Sample records for pit illicit pcb

  1. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

    2001-01-10

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  2. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2000-12-11

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  3. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  4. PCB 4683, Fauth Summer 2014

    E-print Network

    PCB 4683, Fauth Summer 2014 PCB 4683: Evolutionary Biology Dr. John E. Fauth Summer 2014 BL 401D M description: PCB 4683 COS-BIOL 4(4,0) Evolutionary Biology: PR: A grade of "C" (2.0) or better in PCB 3044 and PCB 3063 or C.I. Demographic and genetic structure of populations and their relationship to speciation

  5. “Green” PCB production processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Lamprecht; Günter Heinz; Neil Patton; Stephen Kenny; Patrick Brooks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show production process developments and innovations that resolve many of the issues faced with certain process steps for printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing following “green” practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Several key PCB manufacturing processes have been developed or studied with respect to new environmental legislations and practises. Findings – The introduction of

  6. PCB 4683 Territo Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    PCB 4683 Territo Spring 2013 1 BY ENROLLING IN THIS CLASS YOU AGREE TO EVERY ITEM IN THIS SYLLABUS; THIS INCLUDES THE FACT THAT IT IS POSTED ON WEBCOURSES AND NOT HANDED OUT DIRECTLY. PCB 4683 Evolutionary:30 ­ 2:20pm Monday in BL, Rm 414 CREDIT: Lecture (PCB 4683A): 4 semester hrs. Lab (PCB 4683L): 1 semester

  7. PCB recordkeeping and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  8. Martian Central Pit Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

  9. ENANTIOSELECTIVITY IN THE BIODEGRADATION OF PCB ATROPISOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms inoculated with sediment from two locations in a contaminated reservoir, Lake Hartwell, SC, USA, degraded certain PCB atropisomers enantioselectively while other atropisomers were degraded in racemic proportions. The microcosms were spiked with either 234-236 PCB (PCB...

  10. Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

    This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

  11. PCB 3063, Dr. Hoffman Summer 2014

    E-print Network

    PCB 3063, Dr. Hoffman Summer 2014 PCB 3063 Genetics, Summer Semester A, 2014 Course Objectives. _______________________________________________________________________ TIME AND PLACE: Lecture: 12:30 -2:20 Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday in CB1 104. CREDIT: PCB-823-4007 E-mail: eric.hoffman@ucf.edu Web Site: https://webcourses.ucf.edu For PCB 3063 OFFICE HOURS: Dr

  12. Vision systems for PCB manufacturing in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hata

    1990-01-01

    Current vision systems in Japanese printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing lines are described. Vision systems have been introduced into almost every level of PCB manufacturing in Japan. They include mask pattern inspection machines, PCB pattern inspection machines, surface-mount device (SMD) mounters with visual positioning, mounted SMD visual inspection machines, soldering inspection machines, and assembled PCB visual inspection machines. Most of

  13. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Substances § 109.30 Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications, PCB's have...

  14. Teratogenic risks from exposure to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Bradley D; Rayburn, William F

    2014-06-01

    Substance use is prevalent in the United States, especially in the reproductive age population. Even though a reduction in substance use may occur during pregnancy, some women may not alter their drug use patterns until at least pregnancy is confirmed. For these reasons, a large number of fetuses are exposed to illicit substances, including during critical stages of organogenesis. Associating illicit drug use with eventual pregnancy outcome is difficult. This article presents issues pertaining to limitations with published investigations about fetal risks and describes the most current information in humans about fetal effects from specific illicit substances. PMID:24845487

  15. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  16. Sulci Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in an area of 'sulci' ridges east of Olympus Mons. Graben cut the ridges, and one graben hosts the collapse pits. It is likely that these collapse pits are related to volatile release from material that filled the lows at some point after graben formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 18.6, Longitude 234.6 East (125.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Lava Tube Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. More PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) destruction methods developed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-22

    New methods of eliminating PCB from electrical oils include SunOhio's PCBX procedure Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.'s process that uses sodium naphthalide to convert PCB's to sodium chloride and polyphenylene; Peerless Cement Co.'s soon-to-be-tested procedure for burning PCB-contaminated oils in cement kilns (the tests will use oil containing < 500 ppm PCB); and a procedure licensed by EOI from a Canadian firm.

  20. High Voltage Reed Relays for PCB

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    276 High Voltage Reed Relays for PCB Mounting HE Series MEDER electronic www.meder.com Germany surgery) High voltage Reed Relays for PCB mounting suitable for switching up to 7.5 kVDC and breakdown High Voltage Reed Relays for PCB Mounting www.meder.com Germany # ++49-(0)7733-94870, USA # 800

  1. 7, 62296254, 2007 PCB peaks in the

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 6229­6254, 2007 PCB peaks in the Arctic S. Eckhardt et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport (sec@nilu.no) 6229 #12;ACPD 7, 6229­6254, 2007 PCB peaks in the Arctic S. Eckhardt et al. Title Page

  2. UK PCB Industry 1997 to 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona M. Reed; D. Patrick Webb; Kathryn Walsh; Paride Carpineta

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a snapshot of the status of the UK printed circuit board (PCB) industry in 2003. Comparisons are made with a similar study from 1997. Data are presented concerning employment and turnover within the industry, the number of manufacturing sites engaged in PCB manufacture and assembly, and the geographical location of these sites. Employment in PCB manufacture is

  3. Snow Pit Stratigraphy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephan Custer

    The student understands that snow leads to avalanches, but is often very inexperienced in the observation of the snow pack. This exercise provides the opportunity to learn about snow stratigraphy, observation, and measurement from a detailed observational perspective. The students work in small groups in 3-6 pits (depends on the class size). By working on a transect from the trees out into the opening, they discover (usually) that the snow depth is different and that the descriptions in the pits differ as one proceeds out from the trees into the opening. (Different stratigraphic units, different thickness, different temperature, different density, different crystals.)

  4. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Sulci Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Tharsis Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Tractus Catena Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Alba Patera Collapse Pits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Shooting up : the impact of illicit economics on military conflict

    E-print Network

    Felbab-Brown, Vanda

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the nexus between illicit economies and military conflicts. It investigates when and how access by belligerents to the production and trafficking of illicit substances affects the strength of belligerents ...

  10. Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

  11. Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Ahern; Jennifer Stuber; Sandro Galea

    2007-01-01

    Persons who use illicit drugs are stigmatized in the United States. The conferral of a deviant social status on illicit drug users may serve to discourage use. However, stigmatization may also adversely affect the health of those who use illicit drugs, through exposure to chronic stress such as discrimination and as a barrier to accessing care. We hypothesized that aspects

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...major drug transit and/or major illicit drug producing countries: Afghanistan, The Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Burma, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Laos,...

  13. Hair-testing for illicit drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Parkes

    2004-01-01

    Human hair may contain deposits of illicit drugs. Testing of hair will provide an indicator of drug use at the time the hair was grown. Hair samples have several advantages over urine samples, particularly length of surveillance period (months rather than days) and resistance to tampering. Any form of drug-testing must be seen as a component of a clinical plan

  14. Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Fullerton; Thomas C. Kinnaman

    1995-01-01

    With garbage and recycling as the only two disposal options, we confirm prior results that the optimal curbside fee for garbage collection equals the direct resource cost plus external environment cost. When illicit burning or dumping is a third disposal option that cannot be taxed directly, the optimal curbside tax on garbage changes sign. The optimal fee structure is a

  15. CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky Allegro PCB Design

    E-print Network

    Patel, Chintan

    CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky Allegro PCB Design Allegro PCB Design) and generates output layout files that are suitable for PCB fabrication. This tutorial is the second part of the PCB project tutorial. Before starting with PCB Design, you must have a completed schematic

  16. PCB Analysis Plan for Tank Archive Samples

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2001-03-22

    This analysis plan specifies laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and data reporting requirements for analyzing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in archive samples. Tank waste archive samples that are planned for PCB analysis are identified in Nguyen 2001. The tanks and samples are summarized in Table 1-1. The analytical data will be used to establish a PCB baseline inventory in Hanford tanks.

  17. Environmental implications of PCB manufacturing in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingwei Wang; Jinqiu Xu

    2004-01-01

    By 2003, China has become the second largest printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturer in the world. Compared with same period of last year, import and export of PCBs in the first quarter of 2003 have increased 40.2% and 24.8%, respectively, and PCB yield in the first half of 2003 has increased 34.6%. Obviously, the rapid growth of the PCB industry

  18. Increasing PCB Radiolysis Rates in Transformer Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-11-01

    The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with ó-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

  19. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761.269 Section 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761...Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761.269 Section 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761...Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid...

  1. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761.269 Section 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761...Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid...

  2. ENVIROGARD? PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Envirogard? polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

  3. Chemometric comparison of PCB residues and toxicologically active PCB congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.R.; Stalling, D.L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Columbia, MO (USA))

    1988-09-01

    The development of a congener specific method that can provide detailed information on the many congeners present in the environment been a goal of many environmental chemists. However, after data acquisition and quantitation, a most important step remains, data must be examined for quality control and information content. The authors have approached the problem of data reduction and interpretation from a chemometric perspective. The analysis and interpretation of PCB residues in Forsters terns from two locations in Wisconsin provide a good example of using a chemometrics approach to data analysis by pattern recognition.

  4. Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Butner, R. Scott; Cowell, Andrew J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Riensche, Roderick M.; White, Amanda M.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-03-29

    Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation, as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components, and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy the function of the networks and their processes. The complexities inherent to the characterization and anticipation of illicit nuclear trafficking networks requires that a variety of modeling and knowledge technologies be jointly harnessed to construct an effective analytical and decision making workflow in which specific case studies can be built in reasonable time and with realistic effort. In this paper, we explore a solution to this challenge that integrates evidentiary and dynamic modeling with knowledge management and analytical gaming, and demonstrate its application to a geopolitical region at risk.

  5. Crime, Illicit Markets, and Money Laundering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil Williams

    organized crime is perhaps best understood as the continuation of com- merce by illegal means, with transnational criminal organizations as the illicit coun- terparts of multinational corporations. During the 1990s, transnational organized crime—and the related phenomena of illegal markets and money laundering—were transformed from an unrecognized problem to an issue taken seriously by govern- ments, both individually and collectively. Indeed,

  6. Minimizing pitting corrosion of tubulars

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, H. (Mitchell Energy Corp., Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The pitting corrosion of more than 50 casing samples from eight manufacturers (nine mills) was evaluated using the stray current accelerated test (SCAT) procedure. The quality of mill scale on tubulars casing, tubing, rods, and drill pipe is a major factor affecting pitting rates and tubular life. The data indicates SCAT can help identify areas where corrosion is most likely to occur, corrosion patterns, and relative pitting rates. Although the procedure uses DC to produce corrosion, the conclusions are believed to also be valid for pitting corrosion caused by carbon dioxide, oxygen, bacteria, and possibly hydrogen sulfide, as indicated from comparisons between test samples and failed samples from wells.

  7. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  8. Illicit Drug Use and Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2008-01-01

    With the acquisition of adult social roles such as marriage, more deviant or socially disapproved behaviors such as drug use often decrease. The objective of this work was to examine patterns of illicit drug use in a community sample of adults during the transition and early years of marriage. Additionally, this work examined if couples who were discrepant in their drug use (i.e., one individual reported past year drug use and the partner reported no use) experience sharper declines in marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Multilevel regression models explored these issues over the first four years of marriage (N= 634 couples). Although rates of illicit drug use decline over the first four years of marriage, a significant number of husbands and wives continued to use illicit drugs (21% and 16%, respectively). At the transition to marriage, both husbands and wives who had discrepant drug use behaviors experienced lower levels of marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Over the first four years of marriage, couples in each group experienced significant declines in marital satisfaction. PMID:17945436

  9. Draft Report A Forecast Model of Long-Term PCB

    E-print Network

    Draft Report A Forecast Model of Long-Term PCB Fate in San Francisco Bay John J. Oram and Jay A................................................................................................ 8 Estimation of Future PCB Loads

  10. Management of PCB laboratory wastes

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) govern the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including use, storage, and disposal. Under TSCA, PCBs can only be used if the use is authorized under the TSCA regulations in 40 CFR 761; otherwise, the use of PCBs is prohibited and the PCBs must be disposed as PCB waste. 40 CFR 761.30(j) authorizes the use of PCBs in ``small quantities for research and development.`` Research and development activities are defined to include activities associated with laboratory analysis.

