babu; Janaswamy Madhusudana Rao

2011-01-01

107

Geographic Variation in Host-Specificity and Parasitoid Pressure of an Herbivore (Geometridae) Associated with the Tropical Genus Piper (Piperaceae)  

PubMed Central

The extraordinary diversity of tropical herbivores may be linked to hostplant specialization driven in part by variation in pressure from natural enemies. We quantified levels of host-specificity and parasitoid attack for the specialist herbivore, Eois (Geometridae). The goals of this research were to examine: 1) whether Eois are specialized on the genus Piper (Piperaceae) and if hostplant specialization varies geographically; 2) whether Eois are equally vulnerable to parasitoid attack across different geographic regions and by the same parasitoid families; and 3) whether parasitism levels vary with precipitation and elevation. Based on over 15,000 rearings, we found Eois caterpillars feeding exclusively on Piper. However, we did not detect geographic differences in host-specificity; each Eois species fed on an average of two Piper species. Parasitism levels of Eois varied significantly with climate and topography; Eois were most vulnerable to parasitoid attack in moist versus dry and wet forests and at low versus high elevations. The diversity of parasitoid families reared from Eois was greater in Ecuador and Costa Rica than in Panama, where parasitoids were primarily in the family Braconidae. The quantitative evidence for host-specificity provides support for the hypothesis that Eois are specialized on Piper. Our results also reveal that Eois are exposed to a mosaic of potential selective pressures due to variation in parasitoid attack over a large spatial scale. PMID:19613860

Connahs, Heidi; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Walters, Toni; Walla, Thomas; Dyer, Lee

2009-01-01

108

Carcinogenicity Testing of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) Using the Egyptian Toad (Bufo regularis) as a Quick Biological Test Animal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milled black pepper (Piper nigrum) force-fed to Egyptian toads as a suspension in amphibian saline or injected subcutaneously in the dorsal lymph sac as an ethanol extract, induced primary tumours in the liver and secondary tumours in other organs (kidney and spleen). When applied to the skin of experimental animals as an ethanol extract, black pepper induced primary tumours in

M. M. El-Mofty; A. A. Soliman; A. F. Abdel-Gawad; S. A. Sakr; M. H. Shwaireb

1988-01-01

109

Aircraft Accident Report - Las Vegas Airlines, Piper PA-31-350, N44LV, Las Vegas, Nevada, August 30, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 0747 P.d.t., August 30, 1978, Las Vegas Airlines Flight 44, a Piper PA-31-350 (N44LV), crashed in VFR conditions shortly after takeoff from runway 25 at the North Las Vegas Airport, Las Vegas, Nevada. Flight 44 was a charter flight from Las Vegas, N...

1978-01-01

110

HPLC assisted chemobiological standardization of ?-glucosidase-I enzyme inhibitory constituents from Piper longum Linn-An Indian medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulations of traditional medicines are usually made up of complex mixture of herbs. However, effective quality control methods in order to select right quality materials are lacking. Though Piper longum is a widely used herb in several Ayurvedic formulations prescribed for various diseases, there is no analytical method in the literature so far which can help in selecting the right

Srinivas V. Pullela; Ashok K. Tiwari; UmaMaheswara S. Vanka; Anuradha Vummenthula; Hari B. Tatipaka; Krishna R. Dasari; Ikhlas A. Khan; Madhusudana R. Janaswamy

2006-01-01

111

Falling for Clay Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

Kernan, Christine

2002-01-01

112

Leaves and Air Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the effects of automobile pollution on plant growth by making measurements on two populations of leaves, one from within 10 meters of a busy road and a population of the same species situated more than 20 meters away. They will choose a method for measuring the leaves, create a table for their data, and test their hypotheses by performing a t-test.

Laposata, Matt

113

Leave of Absence STUDENT INFORMATION  

E-print Network

Phone#: PersonalE-MailAddress: Home College: Department: Class: Semester of Leave (circle one): Fall Spring SummerLeave of Absence STUDENT INFORMATION Student's Reasons for Leave: Expected Semester/Year of Return Comments/Requirements Governing Return: Date Student Began Leave Procedure: / / W Grade(s) Assigned? Yes

Nagle, John F.

114

MILITARY LEAVE WORKSHEET PERSONAL INFORMATION  

E-print Network

MILITARY LEAVE WORKSHEET PERSONAL INFORMATION Name Agency Name Address Agency Number Emergency MILITARY LEAVE NOTIFICATION · I have been ordered to military duty effective . Attached is a copy of my orders. Official verbal notification was received from . MILITARY LEAVE WITH PAY · MILITARY LEAVE

Swaddle, John

115

Piper cubeba demonstrates anti-estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties.  

PubMed

This present study aims to investigate if P9605, an ethanolic extract of PIPER CUBEBA L, exhibits anti-estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We found that P9605 significantly inhibited growth induced by beta-estradiol in MCF-7, a human breast cancer cell line. It inhibited aromatase activity, which is responsible for transforming androgens into estrogens. Competitive binding assays also indicated P9605 binding to both human recombinant estrogen a and beta receptors. Furthermore, this extract inhibited the activities of cyclo-oxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and 5-lipo-oxygenase (5-LOX), also it attenuated the induction of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in differentiated THP-1 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Taken together with our previous results, P9605 possesses anti-androgenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. These results support the potential use of P9605 in phytotherapy against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PMID:18219597

Yam, Jianying; Schaab, Alexei; Kreuter, Matthias; Drewe, Juergen

2008-02-01

116

Preventable disasters in the offshore oil industry: from Piper Alpha to Deepwater Horizon.  

PubMed

This article compares two industrial disasters in the offshore oil industry, the explosion and fire on Piper Alpha off the coast of Scotland in 1988, the world's worst offshore disaster, and the blowout and explosions on Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It attempts to answer a simple question: Given the enormity of the first tragedy and the careful analysis of its circumstances and causes, why were the lessons of previous failure not learned by this globally organized industry, in the very heartland in the United States? The answer tells us much about the ability of corporate capital to configure regulatory regimes in its own interests and to do so in a manner that continues to threaten the safety and well-being of its employees and the wider environment. PMID:23384815

Woolfson, Charles

2012-01-01

117

Cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory compounds with antioxidant activities from Piper methysticum (kava kava) roots.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory assay-guided purification of ethyl acetate extract of Piper methysticum (kava kava) roots yielded six biologically active compounds (1-7), which were purified using MPLC, preparative TLC and HPLC methods. These compounds were also evaluated for antioxidant activities. Dihydrokawain (1) and yangonin (6) showed the highest COX-I and COX-II inhibitory activities at 100 microg/ml, respectively. The lipid oxidation assay did not reveal antioxidant activities for demethoxyangonin (2), dihydrokawain (1), kawain (4), dihydromethysticin (5) or methysticin (7) at 50 microg/ml. The antioxidant activities of flavokawain A (3) and yangonin (6) could not be tested in the lipid oxidation assay due to solubility problems. However, yangonin and methysticin showed moderate antioxidant activities in the free radical scavenging assay at 2.5 mg/ml. PMID:11924763

Wu, D; Yu, L; Nair, M G; DeWitt, D L; Ramsewak, R S

2002-01-01

118

Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

2009-01-01

119

Bemoans, Belittles, and Leaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I examine Lynn Truss's book of punctuation rules and faux pas, "Eats, Shoots & Leaves," contemplating the complex relationships among class, academics, and language snobbery. I don't refute Truss's lessons on punctuation. Instead, I use her text as a jumping-off point for discussion of the social issues embedded in her guide and…

Lynch-Biniek, Amy

2005-01-01

120

Leave Payout Operating Procedure  

E-print Network

) system by the employee's department no later than two weeks following the termination date.2.1 Running a biweekly query identifying all regular position employees with a termination date and a leave.1 Department Termination of Employment.....................................3 4.2 Human Resources Employment

Meyers, Steven D.

121

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

122

Paper Chromatography with Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners use chromatography to separate and identify pigments within various leaves. Learners soak leaf pieces in warmed rubbing alcohol and then dip coffee filter paper in the alcohol, lifting and separating the leaf pigments according to size.

Society, American C.

2010-01-01

123

Bioactivity of Piper guineense Schum. & Thonn seed and Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder against Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate bioactivity of Piper guineense seeds and Moringa oleifera leaf powders applied singly or in a mixture against larvae and adult Trogoderma granarium Everts in airtight containers. Three levels (0.0 g, 0.5 g, and 1.0 g\\/20 g groundnut seeds) of the plant powders were used and pirimiphos-methyl was applied at 0.01 g\\/20 g seeds (recommended dose). Another control consisting of

Samuel Adelani Babarinde; Olufemi O. Richard Pitan; Adekunle Tosin Ogunfiade

2011-01-01

124

The repellent activity of Piper aduncum Linn. (Fam: Piperaceae) essential oil against Aedes aegypti using human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Piper aduncum was investigated for the repellent activity against Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions using human volunteers. The repellent effect against Ae. aegypti indicated the effective dose ED 50 value of 2.4170 µgcm -2 , ED 90 value of 53.8099 µgcm -2 at 60 seconds exposure, ED 50 of 1.2360 µgcm -2, ED 90 of 34.0364 µgcm

Norashiqin Misni; Sallehudin Sulaiman; Hidayatulfathi Othman

125

The Quantum Co-Evolution Unit: An Example of ‘Awa (Kava— Piper methysticum G. Foster) in Hawaiian Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quantum Co-Evolution Unit: An Example of ‘Awa (Kava—\\u000a Piper methysticum\\u000a G. Foster) in Hawaiian Culture. The process of co-evolution occurs in many kinds of relationships and on various scales. One example of a co-evolutionary\\u000a relationship is that of a plant and a culture with which it interacts. Such relationships are dynamic and ever changing. Researchers\\u000a have discussed this concept

Kawika Winter; Will McClatchey

2009-01-01

126

Antifungal Activity and Computational Study of Constituents from Piper divaricatum Essential Oil against Fusarium Infection in Black Pepper.  

PubMed

Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the ?-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that ?-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis. PMID:25375334

da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

2014-01-01

127

Development and In-home Testing of the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) Sampler  

PubMed Central

Exposure and dose estimation are essential to understanding the etiology of environmentally linked childhood diseases. The behavior of resuspended particulate matter (PM) suggests that stationary measurements may underestimate household exposures in young children (ages 6 to 36 months). Because of the size and weight of the sampling equipment, use of personal samplers in this age group is either difficult or impossible. The Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) sampler has been developed to provide a surrogate method to ascertain personal exposures to PM for this age group. As part of a study of childhood asthma, 55 homes in central New Jersey were tested. Simultaneous sampling for inhalable PM using stationary (110 cm height) and PIPER mobile sampler were carried out. In homes with bare floors (N=21), the absolute difference was 3.9 ?g/m3 (S.E. = 3.01; p = 0.217) and relative difference (PIPER/Stationary) was 1.12 (linearized S.E. = 0.11). On carpets (N=34), the absolute difference was 54.1 ?g/m3 (S.E. = 13.50; p = 0.0003), and the relative difference was 2.30 (linearized S.E. = 0.34). The results confirm the importance of understanding the personal dust cloud caused by children’s activity in a room, particularly when rugs or carpets are present. PMID:21351766

Shalat, Stuart L.; Stambler, Adam A.; Wang, Zuocheng; Mainelis, Gediminas; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Hernandez, Marta; Lioy, Paul J.; Black, Kathleen

2011-01-01

128

Classify the trees/Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation where students gather leaves from various trees on school property, interpret findings, name tree and leaves, journal activity and develop a new "aha" for nature!

Walsh, Mary

129

Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

1989-01-01

130

Fathers' Participation in Parental Leave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarized are findings from an investigation of Swedish parents, who were studied to discover barriers to fathers taking time off from work to care for a newborn. Discussion focuses on: (1) fathers' participation in parental leave; (2) parents who take leave, and why; (3) barriers to fathers' participation in parental leave; (4) the potential of…

Haas, Linda

1987-01-01

131

Parental leave and child health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there

Christopher J. Ruhm

2000-01-01

132

Complete plastid genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, and Piper: implications for the phylogenetic relationships of magnoliids  

PubMed Central

Background The magnoliids with four orders, 19 families, and 8,500 species represent one of the largest clades of early diverging angiosperms. Although several recent angiosperm phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence resulted in phylogenetic reconstructions supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. We sequenced the plastid genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other angiosperm plastid genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids and to examine patterns of variation of GC content. Results The Drimys, Liriodendron, and Piper plastid genomes are very similar in size at 160,604, 159,886 bp, and 160,624 bp, respectively. Gene content and order are nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm plastid genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34–39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions. Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony and likelihood methods and sequences of 61 protein-coding genes provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. Strong support is reported for monocots and eudicots as sister clades with magnoliids diverging before the monocot-eudicot split. The trees also provided moderate or strong support for the position of Amborella as sister to a clade including all other angiosperms. Conclusion Evolutionary comparisons of three new magnoliid plastid genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genomes, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots. PMID:17020608

Cai, Zhengqiu; Penaflor, Cynthia; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Leebens-Mack, James; Carlson, John E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

2006-01-01

133

Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum  

PubMed Central

Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species.

Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldivar-Riveron, Alejandro

2014-01-01

134

Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67?g/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. PMID:24268240

Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

2014-01-01

135

Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Piper officinarum (Piperaceae).  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from Piper officinarum C. DC. GC and GC/MS analysis of the leaf and stem oils showed forty one components, representing 85.6% and 93.0% of the oil, respectively. The most abundant components in the leaf oil were beta-caryophyllene (11.2%), alpha-pinene (9.3%), sabinene (7.6%), beta-selinene (5.3%) and limonene (4.6%), while beta-caryophyllene (10.9%), alpha-phellandrene (9.3%), linalool (6.9%), limonene (6.7%) and alpha-pinene (5.0%) were the main components of the stem oil. The antioxidant activities were determined by using complementary tests: namely beta-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic assays. The stems oil showed weak activity (IC50 = 777.4 microg/mL) in the DPPH system, but showed moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system (88.9 +/- 0.35%) compared with BHT (95.5 +/- 0.30%). Both oils showed weak activity against P. aeruginosa and E. coli with M IC values of 250 microg/mL. PMID:23413576

Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

2012-12-01

136

Evaluation of piper cubeba extract, (-)-cubebin and its semi-synthetic derivatives against oral pathogens.  

PubMed

The activities of the crude ethanol extract from Piper cubeba seeds, (-)-cubebin and its semi-synthetic derivatives were evaluated against oral pathogens. The crude ethanol extract was more active against Streptococcus salivarius (MIC value of 80 microg/mL). (-)-Cubebin displayed MIC values ranging from 0.20 mm for Streptococcus mitis to 0.35 mm for Enterococcus faecalis. The natural product (-)-cubebin and its semi-synthetic derivative (-)-hinokinin displayed bacteriostatic activity at all evaluated concentrations, as well as fungicidal activity against Candida albicans at 0.28 mm. The O-benzyl cubebin derivative showed fungistatic and fungicidal effects against C. albicans at 0.28 mm and 0.35 mm, respectively. Also, the other dibenzylbutyrolactone derivatives [(-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin and (-)-O-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)-cubebin] displayed bacteriostatic and fungistatic effects at the evaluated concentrations. Moreover, the semi-synthetic derivative (-)-6,6'-dinitrohinokinin was the most active compound against all the evaluated microorganisms. Therefore, it may be suggested that the presence of the carbonyl group at C-9 plus the introduction of polar groups in the aromatic rings improve the antimicrobial activity of dibenzylbutyrolactone compounds. PMID:17236178

Silva, M L A; Coímbra, H S; Pereira, A C; Almeida, V A; Lima, T C; Costa, E S; Vinhólis, A H C; Royo, V A; Silva, R; Filho, A A S; Cunha, W R; Furtado, N A J C; Martins, Carlos H G; Carvalho, T C; Bastos, J K

2007-05-01

137

Nephroprotective effect of Kabab chini (Piper cubeba) in gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Kabab chini (KC) (Piper cubeba) is an important drug in Unani Medicine, widely described to be effective in renal diseases, and physicians are using it as a protective and curative agent in various renal disorders from ancient times. The present study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of KC against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. This was studied in two different sets of tests, in which both the protective as well as the curative effects were evaluated in groups of albino rats. The powder of the test drug was administered orally in a dose of 810 mg/kg and 1220 mg/kg, in suspension form, in the pre- and post-treated models. The nephroprotective effect was assessed on the basis of biochemical estimation of serum urea and creatinine levels and histopathological examination of the treated kidney. The effect observed in the pre-treated and post-treated groups was compared with plain as well as negative control groups using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett's multiple pair comparison test. The findings of the two tests demonstrated that KC produced a significant nephroprotective effect in both pre-treated and post-treated groups. The results of our study indicate that KC possesses significant benefit against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:22805390

Ahmad, Qazi Zaid; Jahan, Nasreen; Ahmad, Ghufran

2012-07-01

138

Investigations of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Piper cubeba, Physalis angulata and Rosa hybrida.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activities of Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower) and Rosa hybrida (flower) were determined by carrageenan-induced paw edema, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and formaldehyde-induced arthritis in mice. The anti-allergic and analgesic activities of these plants were also studied by using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) and hot plate test in mice, respectively. These plant extracts clearly exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammation by oral administration (200 mg/kg). Also, administration (200 mg/kg, p.o.) of plant extracts for 1 week significantly inhibited type IV allergic reaction in mice (P<0.05). Rosa hybrida showed an analgesic effect against hot plate-induced thermal stimulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These results provide support for the use of Rosa hybrida in relieving inflammatory pain, and insight into the development of new agents for treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:14522451

Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2003-11-01

139

Radical scavenging ability of some compounds isolated from Piper cubeba towards free radicals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify the antioxidant activity of 16 compounds isolated from Piper cubeba (CNCs) through the extent of their capacities to scavenge free radicals, hydroxyl radical (HO(•)), superoxide anion radical O•(2)(-) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)), in different systems. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, DMPO, as the spin trap, and chemiluminescence techniques were applied. Using the Fenton-like reaction [Fe(II) + H(2)O(2)], CNCs were found to inhibit DMPO-OH radical formation ranging from 5 to 57% at 1.25 mmol L(-1) concentration. The examined CNCs also showed a high DPPH antiradical activity (ranging from 15 to 99% at 5 mmol L(-1) concentration). Furthermore, the results indicated that seven of the 16 tested compounds may catalyse the conversion of superoxide radicals generated in the potassium superoxide/18-crown-6 ether system, thus showing superoxide dismutase-like activity. The data obtained suggest that radical scavenging properties of CNCs might have potential application in many plant medicines. PMID:21681910

Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; K?adna, Aleksandra; Kruk, Irena

2011-01-01

140

Methylpiperate derivatives from Piper longum and their inhibition of monoamine oxidase.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that piperine, a known piperidine alkaloid from Piper longum, competitively inhibited mouse brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities. Piperine also showed in vivo antidepressant-like activity against the tail suspension test. In the present study, we further expanded on the identification of MAO inhibitors from the fruit of P. longum. Activity-guided fractionation of a methylene chloride soluble extract led to the isolation of three known piperine-related compounds, methylpiperate (1), guineensine (2), and piperlonguminine (3). Of these, methylpiperate (1) and guineensine (2) showed significant MAO inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 3.6 and 139.2 microM, respectively. Furthermore, methylpiperate (1) exhibited a selective inhibitory effect against MAO-B (IC50 value: 1.6 microM) than MAO-A (IC50 value: 27.1 microM). The kinetic study using the Lineweaver-Burk plots analysis suggested that methylpiperate (1) competitively inhibits MAO-A and MAO-B activities with the Ki values of 23.5 and 1.3 microM, respectively. PMID:18563347

Lee, Seon A; Hwang, Ji Sang; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Chul; Lee, Min Hee; Choe, Sang Gil; Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Myung Koo; Hwang, Bang Yeon

2008-06-01

141

High-frequency plant regeneration through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).  