  11. PCB Integrated Inductors for Low Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Ludwig; Maeve Duffy; Terence O'Donnell; Paul McCloskey; Seán Cian

    This paper discusses the use of printed circuit board (PCB) integrated inductors for low power dc\\/dc buck converters. Coreless, magnetic plates and closed core structures are compared in terms of achievable inductance, power handling and efficiency in a footprint of mm . The magnetic layers consist of electro- plated NiFe, so that the process is fully compatible with standard PCB

  12. Parallel raster image processor for PCB manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Martin; G. Aranguren; J. Ezquerra; P. Ibaiiez; R. Lasure; J. Van Campenhout

    1994-01-01

    The printed circuit board (PCB) is the base most commonly used for building electronic circuits. The design of the PCB is usually done by means of an adequate CAD program. The files generated by CAD programs can have different formats to describe printed circuit boards, but all formats essentially consist of the traces and the soldering pads that make up

  13. Environmental best practice in the PCB industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Goosey

    2000-01-01

    The need for the printed circuit board (PCB) industry to minimise its environmental impact is increasingly important, not only because of public lobbying but also because of the potential negative financial implications. For the industry to be competitive and to reduce its costs, it must therefore maximise the benefits of available environmental best practices. Since PCB manufacturing uses many processes

  14. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  15. Adolescent exposure to violence and adult illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Menard, Scott; Covey, Herbert C; Franzese, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Informed by a strain theory perspective, this study utilizes data on adolescent exposure to violence (AEV) from a prospective, longitudinal, national household probability sample that originally consisted of 1,725 respondents, first interviewed as adolescents in 1977 and last interviewed in middle adulthood in 2003. Findings from bivariate correlations and logistic regression models indicate that AEV is associated with both adolescent and adult illicit drug use, but some of the association between AEV and adult illicit drug use becomes nonsignificant when controlling for adolescent illicit drug use. Specific types of AEV associated with adult illicit drug use differ by gender. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25626337

  16. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF ADULTS RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO PCB153.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are more neurotoxic in vitro than are non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners. We selected PCB153, a common ortho-substituted PCB congener, to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of this class of PCBs in vivo. Pregnant fema...

  17. Portable instrument for detection of illicit drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacson, Sabatino; Walker, H.; Chang, Allan; Siu, Tony; McNelles, L.; Uffe, M.

    1997-02-01

    A novel, portable instrument, model NDS-2000 for the detection of illicit drugs was developed. The instrument is based on surface ionization detection system, where ionization is carried out on a heated filament. Positive ions formed in the process are drifted to a collector and a signal is registered. The front-end of the instrument consists of an integral vacuum sampler with built-in desorber system for narcotic particles. The model NDS-2000 has an internal microprocessor and LCD display, as well as visible and audible alarm indicators. RS-232 port on the instrument provides communication to an external PC for data storage and printing.

  18. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  19. Illicit Opioid Intoxication: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, A.; Stout, S.; Casarella, J.; Vayalapalli, S.; Cox, J.; Drexler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose. PMID:22879747

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  1. INTELLIGENT ILLICIT OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED AVIATION SECURITY

    E-print Network

    Blumenstein, Michael

    sophisticated such that it is extremely difficult to detect possible threats of terrorism without severelyINTELLIGENT ILLICIT OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED AVIATION SECURITY Vallipuram for detecting illicit objects in hand luggage. 1. INTRODUCTION Increased security in the aftermath of the 9

  2. MULTI?CHANNEL SUPPLY CHAIN FOR ILLICIT SMALL ARMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Markowski; Stephanie Koorey; Peter Hall; Jurgen Brauer

    2009-01-01

    To generate effective policy to reduce the proliferation of illicit small arms in developing countries, governments must understand how the weapons are distributed and illegal stockpiles formed. This paper describes the structural characteristics of small arms supply chains and models mechanisms delivering the weapons to illicit users. The paper draws on the experience of countries in Southeast Asia and the

  3. Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. Results In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. Conclusions This study presents the first systematic review of the network characteristics of illicit drugs, their targets, and other drugs that share the targets of these illicit drugs. The results, though preliminary, provide some novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. The observation of illicit-related drugs, with partial verification from previous studies, demonstrated that the network-assisted approach is promising for the identification of drug repositioning. PMID:24268016

  4. Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Brieger, G; Hunter, R D

    1993-10-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics. PMID:7504612

  5. Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    SciTech Connect

    Brieger, G.; Hunter, R.D. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics.

  6. Microradiographic detection of corrosion pitting

    SciTech Connect

    Zoofan, B.; Rokhlin, S.I. [Ohio State Univ. Nondestructive Evaluation Program, Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Industrial, Welding and Systems Engineering

    1998-02-01

    A microradiographic characterization of corrosion pitting in 2024-T3 aluminum alloy is reported. Using projection magnification the radiographic parameters were optimized to reduce system unsharpness. Contrast sensitivity of less than 2 percent and pit size detection of less than 10 {micro}m (0.0004 in.) were achieved using the microradiographic system developed. Reduction of scattered radiation and improvement of signal-to-noise ratio and contrast are additional advantages of the use of projection magnification in microradiography. The microradiographic images of corrosion were further optically magnified to enhance detectability. Comparison of images taken by micro and conventional radiography shows significant advantages in the microradiographic method. Using samples with artificial pits calibration curves were established for corrosion-pitting depth determination in aluminum.

  7. MIOS: a flexible system for PCB manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aangelo C. Hung; Philip M. Reddy; Paul J. Hammer

    1989-01-01

    A machine insertion and onsertion system (MIOS) for printed-circuit board (PCB) assembly has been developed. This system features linkage from multiple PCB CAD systems to multiple placement machines. We have found that the MIOS is well suited for flexible manufacturing in a multi-CAD, multi-machine, and multi-site environment.The system maintains manufacturing data independent of its source CAD systems and its destination

  8. MIOS: A Flexible System for PCB Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo C. Hung; P. M. Reddy; Paul J. Hammer

    1989-01-01

    A machine insertion and onsertion system (MIOS) for printed-circuit board (PCB) assembly has been developed. This system features linkage from multiple PCB CAD systems to multiple placement machines. We have found that the MIOS is well suited for flexible manufacturing in a multi-CAD, multi-machine, and multi-site environment. The system maintains manufacturing data independent of its source CAD systems and its

  9. PCB spill response and notification requirements

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  10. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  11. Collapse Pits in Bernard Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These pits occur in the floor of Bernard Crater. These collapse pits were likely formed by the release of volatiles from the materials deposited in the crater floor.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24, Longitude 205.5 East (154.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. The investigation of electrolytic surface roughening for PCB copper foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Liu, Chao-Kai

    2013-10-01

    This study is the application of the principle of electrochemical. The anodic dissolution has no concentration polarization. Hence, electrolyte life is substantially increased. The waste copper is high in ion concentration with a recovery value. As compared with the current PCB chemical pre-treatment method, it may have advantages of cost-saving, improvement of overall efficiency, reduction of production costs and reduction of the amount of waste generated. In the development of the copper foil for electrochemical roughening process, the use of electrolysis reaction affects the copper surface dissolution to form a unique bump coarsening. It will increase in the surface area of the copper foil to improve dry film solder mask and the adhesion between the copper surfaces. Four electrolytes, two neutral salts and two acids, were selected to explore the best of the electrolytic roughening parameters of temperature, time and voltage. The surface roughness and the surface morphology of the copper foil were measured before and after the electrolytic surface roughening. Finally, after repeated experiments, electrolytes A and B copper generates obvious inter-granular corrosion, resulting in a rough surface similar to the chemical pre-treatment. On the other hands, the surface morphology resulted from electrolytes C and D appears more like pitting. Both electrolytic could generate surface roughness of Ra 0.3 um roughened copper surface higher than industrial standard.

  13. Method for replacing PCB containing coolants in electrical induction apparatus with substantially PCB-free dielectric coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, G.

    1988-05-17

    A method for replacing a coolant containing PCB in an electrical induction apparatus having a tank containing the coolant, an electrical winding and porous solid cellulosic electrical insulation immersed in the PCB-containing coolant with a substantially PCB-free high boiling dielectric permanent coolant to convert the electrical apparatus into one in which the rate of elution of PCB into the coolant is below the maximum allowable rate of elution into the coolant of an electrical apparatus rated as non-PCB, the solid porous electrical insulation being impregnated with the PCB-containing coolant, is described comprising the steps of: (a) draining the PCB-containing coolant from the tank to remove a major portion of the PCB-containing coolant contained by it; (b) filling the tank with an interim dielectric cooling liquid that is miscible with the PCB, is sufficiently low in viscosity to circulate within the tank and penetrate the interstices of the porous solid electrical insulation, and is capable of being readily separated from the PCB; (c) electrically operating the electrical induction apparatus and continuing the electrical operation for a period sufficient to elute PCB contained in the PCB-containing coolant impregnated in the porous solid insulation therefrom into the interim dielectric cooling liquid; (d) thereafter draining the interim dielectric cooling liquid containing the eluted PCB from the tank; (e) repeating the cycle of steps (b), (c) and (d) when the rate of elution of PCB into the interim dielectric cooling liquid exceeds 0.55 ppm of PCB per day based on the weight of the permanent dielectric coolant; and (f) filling the tank with a substantially PCB-free permanent coolant selected from the group consisting of high boiling, high viscosity, silicone oils, synthetic ester fluids, poly-alpha-olefin oils and hydrocarbon oils so as to reclasify the electrical apparatus to non-PCB status.

  14. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. 761.274 Section...2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry...

  15. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. 761.274 Section...2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry...

  16. An integrated treatment methodology for PCB-contaminated soil 

    E-print Network

    Garcia, Shannon S

    1995-01-01

    . Three different treatment conditions were examined in the study: (1) chemical dehalogenation by KPEG; (2) inoculation with PCB-degrading bacteria (Alcaligenes eutrophus H850); and (3) chemical dehalogenation with inoculation of PCB-degrading bacteria...

  17. DimmPC Backplane PCB Chris J Cannell

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    DimmPC Backplane PCB Chris J Cannell 22 September 2004 Description The DimmPC Backplane contains on the ASCL website. Printed Circuit Board Figure 5: DimmPC Backplane PCB (Top-right, Bottom-left) #12;

  18. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...barrier which is impermeable to migration of PCB's. (b) A compilation...this section if the barrier limits migration of PCB's from the packaging material...food to a level not exceeding the migration which occurs under the same...

  19. ENVIROGARD PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE INC.: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the demonstration and evaluation of an immunoassay field screening technology designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil. he immunoassay technology was the EnviroGard PCB Test developed by Millipore, Inc. he technology was dem...

  20. Direct infrared determination of PCB in transformer oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Bostick; W. H. McCulla; S. R. Dinsmore; M. S. Denton

    1984-01-01

    Among the requirements stemming from recent PCB regulations are concentration-dependent disposal restrictions for PCB-contaminated materials, including transformer fluids. At ORGDP alone, there are approx.0.5 million gallons of transformer oil contained in approx.400 units. In addition, there are approx.34,000 capacitors which may contain PCB fluids. The inventory of these fluids for PCB content is currently an expensive and time-consuming process. There

  1. UCSD Literature Building Page 1 PCB Sampling Report April 2009

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    UCSD Literature Building Page 1 PCB Sampling Report April 2009 April 6, 2009 Ms. Sarah Meyer UCSD: This letter documents the findings, recommendations, and conclusions from the PCB testing conducted by Rick evaluated in this report may pose to human health due to PCB contamination. This report is based primarily

  2. Printed Circuit Board Design (PCB) with HDL Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkert, Thomas K.; LaFourcade, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: PCB design with HDL designer, design process and schematic capture - symbols and diagrams: 1. Motivation: time savings, money savings, simplicity. 2. Approach: use single tool PCB for FPGA design, more FPGA designs than PCB designers. 3. Use HDL designer for schematic capture.