PubMed

A high-frequency plantlet regeneration protocol was developed for black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. Secondary embryos formed from the radicular end of the primary somatic embryos which were originally derived from micropylar tissues of germinating seeds on growth regulator-free SH medium in the absence of light. The process of secondary embryogenesis continued in a cyclic manner from the root pole of newly formed embryos resulting in clumps of somatic embryos. Strength of the medium and sucrose concentration influenced the process of secondary embryogenesis and fresh weight of somatic embryo clumps. Full-strength SH medium supplemented with 1.5% sucrose produced significantly higher fresh weight and numbers of secondary somatic embryos while 3.0 and 4.5% sucrose in the medium favored further development of proliferated embryos into plantlets. Ontogeny of secondary embryos was established by histological analysis. Secondary embryogenic potential was influenced by the developmental stage of the explanted somatic embryo and stages up to "torpedo" were more suitable. A single-flask system was standardized for proliferation, maturation, germination and conversion of secondary somatic embryos in suspension cultures. The system of cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper described here represents a permanent source of embryogenic material that can be used for genetic manipulations of this crop species. PMID:16249871

Nair, R Ramakrishnan; Dutta Gupta, S

2006-01-01

142

Efficacy of extracting solvents to chemical components of kava (Piper methysticum) roots.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of kava (Piper methysticum) lactones and various phytochemicals obtained following the sonication of ground kava roots extracted in the solvents hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water, respectively, was analyzed. Eighteen kava lactones, cinnamic acid bornyl ester and 5,7-dimethoxy-flavanone, known to be present in kava roots, were identified, and seven compounds, including 2,5,8-trimethyl-1-naphthol, 5-methyl-1-phenylhexen-3-yn-5-ol, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid-methyl ester, 5,7-(OH)(2)-4'-one-6,8-dimethylflavanone, pinostrobin chalcone and 7-dimethoxyflavanone-5-hydroxy-4', were identified for the first time. Glutathione (26.3 mg/g) was found in the water extract. Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokavain (DDK) was present at a higher level than methysticin and desmethoxyyagonin, indicating that DDK is also a major constituent of kava roots. Acetone was the most effective solvent in terms of maximum yield and types of kava lactones isolated, followed by water and chloroform, whereas hexane, methanol, and ethanol were less effective as solvents. Total phenolic and antioxidant activity varied among the extracting solvents, with acetone and chloroform producing the highest effects, followed by water, while methanol, ethanol and hexane were less effective. PMID:18404321

Xuan, Tran Dang; Fukuta, Masakazu; Wei, Ao Chang; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Khanh, Tran Dang; Tawata, Shinkichi

2008-04-01

143

Variability in essential-oil composition of Piper marginatum sensu lato.  

PubMed

This paper contains data on the chemical composition of the essential oils of 22 leaf samples of Piper marginatum Jacq. collected in different areas and ecosystems of the brazilian Amazon, as well as an overview of the available literature. The species presents a large synonymy based on their different leaf characteristics and distinct scents where some of them smell like anise or very close compounds. By GC, GC/MS, and cluster analysis, we identified seven chemotypes for the leaf oils. The main components found in chemotype I were safrole (1) and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2). The chemotype II was dominated by 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2) and p-mentha-1(7),8-diene (10). The major compounds identified in chemotype III were 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2), myristicin (3), (E)-beta-ocimene (11), and gamma-terpinene (12). In the chemotype IV, the principal constituents were beta-caryophyllene (13), alpha-copaene (14), and 3,4-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (2). The chemotype V was dominated by (E)-isoosmorhizole (6), (E)-anethole (8), and isoosmorhizole (7). The main compounds found in the chemotype VI were 2-methoxy-4,5-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone (4), methoxy-4,5-(methylenedioxy)propiophenone isomer 5, and (E)-isoosmorhizole (6). The major constituents in chemotype VII were beta-caryophyllene (13), bicyclogermacrene (15), and (E)-asarone (9). PMID:18205123

Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; da Silva, Milton Helio L; da Silva, João Domingos; Bastos, Cleber N; Sousa, Pergentino José C; Guimarães, Elsie F; Maia, José Guilherme S

2008-01-01

144

Mosquito larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts of long pepper (Piper retrofractum vahl) from Thailand.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of nine medicinal plants were bioassayed against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypt (L.). Among these plants, the long pepper, Piper retrofractum Vahl (Piperaceae), showed the highest level of activity against mosquito larvae. To gain more information on larvicidal activity of P. retrofractum, fresh fruits of this plant were extracted in water and the extracts made into powder and bioassayed against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. Extracts of unripe (001/3) and ripe (002/3 and 001/4) fruits showed different levels of activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Extracts 001/3 and 002/3 were equi-toxic to a Bacillus sphaericus resistant and susceptible strains, both from Thailand. The ripe fruit extract 002/3 was somewhat more active against Ae. aegypti than Cx. quinquefasciatus. Another ripe fruit extract (001/4) was much more toxic to both mosquito species. Diluted solutions of the solid extract (002/3) in distilled water lost their larvicidal activity upon aging. Loss of activity at 25 degrees C was greater than that stored at 4 degrees C, and greater in water than in acetone solution. PMID:16599152

Chansang, Uruyakorn; Zahiri, Nayer S; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Boonruad, Thidarat; Thongsrirak, Pratom; Mingmuang, Jiranuch; Benjapong, Nipa; Mulla, Mir S

2005-12-01

145

Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil.  

PubMed

The essential oils of the specimens of Piper aduncum that occur in deforested areas of Brazilian Amazon, North Brazil, are rich in dillapiole (35-90%), a derivative of phenylpropene, to which are attributed biological properties. On the other hand, the oils of the specimens with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest, and Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil, do not contain dillapiole, but only terpene compounds such as (E)-nerolidol and linalool. One specimen existing in the Amazon was hydrodistilled. The obtained oil was fractioned on a silica chromatographic column, resulting in fractions rich in dillapiole (95.0-98.9%) utilized for analyses by GC and GC/MS, structural characterization by NMR, confirmation of their biological properties, and to obtain the isomer isodillapiole. Dillapiole showed a fungicide action against the fungus Clinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom) by inhibition of its basidiospores, in concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 ppm. The larvicide and insecticide actions of dillapiole were tested against the larvae and the adult insects of Anopheles marajoara and Aedes aegypti (malaria and dengue mosquitoes), resulting in mortality of the larvae (48 h, 100%) at a concentration of 100 ppm, and mortality of the insects (30 min, 100%) at a concentration of 600 ppm. The isomeric isodillapiole showed no significant activity in the same biological tests. PMID:19774604

de Almeida, Roseli R P; Souto, Raimundo N P; Bastos, Cleber N; da Silva, Milton H L; Maia, José G S

2009-09-01

146

Repellency of essential oil of Piper aduncum against Aedes albopictus in the laboratory.  

PubMed

The repellent activity of Piper aduncum essential oil against Aedes albopictus was investigated under laboratory conditions with human volunteers. The lowest median effective dose (ED50) value was 1.5 microg/cm2 at 60 sec of exposure when compared to 90 sec (2.1 microg/cm2) and 120 sec (1.8 microg/cm2) of exposure. At 0.4 g, the essential oil gave a high protection (95.2%) against Ae. albopictus bites or landing at 2 h postapplication. The percentage of protection was reduced to 83.3% after 4 h, 64.5% after 6 h, and 51.6% after 8 h postapplication. As a comparison, treatment with 10% deet gave 100% protection against mosquito biting/landing for 4 h postapplication. There was no significant difference in percentage protection reduction between the plant extract and the commercial product deet, respectively (P = 0.739). The essential oil, which was not as good as deet, still gave moderate protection against Ae. albopictus biting even until 4 h postapplication. In conclusion, the P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as a repellent against the dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever vector, Ae. albopictus. PMID:20099591

Misni, Norashiqin; Sulaiman, Sallehudin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Omar, Baharudin

2009-12-01

147

[Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].  

PubMed

With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity. PMID:17147171

Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

2006-09-01

148

Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors  

SciTech Connect

The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

Pate-Cornell, M.E. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-04-01

149

Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking  

PubMed Central

We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time-span is one during which parental leave legislation expanded at both the state and federal level. We also provide the first comprehensive examination of employment and leave-taking by fathers of infants. Our main finding is that leave expansions are associated with increased leave-taking by both mothers and fathers. The magnitudes of the changes are small in absolute terms but large relative to the baseline for men and much greater for college-educated or married mothers than for their less-educated or single counterparts. PMID:19090048

Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2009-01-01

150

Request for Overtime Leave Payment Employee Name: _______________________________________________________  

E-print Network

: _________________________________________ Pay Overtime Leave Balance As Of: _______________________________ I request payment for the overtime leave balance is requested. ____ Payment of partial overtime leave balance is requested. Please indicateRequest for Overtime Leave Payment Employee Name

Acton, Scott

151

Parental Leave Guidelines.doc PARENTAL LEAVE GUIDELINES  

E-print Network

leave is a right for parents to take time off work to look after a child or make arrangements for a child's welfare. Parents can use it to spend time with their children and balance the demands of work Parental leave is not intended to cover emergencies involving children, which is covered by different

Subramanian, Sriram

152

Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2009-01-01

153

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources for the isolation of new oral anti hypoglycemic agent(s). PMID:23414307

2013-01-01

154

In vitro efficacy of the essential oil of Piper cubeba L. (Piperaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

In this paper, cercariae, schistosomula, and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms were incubated in vitro with the essential oil of Piper cubeba (PC-EO) at concentrations from 12.5 to 200 ?g/mL, and the viability was evaluated using an inverted microscopy. The effects of PC-EO at 100 and 200 ?g/mL on the stages of S. mansoni were similar to those of the positive control (PZQ at 12.5 ?g/mL), with total absence of mobility after 120 h. However, at concentrations from 12.5 to 50 ?g/mL, PC-EO caused a reduction in the viability of cercariae and schistosomula when compared with the negative control groups (RPMI 1640 or dechlorinated water) or (RPMI 1640 + 0.1% DMSO or dechlorinated water + 0.1% DMSO). On the other hand, adult S. mansoni worms remained normally active when incubated with PC-EO at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 ?g/mL, and their viabilities were similar to those of the negative control groups. In addition, at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 ?g/mL, separation of all the coupled adult worms was observed after 24 h of incubation, which is related to the fact of the reduction in egg production at this concentration. The main chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as being sabinene (19.99%), eucalyptol (11.87%), 4-terpineol (6.36%), ?-pinene (5.81%), camphor (5.61%), and ?-3-carene (5.34%). The cytotoxicity of the PC-EO was determined, and a significant cytotoxicity was only obtained in the concentration of 200 ?g/mL after 24 h treatment. The results suggest that PC-EO possesses an effect against cercariae, schistosomula, and adult worms of the S. mansoni. PMID:22006194

Magalhães, Lizandra G; de Souza, Julia M; Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; Laurentiz, Rosangela da S; Vinhólis, Adriana H C; Rezende, Karen C S; Simaro, Guilherme V; Bastos, Jairo K; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Esperandim, Viviane R; Ferreira, Daniele S; Crotti, Antônio E M; Cunha, Wilson R; e Silva, Márcio L A

2012-05-01

155

Pharmacology of Piper marginatum Jacq. a folk medicinal plant used as an analgesic, antiinflammatory and hemostatic.  

PubMed

The pharmacological activities of the water extract of Piper marginatum Jacq. (Piperaceae), a plant reputed in the Brazilian folk medicine for its analgesic/antiinflammatory, hemostatic and skin wound-healing properties, were assessed. Intraperitoneal injection (i. p.) of the extract (0.1 to 1 g/kg) in mice and rats caused piloerection, sialorrhea, lacrimation, muscle relaxation and dyspnea. At doses above 1 g/kg the extract caused respiratory arrest and death. Intravenous injection of the extract (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) into anesthetized rats caused a dose-related hypertension (by 27 to 48 %) that was blocked by prazosin (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). Pithing, reserpine treatment and ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium (5 mg/kg) enhanced the effect. Oral treatment of unanesthetized rats and intragastric administration to anesthetized animals also produced hypertension. The sympathomimetic activity of the extract in isolated vas deferens, left atria and mesenteric arterial bed preparations paralleled that of noradrenaline, and was blocked to the same extent as noradrenaline by ?-blockers. The plant extract (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p. o.) also reduced carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats by 80 to 90 % of the control, but it had less effect on the volume of exudate and leucocyte migration in carrageenin-induced pleurisy. Likewise, the extract had a small analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. It is concluded that the antiedema effect of the plant extract is mainly related to its vasoconstrictor constituent(s). This sympathomimetic activity may explain the plant's reputed hemostatic properties when applied topically to bleeding skin wounds. The predominant vasoconstrictor component of P. marginatum detected in HPLC analysis was noradrenaline, whose activity is apparently preserved in the crude extract and produces vasoconstriction after oral administration. PMID:23195243

D'Angelo, L C; Xavier, H S; Torres, L M; Lapa, A J; Souccar, C

1997-03-01

156

Bioactive Markers Based Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Extracts of a Traditional Medicinal Plant, Piper sarmentosum  

PubMed Central

In vitro assays are economical and easy to perform but to establish relevance of their results to real clinical outcome in animals or human, pharmacokinetics is prerequisite. Despite various in vitro pharmacological activities of extracts of Piper sarmentosum, there is no report of pharmacokinetics. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extract of fruit of the plant in dose of 500?mg kg?1 orally for pharmacokinetics. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 (each n = 6) to study absorption, distribution and excretion, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied to quantify pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in plasma, tissues, feces and urine to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Pellitorine exhibited maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) 34.77?ng?mL?1 ± 1.040, time to achieve Cmax (Tmax) 8?h, mean resident time (MRT) 26.00 ± 0.149?h and half life (t1/2) 18.64 ± 1.65?h. Sarmentine showed Cmax 191.50 ± 12.69?ng mL?1, Tmax 6?h, MRT 11.12 ± 0.44?h and t1/2 10.30 ± 1.98?h. Sarmentosine exhibited zero oral bioavailability because it was neither detected in plasma nor in tissues, and in urine. Pellitorine was found to be distributed in intestinal wall, liver, lungs, kidney, and heart, whereas sarmentine was found only in intestinal wall and heart. The cumulative excretion of pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine in feces in 72?h was 0.0773, 0.976, and 0.438??g, respectively. This study shows that pellitorine and sarmentine have good oral bioavailability while sarmentosine is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19770264

Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazillah

2011-01-01

157

Effect of reverse photoperiod on in vitro regeneration and piperine production in Piper nigrum L.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel approach for in vitro regeneration of Piper nigrum L. has been applied in order to increase healthy biomass, phytochemicals and piperine production via reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). Leaf portions of the seed-derived plants were placed on an MS-medium fortified with different PGRs. Under 16hD/8hL, thidiazuron (TDZ; 4.0 mg L?¹) and BA (1.5 mg L?¹) was found to be the most effective (<90%) in callus induction. Two concentrations (1.5, 2.0 mg L?¹) of the IBA produced>80% shoots from callus cultures. Healthy shoots were transferred to rooting medium and higher percentage of rooting (<90%) was observed on IBA (1.5 mg L?¹). These in vitro tissues were subjected to amino acid analysis, spectrophotometry, and HPLC. ARG, SER, THR, and TYR were the most abundant components out of 17 amino acids. Higher amino acid production was observed under normal photoperiod (16hL/8hD) than under reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). The highest total phenolic content (TPC; 9.91 mg/g-DW) and flavonoid content (7.38 mg/g-DW) were observed in callus cultures incubated under 16hL/8hD than other tissues incubated under 16hD/8hL photoperiod. Higher DPPH and PoMo activities were observed in tissues incubated under 16hL/8hD photoperiod, while ABTS and Fe²? chelating activities were found higher in tissues incubated under reverse photoperiod. Significant quantities of piperine content were observed in all tissues except callus cultures. These results suggest that reverse photoperiod is a promising approach for callus induction, phytochemicals and piperine production for commercial applications. PMID:24439548

Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique

2014-01-01

158

See the Colors in Leaves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use chromatography to separate and analyze the mixture of pigments in leaves. Use this activity to discuss photosynthesis as well as why leaves change color in autumn. Safety note: Nail polish remover is flammable; do not use near heat. It also is harmful if ingested. Adult supervision recommended.

Museum Of Science And Industry, Chicago

2012-01-01

159

Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes  

SciTech Connect

RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.

Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

1996-11-01

160

Fathers and Parental Leave: Attitudes and Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined parental leave-taking behaviors and attitudes of 550 men whose wives/partners were pregnant. Fathers' mean length of leave time was five days; 91% of fathers took some leave. Employer's policy regarding length of leave was significant predictor of length of leave taken. Fathers holding egalitarian sex role attitudes and high in family…

Hyde, Janet Shibley; And Others

1993-01-01

161

NTVBLM ARALIK 201016 Betl Kacar Arslan  

E-print Network

NASA'nin gezegenimizde yaamin balangicini ve uzaydaki potansiyel yaami aratirdii Workshop Without Walls çou bilmeceyi aydinlatabiliriz. NASA'nin astrobiyoloji çalitayinda paleogenetik diinda, hayatin DNA astrobiyoloji eitimi verilmemesi- ne ramen NASA'daki çali- taya katilimin yüzde 10'unun Türkiye'den olmasi

Gaucher, Eric

162

Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures  

E-print Network

Certificate of Admission or Certificate of Enrollment For Academic Research Abroad Request for Leave Medical Certificate Other than those above* Request for Leave of Absence: Please contact the respective #12;Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures

Sano, Masaki

163

Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures  

E-print Network

Certificate of Admission or Certificate of Enrollment For Academic Research Abroad Request for Leave Certificate Other than those above* Request for Leave of Absence: Please contact the respective Department #12;Procedures for Leave of Absence (1) Procedures

Sano, Masaki

164

Essential and toxic elements in three Pakistan's medicinal fruits (Punica granatum, Ziziphus jujuba and Piper cubeba) analysed by INAA.  

PubMed

Three important medicinal fruits generally used by the people of Pakistan for the treatment of different diseases have been studied for their mineral contents. Twenty-two major and minor trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were identified in Punica granatum (pomegranate), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube) and Piper cubeba L. (cubeb) by employing instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The studied medicinal herbs are a good source of the essential elements while toxic elements are found in trace amounts. K is detected as a major element in pomegranate, jujube and cubeb with respective values of 1.20%, 1.18% and 2.01%. Pomegranate has significant concentrations of Na, Zn, Cr and Se; jujube has high Cl, Zn, Mn and Co contents while cubeb is a good source of K and Fe. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of mineral elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal herbs. PMID:22017565

Fatima, Ismat; Waheed, Shahida; Zaidi, Jamshed Hussain

2012-05-01

165

Inhalation of the essential oil of Piper guineense from Cameroon shows sedative and anxiolytic-like effects in mice.  

PubMed

The aromatherapeutical potential of Piper guineense essential oil was investigated in mice via inhalation administration, and the active compounds were identified. An open field test and light/dark transition test were used to evaluate the sedative and anxiolytic activities of this essential oil, respectively. P. guineense essential oil showed significant sedative activity at an effective dose of 4.0 × 10(-5) mg per cage compared to the control group. It also showed potent anxiolytic effect at a dose of 4.0 × 10(-6) mg per cage. The main compounds of P. guineense essential oil were linalool (41.8%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.9%). These two main compounds were shown to play a major role in the sedative activity of P. guineense essential oil. These results suggest that inhalation of P. guineense essential oil might induce a mild tranquilizing effect. PMID:24088255

Tankam, Joan Manjuh; Ito, Michiho

2013-01-01

166

Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor  

PubMed Central

Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343?nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest. PMID:24527258

Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R.; Sharma, Ajay K.; Hegde, Harsha V.; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.; Joshi, Rajesh K.

2014-01-01

167

Exoproteome and Secretome Derived Broad Spectrum Novel Drug and Vaccine Candidates in Vibrio cholerae Targeted by Piper betel Derived Compounds  

PubMed Central

Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC) for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC) are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU) can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets) against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species. PMID:23382822

Barh, Debmalya; Barve, Neha; Gupta, Krishnakant; Chandra, Sudha; Jain, Neha; Tiwari, Sandeep; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Rodrigues dos Santos, Anderson; Hassan, Syed Shah; Almeida, Sintia; Thiago Juca Ramos, Rommel; Augusto Carvalho de Abreu, Vinicius; Ribeiro Carneiro, Adriana; de Castro Soares, Siomar; Luiz de Paula Castro, Thiago; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Kumar, Anil; Narayan Misra, Amarendra; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Azevedo, Vasco

2013-01-01

168

Planned Giving: Leaving a Legacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is a wonderful surprise when an executor calls to inform that one's college has been remembered in an individual's estate, either for a future gift or one that is being distributed. Leaving this legacy often enriches the final years of a donor's life. But too often, these opportunities are left to chance because community college development…

Edwards, Joan

2010-01-01

169

Why Are Programs Leaving CEDA?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of all 38 current members of the (newly formed) National Educational Debate Association investigated why these directors opted to drop their Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) programs. Responses were received from 20 directors. The use of excessive speed in CEDA debate was mentioned as a reason for leaving CEDA by more of the…

Horn, Gary

170

??????????????????????????? Botanical Pesticides from Neem Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neem tree, Azadirachta indica A.Juss var. simensis (Thai neem), Azadirachta indica A.Juss (Indian neem) and Azadirachta excelsa Jack (Tiam) are in Meliaceae family. Fresh leaves of these neem trees were extracted by hydrodistillation. Chemical constituents of the volatile oil were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry technique, comparing the mass spectrum with standard compounds and library spectrum. Neem

Rattanaporn Promsattha

171

Allelochemicals from Pilocarpus goudotianus leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on germination, shoot, and root growth by bergapten, xanthotoxin, imperatorin, xanthyletin, xanthoxyletin, luvangetin, donatin and alloxanthoxyletol fromPilocarpus goudotianus leaves, onLactuca sativa var. nigra seedlings has been evaluated. A structure-activity correlation is discussed based on the bioassay results. Furanocoumarins appear to be the most active compounds in comparison with pyrano- and simple coumarins. The presence of an oxygenated function

Francisco A. Macías; J. C. G. Galindo; G. M. Massanet; F. Rodriguez-Luis; Eva Zubia

1993-01-01

172

Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

2005-10-01

173

Gas transfer in floating-leaved plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressurized gas transport with flow rates of 1.1 to 1.81 gas h-1 plant-1 have been detected in the floating-leaved aquatic macrophyte Euryale ferox on sunny days. The younger leaves gave the highest pressurization, but the gas flow was initiated mainly by the middle-aged leaves of the plants. The gas through-flow was shown to be highly beneficial for floating-leaved plants. It

W. Große; C. Bauch

1991-01-01

174

APPLICATION FOR LEAVE *Without pay only. Required  

E-print Network

Leave Vacation Sick (Employee) Sick (Family) Workplace Injury Leave (First 40 hours of work if used during the same period of absence ( e.g., 6 hours of vacation and 2 hours of sick leave). PLEASE treatment Death in immediate Family (USPS and TEAMS only) Extraordinary circumstances (Must be authorized

Wu, Dapeng Oliver

175

Why Leaves Aren't Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physical Review Focus article describes the controversy over the structure of networks that optimize transport of nutrients through the veins in leaves. Images show how vein networks in leaves can provide protection against damage to part of the network. Also, videos show how colored dye moves through the veins of the leaves.