  3. A basic introduction to Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer

    E-print Network

    Davies, John H.

    A basic introduction to Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer Version 16.3 Professor John H. Davies Department OrCAD PCB Editor 14 4 Instrumentation amplifier ­ single-sided board 25 5 Instrumentation amplifier ­ double-sided board 35 6 Artwork and drill files 39 7 Summary: PCB design flow 46 A Where to learn more 47

  4. Design and PCB Layout Considerations for Dynamic Memories

    E-print Network

    Wilkerson, Clarence

    Design and PCB Layout Considerations for Dynamic Memories interfaced to the Z80 CPU by Tim Olmstead to work in your prototype board can be even tougher. If you can afford to pay for a multi-layer PCB device packages, and reduce the number of them that you could place on a single PCB. Multiplexing

  5. Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer

    E-print Network

    Davies, John H.

    Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer Notes for demonstrators Professor John H, simulate and lay out a simple, one-transistor amplifier on a one-sided printed circuit board (PCB be able to design, populate and test a printed circuit board (PCB). You are therefore required to complete

  6. Bioenergetics-Based Modeling of Individual PCB Congeners in

    E-print Network

    McCarty, John P.

    Bioenergetics-Based Modeling of Individual PCB Congeners in Nestling Tree Swallows from Two 14850 A bioenergetics-based model was used to simulate the accumulation of total PCBs and 20 PCB congeners by nestling tree swallows at two contaminated sites on the Upper Hudson River, New York. PCB

  7. Selective retention of hydroxylated PCB metabolites in blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bergman; E. Klassom-Wehler; Hiroaki Kuroki

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are important environmental contaminants, and their toxicity to wildlife and humans are of major concern. PCBs form persistent and abundant metabolites, PCB methyl sulfones, that accumulate in biota. We now report that certain hydroxylated PCB metabolites show a strong and selective accumulation in mammalian blood. Plasma from experimentally PCB-dosed rats and blood from environmentally exposed grey seals

  8. The EMC analysis and design of the PCB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoqun Liu; Qingbo Geng; Xiaosong Huang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the printed circuit board (PCB) is discussed and the system design method of EMC is put forward. First, the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the PCB is analyzed and the design process of EMC is raised. Then, we use the Ansoft Designer based on method of moments (MoM) to simulate the PCB and

  9. Laser direct imaging of the printed electrical circuits on PCB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Barbucha; M. Kocik; J. Mizeraczyk; G. Koziol; J. Borecki

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50\\/50

  10. A Case Study of ERP Implementation for PCB Manufacturer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan-Hsing Lo; Yu-Hsin Lin; Chih-Hung Tsai; Rong-Kwei Li

    2003-01-01

    This study researched an enterprise resources planning (ERP) implementation project at a printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturer. In depth research was achieved by participating and observing in an implementation project at an actual PCB manufacturer. It is hoped that this study will contribute a valuable reference resource for future PCB manufacturers that wish to select or implement ERP systems. The

  11. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

  12. The Comprehensive Realistic Yearly Pit Transient Infilling Code (CRYPTIC): A Novel Pit Lake Analytical Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Fontaine; Andy Davis; G. G. Fennemore

    2003-01-01

    Permitting of open pit mines that intersect the groundwater table necessitates the use of sophisticated numerical models to determine the temporal impact of pit lake hydraulics. However, while mine feasibility and the potential environmental influences of open-pit dewatering can be estimated using conventional screening-level methods, to date there have been few published transient analytical solutions to estimate the pit lake

  13. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (?-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  14. Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Brieger; R. D. Hunter

    1993-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and

  15. HIGH RESOLUTION PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential environmental and health impact of PCBs must account not only for the integrated quantitation of the PCBs mixtures but also the concentrations of the specific congeners which are potentially toxic. The authors confirm the feasibility of high resolution PCB analysis ...

  16. REMEDIATION OF PCB IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale study will be conducted to evaluate the bioremedial techniques of natural attenuation, sequenced anaerobic/aerobic treatment, and addition of a commercially available microbial amendment product for use in treating PCB contaminated soils at Air Force Base sites. Th...

  17. Hoist Scheduling For A PCB Electroplating Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERALD W. SHAPIRO; HENRY L. W. NUTTLE

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a model and associated algorithm for generating maximum throughput cyclic schedules for the movements of a hoist in a PCB electroplating facility. The algorithm is enumerative in nature and involves the solution of linear programming subproblems. Computational experience with schedules for real systems is presented.

  18. TEST FORM A Evolution PCB 4673 Name

    E-print Network

    Trexler, Joel C.

    TEST FORM A Evolution ­ PCB 4673 Name Exam # 2 SSN Multiple Choice: 3 points each 1. The horseshoe crab is a so-called "living fossil" because there are ancient species that looked very similar individual in this population? Hint: one possible solution: H p= - 1 2 A) 0.49 B) 0.32 C) 0.43 D) 0.51 E

  19. Herring gull eggs indicate stabilizing Great Lakes PCB concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Center for Limnology

    1995-12-31

    The author evaluated the fit of 3 alternative models to herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg PCB concentration data from 1978--1992 to examine whether PCB levels were decreasing or had ceased to decline. The best fit models indicate that, following initial declines, no discernible PCB decreases are occurring in 4 of the 5 lakes. Only Lake Erie indicates a continued PCB decline, though the Erie data may be too noisy to differentiate model fits. These results are consistent with previous analyses indicating stable PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes and suggest that further improvements may be too slow to be of practical importance from a management perspective.

  20. Prevalence of illicit drug use in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Madonna L; Reid, Gary; Baldwin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of drug use in Asia and the Pacific. It is based on the report "Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific", commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. Review of existing estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs from published and unpublished literature and information from key informants and regional institutions was undertaken for the period 1998 - 2004. Estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs were conducted for 12 Asian and six Pacific Island countries. The estimated prevalence of those using illicit drugs ranges from less than 0.01% to 4.6%. Countries with estimated prevalence rates higher than 2% are Cambodia, Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos and Malaysia. China, Myanmar and Vietnam have estimated prevalence rates ranging between less than 0.01% and 2%. Data to estimate prevalence rates was not available for Pacific Island countries and Brunei. Estimates of the prevalence of drug use are critical to policy development, planning responses and measuring the coverage of programs. However, reliable estimates of the numbers of people using illicit drugs are rare in Asia, particularly the Pacific. PMID:17364842

  1. Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

    2014-09-01

    Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195

  2. Cherry Pit Primes Brad Pitt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah M. Burke; Jill Kester Locantore; Ayda A. Austin; Bryan Chae

    ABSTRACT—This study investigated why,proper,names,are dif- ficult to retrieve, especially for older adults. On intermixed trials, young and older adults produced a word for a definition or a proper,name,for a picture of a famous,person. Prior pro- duction of a homophone (e.g., pit) as the response on a defini- tion trial increased,correct,naming,and,reduced,tip-of-the- tongue experiences for a proper name (e.g., Pitt) on a

  3. The leading digit distribution of the worldwide illicit financial flows

    E-print Network

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Benford's law states that in many data sets the overall distribution of the significant digits tends to be logarithmic so that the occurrence of numbers beginning with smaller first significant digits is more often than those with larger ones. We investigate here recent data on illicit financial flows from developing countries and reveal that the data does submit to Benford's law. Further, the general improvement in the statistical accuracy which we observed supports the applicability of the normalization process used to limit the inclusion of the countries in the database for which the illicit financial flows are not substantial.

  4. Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensors for Pcb Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laschi, S.; Mascini, M.; Fránek, M.

    2000-12-01

    We realised an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using carbon-based screen-printed disposable electrodes as solid-phase for reagent immobilisation and as signal transducer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate with Ag or Ab as enzyme label was used; hydrogen peroxide and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FCA) as mediator were employed in order to evaluate the HRP activity in the range 10-8-10-10 M. Indirect and direct competitive assays for PCB were performed and a detection limit of 0.01 ?g/mL was obtained in direct competitive format. The advantage of this approach is the relatively fast analysis (30 min) in comparison with a test based on microtiter assay plates (14h); moreover, the use of disposable screen-printed electrodes eliminates the problems of fouling and surface regeneration of electrochemical device.

  5. PCB — Approaches to Removal From the Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Demnerová; M. Macková; J. Pazlarová; M. Vosahlíková; H. Nováková; E. Jindrová; E. Ryslavá; T. Macek; N. Vrchotova; V. Brenner; L. Pavl?; S. Totevová; T. Kristoffer; D. D. Focht; F. Fava; D. Gioia; L. Marchetti; J. S. Fletcher; M. B. Leigh; P. Kucerová; H. Stiborová; V. Mateju; M. Sobotka; F. Kastanek; P. Kastanek; L. Kasák

    \\u000a Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of the most recalcitrant compounds with proved negative effect on the\\u000a human health. They may be removed from the environment by chemical, physical and biological methods, while the latter ones\\u000a through microorganisms or plants represent more economical way of removal. This study describes use of bacteria isolated in\\u000a the Czech Republic from PCB

  6. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  7. Defect reduction in PCB contract manufacturing operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Santos; Rajkumar B. Raj; David Sissenstein; Michael Testani

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the identification and improvement of a defect-reducing process step in plated-through-hole (PTH) technology of printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies. The process step discussed is a step in which the substrates are baked prior to assembly. While this step is developed to address defect problems faced by both OEMs and contract manufacturers alike, this paper discusses an experiment

  8. Research advances in chemical disposal of PCB's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Promising research in low-cost detoxification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in electric transformers and transfer fluids is reported by the Franklin Research Center, which uses a dispersion of molten sodium metal in polyethylene glycols, and by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., which uses sodium napthalide to change PCBs to common table salt. Chemical disposal is preferred over high-temperature incineration because it produces relatively harmless by-products and it eliminates hazardous PCB transportation and expensive incineration. (DCK)

  9. PCB with fully integrated optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Gregor; Satzinger, Valentin; Schmidt, Volker; Schmid, Gerhard; Leeb, Walter R.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand for miniaturization and design flexibility of polymer optical waveguides integrated into electrical printed circuit boards (PCB) calls for new coupling and integration concepts. We report on a method that allows the coupling of optical waveguides to electro-optical components as well as the integration of an entire optical link into the PCB. The electro-optical devices such as lasers and photodiodes are assembled on the PCB and then embedded in an optically transparent material. A focused femtosecond laser beam stimulates a polymerization reaction based on a two-photon absorption effect in the optical material and locally increases the refractive index of the material. In this way waveguide cores can be realized and the embedded components can be connected optically. This approach does not only allow a precise alignment of the waveguide end faces to the components but also offers a truly 3-dimensional routing capability of the waveguides. Using this technology we were able to realize butt-coupling and mirror-coupling interface solutions in several demonstrators. We were also manufacturing demonstrator boards with fully integrated driver and preamplifier chips, which show very low power consumption of down to 10 mW for about 2.5 Gbit/s. Furthermore, demonstrators with interconnects at two different optical layers were realized.

  10. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n?=?24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n?=?410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker's measured serum PCB levels and the same worker's cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14-24% of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22-39% for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  11. Using Fast Neutrons to Detect Explosives and Illicit Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Buffler

    The present global political landscape continues to encourage the development of new technologies for the detection of hidden illicit materials, especially explosives, in packages ranging in size from small mail items to cargo containers. The various approaches using fast neutrons for contraband detection, presently under development, are reviewed.

  12. The illicit acquisition of firearms by youth and juveniles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Braga; David M. Kennedy

    2001-01-01

    Youth and juvenile gun violence has been linked to the availability of firearms. Scholars have suggested that, in order to reduce youth and juvenile gun violence, the illicit gun markets serving youth and juveniles must be disrupted. The question of whether illegal firearms markets serving youth and juveniles can be disrupted has been vigorously debated in the academic literature on

  13. Factors influencing alcohol and illicit drug use amongst medical students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy Newbury-Birch; Martin White; Farhad Kamali

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol, illicit drug use, and other lifestyle variables, as well as stress, anxiety and personality were evaluated in 194 first year medical students. 45% of the students reported drinking above the recommended UK limits for alcohol consumption. The age at which the first full drink of alcohol was taken was predictive of the current level of alcohol use. Cannabis was

  14. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  15. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

  16. Thoracic complications of illicit drug use: an organ system approach.

    PubMed

    Gotway, Michael B; Marder, Shelley R; Hanks, Douglas K; Leung, Jessica W T; Dawn, Samuel K; Gean, Alisa D; Reddy, Gautham P; Araoz, Philip A; Webb, W Richard

    2002-10-01

    Illicit drug use constitutes a major health problem and may be associated with various thoracic complications. These complications vary depending on the specific drug used and the route of administration. Commonly abused drugs that may play a role in causing thoracic disease include cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine derivatives. Intravenously abused oral medications may contain filler agents that may be responsible for disease. Thoracic complications may be categorized as pulmonary, pleural, mediastinal, cardiovascular, and chest wall complications. Pulmonary complications of drug abuse include pneumonia, cardiogenic edema, acute lung injury, pulmonary hemorrhage, and aspiration pneumonia. Filler agents such as talc may result in panacinar emphysema or high-attenuation upper-lobe conglomerate masses. The primary pleural complication of illicit drug use is pneumothorax. Mediastinal and cardiovascular complications of illicit drug use include pneumomediastinum, cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, and injection-related pseudoaneurysms. Chest wall complications include diskitis and vertebral osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, costochondritis, and septic arthritis. Categorization of thoracic complications of illicit drug use may facilitate understanding of these disorders and allow accurate diagnosis. PMID:12376606

  17. Illicit drugs and the environment--a review.

    PubMed

    Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-10-01

    Illicit drugs and their metabolites are the latest group of emerging pollutants. Determination of their concentration in environment (such as water bodies, soil, sediment, air) is an indirect tool to estimate the community level consumption of illicit drug and to evaluate potential ecotoxicological impacts from chronic low level exposure. They enter the wastewater network as unaltered drugs and/or their active metabolites by human excretion after illegal consumption or by accidental or deliberate disposal from clandestine drug laboratories. This article critically reviews the occurrence and concentration levels of illicit drugs and their metabolites in different environmental compartments (e.g., wastewater, surface waters, groundwater, drinking water, and ambient air) and their potential impact on the ecosystem. There is limited published information available on the presence of illicit drugs in the environment, reports are available mainly from European countries, UK, USA, and Canada but there is a lack of information from the remainder of the world. Although the environmental concentrations are not very high, they can potentially impact the human health and ecosystem functioning. Cocaine, morphine, amphetamine, and MDMA have potent pharmacological activities and their presence as complex mixtures in water may cause adverse effect on aquatic organisms and human health. However, there is no current regulation demanding the determination of occurrence of these emerging pollutants in treated wastewater, surface water, drinking water, or atmosphere. Thus, critical investigation on distribution pattern of this new group of emerging contaminant and their potential harmful impact on our environment needs immediate attention. PMID:22726813

  18. An illicit economy: Scavenging and recycling of medical waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masum A. Patwary; William Thomas O’Hare; M. H. Sarker

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed

  19. Accumulation of PCB Congeners in Nestling Tree Swallows

    E-print Network

    McCarty, John P.

    Accumulation of PCB Congeners in Nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River Sciences, Section of Ecology and Systematics, Ithaca, New York 14850 Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor

  20. Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desourcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1999-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination of the congener. The authors used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, the authors found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing K{sub ow} or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. The authors concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5--8 chlorine atoms/molecule, K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

  1. The pit-craters and pit-crater-filling lavas of Masaya volcano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. L. Harris

    2009-01-01

    Lava flowing into a pit crater will become entrapped to form an inactive lava lake. At Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) pit filling lavas are exposed in the walls of Nindiri, Santiago and San Pedro pits. Mapping of these lavas shows that fill can involve emplacement of both 'a'a and pahoehoe, with single fill units ranging in thickness from 2 to 22

  2. PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY MODELING CALIBRATION OF THE MAIN PIT, TYRONE MINE, NEW MEXICO, USA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A major difficulty facing many open pit mines where sulfides are present is the pit lake water quality after closure. A reliable prediction of future water quality within an open pit mine, excavated below the water table, requires a large amount of information and predictions for maybe hundreds of years into the future. These long-term predictions can only be useful

  3. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling...761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling...chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area of inference...

  4. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section...Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste...

  5. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section...Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste...

  6. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food...Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals....

  7. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food...Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals....

  8. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food...Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals....

  9. Magnitude and origin of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) compounds resuspended in

    E-print Network

    Magnitude and origin of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. Lansing (2004), Magnitude and origin of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane], and known neurotoxins [Schantz et al., 2003]. Consumption of PCB- contaminated fish is correlated

  10. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB...761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal, in...

  11. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...§ 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household waste, as defined at §...

  12. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization...and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site...

  13. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761...Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces....

  14. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...§ 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household waste, as defined at §...

  15. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...§ 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household waste, as defined at §...

  16. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

  17. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761...Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces....

  18. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization...and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site...

  19. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

  20. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...§ 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household waste, as defined at §...

  1. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization...and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site...

  2. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...§ 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household waste, as defined at §...

  3. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB...761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal, in...

  4. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces. 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761...Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces....

  5. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

  6. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

  7. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB...761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal, in...

  8. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade - nine countries and the European union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products. PMID:26020137

  9. PCB detection by immunoassay -- A wipe test for surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dautlick, J.X.; Teaney, G.B.; Hudak, R.T.; Melby, J.M. [Strategic Diagnostics Industries Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Immunoassay based field screening methods are gaining acceptance by the environmental diagnostics industry for on-site characterization and remediation monitoring. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of molecules classified as potential carcinogens, can be easily detected on-site by immunoassay screening methods. This results in reduced project cost and improved onsite efficiency, since field screening immunoassays short cut the long turn around time of laboratory analysis while providing reliable results. On site wipe test technology for assessing PCB contamination on surfaces such as walls and floors of PCB storage facilities has been developed to supplement the D TECH{trademark} PCB soil assay. This sampling technique can also be used to monitor for transformer leaks, spills and to evaluate equipment decontamination processes. The D TECH PCB wipe test is quick, cost effective, highly specific and user friendly. The surface is sampled by wiping a 100 cm{sup 2} area with a 1 cm{sup 2} pad saturated with an extractant. The PCB is extracted from the sampling pad during a short extraction step. The sample is filtered, diluted, and run in the D TECH PCB field screening system. The components of the immunoassay include PCB specific antibodies (Ab) covalently linked to small latex particles, a PCB analog which is covalently linked to alkaline phosphatase, and the free PCB from the sample. The free PCB competes with the enzyme linked analog for the Ab binding sites. The latex particles are then collected on a filter device, washed, and an enzyme substrate is added. The amount of color produced is inversely proportional to the concentration of free PCB on the sample, and can be determined using a hand held reflectometer, or a color card.

  10. Assessing granular pit construction from larval Neuroptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Shea; Jeffrey S. Olafsen; Catherine Loudon; Don W. Steeples

    2002-01-01

    Antlion larvae, Myrmeleon carolinus, build cone-shaped pits in dry sand for prey capture. The surface of these pits are prone to avalanches that can depend upon the physical properties of the sand in the local environment. The antlion larvae are observed to be capable of assessing both sand depth and particle size. In a polydisperse granular environment, the antlion demonstrates

  11. MASTER - The Pit and the Pendulum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The short story, The Pit and the Pendulum by Edgar Allan Poe, remains a masterful work of psychological narrative writing, but for the careful reader, it also is a wonderful source of some interesting computational problems. The Pit and Pendulum model allows the reader to analyze the statements made in Poe's story.

  12. Speed, acceleration, chameleons and cherry pit projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific reasoning and how scientific knowledge is built.

  13. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  14. COPPER PITTING AND PINHOLE LEAK RESEARCH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Localized copper corrosion or pitting is a significant problem at many water utilities across the United States. Copper pinhole leak problems resulting from extensive pitting are widely under reported. Given the sensitive nature of the problem, extent of damage possible, costs o...

  15. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  16. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

  20. KINETICS OF PITTING CORROSION IN GELS.

    SciTech Connect

    ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.

    2000-10-22

    An investigation has been carried out on stainless steel to determine the important parameters that related the changes in pH around pits to the current coming from the pits. Potentiodynamic measurements at 1 mV/s were made on Type 302 stainless steel in agar containing 1M NaCl and a wide range pH indicator. Many pits suddenly appeared at the pitting potential, as indicated by the red, low pH region around the pits. Simulations of the changes in pH were based on diffusion from a point current source. The results also were considered in terms of the effects of a minimum detectable thickness of pH change within the gel.

  1. A self-filling micropump based on PCB technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ansgar Wego; Lienhard Pagel

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a novel micropump based on printed circuit board technology (PCB). The pump consists of four PCB layers and one membrane layer forming two passive check valves and one thermopneumatically driven volume actuator. Due to the large deflections of the actuator membrane, the device is completely self-filling and able to pump liquids even with gas bubbles. A maximum

  2. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials...assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are...non-liquid PCB remediation waste: soil, sediments, dredged materials...remediation waste on-site using a soil washing process may do...

  3. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials...assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are...non-liquid PCB remediation waste: soil, sediments, dredged materials...remediation waste on-site using a soil washing process may do...

  4. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials...assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are...non-liquid PCB remediation waste: soil, sediments, dredged materials...remediation waste on-site using a soil washing process may do...

  5. PCB ground fill design guidelines for radiated EMI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifeng Pan; David Pommerenke; Shuai Xu; Jun Jia

    2008-01-01

    This paper is to alert PCB designers about potential EMI problems caused by ground fills in outer layers of PCB. Ground fills are frequently used on top and bottom layers of PCBs for manufacturing or perceived shielding reasons. However, if not well applied they may cause EMI problem, especially if they form resonators. Several types of situations need to be

  6. PCB integrated waveguides - launching light into highly multi mode structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Duzynski; R. Rieske; K.-J. Wolter; S. Patela

    2004-01-01

    One future solution for overcoming the growing gap between the internal and external clock rates of today's integrated circuits lies undoubtedly in using optical interconnection technology on the PCB level. The requirements for PCB integration call for structural dimensions which enable multi mode transmission only. Up to now, the theoretical basis for the simulation of highly multi mode waveguides is

  7. A case-based reasoning system for PCB defect prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chieh-yuan Tsai; Chuang-cheng Chiu; J.-S. Chen

    2005-01-01

    The manufacturing process for a new Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design is often instable and might generate a number of defects during the complicated production process. Defects reduce the yield rate and increase the production costs. Although skilled engineers can predict the possible defect items for a new PCB product, this approach requires strong engineering experience and is time consuming.