2010-07-30

176

Exploring Why Career Changers Leave Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey data were used to explore the current teaching status and reasons for leaving or considering leaving teaching for 154 career changers who all graduated from a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program over a 9-year time period. Respondents provided information about reasons for leaving teaching, indicating personal\\/family, career, and school satisfaction reasons influenced their decisions. Their reasons are

Jennifer L. Cuddapah; Mary Ellen Beaty-OFerrall; Frank J. Masci; Monica Hetrick

2011-01-01

177

Parental Leave and Productivity. Current Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report consists of papers, commissioned by the Family Work Institute, by expert policy makers in the area of parental leave. The report consists of eight papers: (1) "The Impact of Childbearing on Employment" (James T. Bond); (2) "Fathers and Parental Leave: A Perspective" (Joseph H. Pleck); (3) Parental Leave and Productivity: The…

Friedman, Dana E., Ed.; And Others

178

University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE  

E-print Network

1/07 University of Utah REQUEST FOR MILITARY LEAVE Employee Information Name: Empl ID #: Home Address: City: ST: ZIP: Email Address: Phone: Type of Military Leave Dates of Leave Annual Reservist Training Military Duty Begin Date Expected End Date _____/_____/_____ _____/_____/_____ Certification

Provancher, William

179

A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association); Cathee Johnson Phillips (National Postdoctoral Association)

2012-06-01

180

Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme. PMID:24498820

Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

2013-06-01

181

Piper cubeba targets multiple aspects of the androgen-signalling pathway. A potential phytotherapy against prostate cancer growth?  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer (PC) in the Western world, there is a dearth of effective medication. Since the androgen-signalling pathway is very much involved in PC growth and development, we investigated the potential of Piper cubeba L. extract, P9605, in targeting multiple events simultaneously within this pathway. This may be more effective compared to an antiandrogen monotherapy. Our results indicated that P9605 inhibited proliferation in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by reducing DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis. This antigrowth effect was less pronounced in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. P9605 potently inhibited 5 alpha-reductase II activity, which is responsible for converting testosterone to its active form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in the prostate. It also acted as an antagonist at recombinant wild-type androgen receptors (AR). P9605 suppressed cell growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion stimulated by physiological concentrations of DHT in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, it down-regulated AR levels. In conclusion, our findings suggest that P9605 may potentially retard the growth of androgen-dependent PC via several mechanisms. PMID:18080233

Yam, Jianying; Kreuter, Matthias; Drewe, Juergen

2008-01-01

182

In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.  

PubMed

The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported. PMID:23107941

Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

2013-02-01

183

Why are nurses leaving nursing?  

PubMed

The causes of nurses' exodus from acute health care delivery practice may lie more in intrinsic factors rather than the heretofore overtly expressed reasons. This article examines bureaucratic factors, issues related to the medical profession and medical/scientific discourse, and factors within the nursing profession itself that may contribute to a nurse's unhappiness and dissatisfaction that causes him or her to leave. Nursing as emotional work and the implications for the individual nurse, and nursing as moral and moral distress are discussed. Suggestions to facilitate retention are made for changing the work environment to feel valued for their skillfully applied humanness. PMID:12765108

Sumner, Jane; Townsend-Rocchiccioli, Judith

2003-01-01

184

Medical Certification For Family and Medical Leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act for 1993  

E-print Network

Medical Certification For Family and Medical Leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act for 1993 ________________________________________________ _________________________________ Complete this section if the FMLA Leave to care for a Family Member. State the care you will provide and an estimate of the periods during which the care will be provided, including a schedule if leave

185

Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.  

PubMed

Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. PMID:24060214

Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

2014-01-15

186

Ultrasound-assisted conversion of toxic beta-asarone into nontoxic bioactive phenylpropanoid: isoacoramone, a metabolite of Piper marginatum and Acorus tararinowii.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of bioactive isoacoramone (1), a metabolite of Piper marginatum and Acorus tararinowii, has been achieved by oxidation of toxic beta-asarone (2) with potassium permanganate/copper sulphate/alumina into asaronaldehyde (3) followed by treatment with ethylmagnesium iodide to provide 1-(2,4,5-trimethoxy)phenyl-1-propanol (4) which upon further oxidation with potassium permanganate/copper sulphate afforded 1 in 64% yield (overall 32%). Toxicological evaluation of 1 reveals it to be nontoxic up to 60 mg/kg b.w. PMID:15143831

Sinha, A K; Joshi, B P; Sharma, A; Goel, H C; Prasad, J

2004-06-01

187

5 CFR 630.704 - Granting shore leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting shore leave. 630.704 Section 630.704 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.704 Granting shore leave. (a) Authority. (1) An...

2010-01-01

188

Metabolite-cytochrome P450 complex formation by methylenedioxyphenyl lignans of Piper cubeba: mechanism-based inhibition.  

PubMed

Five methylenedioxyphenyl lignans, (-)-clusin (1), (-)-dihydroclusin (2), (-)-yatein (3), (-)-hinokinin (4), and (-)-dihydrocubebin (5), were isolated from Piper cubeba as potent and selective inhibitors against cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition of CYP3A4 by these lignans and the possibility of their mechanism-based inhibition. Using [N-methyl-14C]erythromycin as a substrate, all lignans appear to be showed mixed-type of inhibition with apparent Ki of 1.96-4.07 microM. Furthermore, all lignans (1-5) inhibited CYP3A4 in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manners and thus appear to be the mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A4. The apparent inactivation parameter, K(I) for these compounds were in the range of 0.054-0.373 microM, whereas the k(inact) values were 0.225-0.320 min-1. Among them, (-)-clusin (1) and (-)-dihydroclusin (2) were found to be the most potent CYP3A4 inactivator with apparent K(I) and k(inact) values of 0.082, 0.054 microM and 0.253, 0.310 min-1, respectively. Spectral scanning of microsomes with these lignans yielded an absorbance at 455 nm, suggesting that all of them appear to inactivate the cytochrome P450 via the formation of a metabolite intermediate complex. This pattern is consistent with the metabolism of the methylenedioxyphenyl compounds. These results indicate that (-)-clusin (1), (-)-dihydroclusin (2), (-)-yatein (3), (-)-hinokinin (4), and (-)-dihydrocubebin (5) are effective mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A4. PMID:15748631

Usia, Tepy; Watabe, Tadashi; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

2005-04-01

189

Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO? extraction and hydro-distillation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO?) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO? extraction in optimum conditions were ?-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), ?-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and ?-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were ?-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), ?-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and ?-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO? and hydro-distillation showed an EC?? of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively. PMID:24607131

Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

2014-04-01

190

Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.  

PubMed

This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693

Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

2013-10-01

191

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEAVE OF ABSENCE REQUEST FORM  

E-print Network

approved leave will be considered a voluntary resignation and will result in termination of my employment@caltech.edu if you have any questions. Employee Information Name: Personal E-mail: Address during leave: LeaveType&LeaveDates Phone during leave: Cell Phone: EmployeeAcknowledgmentApprovals By requesting the above leave of absence

Faraon, Andrei

192

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

... 2014-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2014-01-01

193

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2011-01-01

194

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2013-01-01

195

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2012-01-01

196

5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE...Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement between voluntary leave bank...interfere with the employee's right to submit an application...

2010-01-01

197

Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, andPiper: Implications for the phylogeny of magnoliids and the evolution ofGC content  

SciTech Connect

The magnoliids represent the largest basal angiosperm clade with four orders, 19 families and 8,500 species. Although several recent angiosperm molecular phylogenies have supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence has resulted in phylogenies supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. This is one of the most important remaining issues concerning relationships among basal angiosperms. We sequenced the chloroplast genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other completed angiosperm chloroplast genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids. The Drimys and Piper chloroplast genomes are nearly identical in size at 160,606 and 160,624 bp, respectively. The genomes include a pair of inverted repeats of 26,649 bp (Drimys) and 27,039 (Piper), separated by a small single copy region of 18,621 (Drimys) and 18,878 (Piper) and a large single copy region of 88,685 bp (Drimys) and 87,666 bp (Piper). The gene order of both taxa is nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Comparisons of angiosperm chloroplast genomes indicate that GC content is not uniformly distributed across the genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34-39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions (both intergenic spacers and introns). Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Across the genome, GC content is highest in the inverted repeat due to the presence of rRNA genes and lowest in the small single copy region where most NADH genes are located. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes. Trees from both analyses provided strong support for the monophyly of magnoliids and two strongly supported groups were identified, the Canellales/Piperales and the Laurales/Magnoliales. The phylogenies also provided moderate to strong support for the basal position of Amborella, and a sister relationship of magnoliids to a clade that includes monocots and eudicots. The complete sequences of three magnoliid chloroplast genomes provide new data from the largest basal angiosperm clade. Evolutionary comparisons of these new genome sequences, combined with other published angiosperm genome, confirm that GC content is unevenly distributed across the genome by location, codon position, and functional group. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses provide the strongest support so far for the hypothesis that the magnoliids are sister to a large clade that includes both monocots and eudicots.

Zhengqiu, C.; Penaflor, C.; Kuehl, J.V.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Carlson, J.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Boore, J.L.; Jansen, R.K.

2006-06-01

198

Resilience and Young People Leaving Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

Stein, Mike

2008-01-01

199

LEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES  

E-print Network

: Employee ID Home Phone Current Mailing address: Department/College Name Classification Campus Phone Student teaching, as required, for employees enrolled in credential programs Family care or medical leaveLEAVE WITHOUT PAY REQUEST FORM HUMAN RESOURCES Employee Support Services | One Washington Square

Eirinaki, Magdalini

200

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN PARENTAL LEAVE PROCEDURE  

E-print Network

for parents to take time off work to look after a child or make arrangements for the child's welfare. Parents rules apply for parents of children born, or placed for adoption, before 14 December 1999. You partner. Where a child is disabled* parental leave allows for a total of 18 weeks of unpaid leave, up

Siddharthan, Advaith

201

Violaxanthin de-epoxidase in etiolated leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In etiolated leaves the occurrence of the enzymatic violaxanthin de-epoxidation to zeaxanthin is shown. The carotenoid transformation is provoked by the infiltration of whole leaves with ascorbate at pH 5 and is susceptible to DTT. Identification of the de-epoxidase activity is achieved by in vivo spectroscopy and pigment analysis (TLC).

Erhard Pfündel; Reto J. Strasser

1988-01-01

202

A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

Sallee, Margaret W.

2008-01-01

203

Shaping an Effective Parental-Leave Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As increasing numbers of women and two-career couples enter the work force, parental leave provisions are becoming a routine business practice. Companies are beginning to recognize parental leave as a cost-effective strategy for retaining employees and maintaining productivity. (JOW)

Meiers, Margaret E.

1989-01-01

204

Entering and Leaving School Administrative Positions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing survey data from 457 students in 29 U.S. school administration programs, examines the relative importance of factors influencing decisions to enter and leave the profession and the canonical correlation between reasons for leaving and reasons for staying. Self-actualization, esteem, and affiliation influenced entry decisions; salary…

Shen, Jianping; Cooley, Van E.; Ruhl-Smith, Connie D.

1999-01-01

205

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave...agreement is not required, however, for leave during which the mother has a serious health condition in connection with the...

2010-07-01

206

Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

1984-01-01

207

The Piper Fatigue Scale-12 (PFS-12): Psychometric Findings and Item Reduction in a Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Brief, valid measures of fatigue, a prevalent and distressing cancer symptom, are needed for use in research. This study’s primary aim was to create a shortened version of the revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS-R) based on data from a diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to determine whether the PFS captured multiple distinct aspects of fatigue (a multidimensional model) or a single overall fatigue factor (a unidimensional model). Methods Breast cancer survivors (n=799; stages in situ through IIIa; ages 29–86 yrs) were recruited through 3 SEER registries (New Mexico, Western Washington, and Los Angeles, CA) as part of the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Fatigue was measured approximately 3 years post-diagnosis using the 22-item PFS-R that has 4 subscales (Behavior, Affect, Sensory, and Cognition). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare unidimensional and multidimensional models. Six criteria were used to make item selections to shorten the PFS-R: scale’s content validity, items’ relationship with fatigue, content redundancy, differential item functioning by race and/or education, scale reliability, and literacy demand. Results Factor analyses supported the original 4-factor structure. There was also evidence from the bi-factor model for a dominant underlying fatigue factor. Six items tested positive for differential item functioning between African-American and Caucasian survivors. Four additional items either showed poor association, local dependence, or content validity concerns. After removing these 10 items, the reliability of the PFS-12 subscales ranged from 0.87–0.89, compared to 0.90–0.94 prior to item removal. Conclusion The newly developed PFS-12 can be used to assess fatigue in African-American and Caucasian breast cancer survivors and reduces response burden without compromising reliability or validity. This is the first study to determine PFS literacy demand and to compare PFS-R responses in African-Americans and Caucasian breast cancer survivors. Further testing in diverse populations is warranted. PMID:22933027

Reeve, Bryce B.; Stover, Angela M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bernstein, Leslie; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Piper, Barbara F.

2013-01-01

208

Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

2011-01-01

209

Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.  

PubMed

To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice. PMID:9769679

Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

1998-09-01

210

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in wheat leaves  

SciTech Connect

Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) was found in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Cheyenne (CI 8885)) leaves both by activity assays and by the protein blot method. The specific activity of the wheat enzyme is comparable to that of PPDK from maize leaves. Of the total soluble protein in wheat leaves, about 0.05% was PPDK, comparable to the amount in the immature wheat seed and about 1/70th the amount found in mesophyll cells of maize. Immunoprecipitation of wheat PPDK with maize enzyme antiserum indicates partial identity, and the apparent subunit molecular weight is the same based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Aoyagi, K.; Bassham, J.A.

1983-01-01

211

Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.  

PubMed

Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted. PMID:24310173

Moore, D; Hotch, D F

1981-02-01

212

A Response to Arguments against Mandated Parental Leave: Findings from the Connecticut Survey of Parental Leave Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes arguments against mandated parental leave: that many firms voluntarily provide parental leave; that child care is what parents want; and that mandated parental leave will raise business costs. Presents data showing that less than 15 percent of Connecticut firms provided job-guaranteed parental leave and that most firms dealt with leaves

Trzcinski, Eileen; Finn-Stevenson, Matia

1991-01-01

213

20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.532 Annual leave. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to...

2010-04-01

214

20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.532 Annual leave. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to...

2012-04-01

215

20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.532 Annual leave. The Job Corps Director shall issue procedures to...

2011-04-01

216

A flavonol glycoside from Embelia schimperi leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-galactosyl (1 ? 2) rhamnoside, has been isolated from the leaves of Embelia schimperi. The known compounds quercetin 3-rutinoside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, myricetin and quercetin were also identified from this plant.

Lawrence O. Manguro Arot; Lawrence A. D. Williams

1997-01-01

217

Female journalists more likely to leave newspapers  

E-print Network

A survey of 715 U.S. newspaper journalists reveals women report higher levels of exhaustion and lower levels of professional efficacy than do men. Among women 27 and younger, 30 percent say they intend to leave the field.

Reinardy, Scott

2009-01-01

218

Plant Structure--Leaves, Stems, and Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Page one consists of a full color illustration of an idealized plant, showing various leaf, stem and root features. Page two illustrates various adaptations of plant flowers, leaves and stems. All illustrations are accompanied by explanations of the structures' functions.

2000-01-01

219

Herbicide Uptake by Leaves and Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation describes how herbicides are taken up by leaves and illustrates how physico-chemical characteristics alter their movement across cuticles. Passive and active mechanisms of herbicide absorption across plant membranes into cells are shown as well.

220

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)  

MedlinePLUS

... spouse, son, daughter, or parent is a covered military member on “covered active duty;” or Twenty-six ... spouse, son, daughter, parent, or next of kin (military caregiver leave). Key News The U.S. Department of ...

221

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2011-10-01

222

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2013-10-01

223

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2012-10-01

224

46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Minimum Standards for State, Territorial...Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.8 Leave...without loss of Federal student subsistence...months. (2) For an emergency due...Midshipmen receiving student incentive payments...Superintendent, for periods not...

2010-10-01

225

Leave of Absence Please refer to the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) Leave of Absence Policy and Leave of Absence and Withdrawal, and Failure  

E-print Network

and medical certificate where applicable. Attach additional pages if more space is required. #12;2/2 Leave1/2 Leave of Absence Please refer to the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) Leave of Absence Policy and Leave of Absence and Withdrawal, and Failure to Register sections of the SGS website. Graduate students

Woodgett, Jim

226

Maternity leaves and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act.  

PubMed

More than 50% of mothers in the United States work. An important issue facing working women is maternity leave and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA). The nurse should recognize the childbearing-related problems the working woman may encounter and initiate appropriate referrals. Understanding both maternity leaves and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act will enhance the nurse's ability to provide appropriate counseling and referral. PMID:6556373

Brucker, M C; Reedy, N J

1983-01-01

227

Who Leaves? Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost a quarter of entering public-school teachers leave teaching within their first three years. High attrition would be particularly problematic if those leaving were the more able teachers. The goal of this paper is estimate the extent to which there is differential attrition based on teachers' value-added to student achievement. Using data for New York City schools from 2000–2005, we

Donald Boyd; Pamela Grossman; Hamilton Lankford; Susanna Loeb; James Wyckoff

2008-01-01

228

Characteristics of photosynthesis in peach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal photosynthetic patterns of Loring peach (Prunus persica (L). Batsch) leaves were monitored throughout the 1974 growing season. Using leaves on detached branches, CO2 exchange was measured under controlled light and temperature conditions. Net photosynthesis rate varied from 9 to 12.4 mg CO2 dm-2 leaf area h-1 and was correlated with fruit development, with the highest values occurring during the

C. E. Crews; S. L. Williams; H. M. Vines

1975-01-01

229

Leave-taking Rituals in Mourning Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic leave-taking rituals are a short-term strategic form of mourning therapy. These rituals consist of three phases: a) preparatory-in which the therapist explains how performing a ritual might help in taking leave of the deceased; b) reorganization-in which the client carries out certain tasks, such as writing daily entries in a 'continuous letter' to the deceased; and c) finalization-which is

Onno van der Hart; Frits A Goossens

1987-01-01

230

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2010-10-01

231

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2011-10-01

232

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2013-10-01

233

48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of service overseas. (5) Salary during travel to and from the...responsible for reimbursing USAID for salary payments made during home leave...the Mission Director. (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15...

2012-10-01

234

[Search for TNF-alpha sensitivity degradation principles from medicinal foods-hepatoprotective amide constituents from Thai natural medicine Piper chaba].  