  8. PCB's in fish from selected waters of New York State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Spagnoli; L. C. Skinner

    1977-01-01

    The recent concern over the impact of PCB's on human health and on natural resources precipitated a shift from low level monitoring to the statewide monitoring in New York. The objectives of this program were to determine the level and extent of PCB contamination in fish inhabiting or migrating through major waterways in New York and to isolate contaminated portions,

  9. Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations

    SciTech Connect

    Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

    1987-12-01

    PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

  10. SunOhio zeros in on PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-17

    SunOhio, a Sun Co. Inc. subsidiary, has developed the PCBX process to eliminate PCB's from insulating fluids without destroying the fluids. The process uses ''reasonably priced'' reagents that strip the chlorine from the PCB to generate harmless residues, and follows this step with selective filtration, dehydration, and degassing. According to SunOhio, approx. 15 gpm of fluid can be processed, permitting the rapid removal and return of fluids to electrical equipment, possibly during continuous operation of the equipment. The PCBX process has reduced the concentration of PCB's in intentionally contaminated transformer oil from 178 ppm to zero. EPA is optimistic that PCBX will satisfy the requirement of being at least as good as incineration in eliminating PCB's, without imposing unreasonable risk to health or the environment. SunOhio feels that the PCBX process is less complex and works faster and more completely than a PCB removal method recently developed by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.

  11. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-03-20

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QA/G4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

  12. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-18

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

  13. NELIS — a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George

    2003-08-01

    NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with a pulsed d-T neutron generator are the interrogating particles. NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays emitted from the object that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons. These gamma rays have different energies for each chemical element, and act as their fingerprints. Since the elemental composition of illicit drugs is quite different from that of innocuous materials, drugs hidden in pallets are identified through the comparison of expected and measured elemental composition and ratios. Results of tests of the system will be discussed.

  14. NELIS - a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George [Applied Physics Institute, Western Kentucky University, 1 Big Red Way, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2003-08-26

    NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with a pulsed d-T neutron generator are the interrogating particles. NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays emitted from the object that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons. These gamma rays have different energies for each chemical element, and act as their fingerprints. Since the elemental composition of illicit drugs is quite different from that of innocuous materials, drugs hidden in pallets are identified through the comparison of expected and measured elemental composition and ratios. Results of tests of the system will be discussed.

  15. Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan White; Nilanjan Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the\\u000aenabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However,\\u000aas an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to\\u000apernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system\\u000ais corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer\\u000asales and

  16. Pitted keratolysis. The role of Micrococcus sedentarius.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, K M; McGinley, K J; Cappiello, L; Zechman, J M; Leyden, J J

    1987-10-01

    Though pitted keratolysis of the foot is generally viewed to be caused by bacteria, there is confusion regarding the identity of the causative organism. Species of Corynebacterium, Actinomyces, Dermatophilus, and Micrococcus have been proposed by various investigators. We have studied eight cases of pitted keratolysis and have cultured an organism identified as Micrococcus sedentarius on the basis of colonial morphology, micromorphology, biochemical reactions, and chemical analysis of whole-cell components. Furthermore, pitted keratolysis was produced experimentally in a human volunteer by applying M sedentarius under an occlusive dressing onto the surface of the heel. PMID:3310909

  17. Arne - Exploring the Mare Tranquillitatis Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Thangavelautham, J.; Wagner, R.; Hernandez, V. A.; Finch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lunar mare "pits" are key science and exploration targets. The first three pits were discovered within Selene observations [1,2] and were proposed to represent collapses into lava tubes. Subsequent LROC images revealed 5 new mare pits and showed that the Mare Tranquillitatis pit (MTP; 8.335°N, 33.222°E) opens into a sublunarean void at least 20-meters in extent [3,4]. A key remaining task is determining pit subsurface extents, and thus fully understanding their exploration and scientific value. We propose a simple and cost effective reconnaissance of the MTP using a small lander (<130 kg) named Arne, that carries three flying microbots (or pit-bots) [5,6,7]. Key measurement objectives include decimeter scale characterization of the pit walls, 5-cm scale imaging of the eastern floor, determination of the extent of sublunarean void(s), and measurement of the magnetic and thermal environment. After landing and initial surface systems check Arne will transmit full resolution descent and surface images. Within two hours the first pit-bot will launch and fly into the eastern void. Depending on results from the first pit-bot the second and third will launch and perform follow-up observations. The primary mission is expected to last 48-hours; before the Sun sets on the lander there should be enough time to execute ten flights with each pit-bot. The pit-bots are 30-cm diameter spherical flying robots [5,6,7] equipped with stereo cameras, temperature sensors, sensors for obstacle avoidance and a laser rangefinder. Lithium hydride [5,6] and water/hydrogen peroxide power three micro-thrusters and achieve a specific impulse of 350-400 s. Each pit-bot can fly for 2 min at 2 m/s for more than 100 cycles; recharge time is 20 min. Arne will carry a magnetometer, thermometer, 2 high resolution cameras, and 6 wide angle cameras and obstacle avoidance infrared sensors enabling detailed characterization of extant sublunarean voids. [1] Haruyama et al. (2010) 41st LPSC, #1285. [2] Haruyama et al. (2010) GRL, 36, dx.doi.org/ 10.1029/2009GL0406355. [3] Robinson et al (2012) PSS, 69, dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.pss.2012.05.008 [4] Wagner and Robinson (2014) Icarus, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.002. [5] Thangavelautham et al. (2012) IEEE ICRA [6] Strawser et al. (2014) J. Hydrogen Energy. [7] Dubowsky et al. (2007) Proc. CLAWAR.

  18. High-resolution PCB analysis: synthesis and chromatographic properties of all 209 PCB congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, M.D.; Pochini, C.M.; McCrindle, S.; Romkes, M.; Safe, S.H.; Safe, L.M.

    1984-06-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of all the mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorobipheynls are reported and the synthesis of all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is completed. The retention times and molar response factors of the 209 PCBs were determined relative to a reference standard, octachloronaphthalene. The retention times for these compounds generally increased with increasing chlorine content, and it was apparent that within a series of isomers there was an increase in retention time with increasing meta and para and decreasing ortho substitution. By use of a 50-m narrow bore fused silica capillary column coated with SE-54, it was possible to separate 187 PCB congeners, and only 11 pairs of compounds were not fully resolved. With some additional analytical improvements, isomer-specific PCB analysis can be utilized to determine the composition of commercial PCBs and accurately follow the fate and distribution of these pollutants within the global ecosystem.

  19. Distribution of organochlorines and PCB congeners in Korean human tissues.

    PubMed

    Park, Mee-Jung; Lee, Sang-Ki; Yang, Ja-Yeol; Kim, Ki-Wook; Lee, Su-Yeon; Lee, Won-Tae; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Young-Chan

    2005-07-01

    In order to investigate the residual amounts of organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Korean human tissues (blood, adipose tissue, liver, kidney cortex, and lung), the samples were collected from the autopsied cadavers of 40 men and 40 women (from teens to seventies of age). Alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, gamma-BHC, delta-BHC, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, endrin, dieldein, aldrin, and 7 marker PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) were determined in human tissues. The levels of organochlorines and PCB congeners indicated that they have been widely distributed in Korean human body. Positive correlations in terms of age were observed for the following cases: p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, Sigma-DDT, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153, and Sigma-PCB in the adipose tissue, and p,p'-DDE in the lung. Concentration of these compounds showed a significant age-related increase. Accumulation of these compounds in aged people revealed that these compounds were more slowly eliminated in our environment and risk assessment was necessary for further proper action. Significant differences in the levels of PCBs between genders were found for PCB 118 in the adipose tissue and PCB 138 in the liver. Positive correlation coefficients between tissues were detected with p,p'-DDE and p-BHC. PMID:16114499

  20. Biogeochemical controls on PCB deposition in Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Macdonald, Robie W; Johannessen, Sophia C; Stern, Gary A

    2010-05-01

    PCB concentrations, congener patterns, and fluxes were examined in 13 dated and organically characterized (C, N, delta(13)C, delta(15)N) marine sediment cores from Hudson Bay, Canada, to investigate the importance of organic matter (OM) supply and transport to PCB sequestration. Drawdown of PCBs, supported by marine primary production, is reflected in elevated summation operatorPCB concentrations and more highly chlorinated PCB signatures in surface sediments underlying eutrophic regions. Sediments in oligotrophic regions, which are dominated by "old" marine OM, have lower PCB concentrations and weathered signatures. For the surface of Hudson Bay, average atmospheric deposition appears to be very low (ca. 1.4 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)) compared to fluxes reported for nearby lakes (ca. 44 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)). (210)Pb fails to provide a means to normalize the fluxes, highlighting important differences in the biocycling of (210)Pb and PCBs. Unlike (210)Pb, atmospheric PCB exchange with the water's surface is partially forced by the aquatic organic carbon cycle. The extremely low atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the surface of Hudson Bay is likely a reflection of the Bay's exceptionally low productivity and vertical carbon fluxes. If future marine production and vertical flux of carbon increase due to loss of ice cover or change in river input as consequences of global warming, PCB deposition would also increase. PMID:20392087

  1. Environmental and food contamination with PCB's in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    1975-09-01

    In Japan "yusho", i.e., poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with PCB's, broke out in October 1968, and produced more than 1200 officially certified cases. Nevertheless, it was only regarded as a kind of food poisoning and its connection with environmental and biological contamination was only imperfectly taken into consideration. Finally, in the autumn of 1970, two study groups, from the Ehime University and the Kyoto City Hygienic Institute, reported on the PCB contamination of salt water and fresh water fishes in Japan. Subsequently many reports about PCB's as an environmental contaminant have been published by several study groups throughout Japan, and nowadays the PCB polluted state of Japan has become rather clearly recognized. This report will present information on environmental, food and human contamination with PCB's in Japan especially also in some typically contaminated local areas, in addition to summarizing some overall aspects of the PCB problem in Japan (e.g., the production, shipment and use of PCB's). PMID:808853

  2. A software tool for estimation of PCB substrate utilisation efficiency statistics from scanned images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Hyslop; P. J. Palmer; D. C. Whalley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Routing efficiency provides an estimate of the compactness of a specific PCB layout in comparison with the theoretical minimum size for the circuit design. This work describes a methodology for estimating the routing efficiency of existing PCB layouts from scanned images of either a manufactured PCB or the relevant PCB artwork. Measuring and maximising routing efficiency offers a

  3. ENHANCING DISSIPATION OF AROCLOR 1248 (PCB) USING SUBSTRATE AMENDMENT IN RHIZOSPHERE SOIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kudjo Dzantor; Joelle E. Woolston

    2001-01-01

    Soils contaminated in the laboratory with Aroclor 1248 (PCB) were amended with biphenyl and plant residues that are known to induce PCB degradation, and planted with crops that inherently stimulated PCB dissipation in a previous study to determine if the combination of soil amendment and planting could further enhance PCB dissipation beyond that shown by planting alone. The plants used

  4. Novel Automatic PCB Inspection Technique Based on Connectivity MAURO HIROMU TATIBANA

    E-print Network

    Novel Automatic PCB Inspection Technique Based on Connectivity MAURO HIROMU TATIBANA ROBERTO DE. This paper presents a novel technique for PCB inspection based on the comparison of the Connected Table to extract the connectivity information of the conductors of a PCB. The registration of the PCB holes, which

  5. A Smart Machine Vision System for PCB Inspection Tie Qi Chen1

    E-print Network

    Lu, Yi

    A Smart Machine Vision System for PCB Inspection Tie Qi Chen1 , JianXin Zhang1 , YouNing Zhou2 board (PCB) inspection. It has advantages over the traditional manual inspection by its higher of a PCB board. The OLI module runs on-line to inspect PCB boards using a high-resolution 2-D sensor

  6. INFLUENCE DE GRILLES METALLIQUES SUR LES LIGNES COUPLEES EN TECHNOLOGIE PCB

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INFLUENCE DE GRILLES METALLIQUES SUR LES LIGNES COUPLEES EN TECHNOLOGIE PCB T. Le Gouguec- P'augmentation des densités d'intégration des cartes PCB (Printed Board Circuit) ou bien l'utilisation des nouveaux structures PCB multicouches de type microruban que nous avons étudiées et la figure 2 une structure PCB

  7. Security Analysis and Extensions of the PCB Algorithm for Distributed Key Generation

    E-print Network

    Poovendran, Radha

    Security Analysis and Extensions of the PCB Algorithm for Distributed Key Generation Radha these methods is the distributed key generation method proposed by Poovendran, Corson and Baras in [PCB],which we call the PCB scheme in this paper. The PCB scheme made use of modulo arithmetic and generalized

  8. The pit-craters and pit-crater-filling lavas of Masaya volcano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. L. Harris

    2009-01-01

    Lava flowing into a pit crater will become entrapped to form an inactive lava lake. At Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) pit filling\\u000a lavas are exposed in the walls of Nindiri, Santiago and San Pedro pits. Mapping of these lavas shows that fill can involve\\u000a emplacement of both ’a’a and pahoehoe, with single fill units ranging in thickness from 2 to 22 m.

  9. The pit-craters and pit-crater-filling lavas of Masaya volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Lava flowing into a pit crater will become entrapped to form an inactive lava lake. At Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) pit filling lavas are exposed in the walls of Nindiri, Santiago and San Pedro pits. Mapping of these lavas shows that fill can involve emplacement of both ’a’a and pahoehoe, with single fill units ranging in thickness from 2 to 22 m. Thick units with columnar joints were emplaced as simple inactive lava lakes during high effusion rate episodes. Sequences of thinner units, which can form pit floor shields or compound lakes, were emplaced at lower effusion rates. Lava withdrawal caused unsupported sections of three 20-m-thick units to subside, resulting in unit flexure and faulting, and viscous peeling features reveal that subsidence occurred while at least one unit was still partially molten. Where withdrawal has not occurred, fill sequences are flat lying and symmetrically distributed around the feeder structures (cinder cones and dykes). The filled Nindiri pit holds 5 × 107 m3 of lava in a 215-m-thick sequence. Partial fill of Santiago pit with 1 × 107 m3 of lava has filled the pit with a 110-m-thick lava sequence, of which ˜50% has been consumed by formation of a secondary pit. Altogether, 6.4 × 107 m3 of lava was erupted into Nindiri and Santiago during 1525-1965, with 94% of this volume remaining pit-contained; the remainder forms a north flank lava flow field. Pit development and filling is a dynamic and ephemeral process, having short-lived effects on volcano morphology, where pits develop and fill over hours-to-centuries. However, pits play an important role in shaping an edifice, representing lava sinks and controlling whether lavas are trapped or able to spread onto the flanks.

  10. Structural safety of pitted waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Yau, W.W.F.

    1981-02-19

    Discovery of the corrosion pits in October 1980 in the steel plates of the waste tanks under construction led to the formation of a task force to investigate the problem. The task force consists of personnel from SRP, SRL and Du Pont Engineering Department. Consultants from Arthur D. Little, Inc., as commissioned by the Department of Energy, have also participated in the investigation. The work of the task force has been aimed at understanding of the corrosion mechanism, or causes and consequences of corrosion, and assessing-the structural integrity of the pitted tanks. Recent meetings on the stress considerations related to the pitting problem helped to clarify the factors that control the safety factor of the waste tank design. This memorandum estimates quantitatively the importance of each contributing factor, and gives an overall assessment of structural safety for the waste tanks with the pitting problem.

  11. Investigating Processes of Sedimentation in Gravel Pits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Melissa Olson

    This is a field investigation where students will explore and observe sediments within a local gravel pit and from their observation create an investigation that will help to determine the nature of the sediments.

  12. Okay, Kids, Everyone into the Pit!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belle, Bob; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a typical food chain and the interrelationship between plants and animals. Describes the "Food Chain Pit" game which can be used to help students create food chains of different habitats. (RT)

  13. POST-BETZE PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY PREDICTION, NEVADA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Schafer; Mark Logsdon; Guosheng Zhan; Ron Espell

    The Barrick Goldstrike Mine is located in the Carlin Trend, about 20 miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada. The majority of the ore mined at Goldstrike is from the Post-Betze open pit, the largest open pit operation in Nevada. Nevada law requires that the water quality of temporary or permanent reservoirs that may develop in open pits be periodically tested. Pit

  14. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

  15. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

  16. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

  17. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

  18. 7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

  19. Specific Surface Area and Volume Fraction of the Cherry-Pit Model with Packed Pits A. Elsner,*,

    E-print Network

    Aste, Tomaso

    Specific Surface Area and Volume Fraction of the Cherry-Pit Model with Packed Pits A. Elsner,*, A s for statistically homogeneous systems of partially penetrating spheres, i.e. so-called `cherry-pit models. Surprisingly, the existing formulas for and s in the equilibrium cherry-pit model lead to values which deviate

  20. EVALUATION OF PCB DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the evaluation program undertaken to determine the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) destruction efficiency during a May 1980 verification co-firing of waste oil containing approximately 500 ppm of PCBs, in accordance with applicable state and federal regulation...

  1. PCB's in fish from selected waters of New York State.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, J J; Skinner, L C

    1977-09-01

    PCB residues in fish from 41 stations throughout New York State were monitored in 1975. Nearly all fish contained PCB's in detectable amounts although the levels of contamination and specific Aroclor varied. The Hudson River contained the highest known PCB concentrations within the United States; levels often exceeded 100 ppm. Other waters and fish which were significantly contaminated include Lake Ontario salmonids and Cayuga Lake lake trout. Onondaga Lake, previously closed to fishing because of mercury contamination, also appears to have abnormally high levels of PCB's approaching in some instances the action level of the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Samples from marine waters generally have contaminant levels substantially below 5.0 ppm. PMID:414199

  2. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274...

  3. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274...

  4. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274...

  5. PCB origami : folding circuit boards into electronic products

    E-print Network

    Sterman, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    PCB origami is a concept for an alternative manufacturing process of electronic products, in which the electronic material will be manufactured flat and folded into functional 3D graspable products by the user. PCBs will ...

  6. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners by egg injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Klein, P.N. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Environmental Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The utility of egg injection studies for predicting potential embryotoxicity of PCBs and TCDD compares favorably with feeding studies. The effects of PCB congeners 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-tetraCB (PCB 77), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentaCB (PCB 105), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCB (PCB 153) were examined on embryonic development in chickens (Gallus gallus), northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and common terns (Sterna hirundo) through hatching following air cell injections on day 4. The estimated LD{sub 50}s for these congeners in chickens were approximately 0.4 ppb, 2.6 ppb, 3326 ppb, and greater than 14,000 ppb, respectively; low effect levels (10--20% embryonic mortality) were 0.2 ppb, 1.2 ppb, 900 ppb, and 14,000 ppb respectively. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 126 was 48 ppb for bobwhite, 65 ppb for American kestrels, and 104 ppb for common terns. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 77 was 688 ppb for American kestrels. one or more hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase was assayed for each species. For PCB 126, the order of responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction was: chicken > common tern > American kestrel > bobwhite, with chicken being approximately 100 times more responsive than common tern. These values are compared to existing Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) including bioassay-derived ones.

  7. Molecular genetics and evolutionary relationship of PCB-degrading bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kensuke Furukawa

    1994-01-01

    Biphenyl-utilizing soil bacteria are ubiquitously distributed in the natural environment. They cometabolize a variety of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to chlorobenzoic acids through a 2,3-dioxygenase pathway, or alternatively through a 3,4-dioxygenase system. Thebph genes coding for the metabolism of biphenyl have been cloned from several pseudomonads. The biochemistry and molecular genetics of PCB degradation are reviewed and discussed from the

  8. Biotransformation of PCB by natural assemblages of freshwater microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Shiaris, M.P.; Sayler, G.S.

    1982-06-01

    Natural mixed-microbial populations in lake water were found capable of oxidizing 2-chlorobiphenyl but not 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl. No evidence was found to indicate that these populations were able to oxidize a PCB mixture 54% chlorine by weight. Oxidation of 2-chlorobiphenyl resulted in the accumulation of two biotransformation products, chlorobenzoic acid and chlorobenzoylformic acid (chlorophenylglyoxylic acid). The results indicate that biodegradation of PCB congeners may result in the accumulation of environmentally stable chlorinated biotransformation products in aquatic environments.

  9. [Patterns and modalities of illicit drug consumption in France].

    PubMed

    Apaire, Etienne

    2008-02-01

    After recalling the current patterns and trends of illicit drug use in France, the MILDT president outlined a four-year plan of prevention, treatment, enforcement and research. The overriding aim is to reduce overall drug consumption and thereby to diminish its morbidity and mortality, and its negative impact on the family and society. The president ended by describing the public tools and resources available to reach these objectives, and underlined the central role of MILDT in developing and coordinating these tools. PMID:18819681

  10. Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-07-01

    Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

  11. Tank Riser Pit Decontamination System (Pit Viper) Return on Investment and Break-Even Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Joan K.; Weimar, Mark R.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Hernandez, Melissa

    2003-06-30

    This study assessed the cost benefit of Pit Viper deployment for 80 tank farm pits between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2012 under the technical baseline for applicable double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) projects. After this assessment had been completed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) published the Hanford Performance Management Plan (August 2003), which accelerated the schedule for SST retrieval. Then, DOE/CH2M HILL contract modification M064 (October 2002) and The Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan (March 2003) further accelerated SST retrieval and closure schedules. Twenty-six to 40 tanks must be retrieved by 2006. Thus the schedule for SST pit entries is accelerated and the number of SST pit entries is increased. This study estimates the return on investment (ROI) and the number of pits where Pit Viper deployment would break even or save money over current manual practices. The results of the analysis indicate a positive return on the federal investment for deployment of the Pit Viper provided it is used on a sufficient number of pits.

  12. Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

  13. Laser direct imaging of the printed electrical circuits on PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Kozio?, G.; Borecki, J.

    2005-09-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 ?m or 25/25 ?m technology are real. Imaging of HDI boards poses a rapid increasing challenge on PCB manufactures due to line width and space getting smaller and mainly to tighter registration requirements. Existing technologies are unable to offer the acceptable solution. Nowadays the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging circuitry pattern directly on the PCB without the use of a phototool. The exposure of the photo-sensitive resist is carried out using a laser beam that is scanned across photoresist surface and switched on and off by means of a computer control system according to the electrical circuit pattern. Usually the laser used in the LDI generates the UV line, which is suitable for the commonly available photoresists. In this paper we present an introduction to LDI technology as well as an experiment consisted in an attempt to use a UV Nd:YAG laser (?=355 nm) for direct imaging of conductive pattern on the PCB covered by photosensitive resist.