PubMed

Eighty percent (80%) aqueous acetone extract from fruit of Piper chaba (Piperaceae) was found to have a hepatoprotective effect on D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Among the isolates, several amide constituents inhibited D-GalN/tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced death of hepatocytes, and the following structural requirements were suggested: i) the amide moiety was essential for strong activity; ii) the 1,9-decadiene structure between the benzene ring and the amide moiety tended to enhance the activity. Moreover, a principal constituent, piperine, exhibited strong in vivo hepatoprotective effect at a dose of 5 mg/kg, p.o. and its mode of action was suggested to depend on the reduced sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-alpha. PMID:20519856

Morikawa, Toshio

2010-06-01

235

More manganese accumulates in maple sun leaves than in shade leaves.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron activation analysis were used to measure manganese concentrations in leaves of Acer platanoides. Mn was found to accumulate in both the vacuoles and the chloroplasts, with more Mn (per unit area) in sun leaves than in shade leaves. No Mn was lost at senescence. Different seasonal patterns of Mn accumulation were found in sun and shade leaves. The quantity of chloroplast reserve Mn (bound to the outer surface of thylakoid membranes) increased rapidly in sun leaves from bud-break through midsummer, and then remained approximately constant through senescence. In shade leaves, however, the quantity of reserve Mn increased slowly, and at approximately a constant rate throughout the growing season. PMID:16666945

McCain, D C; Markley, J L

1989-08-01

236

Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave (http://handbook.unc.edu/medical.html)  

E-print Network

1 Graduate School Parental Leave Application Graduate students who wish to request Parental Leave to the Associate Dean for Student Affairs, Graduate School, CB 4010, 203 Bynum Hall. Date of application: __________________________________________ and academic department: ___________________________________________ Graduate School Parental Leave Application

Crews, Stephen

237

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

...false Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military...310 Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military... (a) Required information from health care provider. When leave is taken...

2014-07-01

238

["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].  

PubMed

Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave. PMID:12339587

Munz, R

1984-01-01

239

The Pied Piper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An unusually thorough British pest identification website loaded with general arthropod information, most of it well illustrated. Sections dedicated to chemicals, and miscellaneous home intruders are especially nice additions. They also include a bit of their work ethic, which contributes nicely to the overall quality.

0002-11-30

240

Paying the Piper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the question of exemption from religious instruction or activities in voucher programs in private religious schools. Much concern relates to the program's admissions policy, part of which involves using the lottery if there are too many applicants. This could compromise a school's religious teachings. (MMU)

Loconte, Joe

1999-01-01

241

Evaluation of leaves as a litter material.  

PubMed

The suitability of leaves for use as broiler litter was evaluated in four 49-d floor pen trials of 150 Avian x Avian female chickens each. In each trial, 25 broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to one of six pens at a density of 1.2 m2 per bird. There were two replicates of each of the following three treatments: 1) pine wood shaving (control), 2) a mix of 50% pine wood shaving and 50% leaves, and 3) leaves. Litter materials had no significant (P > or = 0.05) influence on live weight, feed conversion, breast blisters, dressed carcass weight, carcass yield percentage, or mortality. Mortality of birds reared on leaves tended to be higher than the other treatments, but it was found to be nonsignificant at the P < 0.05 level. No significant differences were observed for percentage litter moisture among treatments. Body weight gain was significantly (P < or = 0.05) higher for the broilers reared on the leaf litter. Leaves alone or mixed with wood shavings have potential as an alternate litter material without compromising production or processing parameters at a low placement density. PMID:9251143

Willis, W L; Murray, C; Talbott, C

1997-08-01

242

Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1  

PubMed Central

In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, Maria Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

2002-01-01

243

BENEFITS AND PRIVILEGES APM -740 Leaves of Absence/Sabbatical Leaves  

E-print Network

military leave g. Credit accrual not lost by intercampus transfer h. Credit not accrued during certain. For appointees, see Charts at end of APM - 740 b. One year at full salary limitation 740-18 Compensation During Sabbatical Leave a. Definition of "regular" salary b. Funding from two or more sources c. Additional salary

Squire, Larry R.

244

1. Sick Leave (See Eligible Benefits Chart) Eligibility for Sick Leave  

E-print Network

to a maximum of 60 days. Fixed term employees receive annual sick leave at the onset of their contract (9 month shall receive 13 days (pro- rated for part-time) effective on their first day of employment. Those hired-time). Employees on a paid/unpaid leave of absence (including short-term disability) on January 1st will receive

245

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determine with any certainty how many hours the employee would otherwise have...leave), a weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the beginning of the leave period (including any hours for which the employee took...

2010-07-01

246

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determine with any certainty how many hours the employee would otherwise have...leave), a weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the beginning of the leave period (including any hours for which the employee took...

2011-07-01

247

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determine with any certainty how many hours the employee would otherwise have...leave), a weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the beginning of the leave period (including any hours for which the employee took...

2012-07-01

248

University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

2013-01-01

249

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

...occasional basis for medical appointments, or leave taken several days at a time spread over a period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for prenatal examinations or for her own condition, such as for...

2014-07-01

250

The Importance and Potential Uses of Olive Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since phenolic compounds have been known as strong antioxidants, studies on olive leaves have attracted the investigators due to the richness of phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Recently, olive leaves are used in medicine, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical products. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. In this study, the importance of olive leaves is

Zafer Erbay; Filiz Icier

2010-01-01

251

Revised 11/2013 Request for UF Paid Parental Leave  

E-print Network

from any balance of accrued sick and/or vacation leave or any other payment owed by the University employment with the University, any remaining balance of hours used for paid parental leave will be deducted. If the paid parental leave taken exceeds the available balance of unused leave at the time of separation, I

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

252

5 CFR 630.703 - Computation of shore leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of shore leave. 630.703 Section 630.703 Administrative...CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.703 Computation of shore leave. (a) An employee earns shore...

2010-01-01

253

Division of Human Resources DONATION OF SICK LEAVE  

E-print Network

sick leave donations. Such requests should be informal and without pressure. Unacceptable behavior includes repeated contacts that exert pressure, play on people's emotions or leave a feeling of guiltDivision of Human Resources DONATION OF SICK LEAVE Human Resources/Attendance and Leave Donation

Meyers, Steven D.

254

FIN/ADOPTION OCT 13 ADOPTION/SURROGACY LEAVE  

E-print Network

FIN/ADOPTION ­ OCT 13 ADOPTION/SURROGACY LEAVE NOTIFICATION FORM 1. This form is for University of Sheffield staff to provide notification of an upcoming period of Adoption Leave (also available to intended). 2. Please read the Adoption Leave Policy and Procedure, available via the HR Family Leave website

Barker, Jon

255

MILITARY LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type or Write Legibly  

E-print Network

MILITARY LEAVE REQUEST FORM Please Print, Type or Write Legibly Check one: New Leave of Absence #: ____________________ Cell Phone#:________________________ Reason for Leave: Active Duty Military Leave Military Training (active or inactive duty) A copy of your military order(s) must be submitted no later than 30 days after

Wu, Shin-Tson

256

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. ...employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows:...

2010-07-01

257

The geometry of unfolding tree leaves  

PubMed Central

Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

1998-01-01

258

Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.  

PubMed

From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries PMID:17385479

Jordan, Claire

2007-01-01

259

BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave  

E-print Network

BSU BSU work study MLS Military Leave-Salary CPH Comp time taken-Temporary employee MLT Military Leave CPT Comp time taken MTH Military Leave-Temp DNO Organ Donation-Temp-Salary MTS Military Leave-Temp-Salary DNR Organ Donor-Regular OCE On Call Earned DNA Organ Donor-Salary OCH On Call Hours-Paid DNT Organ

Barrash, Warren

260

CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE DUTY  

E-print Network

CERTIFICATION FOR QUALIFYING EXIGENCY LEAVE LEAVE ARISING OUT OF THE ACTIVE DUTY OR CALL TO ACTIVE that you submit a timely, complete, and sufficient certification to support a request for FMLA leave due to a qualifying exigency: 2. A complete and sufficient certification to support a request for FMLA leave due

Gleeson, Joseph G.

261

The effect of state maternity leave legislation and the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act on employment and wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993, President Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Similar to the 12 states that already had maternity leave mandates, the FMLA guarantees 12 weeks of unpaid leave for eligible mothers. I evaluate the effects of maternity leave legislation on employment and wages, taking advantage of variation created by state legislation and the FMLA. My results show

Charles II Baum

2003-01-01

262

FAMILY LEAVE FOR AAUP FACULTY AT URI  

E-print Network

for health benefits for leaves beyond one year. PartTime Active Service with Reduced Workload: As specified beyond one year. For the first year, if the workload is at least half-time, health benefits shall be continued at the employer's expense. No health benefits shall be granted if the workload is less than one

Rhode Island, University of

263

Reason for Leaving Diploma/Degree Earned  

E-print Network

: Student Aid Program) Do you have an ISO Work Permit? [ ] N/A EDUCATION Type Schools Attended From Year To Year Circle Last Grade Completed High School Fresh Soph Jr Trade/Business School College or UniversityY / N EDUCATION Sr Reason for Leaving Diploma/Degree Earned Sr NAME LSUID Rev 05/10 STUDENT

Harms, Kyle E.

264

[Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L].  

PubMed

Six compounds have been isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta and identified as gallic acid, quercitrin, myricitriu, 3,4-di-O-galloylquinic acid, 2,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:2069701

Chen, L

1991-01-01

265

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind  

E-print Network

Aboriginal children's health: Leaving no child behind Canadian Supplement to THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S CHILDREN 2009 #12;© Canadian UNICEF Committee, 2009 Permission to reproduce any part of this publication-8035 info@unicef.ca www.unicef.ca ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS UNICEF is the world's leader for children, working

Northern British Columbia, University of

266

A flavonol glycoside from Myrsine africana leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myricetin 3-(3?,4?-diacetylrhamnoside), a novel flavonol glycoside together with myricetin 3-rhamnoside, myricetin 7-rhamnoside, myricetin 3-xyloside, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, 3?-O-methylquercetin 3-glucoside, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and gallic acid have been isolated from a methanolic extract of Myrsine africana leaves.

Lawrence O. Manguro Arot; Jacob Ogweno Midiwo; Wolfgang Kraus

1996-01-01

267

Terpenes from leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae).  

PubMed

The dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Guarea macrophylla (Meliaceae) was submitted to adsorption chromatography. Guai-6-en-10beta-ol, isopimara-7,15-dien-2alpha-ol and cycloarta-23,25-dien-3-one were isolated and identified by spectroscopic data, mainly by 1H and 13C NMR analyses; eight other known terpenoids were also isolated. PMID:11190388

Lago, J H; Brochini, C B; Roque, N F

2000-12-01

268

The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

Gill, John; And Others

1988-01-01

269

Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

2000-01-01

270

Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

Barnes, Tracy; And Others

271

Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22

DeWayne Moore; Deborah F. Hotch

1981-01-01

272

Calcium Deposition in Idioblasts of Mulberry Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large, rounded idioblasts were observed in adaxial leaves of mulberry plants; they were clearly distinguishable from epidermal, trichome and parenchyma cells. The size and density of idioblasts varied according to leaf age. Cytological features of idioblasts were as follows: the outermost region (‘cap’) of idioblasts was situated on the adaxial surface as a dome-like protrusion; a cylindrical protuberance extended from

YUKIO SUGIMURA; TOMOYO MORI; IKURO NITTA; EIJI KOTANI; TOSHIHARU FURUSAWA; MAKOTO TATSUMI; SHIN-ICHI KUSAKARI; MASAO WADA; YOHJI MORITA

1999-01-01

273

Compartmentation of storage compounds in peach leaves  

E-print Network

Compartmentation of storage compounds in peach leaves J.P. Gaudillère1 J. Schaeffer2 A. Moing A de Bordeaux /, 33405 Talence Cedex, France Introduction High leaf photosynthesis is achieved when into the phloem and exported to other parts of the plant. The study of interactions be- tween photosynthesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

EXPLORING WHY CONSUMERS LEAVE WEBSITES BEFORE BUYING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Businesses engaged in retailing over the Internet face many challenges. Most, if not all, of these businesses realize that a crucial point in the selling-purchasing process is the final phase - completion of purchase. Businesses must be able to close the sale before customers leave their website. This study intends to explore why consumers, who visit websites with intentions of

Chuleeporn Changchit; Robert Cutshall

275

What Limits Nitrate Reduction in Leaves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observation that even drastic over- or underexpression of nitrate reductase (NR) has little effect on biomass production suggests that nitrate reduction in situ and extractable NR activity are not strictly coupled. Rates of nitrate reduction in detached spinach leaves are often, but not always, much lower than NR activity measured in leaf extracts under substrate (nitrate and NADH) saturation.

Werner M. Kaiser; Maria Stoimenova; Hui-Min Man

276

Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

Tomley, David

1983-01-01

277

Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that at- tract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. lhe release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3

Ursula S. R. Rose; Ara Manukian; Robert R. Heath; James H. Tumlinson

278

Leaving Care: The Need to Make Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For too many years the phrase "after care, an after thought" summed up the lack of attention given to preparing young people in care for adult life and to the development of leaving-care and aftercare services. That stance has changed in the United Kingdom, however, and indeed has shifted positively and dramatically over the last decade. In 2010…

Coyle, Deirdre; Pinkerton, John

2012-01-01

279

MATERNITY LEAVE: WHERE WE STAND COMPARED  

Microsoft Academic Search

1) . There are essentially two basic types: financial instruments (tax deductions, credits, benefits, etc.) and formal, non-financial instruments (such as social recognition of the importance of motherhood and par- enthood). One of the first policy provisions that families with children encounter is maternity leave (ML) and the financial assistance that accompanies it. This policy provision combines both aspects: for-

280

University of Virginia Time Management Form Shift Hours Worked Code Payroll Elements Leave  

E-print Network

University of Virginia Time Management Form ­ Shift Hours Worked Code Payroll Elements ­ Leave FP Family Personal Leave (VSDP) FS Family Sick Leave (Personal)* H Holiday OL Overtime Leave RL Recognition Leave S Sick Leave (Personal) SL School / Volunteer Leave VS Sick Leave (VSDP) MA Military Active

Acton, Scott

281

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...after the birth of a healthy child or placement of a...

2012-07-01

282

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...after the birth of a healthy child or placement of a...

2013-07-01

283

29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...202 Section 825.202 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...after the birth of a healthy child or placement of a...

2011-07-01

284

Effective handling of health-related leaves of absence.  

PubMed

This article will address the legal obligations of employers in non-union settings toward employees who request pregnancy leave, parental or medical leave, workers' compensation leave, and other forms of disability leave. Specifically, this article will address the legal standards set forth under the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, various state pregnancy and family leave acts, workers' compensation retaliatory discharge authority, and the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. In addition, this article will provide practical guidance for employers in formulating effective leave policies that provide the maximum amount of operational flexibility while at the same time minimizing the risk of costly and excessive litigation. PMID:10171028

Connell, D S; Schwartz, F L

1992-01-01

285

Family medical leave--management strategies.  

PubMed

Employers are recognizing the impact of lost productivity on total benefit costs. In a recent report based on 2002 benefit data, lost productivity represented 71% of the full cost of health/absence benefits (Integrated Benefits Institute, 2004). Occupational health nurse managers can develop FMLA leave management policies and programs to assure that leave is provided when appropriate, to help curb FMLA abuse and fraud, and to assist employers in defending adverse employment actions based on attendance. A review of employer policies and FMLA implementation also assesses compliance with the Act and provides the basis for appropriate responses in the case of legal actions and employee complaints to the U.S. Department of Labor. PMID:15635929

Morris, Judy A; Strasser, Patricia B

2004-12-01

286

Nurses’ intentions to leave nursing in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. We examined how factors related to wage, work, job satisfaction\\/dissatisfaction,\\u000a and workplace or demographic factors were associated with nurses’ intentions to switch from health care to non-health-care\\u000a roles. Wage and share of income from shift work were negatively and statistically significantly related to nurses’ intention\\u000a to leave the health care

T. Kankaanranta; P. Rissanen

2008-01-01

287

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from leaves of Excoecaria agallocha.  

PubMed

A new oleanane-type triterpenoid (1) and five known pentacyclic triterpenoids (2-6) were isolated from the leaves of Excoecaria agallocha. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The new compound was characterized as 3beta-[(2E,4E)-5-oxo-decadienoyloxy]-olean-12-ene (1). Compounds 1-6 were found inactive in vitro against several human cancer cell lines. PMID:16755073

Zou, Jian-Hua; Dai, Jungui; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Jing-Quan

2006-06-01

288

Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

2011-10-01

289

'Dew nucleation' by hygroscopic particles on leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical explanations of dew formation usually consider a pure, plain surface and do not include any contributions of hygroscopic material present on this surface. A significant amount of hygroscopic material, however, is present on most real leaves, due to accumulated deposited aerosols, salt exudations, leached ions, or agricultural sprays. Similarly to cloud nucleation, hygroscopic material on leaves leads to a significant reduction of saturation vapor pressure and enables 'dew nucleation', where the condensation of minute amounts of water is still too small to be visible without a microscope. This may happen at humidities far below saturation, dependent on the composition and deliquescence point of the particles; additionally plant transpiration often raises the humidity on the leaf surface. While the amounts of water involved are not significant in terms of the energy or water balance, the ecological consequences of such condensation mechanisms on leaves may be considerable. Highly concentrated but mobile solutions are formed by the deliquescence of hygroscopic particles, which may provide important nutrients for the plant. Their chemistry differs considerably from dilute solutions. When viewed by an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), oscillating humidity led to the expansion of salts even on hydrophobic leaf surfaces. This may lead to the ’hydraulic activation of stomata (HAS)’, a process leading to the extension of liquid water films into the plant and subsequent transport of liquid water and solutes on the stomatal pathway, a meanwhile well-proven contradiction to previous concepts. Apart from the nutritional aspects, hygroscopic substances on leaves will interact with plant water relations. Depending on the degree of stomatal activation, this may trigger useful hydraulic signaling or provoke deleterious wicking and reduced drought tolerance of the plant.

Burkhardt, J.; Hunsche, M.; Pariyar, S.

2010-07-01

290

Carbon Fluxes in Mature Peach Leaves  

PubMed Central

The turnover and transport of sugars are described in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), a species exporting both sucrose and sorbitol. Apparent export rate was slower in peach leaves than in leaves of herbaceous species. Sorbitol was the major soluble end product of photosynthesis and the major soluble carbohydrate in the leaf (higher than sucrose). Carbon fluxes were described using 14C labeling, radioactivity loss curves, and compartmental analysis during the second half of the photoperiod when chemical steady state was reached for soluble carbohydrates. The measured specific radioactivity of sucrose was typical of a primary product. The delayed decrease in specific radioactivity of sorbitol indicated that part of it was secondarily synthesized. Sucrose is proposed to be the carbon source for the delayed synthesis of sorbitol in the light. The sorbitol to sucrose ratio was higher in the petiole than in the leaf tissues. In phloem sap, obtained using stylectomy of aphids and collected from the main stem between source leaves and apex, this ratio was lower than in the petiole, suggesting a preferential sorbitol demand by sinks. PMID:16653212

Moing, Annick; Carbonne, Francis; Rashad, Mohamed H.; Gaudillere, Jean-Pierre

1992-01-01

291

Isocitrate Lyase in Green Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) has been demonstrated in crude dialyzed extracts of healthy spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves from commercial sources and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) leaves stored in darkness in the cold room for 1 week. The products of the reaction were identified as glyoxylate and succinate, the former by its phenylhydrazone, and the latter traced by isotopic labeling and cochromatography. Fresh spinach extracts contain a mixture of at least two endogenous inhibitors of isocitrate lyase activity and one of them is proteinaceous. The endogenous inhibitor(s) is thermostable and retains 50% of its inhibitory effect even after boiling for 10 minutes. Dark starvation of the leaves removes the inhibition, due possibly to autolysis of the inhibitor(s). The inhibitor(s) can also be removed by filtration through Sephadex gels. The crude extract from spinach shows double pH optima in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and pH 8.0. The apparent Km at pH 7.4 was 0.1 mm. Oxaloacetate, dl-malate, succinate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and glycolate at 10 mm concentration inhibited, but ribulose 1,5-diphosphate activated enzymic activity. Images PMID:16658428

Godavari, H. R.; Badour, S. S.; Waygood, E. R.

1973-01-01

292

Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460?nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50?nm and 9–30?nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

2014-01-01

293

Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

2014-02-01

294

Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-? was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06?µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100?µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-?. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

2014-01-01

295

The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.  

PubMed

The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knockdown between commercial aerosol spray and essential oil spray for both Aedes spp. (P<0.05). The essential oil induced significantly higher mortality in Ae. aegypti (80%) than in Ae. albopictus (71.6%) (P<0.05). The commercial aerosol spray caused 97.7% and 86.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively (P<0.05). Based on these data, P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as an aerosol spray against Aedes spp. PMID:22041743

Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

2011-08-01

296

CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY Leave of Absence Form  

E-print Network

, and Bereavement). Sick day balance must be used prior to commencing an unpaid personal medical leave of absence taken for bereavement, parenting for foster care, or family illness not covered as FMLA leave

Rollins, Andrew M.

297

Before You Leave the Department of Chemistry Name ________________________________________ UIN ___________________________________  

E-print Network

Before You Leave the Department of Chemistry Name ________________________________________ UIN to the Graduate Student Services Coordinator before departmental approval form will be granted and Certificate of Committee Approval forms will be signed. The items below should be completed before you leave

Zimmerman, Steven C.

298

5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(2) Multiply the ratio obtained in paragraph (b)(1) of this section by the number of hours of annual leave transferred by each leave donor eligible for restoration under paragraph (a) of this section;...

2010-01-01

299

REQUEST FOR LEAVE NAME__________________________College of Charleston ID# (CWID#)________________  

E-print Network

of spouse, parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, brothers, sisters, children, grandchildren and great Without Pay 12. Other ____________________ Does This Leave Qualify Under the Family and Medical Leave Act, children, mother, father, sister, brother, grandparents, legal guardian and grandchildren (when

Kasman, Alex

300

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation  

E-print Network

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation Li An Angela G. Mertig Jianguo Liu Michigan State University To disclose the interplay between psychosocial between psychosocial factors and biodiversity con- servation. KEY WORDS: leaving parental home; Structural

An, Li

301

Want to Stay Slim? Leave the Car at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Want to Stay Slim? Leave the Car at Home Driving to work, rather than walking, ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 20, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Leaving the car at home and getting to work by walking, ...

302

LEAVE OF ABSENCE UNDERGRADUATE and SECOND BACHELOR'S DEGREE STUDENTS  

E-print Network

be resubmitted when appropriate documentation is attached. Download form that follows: Request for Leave __________________________ Street _________________________________________________ City, State, Zip Code

de Lijser, Peter

303

Three essays on maternity and parental leave policy in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the impact of maternity and parental leave policy on women's labour market outcomes. The first chapter uses the variation in mandated unpaid job-protected leave allowances across provinces to identify the effect of provincial leave policy on employment rates of women with young children. A difference-in-differences model provides evidence that maternity and parental leave policy reduced the gap

Adrienne E ten Cate

2007-01-01

304

Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

Furbish, Dale S.

2009-01-01

305

OFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE 2015/2016  

E-print Network

of Applicant Date HEAD: My signature certifies that I approve the Professional Development Leave requestOFFICE OF THE DEAN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LEAVE � 2015/2016 The Professional Development Leave not receive FDL will count as FDLs. Department heads who have completed a full term of service and who are so

Bermúdez, José Luis

306

The essential oil of the leaves of Citrus limonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give the results of an investigation of the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from the leaves of the Meyer lemon. The leaves were collected in the period of the forced dormancy of plants growing in Sukhumi. The amount of essential oil in the leaves was 0.32%. The components of the essential oil were identified

N. A. Kekelidze; I. I. Dzhanikashvili

1982-01-01

307

Urea retention and uptake by avocado and apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution retention by avocado (Persea americana cv. Fuerte) and apple (Mallus domestica Burkh. cv. Anna) leaves was measured by weight gain of detached leaves after dipping them in solutions of two surfactants and by analysis of various concentrations of urea retained at zero time on surfaces of attached leaves. Linear regression equations were calulated, relating leaf area and retention of

Isaac Klein; Shmuel Zilkah

1986-01-01

308

Optimal vein density in artificial and real leaves , L. Mahadevan*  

E-print Network

. Although photosynthesis, rather than water loss, is the desideratum of living leaves, the sharedOptimal vein density in artificial and real leaves X. Noblin* , L. Mahadevan*§ , I. A. Coomaraswamy. Inspired by plant leaves, we used microfluidic devices consisting of simple parallel channel networks

Mahadevan, L.

309

Original article The effect of light acclimation of single leaves  

E-print Network

model / photosynthesis / acclimation / shade leaves / Alnus glutinosa Résumé ­ Effets de lOriginal article The effect of light acclimation of single leaves on whole tree growth tree species, widespread but always restrict- ed to wet habitats. Because no sun and shade leaves can

Boyer, Edmond

310

Plant physiology Reduction of photosynthesis in sun leaves  

E-print Network

Plant physiology Reduction of photosynthesis in sun leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L under conditions (Received 20 December 1992; accepted 30 April 1993) Summary — Attached sun leaves of cotton (Gossypium in Amax was most severe at 1 800 ?mol photons m-2s-1 and 20°C. The leaves exposed to these conditions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Early School Leaving and the Cultural Geography of High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States early school leaving is a protracted educational problem throughout the world. Examines early school leaving from the position of young Australians (n=209) who left school or were considering leaving. Provides tentative theorizing traversing aspects of the cultural geography of high school as partial explanation of what is occurring. (BT)

Smyth, John; Hattam, Robert

2002-01-01

312

Parents' Workplace Situation and Fathers' Parental Leave Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how the workplace situation of both parents affects fathers' parental leave use. We used parental leave-taking register data from Statistics Sweden for dual-earner couples who resided in Stockholm and had children in 1997 (n=3,755). The results indicate that fathers shorten their parental leave if their workplaces are such that…

Bygren, Magnus; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

2006-01-01

313

Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources Leave for Active Military Duty Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Leave for Active Military Duty Form questions: (813) 974-5717 Rev. 04/2010 Overview - Faculty, Administration, and Staff employees who are ordered to active military service (not active duty training

Meyers, Steven D.

314

29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employee is requesting leave to care; (2) The relationship...employee is requesting leave to care; (3) Whether the covered...Forces receiving medical care as outpatients (such as a medical hold or warrior transition unit), and the name...

2013-07-01

315

The Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

When the detached first leaves of green or etiolated oat (Avena sativa cv. Victory) seedlings senesce in the dark, their oxygen consumption shows a large increase, beginning after 24 hours and reaching a peak of up to 2.5 times the initial rate by the 3rd day. This effect takes place while the chlorophyll of green leaves, or the carotenoid of etiolated leaves, is steadily decreasing. Kinetin, at a concentration which inhibits the decrease in pigment, completely prevents the respiratory rise; instead, the oxygen consumption drifts downwards. Lower kinetin concentrations have a proportional effect, 50% reduction of respiration being given by about 0.1 mg/l. About one-fifth of the respiratory rise may be attributed to the free amino acids which are liberated during senescence; several amino acids are shown to cause increases of almost 50% in the oxygen consumption when supplied at the concentrations of total amino acid present during senescence. A smaller part of the rise may also be due to soluble sugars liberated during senescence, largely coming from the hydrolysis of a presumptive fructosan. The remainder, and the largest part, of the increase is ascribed to a natural uncoupling of respiration from phosphorylation. This is deduced from the fact that dinitrophenol causes a similar large rise in the oxygen consumption of the fresh leaves or of leaf segments kept green with kinetin, but causes only a very small rise when the oxygen consumption is near its peak in senescent controls. The respiration of these leaves is resistant to cyanide, and 10 mm KCN even increases it by some 30%; in contrast, etiolated leaves of the same age, which undergo a similar rise in oxygen consumption over the same time period, show normal sensitivity to cyanide. The respiratory quotient during senescence goes down as low as 0.7, both with and without kinetin, though it is somewhat increased by supplying sugars or amino acids; glucose or alanine at 0.3 m bring it up to 1.0 and 0.87, respectively. N6-Benzylaminopurine and ?-2-isopentenylaminopurine act similarly to kinetin in repressing the respiratory rise, the former being five times as active as kinetin, while the latter has only 1% of the activity of kinetin. Zeatin also powerfully prevents senescence. Because the repression of the respiratory rise is shown by each cytokinin at the concentration at which it inhibits senescence, the action is ascribed in both cases to the maintenance of a tight coupling between respiration and phosphorylation. It is pointed out that such an effect would explain many features of cytokinin action. A change in the methodology of the senescence experiments is described and compared with the method previously used, and the influence of temperature and age of the plants on the course of leaf senescence are presented in detail. PMID:16658877

Tetley, Richard M.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1974-01-01

316

Fathers' rights to paid parental leave in the Nordic countries: consequences for the gendered division of leave  

Microsoft Academic Search

European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers

Linda Haas; Tine Rostgaard

2011-01-01

317

Chapter 16 Leave of Absence 16.10 Paternity Leave FMLA, WFMLA, and Contract/Admin code  

E-print Network

Chapter 16 Leave of Absence 16.10 Paternity Leave FMLA, WFMLA, and Contract/Admin code Employees. The six month leave without pay provision under the contract or Admin Code is the most generous benefit and administrative code for unrepresented classified employees. First six weeks: Employee would receive six weeks

Sheridan, Jennifer

318

Adoption Leave Agreement 1 The University's adoption leave agreement provides benefits at a higher level than the  

E-print Network

Adoption Leave Agreement 1 The University's adoption leave agreement provides benefits at a higher level than the legal minimum, and so some of the requirements of the University's adoption leave Resources. 2 An adopter is a person who has been matched with a child for adoption or, if a couple have been

Greenaway, Alan

319

Antioxidant lignoids from leaves of Ribes nigrum.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Ribes nigrum resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds, including four 7,7'-epoxylignans, three tetrahydrofuran-type sesquilignans, and a spirocyclic dilignan. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and by chemical transformations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using superoxide anion scavenging assay and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Ribesin D and ribesin G showed the most potent superoxide anion scavenging activity with EC50 values of 1.24 and 1.12 ?M, respectively, and the structure-activity relationship was discussed. PMID:23958345

Sasaki, Tatsunori; Li, Wei; Zaike, Shinnosuke; Asada, Yoshihisa; Li, Qin; Ma, Fenghua; Zhang, Qingbo; Koike, Kazuo

2013-11-01

320

Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.  

PubMed

Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. PMID:18844259

Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

2009-03-01

321

Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

Mueller, Michael P.

2011-06-01

322

Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.  

PubMed

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

2011-11-01

323

5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2010-01-01

324

5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2013-01-01

325

5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2014-01-01

326

5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2011-01-01

327

5 CFR 630.1205 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...equivalent pay and benefits consistent with Federal laws, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 701) and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2000e). (f) Only the amount of leave taken...

2012-01-01

328

29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...mid-way through a shift, such as where...otherwise work 40 hours a week takes off...up to a total of 12 workweeks of leave...weekly average of the hours scheduled over the 12 months prior to the...period (including any hours for which the...

2013-07-01

329

Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves.  

PubMed

Volatile constituents of Vitex negundo leaves growing in Dehra Dun (India) were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and showed the presence of sixty-six compounds. Such a study has not been done earlier on the Indian oil. Thirty-five compounds, constituting 74.96% of the oil, were identified. The main compounds are viridiflorol (19.55%), beta-caryophyllene (16.59%), sabinene (12.07%), 4-terpineol (9.65%), gamma-terpinene (2.21%), caryophyllene oxide (1.75%), 1-oceten-3-ol (1.59%), and globulol (1.05%). Viridiflorol is being reported for the first time in the oil of Vitex species. PMID:17260284

Singh, V; Dayal, R; Bartley, J P

1999-08-01

330

Metabolism of Oat Leaves during Senescence  

PubMed Central

The ATP content of 7-day-old Avena sativa leaves during senescence in dark and in light, and after treatment with cytokinins and other reagents, has been determined by the luciferin-luciferase method. Special care was taken to avoid decomposition of the ATP, and a detailed procedure is presented for ATP analysis at the picomole level. Preliminary experiments with several inhibitors of photophosphorylation suggest, though not conclusively, that the delaying effect of light on senescence is mediated by photophosphorylation. The ATP values of the leaves senescing in darkness are found to increase in parallel with the large increase in respiratory rate, and kinetin prevents this increase just as completely as it prevents the respiratory rise. It is concluded that the respiratory increase in senescence cannot be simply due to uncoupling. In light the ATP level also rises, though more slowly, and again kinetin prevents this rise. l-Serine, which promotes dark senescence, does not significantly modify the dark ATP level, but both arginine and kinetin, which antagonize the action of serine on senescence, greatly lower the ATP level below that on serine alone. Cycloheximide has a similar effect, and the combination of cycloheximide and kinetin lowers the ATP level drastically. Fusicoccin, which opens stomata in the dark, correspondingly maintains the ATP at a low level. Thus, in general, a low level of ATP is associated with the prevention of dark senescence, i.e. probably with ATP utilization, and the ATP level at any time may thus be determined more by the rate of utilization than by the efficiency of respiratory coupling. PMID:16661296

Malik, Nasir S. A.; Thimann, Kenneth V.

1980-01-01

331

[Chemical constituents from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera].  

PubMed

To study the chemical constituents, twenty-seven compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol extract from leaves of Nelumbo nucifera by modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified as 10-octacosanol (1), beta-sitosterol (2), 1-undecanol (3), 1-eicosanol (4), daucosterol (5), 6'-hydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (6), 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone (7), rhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), chrysoeriol-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (9), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (10), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (11), hyperoside (12), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (13), astragalin (14), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1--> 6)-[alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside] (15), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-D-lyxopyranosyl-(1 --> 2) -beta-D-glucopyranoside (16), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (17), isorhamnetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (18), quercetin (19), kaempferol (20), dehydronuciferine (21), roemerine (22), stigmast-7-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), stigmast-7-en-3beta-ol (24), and benzene-1,2-diol (25) on the basis of spectral data analysis. Compounds 1, 6, 7, 8, 24 and 25 were isolated from this plant for the first time, and compounds 15-18 were isolated from the leaves for the first time. Compounds 6, 8, 10, 11, 13 and 15 showed inhibitory activities against beta amyloid (1-42) by A-beta aggregation method with inhibition rates of (63.99 +/- 24.29)%, (79.61 +/- 4.49)%, (49.96 +/- 12.61)%, (101.19 +/- 8.19)%, (88.41+/-6.76)% and (72.48 +/- 8.97)%, respectively. PMID:23724680

Zhao, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Zhi-Min; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Jing, Wen-Guang; Liu, An

2013-03-01

332

Please cite this article in press as: A.M. Piper, J.D. Hollan, Supporting medical communication for older patients with a shared touch-screen computer, Int. J. Med. Inform. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2011.03.005  

E-print Network

online xxx Keywords: Communication Elderly Electronic Medical records Health care technology User communication for older patients with a shared touch-screen computer Anne Marie Piper , James D. Hollan-computer interface a b s t r a c t Objective: Increasingly health care facilities are adopting electronic medical

Wang, Deli

333

Limitations to photosynthesis in coffee leaves from different canopy positions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limitations to photosynthesis were explored in leaves from four canopy positions of field-grown, unshaded coffee (Coffea arabica L.), a tropical tree species classified as shade-obligatory. Overall, compared to shade (lower) leaves, sun (upper) leaves had higher net carbon assimilation rate (A) (4.5 against 2.0?molm?2s?1 at most) associated with higher electron transport rate (due to a greater irradiance availability) but unrelated

Wagner L. Araujo; Paulo C. Dias; Gustavo A. B. K. Moraes; Elaine F. Celin; Roberto L. Cunha; Raimundo S. Barros; Fábio M. DaMatta

2008-01-01

334

Parental Leave and Gender Equality: Lessons from the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of European Union parental leave policy and its impact on mothers'and fathers'access to parental leave in the individual nations that make up the union. Cross-national variations in parental leave policy are described and analyzed. Although the 15 countries belonging to the EU in 2002 are concerned about helping working parents reconcile employment and family responsibilities,

LINDA HAAS

2003-01-01

335

The bionomics of Liriomyza Trifolii on Gypsophila and Bean Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the distribution of feeding and oviposition punctures made byLiriomyza trifolii Burgess on gypsophila(Gypsophila paniculata ) and bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves, and the development times of the immature stages on these plants. The absolute number of punctures per leaf area\\u000a was much greater on bean leaves than on gypsophila leaves. The number of mines per

Jeanine H. W. M. Van Elferen; Shoshana Yathom

1989-01-01

336

Leaf life span of floating-leaved plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic capacity of floating-leaved plants is relatively high comparable with terrestrial herbaceous plants, though floating-leaved plants have a much smaller biomass with a leaf area index seldom exceeding 2m2m-2. Their rather small biomass accumulation is related to higher turnover of leaf biomass or shorter leaf life span. Life span of floating leaves reported in the literature ranged mostly from 13

T. Tsuchiya

1991-01-01

337

Dept/Fund Account LEAVE Report for Faculty and Professional Staff  

E-print Network

Earnings Codes Regular Salary JTS ­ Job Injury-Sick JRS ­ Jury Duty MLS ­ Military Leave SCS ­ Sick leave SMS ­ Sick Leave Family SRS ­ Sick Bereavement VCS - Vacation Earnings Codes Temporary Salary JHS ­ Job Injury-Sick JUS ­ Jury Duty MTS ­ Military Leave SIS ­ Sick Leave SFS ­ Sick Leave Family SHS

Barrash, Warren

338

Succession of microfungal communities on decaying leaves of Castanopsis fissa.  

PubMed

A total of 38 fungal taxa were identified on senescent untreated and autoclaved Castanopsis fissa leaves during a 4-month study period. Seventy-six percent of the fungal genera found in this survey have not previously been recorded from Castanopsis. Frequency and time of occurrence of fungal taxa occurring on untreated senescent leaves were clustered into four groups when analyzed by cluster analysis, suggesting the replacement of microfungi in stages of succession on naturally senescent leaves. Autoclaved leaves revealed significantly different fungal communities, with only 26% of overlap with the natural ones and no clear patterns of replacement of fungal communities. Factors regulating the rates of decomposition are also discussed. PMID:16333336

Tang, Alvin M C; Jeewon, Rajesh; Hyde, Kevin D

2005-11-01

339

Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves  

SciTech Connect

PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

None

2012-01-01

340

Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.  

PubMed

Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

2014-01-01

341

Request for Leave of Absence Form PLEASE COMPLETE AND RETURN THIS FORM TO YOUR SUPERVISOR 30 DAYS IN ADVANCE OF LEAVE IF POSSIBLE  

E-print Network

) ­ Only for Nurses under UC/CNA labor contract ° ° Provide the Date of Birth or Placement of Child (if or when employee is ineligible for other leaves) Personal Leave (Non-Medical Reason) Union Business Leave

Leistikow, Bruce N.

342

Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies. PMID:23359582

2013-02-01

343

Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division. PMID:15161195

Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

2004-06-01

344

Measuring surface potential changes on leaves.  

PubMed

We provide here a detailed protocol for studying the changes in electrical surface potential of leaves. This method has been developed over the years by plant physiologists and is currently used in different variants in many laboratories. The protocol records surface potential changes to measure long-distance electrical signals induced by diverse stimuli such as leaf wounding or current injection. This technique can be used to determine signaling speeds, to measure the connectivity between different plant organs and-by exploiting mutant plants-to identify transporters and ion channels involved in electrical signaling. The approach can be combined with the analysis of mRNA expression and of metabolite concentrations to correlate electrical signaling to specific physiological events. We describe how to use this protocol on Arabidopsis, looking at the effects of leaf wounding; however, it is broadly applicable to other plants and can be used to study other aspects of plant physiology. After wound infliction, surface potential recording takes ?20 min per plant. PMID:25058646

Mousavi, Seyed A R; Nguyen, Chi Tam; Farmer, Edward E; Kellenberger, Stephan

2014-08-01

345

31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Credit Must Be Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. ...separated for retirement as of June 30, 1997, Federal Benefit Payments include credit...separated for retirement after June 30, 1997, no unused sick leave is creditable...

2010-07-01

346

Photosynthetic strategies in leaves and stems of Egeria densa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic mechanisms have been compared in leaves and, separately, in stems of Egeria densa Planch. In order to correlate the structural and functional characteristics of the two organs (1) the ultrastructural features of leaves and stems have been studied and (2) their photosynthetic activity has been evaluated by measuring in vivo both oxygen evolution and the kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence.

Nicoletta Rascio; Paola Mariani; Emanuela Tommasini; Maria Bodner; Walter Larcher

1991-01-01

347

5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...paragraph (c) of this section, an employee who has had a break in service is entitled to a recredit of sick leave (without...District of Columbia before October 1, 1987, who has had a break in service is entitled to a recredit of sick leave...

2010-01-01

348

Photosynthetic energy storage in aquatic leaves measured by photothermal deflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of photosynthetic energy storage efficiency (ES), the adaxial surface of the leaves of Vallisneria americana exhibited the highest ES values (22%) of the four aquatic plants examined. V. americana leaves have a dispersed structure and it was possible to measure the energy storage properties of the epidermal cells independently of the rest of the leaf. The abaxial

John Sinclair; Charles E. Hall

1995-01-01

349

The Family and Medical Leave Act. Final rule.  