  14. PCB-153 Shows Different Dynamics of Mobilisation from Differentiated Rat Adipocytes during Lipolysis in Comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. Conclusion/Significance These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes. PMID:25211159

  15. Possible social relevance of illicit psychotropic substances present in the atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Cecinato; Catia Balducci; Ettore Guerriero; Francesca Sprovieri; Franco Cofone

    Although the worldwide presence of illicit psychotropic compounds in the environment is well known, the social impact of drug abuse on the community has yet to be determined. Besides, the possibility of deriving indicators of the prevalence of drug abuse from the content of illicit substances in the air remains unexplored. In this study, the atmospheric concentrations of psychotropic compounds

  16. Maternal periconceptional illicit drug use and the risk of congenital malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marleen M. H. J. van Gelder; Jennita Reefhuis; Alissa R. Caton; Martha M. Werler; Charlotte M. Druschel; Nel Roeleveld

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2004, the Survey on Drug Use and Health showed that 5% of American women reported use of an illicit drug during pregnancy. The results of studies determining the association between periconceptional illicit drug use and birth defects have been inconsistent. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control study of major birth defects,

  17. Illicit Drug and Injecting Equipment Markets inside English Prisons: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rhidian

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, disrupting the supply of illicit drugs and injecting equipment inside Her Majesty's (HM) prisons has become an important focus for prison drug policy. This paper presents findings from qualitative research, which invited 24 drug injectors with prison experience to discuss the role and operation of illicit drug and injecting…

  18. Prospective Evaluation of Patients with Increasing Opiate Needs: Prescription Opiate Abuse and Illicit Drug Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Kim S. Damron; Vidyasagar Pampati; Carla D. McManus

    Background: Multiple aberrant behaviors have been described to identify patients abus- ing opioids and using illicit drugs. However, pa- tient behavior encompassing aggressive seek- ing or complaining about the need for higher doses of opioids has not yet been evaluated with regards to misuse or abuse patterns of prescription drugs and illicit drug usage. Objective: The objective of this study

  19. OPERATING PROCEDURES TO IMPLEMENT THE COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON POLICY ON ALCOHOL AND ILLICIT DRUG TESTING

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    GIVEN THOSE TERMS IN THE POLICY ON ALCOHOL AND ILLICIT DRUG TESTING (THE "POLICY") OP1.0 Procedure for Annual Notification of Employees of Policy on Alcohol and Illicit Drug Testing Notice shall be provided1 OLA 2-3-11 OPERATING PROCEDURES TO IMPLEMENT THE COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON POLICY ON ALCOHOL

  20. The risk for mild kidney function decline associated with illicit drug use among hypertensive men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suma Vupputuri; Vecihi Batuman; Paul Muntner; Lydia A. Bazzano; John J. Lefante; Paul K. Whelton; Jiang He

    2004-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the deleterious effect of illicit drug use on kidney function. Methods: Six hundred forty-seven patients enrolled in the Hypertension Clinic of the Veterans Administration Medical Center of New Orleans, LA, were interviewed regarding illicit drug use and followed up for a median of 7 years to determine the incidence of mild kidney function decline (increase

  1. INVESTIGATION OF A CLASSIFICATION-BASED TECHNIQUE TO DETECT ILLICIT OBJECTS FOR AVIATION SECURITY

    E-print Network

    Blumenstein, Michael

    INVESTIGATION OF A CLASSIFICATION-BASED TECHNIQUE TO DETECT ILLICIT OBJECTS FOR AVIATION SECURITY of a classification-based technique for illicit object detection in aviation security. Current threats in aviation aviation authority with maximum security whilst minimising adverse impacts on airlines and airport

  2. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: a content analysis of prevalence and genre.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

    2005-07-01

    Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances. PMID:15963915

  3. Dazzled by unity? Order and chaos in public discourse on illicit drug use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Fraser; David Moore

    2008-01-01

    One of the ways in which researchers, policy makers and practitioners routinely characterise illicit drug use is through a taxonomy of two paired conditions, the negative state of ‘chaos’ and the positive state of ‘order’ in the form of ‘stability.’ In this article, we explore some of the ways in which this taxonomy operates in public discourse on illicit drug

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY RAMAPO COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY ILLICIT CONNECTIONS TO THE COLLEGE'S

    E-print Network

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    'S STORM SEWERS Illicit Connections to the College's Storm Sewers I. Purpose: A regulation to prohibit illicit connections to the municipal separate storm sewer system(s) (MS4) operated by Ramapo College, so industrial waste (other than stormwater) to the municipal separate storm sewer system operated by Ramapo

  5. Shyness and Sociability: A Dangerous Combination for Illicit Substance Use in Adolescent Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.

    1990-01-01

    Examined relationship of shyness and sociability to illicit substance use in 654 male high school students. Found that, in general, shy males were significantly more likely to use illicit substances than were not-shy peers. Shy, highly sociable males were significantly more likely to use hallucinogenic substances than were shy, less sociable males…

  6. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  7. POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS -2012 1 Introduction and Background

    E-print Network

    Bearhop, Stuart

    POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS - 2012 1 Introduction and Background had a formal policy statement or code of practice relating to use of illicit drugs, procedures have, or selling a drug covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) is against the law. Whilst there is at present

  8. Perinatal exposure to low doses of PCB 153 and PCB 126 affects maternal and neonatal immunityin goat kids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan L. Lyche; Erik Ropstad; Hans J. S. Larsen; Janneche Utne Skaare; Aage Tverdal; Grethe M. Johansen

    2006-01-01

    Pregnant does (10 goats\\/group) were dosed orally either with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 (98 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d) or PCB 126 (ng\\/kg body weight\\/d) dissolved in corn oil or with corn oil only (control group) from gestation day (GD) 60 until delivery. An additional group (n = 5) of pregnant does received the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.4 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d)

  9. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Van Dorn, Richard A; Desmarais, Sarah L; Scott Young, M; Sellers, Brian G; Swartz, Marvin S

    2012-12-30

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  10. Denial of pain medication by health care providers predicts in-hospital illicit drug use among individuals who use illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ti, Lianping; Voon, Pauline; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Undertreated pain is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD), and can often reflect the reluctance of health care providers to provide pain medication to individuals with substance use disorders. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between having ever been denied pain medication by a health care provider and having ever reported using illicit drugs in hospital. METHODS: Data were derived from participants enrolled in two Canadian prospective cohort studies between December 2012 and May 2013. Using bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses, the relationship between having ever been denied pain medication by a health care provider and having ever reported using illicit drugs in hospital was examined. RESULTS: Among 1053 PWUD who had experienced ?1 hospitalization, 452 (44%) reported having ever used illicit drugs while in hospital and 491 (48%) reported having ever been denied pain medication. In a multivariable model adjusted for confounders, having been denied pain medication was positively associated with having used illicit drugs in hospital (adjusted OR 1.46 [95% CI 1.14 to 1.88]). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the denial of pain medication is associated with the use of illicit drugs while hospitalized. These findings raise questions about how to appropriately manage addiction and pain among PWUD and indicate the potential role that harm reduction programs may play in hospital settings. PMID:25562839

  11. Optical PCB using waveguide-embedded backplane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Keun Byoung; Cho, In-Kui; Ahn, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jin Tae

    2004-10-01

    A practical optical printed circuit board (PCB) was demonstrated, using a waveguide-embedded optical backplane and processing boards. The polymeric waveguide was produced by means of a hot embossing technique then embedded following a conventional lamination processes. The core size of waveguide was 100 x 60 ?m2 (input section), 60 x 60 ?m2 (output section), and the propagation loss of tapered polymeric waveguide was approximately 0.1 dB/cm at 850 nm. We prepared a optical backplane with polymeric waveguide by using conventional multilayer board lamination processes. The transmission power and dimension of the optical backplane was same as those of waveguide before lamination. A metal optical bench was used as a packaging die for the optical devices and the integrated circuit chips in both the transmitter and the receiver processing boards. We used a 1×4 850 nm VCSEL array with 2 dBm of output power for the transmitter and a PIN photodiode array for the receiver. We successfully demonstrated 8 Gb/s of data transmission between the transmitter processing board and the optical backplane board.

  12. Magnetic markers detection using PCB fluxgate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janosek, M.; Ripka, P.; Platil, A.

    2009-04-01

    We used an array of race-track fluxgate sensors, manufactured with printed circuit board (PCB) technology, forming a sensor head for detection of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic markers. The sensors were arranged perpendicularly to the measuring plane and we measured the difference of their output, giving us the horizontal gradient of normal component of the measured field. Due to the close match of the sensor's parameters, subtraction of the fluxgate output signals could be done directly at the input of a lock-in amplifier, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio for small gradients. When moving the sensor head, we were able to map field gradients smaller than 6 nT/mm, which was verified while measuring the magnetic markers on a dollar bill, while suppressing the background field by a factor of 5. In a line-scanning mode, we scanned a marker formed by a 0.2 mm diameter Permalloy wire in a distance of up to 10 mm. With the help of perpendicular ac excitation at 30 Hz, we were able to detect a 0.1 ml Endorem iron-oxide superparamagnetic marker at 2 mm; volume of 0.6 ml was detectable at 10 mm.

  13. The greening of PCB analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Aldstadt, J.H. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Green chemistry incorporates waste minimization, pollution prevention and solvent substitution. The primary focus of green chemistry over the past decade has been within the chemical industry; adoption by routine environmental laboratories has been slow because regulatory standard methods must be followed. A related paradigm, microscale chemistry has gained acceptance in undergraduate teaching laboratories, but has not been broadly applied to routine environmental analytical chemistry. We are developing green and microscale techniques for routine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses as an example of the overall potential within the environmental analytical community. Initial work has focused on adaptation of commonly used routine EPA methods for soils and oils. Results of our method development and validation demonstrate that: (1) Solvent substitution can achieve comparable results and eliminate environmentally less-desirable solvents, (2) Microscale extractions can cut the scale of the analysis by at least a factor of ten, (3) We can better match the amount of sample used with the amount needed for the GC determination step, (4) The volume of waste generated can be cut by at least a factor of ten, and (5) Costs are reduced significantly in apparatus, reagent consumption, and labor.

  14. Adapting the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) to examine the feasibility of monitoring trends in the markets for ‘party drugs’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libby Topp; Courtney Breen; Sharlene Kaye; Shane Darke

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS), Australia’s strategic early warning system for illicit drug trends, has monitored annual trends in the markets for the four main illicit drug classes, cannabis, methamphetamine, cocaine and heroin. In 2000, a 2-year trial was implemented to examine the feasibility of using similar methodology to monitor trends in the markets for ‘party drugs’.

  15. Pitting corrosion of metals: A review of the critical factors

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, G.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Fontana Corrosion Center

    1998-06-01

    Pitting corrosion is localized accelerated dissolution of metal that occurs as a result of a breakdown of the otherwise protective passive film on the metal surface. This paper provides an overview of the critical factors influencing the pitting corrosion of metals. The phenomenology of pitting corrosion is discussed, including the effects of alloy composition, environment, potential, and temperature. A summary is then given of studies that have focused on various stages of the pitting process, including breakdown of the passive film, metastable pitting, and pit growth. 120 refs.

  16. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

    These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Slayton, T M; Valberg, P A; Wait, A D

    1998-06-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the relationship between the amount of organic material collected by hexane and the amount actually picked up by, for example, a person's hand touch is unknown. To better mimic PCB pickup by casual hand contact with contaminated concrete surfaces, we used alternate solvents and wipe application methods that more closely mimic casual dermal contact. Our sampling results were compared to PCB pickup using hexane-wetted wipes and the standard rubbing protocol. Dry and oil-wetted samples, applied without rubbing, picked up less than 1% of the PCBs picked up by the standard hexane procedure; with rubbing, they picked up about 2%. Without rubbing, saline-wetted wipes picked up 2.5%; with rubbing, they picked up about 12%. While the nature of dermal contact with a contaminated surface cannot be perfectly reproduced with a wipe sample, our results with alternate wiping solvents and rubbing methods more closely mimic hand contact than the standard hexane wipe protocol. The relative pickup estimates presented in this paper can be used in conjunction with site-specific PCB hexane wipe results to estimate dermal pickup rates at sites with PCB-contaminated concrete. PMID:9734275

  18. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE... § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall...

  19. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE... § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall...

  20. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE... § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall...

  1. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE... § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall...

  2. 30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE... § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall...

  3. GRAPEVINE RUPESTRIS STEM PITTING-ASSOCIATED VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a recently identified virus and belongs to the Foveavirus genus within the Flexiviridae family. Its single–stranded RNA genome contains five open reading frames that potentially encode the replication related proteins, a triple gene bloc...