PubMed

This Final Rule amends certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (the FMLA or the Act) to implement amendments to the military leave provisions of the Act made by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which extends the availability of FMLA leave to family members of members of the Regular Armed Forces for qualifying exigencies arising out of the servicemember's deployment; defines those deployments covered under these provisions; extends FMLA military caregiver leave for family members of current servicemembers to include an injury or illness that existed prior to service and was aggravated in the line of duty on active duty; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries or illnesses. This Final Rule also amends the regulations to implement the Airline Flight Crew Technical Corrections Act, which establishes eligibility requirements specifically for airline flight crewmembers and flight attendants for FMLA leave and authorizes the Department to issue regulations regarding the calculation of leave for such employees as well as special recordkeeping requirements for their employers. In addition, the Final Rule includes clarifying changes concerning the calculation of intermittent or reduced schedule FMLA leave; reorganization of certain sections to enhance clarity; the removal of the forms from the regulations; and technical corrections to the current regulations. PMID:23476974

2013-02-01

350

Some pharmacognostical characteristics of moringa oleifera lam. Leaves.  

PubMed

The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556759

Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

1996-04-01

351

Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

Dern, Daniel P.

1997-01-01

352

LSUHSC Department of Genetics Request for Leave Graduate Students  

E-print Network

Death in family Care for an immediate family member with a serious health condition Personal leave not accrue vacation or sick leave. Therefore, this document serves as an advisory for students requesting laboratory work, coursework or other school duties must get prior approval from their advisor

353

Usage of parental leave by fathers in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Fathers' participation in childcare is not only important in promoting gender equality but can be also important for the child's better upbringing. To promote fathers' involvement and participation in childcare, in the 1990s Norway and other Scandinavian countries have evolved their parental leave schemes such that employed fathers may have equal access to paid parental leave as mothers.

Ghazala Naz

2010-01-01

354

THE AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Medical Leave Statute 2007  

E-print Network

Discrimination Act 9 15 Discipline Rules and serious health conditions 9 16 Effect of cancellation of enrolment, psychological or allied health practitioner; medical leave means leave of absence from the University taken the University or to pursue or study a program or course, that: #12;3 (i) is likely to physically endanger

Botea, Adi

355

Personal Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University  

E-print Network

. If the employee withdraws from the program of study at a date in advance of the termination of the leave, hePersonal Leave of Absence Without Pay Request Georgia Southern University Employee Name: ______________________________________________________________________________ Last Name First Name MI Employee Id: _______________ Title:____________________ Department

Hutcheon, James M.

356

Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

2000-01-01

357

Fungi, leaves, and the theory of island biogeography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species dynamics of fungi (filamentous fungi and yeasts) on apple leaves were studied within the framework of the theory of island biogeography by following “immigration” and “extinction” patterns on individual apple leaf “islands” over time. Total fungi were censused on unmanipulated leaves collected throughout two seasons; filamentous fungi only were monitored additionally for several weeks in one season on newly

John H. Andrews; Linda L. Kinkel; Flora M. Berbee; Erik V. Nordheim

1987-01-01

358

Why Do New Teachers Leave? How Could They Stay?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this article posits that some teachers leave the profession because they entered it with unrealistic expectations, and that the reality of multiple preparations, unpaid orientation sessions, and large student loads is overburdening.for new teachers. Many new teachers leave their positions because of the dissonance between their…

Simos, Elaine

2013-01-01

359

GRADUATE STUDENT FALL-SPRING INTERNSHIP LEAVE APPROVAL FORM  

E-print Network

GRADUATE STUDENT FALL-SPRING INTERNSHIP LEAVE APPROVAL FORM Instructions: This form should to participate in a fall or spring internship; (3) want to continue their Graduate Student Assistant (GSA) health of the internship semester. See Graduate School Policies and Procedures, Chapter 5, section on Internship Leave

Collins, Gary S.

360

Extracts of ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves produce reversible inhibition of rat brain monoamine oxidase (MAO). Both MAO-A and -B types were inhibited to a similar extent. The MAO inhibitory compound(s) were present in dried or fresh Ginkgo biloba leaves as well as in commercially available capsules of Ginkgo biloba and appear to be heat stable with relatively low molecular weight. MAO

Helen L. White; Philip W. Scates; Barrett R. Cooper

1996-01-01

361

Stomatal Characterization of Grass Leaves by Four Preparation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four leaf preparation techniques (air drying, tetramethylsilane air drying, critical point drying, and freeze substitution) used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were evaluated with respect to the degree of cellular distortion they produce in stomatal guard cells of leaves of Dactylis glomerata and Elymus canadensis. Surface morphological distortion and cuticle disruption in the air-dried and tetramethylsilane air-dried leaves, and cuticle

Joyce Phillips Hardy; Val Jo Anderson; John S. Gardner

1995-01-01

362

University of Sussex A Guide to Paternity Leave and Pay  

E-print Network

family relationship but is not an immediate relative. This includes a male or a female in a same sex Statutory Paternity Pay 5 7. Return to work dates 6 8. Antenatal care 6 9. Pension arrangements during paternity leave 6 10. Work during paternity leave and keeping in touch 8 11. Sickness prior to or during

Sussex, University of

363

The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

Lee, Yu-Jin

2010-01-01

364

Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

365

Pregnant Staff and Parental Leave: Policies and Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews health concerns and considerations for pregnant child care staff and discusses elements to include when developing or revising parental leave policies and procedures. Summarizes the elements of an exemplary comprehensive leave policy and supports the positions presented with the related federal legislation. (AA)

Gratz, Rene R.; Boulton, Pamla Jo

1995-01-01

366

Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in willow leaves under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll fluorescence of leaves of a willow (Salix sp.) stand grown in the field in northern Sweden was measured on several occasions during the growing season of 1987. For leaves that received mostly full daylight, the FV\\/FP ratio declined roughtly 15% in the afternoon on cloudless days in July (FP is the fluorescence at the peak of the induction curve

Erling Ögren

1988-01-01

367

The relationship between phosphate status and photosynthesis in leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning and intracellular distribution of orthophosphate (Pi) in barly (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves were measured in plants grown with either 25, 1 or 0 mmol· 1-1 nutrient phosphate supply. Phosphate deficiency resulted in a significant decrease in the leaf Pi, diminished rates of photosynthesis and a decrease in the sucrose\\/starch ratio in the leaves. Changes in the cytoplasmic

C. Foyer; C. Spencer

1986-01-01

368

Available starch pools in mature soybean leaves. [Glycine max  

SciTech Connect

Soybeans, Glycine max, were grown in the greenhouse and in the field under conditions that varied CO/sub 2/ levels, irradiance, and photosynthetic period. Photosynthesis, sucrose export rate, starch accumulation, and starch mobilization were measured in mature leaves and compared to expansion of developing leaves two nodes above. Measurements were made daily over a twelve day period. Measured parameters in mature leaves varied daily with night expansion of the growing leaves. Starch accumulation and photosynthesis were affected by the environmental factors while sucrose export rate and starch mobilization were affected only if growth of the expanding leaves changed. The data indicated that influence of night expansion of developing leaves and influence of the environmental factors on photosynthesis caused two pools of starch to be formed in mature leaves. Concentration of each starch pool was calculated. The pool associated with night growth of expanding leaves was positively correlated with photosynthesis and sucrose export rate. The other pool, a storage, was negatively correlated with these parameters. Starch mobilization was comprised of starch from either pool, depending on the plant's environment or it was comprised of starch from both pools.

Highsmith, M.

1987-04-01

369

Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models  

E-print Network

Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models Jonathan Chang Jordan Boyd-Graber Sean, Blei Reading Tea Leaves #12;Topic Models in a Nutshell From an input corpus words to topics Forget Red Light, Green Light: A 2-Tone L.E.D. to Simplify Screens Corpus Chang, Boyd-Graber, Wang, Gerrish

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

370

Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

2013-01-01

371

Leaving the Parental Home: Patterns in Six Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used mid-1970s World Fertility Survey cross-sectional data to analyze sociodemographic determinants of home-leaving by young Latin American adults (N=68,534). Found marriage as major reason for home-leaving and sex, urban/rural residence, education, and work as other important determinants. Noted international differences. (Author/CM))

De Vos, Susan

1989-01-01

372

The 'Leaving School Early' Students: Characteristics and Opinions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Toronto School Board runs a Leaving School Early (L.S.E.) program, which allows students under age 16 legally to leave school and get jobs. A group of 392 students registered in the program were surveyed by telephone in order to collect information about their characteristics and opinions. The data were to be used by administrators, trustees…

Larter, Sylvia; Eason, Gary

373

HR & Payroll 05.16.2011 LEAVE OPTIONS @ MASON  

E-print Network

is intended for use when an individual is unable to work due to illness, injury, or disability due to medical by either working or having paid leave to cover the scheduled work shift on the work day before and the work of the death of an immediate family member. ·Sick leave may be used if the employee is in the traditional sick

374

Emergency Preparation 1. If possible, never leave your animals behind  

E-print Network

left behind can easily get injured, lost, or killed. If animals are tied to something, their chanceEmergency Preparation 1. If possible, never leave your animals behind during an evacuation. Animals in leaving your horses behind risking their safety and survival. 5. If you do not have a trailer, make

Selmic, Sandra

375

Light-dependent modification of Photosystem II in spinach leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dark-adapted spinach leaves approximately one third of the Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers are impaired in their ability to transfer electrons to Photosystem I. Although these ‘inactive’ PS II centers are capable of reducing the primary quinone acceptor, QA, oxidation of QA- occurs approximately 1000 times more slowly than at ‘active’ centers. Previous studies based on dark-adapted leaves

Kevin Oxborough; Ladislav Nedbal; Roger A. Chylla; John Whitmarsh

1996-01-01

376

Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave  

E-print Network

Certification of Qualifying Exigency For Military Family Leave (Family and Medical Leave Act) U: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of covered military member on active duty or call to active duty status: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Relationship of covered military member to you

Sheridan, Jennifer

377

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35  

E-print Network

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35 Applies to: Faculty and staff The Ohio State/25/1994 Revised: 06/17/2002 Edited: 11/15/2006 Faculty and staff are eligible for military leave benefits military pay. Calendar year - the year beginning on the first day of January and ending on the last day

Jones, Michelle

378

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35  

E-print Network

Military Leave/Reemployment Rights Policy 6.35 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Faculty and staff POLICY Issued: 10/01/1973 Edited: 04/15/2014 Faculty and staff are eligible for military leave military pay. Calendar year The year beginning on the first day of January and ending on the last day

Howat, Ian M.

379

Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

2014-01-01

380

Autumn Leaves: Excellence in Design Development Using Draping Techniques, 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to make a gown that glorifies the colors and shapes of fall leaves. The plan was to exhibit replica leaves of fabric by sandwiching them between layers of satin and tulle. The top layer of tulle was necessary to inhibit the abrasion of the raw fabric edges and to create the composite fabric. Inspiration

Carolyn Schactler

2010-01-01

381

Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata Pers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kalanchoe pinnata Pers. is naturalized throughout the hot and moist parts of India. Juice of the fresh leaves is used very effectively for the treatment of jaundice in folk medicines of Bundelkhand region of India. The juice of the leaves and the ethanolic extract of the marc left after expressing the juice were studied in rats against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The

N. P Yadav; V. K Dixit

2003-01-01

382

Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa  

PubMed Central

Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

da Silva, Fernanda R.; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L.C.; Dias, Johny F.; da Rosa, Darlan P.; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

2013-01-01

383

Early effects of the san francisco paid sick leave policy.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined employers' responses to San Francisco, California's 2007 Paid Sick Leave Ordinance. Methods. We used the 2009 Bay Area Employer Health Benefits Survey to describe sick leave policy changes and the policy's effects on firm (n?=?699) operations. Results. The proportion of firms offering paid sick leave in San Francisco grew from 73% in 2006 to 91% in 2009, with large firms (99%) more likely to offer sick leave than are small firms (86%) in 2009. Most firms (57%) did not make any changes to their sick leave policy, although 17% made a major change to sick leave policy to comply with the law. Firms beginning to offer sick leave reported reductions in other benefits (39%), worse profitability (32%), and increases in prices (18%) but better employee morale (17%) and high support for the policy (71%). Many employers (58%) reported some difficulty understanding legal requirements, complying administratively, or reassigning work responsibilities. Conclusions. There was a substantial increase in paid sick leave coverage after the mandate. Employers reported some difficulties in complying with the law but supported the policy overall. PMID:24432927

Colla, Carrie H; Dow, William H; Dube, Arindrajit; Lovell, Vicky

2014-12-01

384

Length of Leave Requested Requested FROM: Date Requested TO  

E-print Network

______________________________ Or email support documentation FOR OFFICE USE ONLY Request Approved Effect Date of Leave of Absence ____________ Student # Date of Birth DD/MM/YYYY Last Name Telephone # - - First Name E-mail (required) @unbc.ca Reason the period of leave. � In order to process the request, this form must be submitted two weeks before

Northern British Columbia, University of

385

The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.  

PubMed

Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results. PMID:24135861

Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

2013-12-01

386

Saltbush Leaves: Excision of Hypersaline Tissue by a Kangaroo Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped

G. J. Kenagy

1972-01-01

387

Child Care for Families Leaving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program in 1996, the welfare rolls have decreased by more than 40 percent. While unemployment and poverty rates have declined, families who leave welfare generally earn low wages and remain below the poverty level. Because families leaving welfare are mostly single mothers with young children,

Rebecca L. Scharf; Sujatha Jagadeesh Branch; Cynthia Godsoe; Sherry Leiwant; Roslyn Powell; Cary LaCheen

2001-01-01

388

Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves  

PubMed Central

According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gurkan; Blande, James D.

2009-01-01

389

Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the

Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

2007-01-01

390

Optical Parameters of Leaves of 30 Plant Species 1  

PubMed Central

Optical parameters (absorption coefficient k, infinite reflectance R?, scattering coefficient 8) are tabulated for seven wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for 30 plant species. The wavelengths are: 550 nm (green reflectance peak), 650 nm (chlorophyll absorption band), 850 nm (infrared reflectance plateau), 1450 nm (water absorption band), 1650 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1450 nm), 1950 nm (water absorption band), and 2200 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1950 nm). Thick, complex dorsiventral (bifacial mesophyll) leaves such as rubber plant, begonia, sedum, and privet had lower R? values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, peach, bean, rose) or essentially centric (undifferentiated mesophyll) sorghum and corn leaves. Infinite reflectance was negatively correlated with leaf thickness (?0.734**). Thick, complex dorsiventral leaves (crinum, oleander, privet, rubber plant, sedum) had higher (p 0.01) k values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, rose, peach) or essentially centric sorghum, sugarcane, and corn leaves. A coefficient of 0.718** was obtained for the correlation of k values with leaf thickness values. Complex dorsiventral oleander, orange, and crinum leaves had higher (p 0.01) 8 values than less complex dorsiventral (i.e., onion, begonia, banana) or centric leaves (i.e., corn and sugarcane). The scattering coefficient was not correlated with leaf thickness. PMID:16658499

Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.

1973-01-01

391

The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.  

PubMed

This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070

Maclean, Johanna Catherine

2013-09-01

392

Composition of epiphytic bacterial communities differs on petals and leaves.  

PubMed

The epiphytic bacterial communities colonising roots and leaves have been described for many plant species. In contrast, microbiologists have rarely considered flowers of naturally growing plants. We identified bacteria isolated from the surface of petals and leaves of two plant species, Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae). The bacterial diversity was much lower on petals than on leaves of the same plants. Moreover, the bacterial communities differed strongly in composition: while Pseudomonadaceae and Microbacteriaceae were the most abundant families on leaves, Enterobacteriaceae dominated the floral communities. We hypothesise that antibacterial floral volatiles trigger the low diversity on petals, which is supported by agar diffusion assays using substances emitted by flowers and leaves of S. officinalis. These results suggest that bacteria should be included in the interpretation of floral traits, and possible effects of bacteria on pollination are proposed and discussed. PMID:21972888

Junker, R R; Loewel, C; Gross, R; Dötterl, S; Keller, A; Blüthgen, N

2011-11-01

393

Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.

Viskelis, Pranas; Uselis, Norbertas

2014-01-01

394

Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.  

PubMed

A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2?,3?-diol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3?-ol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-?-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3?,22?,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-O-[?-d-xylopyranosyl-(1?3)]-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-O-?-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, ?ukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

2014-09-01

395

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

Sharkey, Thomas D

2012-05-03

396

The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

397

Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves  

SciTech Connect

Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production. Lu Y., Gehan J.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005) Daylength and circadian effects on starch degradation and maltose metabolism. Plant Physiology, 138, 2280-2291 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) The role of amylomaltase in maltose metabolism in the cytosol of photosynthetic cells. Planta, 218, 466-473 Lu Y. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) The importance of maltose in transitory starch breakdown. Plant, Cell and Environment, 29, 353-366 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Weise S.E. & Sharkey T.D. (2006a) Cellular and organ level localization of maltose in maltose-excess Arabidopsis mutants. Planta, 224, 935-943 Lu Y., Steichen J.M., Yao J. & Sharkey T.D. (2006b) The role of cytosolic ?-glucan phosphorylase in maltose metabolism and the comparison of amylomaltase in Arabidopsis and E. coli. Plant Physiology, 142 878-889 Steichen J.M., Petty R.V. & Sharkey T.D. (2008) Domain characterization of a 4-?-glucanotransferase essential for maltose metabolism in photosynthetic leaves. J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20797-20804 Weise S.E., Kim K.S., Stewart R.P. & Sharkey T.D. (2005a) Beta-maltose is the metabolically active anomer of maltose during transitory starch degradation. Plant Physiology, 137, 756-761 Weise S.E., Schrader S.M., Kleinbeck K.R. & Sharkey T.D. (2006) Carbon balance and circadian regulation of hydrolytic and phosphorolytic breakdown of transitory starch. Plant Physiology, 141, 879-886 Weise S.E., Sharkey T.D., van der Est A. & Bruce D. (2005b) Energetics of carbon export from the chloroplast at night. In: Photosynthesis: Fundamental aspects to global perspectives, the proceedings of the 13th international congress on photosynthesis, pp. 816-818. International Society of Photosynthesis/Alliance Communications Group, Lawrence. Weise S.E., Weber A. & Sharkey T.D. (2004) Maltose is the major form of carbon exported from the chloroplast at night. Planta, 218, 474-482

Thomas D. Sharkey

2010-01-28

398

Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into Tomato Leaves through Hydathodes  

PubMed Central

Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars “Florida Lanai”, “Crown Jewel”, “Ailsa Craig” and the transgenic line Sp5 of “Ailsa Craig” were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 109 or 107 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar “Ailsa Craig” and decreased fastest on/in “Florida Lanai” leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2013-01-01

399

Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.  

PubMed

Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants. PMID:23320087

Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2013-01-01

400

Acetaldehyde and Ethanol Biosynthesis in Leaves of Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of terrestrial plants are aerobic organs, and are not usually considered to possess the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis of ethanol, a product of anaerobic fermentation. We examined the ability of leaves of a number of plant species to produce acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically, by incubating detached leaves in N2 and measuring headspace acetaldehyde and ethanol vapors. Greenhouse-grown maize and soybean leaves produced little or no acetaldehyde or ethanol, while leaves of several species of greenhouse-grown woody plants produced up to 241 nanograms per milliliter headspace ethanol in 24 hours, corresponding to a liquid-phase concentration of up to 3 milligrams per gram dry weight. When leaves of 50 plant species were collected in the field and incubated in N2, all higher plants produced acetaldehyde and ethanol, with woody plants generally producing greater amounts (up to 1 microgram per milliliter headspace ethanol concentration). Maize and soybean leaves from the field produced both acetaldehyde and ethanol. Production of fermentation products was not due to phylloplane microbial activity: surface sterilized leaves produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol as did unsterilized controls. There was no relationship between site flooding and foliar ethanol biosynthesis: silver maple and cottonwood from upland sites produced as much acetaldehyde and ethanol anaerobically as did plants from flooded bottomland sites. There was no relationship between flood tolerance of a species and ethanol biosynthesis rates: for example, the flood intolerant species Quercus rubra and the flood tolerant species Quercus palustris produced similar amounts of ethanol. Cottonwood leaves produced more ethanol than did roots, in both headspace and enzymatic assays. These results suggest a paradox: that the plant organ least likely to be exposed to anoxia or hypoxia is rich in the enzymes necessary for fermentation. PMID:16665585

Kimmerer, Thomas W.; MacDonald, Robert C.

1987-01-01

401

Photosynthesis of individual field-grown cotton leaves during ontogeny.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic characteristics of field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves were determined at several insertion levels within the canopy during the growing season. Single-leaf measurements of net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance to CO2 (gs·CO2), substomatal CO2, leaf area expansion, leaf nitrogen, and light intensity (PPFD) were recorded for undisturbed leaves within the crop canopy at 3-4 day intervals during the development of all leaves at main-stem nodes 8, 10, and 12. Patterns of Pn during leaf ontogeny exhibited three distinct phases; a rapid increase to maximum at 16-20 days after leaf unfolding, a relatively short plateau, and a period of linear decline to negligible Pn at 60-65 days. Analysis of the parameters which contributed to the rise and fall pattern of Pn with leaf age indicated the primary involvement of leaf area expansion, leaf nitrogen, PPFD, and gs·CO2 in this process. The response of Pn and gs·CO2 to incident PPFD conditions during canopy development was highly age dependent. For leaves less than 16 days old, the patterns of Pn and gs·CO2 were largely controlled by non-PPFD factors, while for older leaves Pn and gs·CO2 were more closely coupled to PPFD-mediated processes. Maximum values of Pn were not significantly different for any of the leaves monitored in this study, however, those leaves at main-stem node 8 did possess a significantly diminished photosynthetic capacity with age compared to upper canopy leaves. This accelerated decline in Pn could not be explained by age-related variations in gs·CO2 since all leaves showed similar changes in gs·CO2 with leaf age. PMID:24421058

Wullschleger, S D; Oosterhuis, D M

1990-02-01

402

Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.  

PubMed

RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid. PMID:16665768

Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

1987-11-01

403

Photoinactivation of photosystem II in leaves.  

PubMed

Photoinactivation of Photosystem II (PS II), the light-induced loss of ability to evolve oxygen, inevitably occurs under any light environment in nature, counteracted by repair. Under certain conditions, the extent of photoinactivation of PS II depends on the photon exposure (light dosage, x), rather than the irradiance or duration of illumination per se, thus obeying the law of reciprocity of irradiance and duration of illumination, namely, that equal photon exposure produces an equal effect. If the probability of photoinactivation (p) of PS II is directly proportional to an increment in photon exposure (p = kDeltax, where k is the probability per unit photon exposure), it can be deduced that the number of active PS II complexes decreases exponentially as a function of photon exposure: N = Noexp(-kx). Further, since a photon exposure is usually achieved by varying the illumination time (t) at constant irradiance (I), N = Noexp(-kI t), i.e., N decreases exponentially with time, with a rate coefficient of photoinactivation kI, where the product kI is obviously directly proportional to I. Given that N = Noexp(-kx), the quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II can be defined as -dN/dx = kN, which varies with the number of active PS II complexes remaining. Typically, the quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II is ca. 0.1micromol PS II per mol photons at low photon exposure when repair is inhibited. That is, when about 10(7) photons have been received by leaf tissue, one PS II complex is inactivated. Some species such as grapevine have a much lower quantum yield of photoinactivation of PS II, even at a chilling temperature. Examination of the longer-term time course of photoinactivation of PS II in capsicum leaves reveals that the decrease in N deviates from a single-exponential decay when the majority of the PS II complexes are inactivated in the absence of repair. This can be attributed to the formation of strong quenchers in severely-photoinactivated PS II complexes, able to dissipate excitation energy efficiently and to protect the remaining active neighbours against damage by light. PMID:16049752

Chow, Wah Soon; Lee, Hae-Youn; He, Jie; Hendrickson, Luke; Hong, Young-Nam; Matsubara, Shizue

2005-06-01

404

Personal Leave Guidelines for Senior Research Associates and Research Associates (Limited Term)  

E-print Network

of religious holidays, professional appointments, moving, supplementing a bereavement leave, and attending entitlements under the Primary Caregiver Leave or Parental Leave policies.) #12;2 c) Bereavement Leave Senior Research Associates and Research Associates (Limited Term) may take paid bereavement leave in the event

Toronto, University of

405

The Paternity Leave Act in Iceland: implications for gender equality in the labour market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Icelandic Act on Maternity\\/Paternity and Parental Leave (2000) introduced some major changes. The leave was extended from 6 to 9 months, and parents who were active in the labour market were paid 80% of their average salaries during the leave. The 9 months' leave was distributed so that mothers could take 3 months' leave, fathers could take 3 months'

Bjorn Thor Arnarson; Aparna Mitra

2010-01-01

406

Analysis of Flavonoids from Leaves of Cultivated Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated\\u000a and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\u000a mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified\\u000a as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03–16.33 mg\\/g).

Jing Z. Dong; Da Y. Lu; Y. Wang

2009-01-01

407

Cytokinins in the Leaves of Ginkgo biloba1  

PubMed Central

Cytokinin conjugates of zeatin, ribosylzeatin, and their respective dihydro derivatives tentatively have been identified as the major cytokinins present in mature Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Ribosylzeatin was present in higher levels than zeatin and dihydrozeatin. No evidence could be found that 6-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methylbutylamino)purine occurs as a metabolite in the mature leaves. From the available evidence, it is concluded that cytokinin conjugates are probably the major metabolites formed in the leaves of this deciduous gymnosperm. PMID:16663198

Van Staden, Johannes; Hutton, Margaret J.; Drewes, Siegfried E.

1983-01-01

408

APPLICATION FORM FOR PARENTAL LEAVE FORM PL/1 Please refer to the University of Sheffield Policy on Parental Leave before completing this  

E-print Network

attach a copy of evidence* that I am entitled to take Parental Leave for this child. Yes/No (*For exampleAPPLICATION FORM FOR PARENTAL LEAVE FORM PL/1 Please refer to the University of Sheffield Policy on Parental Leave before completing this form. An application for Parental Leave should be made to the Head

Barker, Jon

409

Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past year, the Huygens probe has been integrated and extensively tested at the facilities of Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn near Munich. It was designed and developed for ESA by a European industrial consortium led by Aerospatiale (F) as prime contractor. The European activities have been successfully completed and this is to be formalised by the Flight Acceptance Review which will release the probe for shipment to the USA. To mark this important milestone a press briefing is scheduled for Wednesday, 26 March at 10.00 hours at Daimler-Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme in Ottobrunn. The detailed programme of the press briefing is attached. If you wish to attend the press briefing, please complete the attached accreditation form and return it, preferably by fax, to : Daimler Benz Aerospace Dornier Satellitensysteme Mr. Mathias Pikelj, Fax. + 49 7545 8 5589, Tel. + 49 7545 8 9123 NOTE FOR THE EDITORS: Background facts about the Cassini Huygens mission Huygens is a medium-sized mission of ESA's Horizons 2000 programme for space science, and a contribution to the joint NASA ESA Cassini mission. Christiaan Huygens discovered Saturn s moon Titan in 1655, and the mission named after him aims to land a 343 kilogram probe on Titan carrying a package of scientific instruments through the atmosphere. Six sets of instruments will analyse the chemical composition of the atmosphere, observe the weather and topography of Titan, and examine the nature of its surface. Titan is larger than the planet Mercury, and its unique atmosphere, rich in nitrogen and hydrocarbons, may resemble the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, before life began. Nominal dates for the Huygens mission are as follows: * launch, 6 October 1997 * arrival at Saturn, 1 July 2004 * release of Huygens, 6 November 2004 * entry into Titan's atmosphere, 27 November 2004. The Saturn Orbiter, the other element in the Cassini mission, will relay the signals from Huygens to the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace

1997-03-01

410

Why Leaves Turn Red in Autumn. The Role of Anthocyanins in Senescing Leaves of Red-Osier Dogwood1  

PubMed Central

Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll layer that decreases light capture by chloroplasts. Measurements of leaf absorbance demonstrated that red-senescing leaves absorbed more light of blue-green to orange wavelengths (495–644 nm) compared with yellow-senescing leaves. Using chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, we observed that maximum photosystem II (PSII) photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered from a high-light stress treatment, whereas yellow-senescing leaves failed to recover after 6 h of dark adaptation, which suggests photo-oxidative damage. Because no differences were observed in light response curves of effective PSII photon yield for red- and yellow-senescing leaves, differences between red- and yellow-senescing cannot be explained by differences in the capacities for photochemical and non-photochemical light energy dissipation. A role of anthocyanins as screening pigments was explored further by measuring the responses PSII photon yield to blue light, which is preferentially absorbed by anthocyanins, versus red light, which is poorly absorbed. We found that dark-adapted PSII photon yield of red-senescing leaves recovered rapidly following illumination with blue light. However, red light induced a similar, prolonged decrease in PSII photon yield in both red- and yellow-senescing leaves. We suggest that optical masking of chlorophyll by anthocyanins reduces risk of photo-oxidative damage to leaf cells as they senesce, which otherwise may lower the efficiency of nutrient retrieval from senescing autumn leaves. PMID:11598230

Feild, Taylor S.; Lee, David W.; Holbrook, N. Michele

2001-01-01

411

Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect Suppression of Photosynthesis on Individual Leaves by Arthropod Herbivory PAUL D tissues are unaltered, and plant photosynthesis and water balance function normally. However, recent application of thermal and fluorescent imaging technologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis

DeLucia, Evan H.

412

Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory  

E-print Network

REVIEW Indirect suppression of photosynthesis on individual leaves by arthropod herbivory Paul D imaging tech- nologies revealed that alterations to photosynthesis and transpiration propagate of herbivory on photosynthesis, measured by gas exchange or chlorophyll fluorescence, and identifies four

DeLucia, Evan H.

413

Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.  

PubMed

An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

2014-01-01

414

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2012-07-01

415

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2011-07-01

416

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2013-07-01

417

29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...more, of the following reasons: (1) The birth...e) If an employer fails to select one of...leave for any qualifying reason. See § 825.127...Similarly, if for some reason the employer's business activity has...

2010-07-01

418

A flavonoid glycoside from the leaves of Polygonum sachalinense (II)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucofuranoside, mp 243?6°, was isolated from leaves ofPolygonum sachalinense Fr. Schm. and characterized on the basis of its spectral data. This is the second report of its occurrence in nature.

Sam Sik Kang; Won Sick Woo

1982-01-01

419

Biophysical Limitation of Cell Elongation in Cereal Leaves  

PubMed Central

Grass leaves grow from the base. Unlike those of dicotyledonous plants, cells of grass leaves expand enclosed by sheaths of older leaves, where there is little or no transpiration, and go through developmental stages in a strictly linear arrangement. The environmental or developmental factor that limits leaf cell expansion must do so through biophysical means at the cellular level: wall?yielding, water uptake and solute supply are all candidates. This Botanical Briefing looks at the possibility that tissue hydraulic conductance limits cell expansion and leaf growth. A model is presented that relates pathways of water movement in the elongation zone of grass leaves to driving forces for water movement and to anatomical features. The bundle sheath is considered as a crucial control point. The relative importance of these pathways for the regulation of leaf growth and for the partitioning of water between expansion and transpiration is discussed. PMID:12197513

FRICKE, WIELAND

2002-01-01

420

Functional transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis leaves by biolistic bombardment  

E-print Network

Functional transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis leaves by biolistic bombardment Shoko, reproducible and relatively simple methodology for transient genetic transformation of Arabidopsis tissues of its complete genome sequence and wealth of genetic genomic tools and resources, which include

Citovsky, Vitaly

421

A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on pregnancy and maternity leave for postdocs, including tips for keeping your research going and talking with your supervisor. This guide is intended primarily for postdoc women who are pregnant or are planning for pregnancy.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2011-10-05

422

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...120 Section 825.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1)...

2012-07-01

423

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...120 Section 825.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1)...

2013-07-01

424

29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...employee's spouse, adult child, parent, doctor,...

2013-07-01

425

29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...120 Section 825.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...for pregnancy or birth of a child as follows: (1)...

2011-07-01

426

Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from Terminalia catappa leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts were prepared from green, yellow fallen and red fallen leaves of Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) and their antioxidant activity, scavenging and chelating abilities were evaluated. Aqueous extracts from three different leaves showed high antioxidant activities and moderate scavenging abilities on hydroxyl radicals at 1mg\\/ml. EC50 values in antioxidant activity were 0.549–0.557mg\\/ml whereas those in scavenging ability on hydroxyl

Charng-Cherng Chyau; Pei-Tzu Ko; Jeng-Leun Mau

2006-01-01

427

Effect of light intensity on ammonia assimilation in maize leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of light on the metabolism of ammonia was studied by subjecting detached maize leaves to 150 or 1350 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR during incubation with the leaf base in 2 mM 15NH4Cl. After up to 60 min, leaves were extracted. Ammonia, glutamine, glycine, serine, alanine, and aspartate were separated by isothermal distillation and ion exchange chromatography. 15N enrichments

Ruth E. Klaus; Michael G. Berger; Heinrich P. Fock

1985-01-01

428

Crystal Macropattern Development in Prunus serotina (Rosaceae, Prunoideae) Leaves  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Prunus, subgenus Padus, exhibits two completely different calcium oxalate crystal macropatterns in mature leaves. Foliar macropattern development has been described previously in P. virginiana, representing one version. Prunus serotina, in the group exhibiting the second macropattern, is described here. The goal was to describe developmental details for comparison with P. virginiana, and to extend the sparse current knowledge of crystal macropatterns. • Methods Leaves at various developmental stages were removed from local trees and from herbarium specimens. Early leaf stages and freehand leaf and stem sections were mounted directly in aqueous glycerine; larger leaves were processed whole or in representative pieces in household bleach, dehydrated in alcohol/xylol, and mounted in Permount. Crystals were detected microscopically between crossed polarizers. • Key Results Bud scales have a dense druse population. Druses appear first at the stipule tip and proliferate basipetally but soon stop forming; growing stipules therefore have a declining density of druses. Druses appear at the tip of leaves <1 mm long, then proliferate basipetally in the midrib. Lamina druses appear in the distal marginal teeth of leaves 3 cm long; from here they proliferate basipetally and towards midrib along major veins. In about two-thirds-grown leaves (6–9 cm length) druses are all adaxial to veins of most orders; a shift occurs then to formation of prisms, which appear first abaxial to, then all around, veins. Mature leaves have virtually all prisms encrusting all major veins, more sparsely along smaller minor veins. Late season leaves form epitactic crystals on existing prismatics. • Conclusions The developing and mature macropattern of P. serotina is almost the reverse of the pattern described previously in P. virginiana, and shows that two closely related species can develop radically different modes of crystallization. The few detailed macropattern studies to date reveal striking variations that indicate a new level of organization that must be integrated with the anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches that have been dominant so far. PMID:16513655

LERSTEN, NELS R.; HORNER, HARRY T.

2006-01-01

429

Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple phenolic acids, 6-hydroxykynurenic acid, 4-O-methylpyridoxine and polyprenols. In the commercially important Ginkgo extracts some of these compound classes are no

Teris A van Beek

2002-01-01

430

Fathers and Parental LeaveAttitudes and Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the parental leave-taking behaviors and attitudes of a sample of 550 U.S. men whose wives\\/partners were pregnant, in a longitudinal design that assessed them during the middle trimester of pregnancy, 1 month after the birth, and 4 months after the birth. Identity theory provided the theoretical framework. The fathers' mean length of leave was 5 days, with

JANET SHIBLEY HYDE; MARILYN J. ESSEX; FRANCINE HORTON

1993-01-01

431

Physiological role of anthocyanin accumulation in common hazel juvenile leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common hazel (Corylus avellana L., Fusca rubra Dipp.) juvenile leaves from the periphery of the canopy and thus subjected to high fluxes of solar radiation are characterized\\u000a by red coloration due to anthocyanin accumulation disappearing in mature leaves. To elucidate the physiological role of anthocyanin\\u000a accumulation, the interrelations between anthocyanin content, a degree of attenuation by the pigments of the

A. E. Solovchenko; O. B. Chivkunova

2011-01-01

432

Optical Properties of Leaves: Modelling and Experimental Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the interpretation of leaves spectra following an approach based on modelling and laboratory studies.\\u000a First, the leaves structure and principal constituents are described together with the way they interact with light. The effects\\u000a of growth, senescence and environmental factors on the leaf optical properties are summarised. A laboratory study conducted\\u000a on drought stress of maize (Zea

Jean Verdebout; Stephane Jacquemoud; Guido Schmuck

433

The relationship between phosphate status and photosynthesis in leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were grown in hydroponic culture with varying levels of orthophosphate (Pi). When leaves were fed with 20 mmol·l-1 Pi at low CO2 concentrations, a temporary increase of CO2 uptake was observed in Pi-deficient leaves but not in those from plants grown at 1 mmol·l-1 Pi. At high concentrations of CO2 (at

K.-J. Dietz; C. Foyer

1986-01-01

434

Plant regeneration from leaves of sweet and sour cherry cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves excised from shoot cultures of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cv. ‘Burlat’, ‘Hedelfinger’, ‘Napoleon’ and ‘Schneiders’ and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cv. ‘Beutal Spacher Rexelle’ and ‘Morellenfeuer’ developed shoots on Lloyd and McCown woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 2mgl?1 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.5–1mgl?1 ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). After cutting the leaves into three segments perpendicular to the midrib

Haoru Tang; Zhenglong Ren; Göts Reustle; Gabi Krczal

2002-01-01

435

Nutritional Value of Balsam Apple (Momordica balsamina L.) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritive value of Momordica balsamina L. leaves by analysing their proximate composition, amino acid profile and mineral constituents. The results showed that the plant leaves had high moisture content (71.00±0.95% fresh weights). The concentration of estimate d crude protein and available carbohydrates on dry weight (DW) basis were 11.29 0.07% and

2006-01-01

436

Is TV a Pied Piper?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the possible influences of commercial and educational television on young children's imaginative play, intellectual development and behavior. Commercialism, learning readiness, television's unique mode of communication, and the child's sensory experiences while viewing are considered from the standpoint of developmental needs. (SDH)

Cohen, Dorothy H.

1974-01-01

437

Douglas H. Green Piper & Marbury  

E-print Network

waste" refers to low-level radioactive hazardous mixed wastes generated by nuclear power plants where such wastes are also subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-in or processing of final RCRA Part B permits at power plants subject to regulation under the Atomic Energy Act

438

The Pied Pipers of Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates benefits of introducing poetry to young children. Introduces poetry that is based on subjects and experiences familiar to children such as galoshes, mittens, snowmen, animals, and the sensation of mud between toes. (Author/RH)

Hildebrand, Verna; Hines, Rebecca P.

1981-01-01

439

Non-Represented Staff Other Leaves of Absence/Time Off Personal Day  

E-print Network

to their immediate supervisor and must include an outline as to the purpose of such leave. Bereavement Leave When, the employee will be allowed three days bereavement leave to attend the funeral or service and make

440

5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.  

...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. 630.504 Section 630...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. (a) When an employee leaves...or her civilian position to enter the military service, the employing agency...

2014-01-01

441

5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. 630.504 Section 630...Reestablishment of leave account after military service. (a) When an employee leaves...or her civilian position to enter the military service, the employing agency...

2010-01-01

442

Ultradian rhythms in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in microgravity.  

PubMed

Ultradian movements of Arabidopsis thaliana rosette leaves were discovered and studied under microgravity conditions in space. Weightlessness revealed new facets of these movements. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) was used in a long-term white-light, light-darkness (LD; 16 : 8 h) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Leaves reacted with slow up or down movement (time constant several hours) after transitions to darkness or light, respectively. Superimposed movements with periods of c. 80-90 min and small-amplitude pulsed movements of 45 min were present in the light. Signal analysis (fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis) revealed several types and frequencies of movements. Identical phase coupling was observed between the 45-min movements of the leaves of one plant. In darkness, movements of c. 120-min period were recorded. The EMCS allowed 0-g to 1-g transitions to be created. Leaves on plants germinated in microgravity started a negative gravitropic reaction after a delay of c. 30 min. Leaves grown on a 1-g centrifuge reacted to the same transition with an equal delay but had a weaker gravitropic response. The experiments provide unequivocal demonstrations of ultradian, self-sustained rhythmic movements in A. thaliana rosette leaves in the absence of the effect of gravity. PMID:19538548

Solheim, B G B; Johnsson, A; Iversen, T-H

2009-01-01

443

Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves  

SciTech Connect

The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period and with nocturnal leaf respiration. Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined.

Hendrix, D.L. (Dept. of Agriculture, Phoenix, AZ (United States)); Grange, R.I. (Inst. of Horticultural Research, Sussex (United Kingdom))

1991-01-01

444

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves.  

PubMed

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5-20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water-methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70-80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert-Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm(-2), and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N; Chivkunova, Olga B; Solovchenko, Alexei E; Naqvi, K Razi

2008-01-01

445

Light absorption by anthocyanins in juvenile, stressed, and senescing leaves  

PubMed Central

The optical properties of leaves from five species, Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster alaunica Golite), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), Siberian dogwood (Cornus alba L.), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.), differing in pigment composition and at different stages of ontogenesis, were studied. Anthocyanin absorption maxima in vivo, as estimated with spectrophotometry of intact anthocyanic versus acyanic leaves and microspectrophotometry of vacuoles in the leaf cross-sections, were found between 537 nm and 542 nm, showing a red shift of 5–20 nm compared with the corresponding maxima in acidic water–methanol extracts. In non-senescent leaves, strong anthocyanin absorption was found between 500 nm and 600 nm (with a 70–80 nm apparent bandwidth). By and large, absorption by anthocyanin in leaves followed a modified form of the Lambert–Beer law, showing a linear trend up to a content of nearly 50 nmol cm?2, and permitting thereby a non-invasive determination of anthocyanin content. The apparent specific absorption coefficients of anthocyanins at 550 nm showed no substantial dependence on the species. Anthocyanin contribution to total light absorption at 550 nm was followed in maple leaves in the course of autumn senescence. Photoprotection by vacuolar anthocyanins is discussed with special regard to their distribution within a leaf; radiation screening by anthocyanins predominantly localized in the epidermal cells in A. platanoides and C. avellana leaves was also evaluated. PMID:18796701

Merzlyak, Mark N.; Chivkunova, Olga B.; Solovchenko, Alexei E.; Naqvi, K. Razi

2008-01-01

446

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your leave application can be processed.  

E-print Network

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your Aid Officer Faculty member other than your advisor Family Dean Athletic Coach Resident Advisor or Head

Devoto, Stephen H.

447

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your leave application can be processed.  

E-print Network

Supplemental information for Leave-of-Absence application This form must be completed before your Advisor Financial Aid Officer Faculty member other than your advisor Family Dean Athletic Coach Resident

Devoto, Stephen H.

448

Sucrose transporter1 functions in phloem loading in maize leaves  

PubMed Central

In most plants, sucrose is exported from source leaves to carbon-importing sink tissues to sustain their growth and metabolism. Apoplastic phloem-loading species require sucrose transporters (SUTs) to transport sucrose into the phloem. In many dicot plants, genetic and biochemical evidence has established that SUT1-type proteins function in phloem loading. However, the role of SUT1 in phloem loading in monocot plants is not clear since the rice (Oryza sativa) and sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) SUT1 orthologues do not appear to function in phloem loading of sucrose. A SUT1 gene was previously cloned from maize (Zea mays) and shown to have expression and biochemical activity consistent with a hypothesized role in phloem loading. To determine the biological function of SUT1 in maize, a sut1 mutant was isolated and characterized. sut1 mutant plants hyperaccumulate carbohydrates in mature leaves and display leaf chlorosis with premature senescence. In addition, sut1 mutants have greatly reduced stature, altered biomass partitioning, delayed flowering, and stunted tassel development. Cold-girdling wild-type leaves to block phloem transport phenocopied the sut1 mutants, supporting a role for maize SUT1 in sucrose export. Furthermore, application of 14C-sucrose to abraded sut1 mutant and wild-type leaves showed that sucrose export was greatly diminished in sut1 mutants compared with wild type. Collectively, these data demonstrate that SUT1 is crucial for efficient phloem loading of sucrose in maize leaves. PMID:19181865

Slewinski, Thomas L.; Meeley, Robert; Braun, David M.

2009-01-01

449

Unmet expectations: why nursing home staff leave care work.  

PubMed

Background.? The shortages of healthcare professionals have been a common topic in care of older people. Aim and objectives.? The aim of the present study was to illuminate what caused the nursing home caregivers to decide to leave their employment. Design.? A two-year intervention study was performed in three nursing homes in Sweden. Method.? This qualitative interview study was conducted with 18 caregivers who decided to leave their employment during the first year. Content analysis was the method used to analyse the interviews. Result.? The caregivers' decisions to leave their work in care of older people could be encompassed in one main category: 'Unmet Expectations'. Their experiences were lack of encouragement and trust and professional development. Feelings of insecurity, different opinions on the care delivered, being disregarded and betrayed followed as did thoughts of leaving work and pursing other opportunities. Conclusion.? The main findings indicated that organizational work pressure with information about pending financial cutbacks caused the caregivers to leave the nursing homes. Relevance to clinical practice.? The study's results show the value of meeting the needs of caregivers, as caregivers consider that they meet the needs of the older people. Optimal use of caregivers' skills, experiences, competence and respect for their aspirations is also likely to result in cost-efficient care. PMID:20925890

Fläckman, Birgitta; Sørlie, Venke; Kihlgren, Mona

2008-03-01

450

Orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and pyrophosphorylase of bean leaves.  

PubMed

This report includes results demonstrating the existence of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase in plant leaves. The decarboxylase enzyme, purified 8 fold from leaves of etiolated pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), had a pH optimum of 6.3. It was strongly inhibited by 6-azauridine-5'-phosphate; a concentration of 12 mum decreased the reaction rate 60%. The enzyme was not dependent upon magnesium ions or inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. It was present in other parts of the bean plant and was found in young leaves of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.)The enzyme orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase, which catalyzes the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphate from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, was found in the etiolated bean leaves, and was also present in the leaves of tomato and Canada thistle. It was stimulated by manganous or magnesium ions and had a pH optimum of 7.2. The K(m) value obtained by varying the concentrations of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate was 75 mum, and when orotic acid was varied the resulting K(m) was 3.5 mum. The presence of these 2 enzymes in higher plants, combined with previous results with inhibitors and labeled metabolites, indicates that the normal pathway of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis in higher plants proceeds through orotic acid and OMP. PMID:6040896

Wolcott, J H; Ross, C

1967-02-01

451

Antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of Iranian conifers.  

PubMed

Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples) possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of alpha-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant) and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant). Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than alpha-tocopherol. PMID:17965761

Emami, S A; Asili, J; Mohagheghi, Z; Hassanzadeh, M K

2007-09-01

452

Effects of epiphyton onPotamogeton crispus L. leaves.  

PubMed

Potamogeton crispus L. grows as a winter producing annual in the shallow lakes of the Pongolo Floodplain, South Africa. Colonization of leaves by algal and bacterial epiphytes, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, followed the established pattern of increasing diversity and density with leaf age. It was apparent from the micrographs that the primary and subsequent colonizers were present even after death of the host leaf. Cross sections of leaves, viewed by transmission electron microscopy, illustrated that bacterial attachment did not damage the surface of young leaves. There was, however, extensive inward swelling and disorganization of the epidermal walls, characteristic of a reaction to invasion by pathogens. In older leaves the swelling was also present in mesophyll cells, while bacteria had invaded and degraded the epidermal cell wall. The bacterial invasion was concomitant with signs of senescence, and in dead leaves the organisms had penetrated and degraded the epidermis and mesophyll cell walls. The epiphyton/ host relationship may therefore be considered necrotrophic with important consequences for the transfer of energy from producers to consumers during decomposition. PMID:24227551

Rogers, K H; Breen, C M

1981-12-01

453

Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa. PMID:17610142

Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

2008-01-01

454

Interaction of Salmonella enterica with basil and other salad leaves.  

PubMed

Contaminated salad leaves have emerged as important vehicles for the transmission of enteric pathogens to humans. A recent outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg (S. Senftenberg) in the United Kingdom has been traced to the consumption of contaminated basil. Using the outbreak strain of S. Senftenberg, we found that it binds to basil, lettuce, rocket and spinach leaves showing a pattern of diffuse adhesion. Flagella were seen linking S. Senftenberg to the leaf epidermis, and the deletion of fliC (encoding phase-1 flagella) resulted in a significantly reduced level of adhesion. In contrast, although flagella linking S. enterica serovar Typhimurium to the basil leaf epidermis were widespread, deletion of fliC did not affect leaf attachment levels. These results implicate the role of flagella in Salmonella leaf attachment and suggest that different Salmonella serovars use strain-specific mechanisms to attach to salad leaves. PMID:18830276

Berger, Cedric N; Shaw, Robert K; Brown, Derek J; Mather, Henry; Clare, Simon; Dougan, Gordon; Pallen, Mark J; Frankel, Gad

2009-02-01

455

Proteinase Inhibitor-inducing Factor in Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine plant species representing 20 families from the four major divisions of plants were surveyed for the presence of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor activity in leaves or other tissues. Tissue juices were assayed for their capacity to induce accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I in excised tomato (Lycopersico esculentum) leaves. In tissues of only 2 of the 39 species was proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity not found. The activity was absent in cabbage leaves and celery stalks. Fruiting bodies from one of three fungi genera assayed contained exceptionally large quantities of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity. Extracts from Agraricus campestris fruiting bodies contained over 20 times more activity than tomato leaf juice. The survey confirms that substances with proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity are widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:16658956

McFarland, Douglas; Ryan, Clarence A.

1974-01-01

456

Saltbush leaves: excision of hypersaline tissue by a kangaroo rat.  

PubMed

Dipodomys microps climbs into shrubs and harvests leaves of the halophyte Atriplex confertifolia throughout the year. The epidermal vesicles of these leaves are high in electrolyte concentration, but the specialized photosynthetic parenchyma which is arranged concentrically about the vascular bundles is low in electrolytes and high in starch. The lower incisors of D. microps are broad, flattened anteriorly, and chisel-shaped (unlike those of other kangaroo rats, which are rounded and awl-shaped) and are used to shave off the hypersaline, peripheral tissue of the leaves so that the inner tissue can be eaten. This atypical feeding behavior should minimize the reliance of D. microps on the unpredictable seed crops of desert annuals, and also favor its coexistence with other species of Dipodomys, which are primarily granivorous. PMID:17741983

Kenagy, G J

1972-12-01

457

International policies toward parental leave and child care.  

PubMed

The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child. PMID:11712459

Waldfogel, J

2001-01-01

458

29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825...Medical Leave Act § 825.201 Leave to care for a parent. (a) General rule...employee is entitled to FMLA leave if needed to care for the employee's parent with a...

2014-07-01

459

Sick leave and depression — Determining factors and clinical effect in outpatient care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sickness leave is a major source of societal costs in depression treatment. However, very little is known about the rationale behind sick leave and their effects on depressive symptoms. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of sick leave on treatment outcome and the association of sick leave with patient, depression and treatment-related factors. For this we compared

Isaac Bermejo; Levente Kriston; Frank Schneider; Wolfgang Gaebel; Ulrich Hegerl; Mathias Berger; Martin Härter

2010-01-01

460

Research on the Changes of Near Infrared Spectrum of Leaves Menaced by Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that the near infrared spectrum of leaves of plants starts to change in intravital trees or other vegetation, but there has been little related research on leaves fallen from vegetation and we design a experiment to study this aspect. Because of different water losing rates of leaves, different leaves present different changes. As to the change

Jianhua Ren; Shudong Wang; Qiu Li; Jianli Ding

2006-01-01

461

Living with the Family Leave Act of 1993: Case Studies of Women in Academe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study examined the effects of the Family Leave Act of 1993 on the maternity leave experiences of women in academe, as well as the effect of pregnancy leave on their career decisions. Case study interviews were conducted with seven women faculty from four universities, and family leave policies at these institutions were reviewed.…

Liston, Delores D.; Griffin, Marlynn M.; Hecker, Jeanette M.

462

State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…

Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

463

Ages, Reasons and Sex Differences for Children Leaving Home: Observations From Survey Data for Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overall, daughters leave home when about two years younger than sons, and a higher proportion of daughters leave home for marriage than for other reasons. For each sex, the average age at leaving home is youngest when the reason for leaving is education or a job, and oldest when the reason is marriage. (Author)

Young, C. M.

1974-01-01

464

Paternity Leave: Current Status and Future Prospects. Working Paper No. 157.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines current patterns and trends in the availability and use of parental leave by U.S. fathers. Introductory material focuses on legal and administrative contexts of parental leave and parental leave policies available to employed mothers. The main discussion uses U.S. and Swedish data to explore (1) long-term paid leave at the time…

Pleck, Joseph H.

465

Is there spectral variation in the polarized reflectance of leaves?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

2014-05-01

466

Identification of chemical compounds from the leaves of Leea indica.  

PubMed

Twenty-three known chemical compounds were identified in the leaves of Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. (Leeaceae) by GC-MS analysis, spectroscopic techniques and co-TLC with authentic samples. The identified compounds include eleven hydrocarbons, phthalic acid, palmitic acid, 1-eicosanol, solanesol, farnesol, three phthalic acid esters, gallic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol and ursolic acid. Gallic acid was isolated as n-butyl gallate and identified by co-TLC. This seems to be the first report of the presence of gallic acid in the leaves of L. indica. PMID:18515230

Srinivasan, Govindarajapuram Varadarajan; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Vijayan, Kochukaratu Krishnan

2008-06-01

467

Nutritive value of oak ( Quercus semecarpifolia) leaves in pashmina kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find the nutritive value of oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) leaves, native to temperate and humid Himalayan ranges (29°25?N and 79°35?E), containing (% DM basis) 9.49, CP; 94.86, OM; 4.07, EE; 64.20, NDF; 50.60, ADF; 1.60, Ca; 0.2, P and 4.40, tannins; four male pashmina kids (5–6 months age and 12.9±1.39 kg body weight) were fed freshly lopped green-leaves

P Singh; A. K Verma; N. N Pathak; J. C Biswas

1998-01-01

468

Why Do the Colors of Leaves Change in the Fall?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The color change of the leaves on deciduous trees is one of the most striking signals that summer is ending and fall is beginning. What is it that causes this change in color? We all know that leaves contain chlorophyll ÃÂ giving them their green-color but why do they change from green to the palette of colors we see in the fall? In this investigation students determine the pigment molecules that green plants contain and what happens to those molecules as the season progresses.

Mr. William A White (Arsenal Technical High School)

2000-08-01

469

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

2008-10-01

470

Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §  

PubMed Central

Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

2008-01-01

471

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Majorana hortensis leaves  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an essential defense mechanism to protect our body against free radical damage. They balance the production of free radicals and detoxify them when in excess. The objective of the study is to determine the free radical scavenging potential of the candidate plant leaves when subjected to a battery of free radical scavenging assays. The different leaf extracts used were aqueous, methanol and chloroform. The results suggest that Majorana hortensis (L.) H. Karst leaves could serve as a potential source of antioxidant and can be used in any preparation for combating free radical mediated damage to the body. PMID:22557436

Palaniswamy, Radha; Padma, P R

2011-01-01

472

G-MG How many leaves on a tree?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Amy and Greg are raking up leaves from a large maple tree in their yard and Amy remarks "I'll bet this tree has a million leaves." Greg is skeptical an...

473

Water is allocated differently to chloroplasts in sun and shade leaves.  

PubMed

Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study water allocation in cell compartments of sun and shade leaves. NMR spectra of Acer platanoides were resolved into two peaks that were assigned to chloroplast and nonchloroplast water. Sun leaves contained 1.7 times more water per unit area of surface than shade leaves, and the water was allocated differently. Chloroplasts in sun leaves contained 17% of the total leaf water versus 47% in shade leaves. Comparing equal leaf surface areas, the chloroplasts in shade leaves contained 60% more water than those in sun leaves. PMID:16665860

McCain, D C; Croxdale, J; Markley, J L

1988-01-01

474

C:\\Documents and Settings\\jjennings\\Desktop\\SOM Leave Form 0708.doc Page 1 Procedure for Taking a Leave from the UC Davis School of Medicine  

E-print Network

to pursue research, which is not at UC Davis.) The Non-PELP Leave allows students to suspend School is a student who takes time off to pursue a Ph.D. or MPH degree at UC Davis.) Time-Off Leave is a leave and Non-PELP leaves shall be effective at the start of a new Quarter. If you are part-way into a Quarter

Leistikow, Bruce N.

475

The effects of California's paid family leave program on mothers' leave-taking and subsequent labor market outcomes.  

PubMed

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers--with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children by 10 to 17 percent and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

476

The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes  

PubMed Central

This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999–2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California’s first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program doubled the overall use of maternity leave, increasing it from an average of three to six weeks for new mothers – with some evidence of particularly large growth for less advantaged groups. We also provide evidence that PFL increased the usual weekly work hours of employed mothers of one-to-three year-old children by 10 to 17% and that their wage incomes may have risen by a similar amount. PMID:23547324

Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

2013-01-01

477

College Policy Statement on Maternity, Adoptive and Paternity Leave Provision for College policy on maternity, adoptive and paternity leave provision for students is as follows  

E-print Network

College Policy Statement on Maternity, Adoptive and Paternity Leave Provision for Students College policy on maternity, adoptive and paternity leave provision for students is as follows: · early; for maternity/adoptive leave, this will normally be for 4 months, but may be less if the individual so wishes

478

RCUK Briefing on Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay This comprehensive briefing provides information relating to Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay from  

E-print Network

RCUK Briefing on Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay This comprehensive briefing provides information relating to Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay from the Terms, paternity and adoption leave and make provision for additional stipend to be paid where appropriate

Berzins, M.

479

Physiological, biochemical, and fluorescence parameters of senescing sugar beet leaves in the vegetative phase of growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase of vegetative growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., single-sprout form) was conditionally subdivided into four periods according to leaf number and size (including already\\u000a withered leaves): (A) 8 ± 1 weeks after seedling emergence (wase) (5–7 leaves); (B) 11 ± 1 wase (10–12 leaves); (C) 14 wase (13–15 leaves); (D) 15 wase (15–18 leaves). It took each

A. K. Romanova; G. A. Semenova; N. S. Novichkova; A. R. Ignat’ev; V. A. Mudrik; B. N. Ivanov

2011-01-01

480

Fungal colonization and decomposition of Castanopsis sieboldii leaves in a subtropical forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi play a crucial role in the decomposition of lignin in fallen leaves but few studies have examined the functional roles\\u000a of ligninolytic fungi associated with the decomposition of fallen leaves on tropical forest soils. This study examined fungal\\u000a populations responsible for lignin decomposition in Castanopsis sieboldii leaves in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern Japan. Fallen leaves of

Takashi Osono; Yukari Ishii; Dai Hirose

2008-01-01

481

Rapid and pervasive occupation of fallen mangrove leaves by a marine zoosporic fungus.  

PubMed

Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (>/=4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition. PMID:16347463

Newell, S Y; Miller, J D; Fell, J W

1987-10-01

482

The Transparent Dead Leaves Model and Y. Gousseau  

E-print Network

, 14, 5] or multiplication for compound Poisson cascades [2, 8]. The proposed model, that we call Poisson point process i (ti,xi,Xi,ai), with i (ti,xi) a homogeneous Poisson point process in (-, 0)Ã?Rd for shot-noise processes [22, 13], union for Boolean models [26, 24], occlusion for dead leaves models [18

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

483

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic constituents from leaves of Sapium baccatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six compounds, namely, Lupeol (1), Betulin (2), ?-Taraxerol (3), Taraxerone (4), Stigmasterol (5) and ?-Sitosterol (6) were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the leaves of Sapium baccatum based on spectroscopic evidence. Lupeol (1), Betulin (2) and Stigmasterol (5) were isolated for the first time from this plant. The cytotoxic potential of the different solvent extracts (methanol, petroleum ether,

Yunus Ahmed; Sharif M. Al-Reza; Faqir Shahidulla Tareq; Choudhury M. Hasan; M. A. Sattar

2010-01-01

484

Adolescents Leaving Parental Home: Psychosocial Correlates and Implications for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To disclose the interplay between psychosocial antecedents of adolescents' decisions to leave their parental home in an ecologically sensitive region, we used structural equation modeling to analyze data from in-person interviews of members of 220 households in Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas (China). We further divided our data into two sub-samples by gender to test the hypothesis that model

Li An; Angela G. Mertig; Jianguo Liu

2003-01-01

485

Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

Vartak, Rehka

2006-01-01

486

Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C 3 plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic capacity of leaves is related to the nitrogen content primarily bacause the proteins of the Calvin cycle and thylakoids represent the majority of leaf nitrogen. To a first approximation, thylakoid nitrogen is proportional to the chlorophyll content (50 mol thylakoid N mol-1 Chl). Within species there are strong linear relationships between nitrogen and both RuBP carboxylase and chlorophyll.

John R. Evans

1989-01-01

487

APPLICATION FOR A GRANT OF LEAVE AND BIOMETRIC IMMIGRATION DOCUMENT  

E-print Network

APPLICATION FOR A GRANT OF LEAVE AND BIOMETRIC IMMIGRATION DOCUMENT UNDER TIER 4 (GENERAL) STUDENT In accordance with paragraph 34 of the Immigration Rules, this form is specified for applications made authorised immigration advisor to help you with this application form, you should enter the name

Royal Holloway, University of London

488

Effect of petroleum oils on the respiration of bean leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injurious effect of petroleum oils on plants is a serious objection to their use as insecticides. The exact physiological actions accompanying injury from oil are not well known. Believing that respiration is generally increased when a plant is injured, an attempt has been made in this study to show the injurious effect on the respiration of bean leaves by

J. Green; A. H. Johnson

1931-01-01

489

Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by hplc was developed. Quantitation was carried out by the incorporation of lanatoside A as an internal standard. The present method is sufficiently precise and relatively simple. PMID:7673934

Ikeda, Y; Fujii, Y; Nakaya, I; Yamazaki, M

1995-06-01

490

"Ya Me Fui" When English Learners Consider Leaving School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines narratives of English learners who have either dropped out or considered dropping out as a result of their experience in high school. This research seeks to determine at which point students left or considered leaving school, which often goes undetected in traditional quantitative data collection methods. The common themes that…

Boone, Jeanmarie Hamilton

2013-01-01