  4. Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra A. Volmer; Valentina Merola; Tanasa Osborne; Keith L. Bailey; Gavin Meerdink

    Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necro- tizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was

  5. Global methane emissions from pit latrines.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2014-08-01

    Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ? 2% to ? 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia. PMID:24999745

  6. Mass loading and removal of select illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in New York State and estimation of illicit drug usage in communities through wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-06-17

    Sewage epidemiology is a rapidly expanding field that can provide information on illicit drug usage in communities, based on the measured concentrations in samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, select illicit drugs (six drugs and eight metabolites) were determined on a daily basis for a week in wastewater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge from two WWTPs in the Albany area in New York State. The WWTP that served a larger population (?100?000, with a flow rate of 83?300 m(3)/d) showed 3.2 (methadone) to 51 (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDA) times higher mass flows of illicit drugs than did the WWTP that served a smaller population (?15?000, with a flow rate of 6850 m(3)/d). The consumption rate of target illicit drugs in the communities served by the two WWTPs was estimated to range from 1.67 to 3510 mg/d/1000 people. Between the dissolved and particulate phases, the fraction of methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), amphetamine, and MDA sorbed to SPM ranged from 34.3% to 41.1% of the total mass in the waste stream. The removal efficiencies of illicit drugs from the two WWTPs ranged from 4% (norcocaine) to 99% (cocaine); however, methamphetamine, methadone, and EDDP showed a negative removal in WWTPs. The environmental emission of illicit drugs from WWTP discharges was calculated to range from 0.38 (MDEA) to 67.5 (EDDP) mg/d/1000 people. Other markers such as caffeine, paraxanthine, nicotine, and cotinine were found to predict the concentrations of select illicit drugs in raw wastewater (r(2) = 0.20-0.79; p ? 0.029). PMID:24865581

  7. Surface roughness and metastable pitting of amorphous nickel alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Y.; Fu, S. [Beijing Univ. of Chemical Technology (China). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    The effects of surface finish on nucleation and growth of metastable pits on an amorphous Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B alloy was studied using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Nucleation of metastable pits on the amorphous alloy was facilitated significantly by a rougher surface. Both growth rate constants and peak currents of metastable pits followed a log-normal distribution. A rougher surface also promoted the growth of metastable pits and led to a wider distribution in growth rates.

  8. Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder-Smith, Lynne

    2002-06-30

    The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

  9. Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (~102 -105) of humans experience very loud music (~ 130 dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

  10. Research approaches in illicit drug use: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sadava, S W

    1975-02-01

    Research approached and substantive findings pertaining to determinants of the nonmedical use of illicit psychoactive drugs are reviewed. Discussion focuses upon the dimensions of drug use as a behaviorial phenomenon, the findings and limitations of four basic approaches to research in the ares--sociocultural, psychopathological, functionalist, and social learning-- and upon methodological problems. Drug use must be treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, with analyses extending well beyond simple user vs. nonuser comparisons or arbitrary categories of users. Research must be conducted within a coherent field-theoretical conceptual framework, directed toward the formulation of nomothetic laws concerning patterns of drug use. Inadequacies in sampling and measurement and the absence of longitudinal design have compromised the utility of a vast research literature. PMID:1091527

  11. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve measurement approaches and estimates. PMID:24489886

  12. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve measurement approaches and estimates. PMID:24489886

  13. Thermal analysis of simulated Pantex pit storage

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.M., Kornblum, B.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report investigates potential pit storage configurations that could be used at the Mason and Hanger Pantex Plant. The study utilizes data from a thermal test series performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that simulated these storage configurations. The heat output values used in the LLNL test series do not represent actual pits but are rounded numbers that were chosen for convenience to allow parameter excursions. Specifically in this project, we are modeling the heat transfer and air flow around cylindrical storage containers in Pantex magazines in order to predict container temperatures. This difficult problem in thermal- fluid mechanics involves transient, three-dimensional (3-D) natural convection and thermal radiation around interacting containers with various heat generation rates. Our approach is to link together two computational methods in order to synthesize a modeling procedure for a large array of pit storage containers. The approach employs a finite element analysis of a few containers, followed by a lumped- parameter model of an array of containers. The modeling procedure we developed was applied in the simulation of a recent experiment where temperatures of pit storage containers were monitored in a steady- state, controlled environment. Our calculated pit container temperatures are comparable with data from that experiment. We found it absolutely necessary to include thermal radiation between containers in order to predict temperatures accurately, although the assumption of black-body radiation appears to be sufficient. When radiation is neglected the calculated temperatures are 4 to 6 {degrees}C higher than temperature data from the experiment. We also investigated our model`s sensitivity to variations in the natural convection heat transfer coefficient and found that with a 50% drop in the coefficient, calculated temperatures are approximately I {degree}C higher. Finally, with a modified lumped-parameter model, we demonstrate how an entire Pantex magazine can be simulated.

  14. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.359 Section...61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight...

  15. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.359 Section...61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight...

  16. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling...the portion is based on the surface concentration measured in that sample. If the...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: IMMUNOASSAY KIT, ENVIROLOGIX, INC., PCB IN SOIL TUBE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCB's in soi...

  18. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING...become a persistent and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result...PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted...

  19. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Â...concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight...

  20. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act....

  1. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Â...concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight...

  2. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act....

  3. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act....

  4. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Â...concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight...

  5. Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use

    PubMed Central

    Lehrmann, E; Afanador, ZR; Deep-Soboslay, A; Gallegos, G; Darwin, WD; Lowe, RH; Barnes, AJ; Huestis, MA; Cadet, JL; Herman, MM; Hyde, TM; Kleinman, JE; Freed, WJ

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine, and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and 9 opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine, and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identified almost twice as many cocaine and cannabis cases as Medical Examiner (ME) case histories, and were crucial in establishing a detailed lifetime substance use history. Toxicology identified 91% cocaine, 68% cannabis, 80% phencyclidine, and 100% opioid cases, with hair testing increasing detection for all drug classes. A cocaine or cannabis use history was corroborated by general toxicology with 50% and 32% sensitivity, respectively, and with 82% and 64% sensitivity by hair testing. Hair testing corroborated a positive general toxicology for cocaine and cannabis with 91% and 100% sensitivity, respectively. Case history corroborated hair toxicology with 38% sensitivity for cocaine and 79% sensitivity for cannabis, suggesting that both case history and general toxicology underestimated cocaine use. Identifying ante-mortem substance use in human postmortem cases are key considerations in case diagnosis and for characterization of disorder-specific changes in neurobiology. The sensitivity and specificity of substance use assessments increased when ME case history was supplemented with structured next-of-kin interviews to establish a detailed lifetime substance use history, while comprehensive toxicology, and hair testing in particular, increased detection of recent illicit substance use. PMID:18201295

  6. Environmental effects of stone pits in Hatay (Turkey)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin Korkmaz; Bayram Çetin; Ismail Ege; Atilla Karatas; Ahmet Bom; Emre Özsahin

    2011-01-01

    Open pit operation type is generally preferred in mining operations due to its applicability on all operable exposed rock grounds, its minimum production loss and high production rate. Especially materials like marble, travertine, limestone, dolomite, calcite and granite are mainly mined by open pit mining. Mined materials are put through breaking, crushing and sifting processes in pit area or facilities

  7. Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mauro; B. B. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil

  8. Surface Roughness and the Metastable Pitting of Stainless Steel in Chloride Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Burstein; P. C. Pistorius

    1995-01-01

    The effects of surface roughness on metastable pitting susceptibility of type 304 stainless steel in chloride solution and the transition to stable pitting corrosion were investigated. A smoother surface finish reduced the frequency of metastable pitting because the number of metastable pit sites available was reduced. Once formed, however, a metastable pit had a greater probability of achieving stable pit

  9. A modelled cost?benefit analysis of hybrid PIT and conventional tagging scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Burch; Stewart D. Frusher; Simon Wotherspoon; Tom Polacheck

    2009-01-01

    Tag recovery rate is an important parameter for estimating exploitation and natural mortality in fished populations. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) technology can record 100% of PIT tagged animals passing within the detection limit of a PIT tag scanner. However PIT tags and PIT tag scanners are expensive compared with conventional visual tags and PIT tags are not detectable without scanners.

  10. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes ( Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles P. Madenjian; Patrick A. Hanchin; Sergei M. Chernyak; Linda J. Begnoche

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB

  11. Contamination of PCB congeners in bear lake fish tissues, livers, and brains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Qi; M. Anderson; S. Meyer; J. Carson

    1997-01-01

    The concentrations of PCB congeners and DDE in Bear Lake fish tissues, livers, and brains were determined in this study. Three different species of fish — Northern Pike, Walleye, and Bullhead — were examined and 59 congeners were detected. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180. The levels of PCB congeners in fish from Pickeral Lake,

  12. Influence of trophic status on PCB distribution in lake sediments and biota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Berglund; P. Larsson; G. Ewald; L. Okla

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between trophic status and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) distribution in 19 Swedish lakes. We analyzed PCB in water, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and sediment during two sampling periods, in spring and summer. The mass of ?PCB in the lake sediments was positively related to lake trophy, i.e. more PCBs were accumulated and buried in the sediment of eutrophic

  13. Italsim: A Knowledge-Based Simulation of a PCB Manufacturing Plant

    E-print Network

    McLaren, Bruce Martin

    Italsim: A Knowledge-Based Simulation of a PCB Manufacturing Plant Claudio Brancaleoni, Luca Bugno and simulate a printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing plant. The primary contribution of the system is its in field test by the production staff at the PCB plant. Presented at the 4th International Conference

  14. ELECTRICAL SIMULATION METHODOLOGY DEDICATED TO EMC DIGITAL CIRCUITS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS ON PCB

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ELECTRICAL SIMULATION METHODOLOGY DEDICATED TO EMC DIGITAL CIRCUITS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS ON PCB Jean Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and some applications for oriented EMC simulations. In a first time, we on test PCB with single digital component are presented to analyse and conclude about different

  15. Signaling Capacity of FR4 PCB Traces for Chip-to-ChipCommunication

    E-print Network

    Sheikholeslami, Ali

    Signaling Capacity of FR4 PCB Traces for Chip-to-ChipCommunication Marcus van Ierssel, Tooraj The signaling capacity of traces on the popular PCB dielectric.material FR4 is under-utilized today by at least. INTRODUCTION Signaling rates between chips on printed circuit boards (PCB) have increased rapidly in recent

  16. PCB uptake and accumulation by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed via a

    E-print Network

    Hartley, Troy W.

    PCB uptake and accumulation by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed via a contaminated algal and eggs assessed. The eects of PCB exposure on lipid content, lipid class and fatty acid composition were also eval- uated. PCBs were accumulated by the oysters and transferred to the eggs. PCB accumulation

  17. Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer 16.3

    E-print Network

    Davies, John H.

    Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer 16.3 Professor John H. Davies 2011 October 4 and lay out a simple, one-transistor amplifier on a one-sided printed circuit board (PCB) with manual should be able to design, populate and test a printed circuit board (PCB). You must therefore complete

  18. An Overview of Placement and Routing Algorithms for PCB, VLSI, and MCM Designs

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    An Overview of Placement and Routing Algorithms for PCB, VLSI, and MCM Designs with a Proposal demands on these placement and routing algorithms than on VLSI or PCB layouts. However, many of the existing techniques and algorithms for VLSI and PCB placement and routing are well­suited for use in MCMs

  19. Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 79407952 Measurement and modeling of urban atmospheric PCB

    E-print Network

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006) 7940­7952 Measurement and modeling of urban atmospheric PCB for ecosystems around the world. Data from several monitoring networks demonstrate that atmospheric PCB-phase PCB concentrations were measured at two monitoring locations, $8 km apart, within the New York City

  20. Supporting Information Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: Evolvement of distributions 1950-

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supporting Information Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: Evolvement The accumulated global emissions of PCB28, -101, -153 and -180, for the period 1930-2000 amount to 11568, 2894, 2596 and 1037 t, respectively (high emission estimate; Breivik et al., 2002). The emissions of PCB153

  1. A Bayesian assessment of the PCB temporal trends in Lake Erie fish communities Somayeh Sadraddini a

    E-print Network

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    A Bayesian assessment of the PCB temporal trends in Lake Erie fish communities Somayeh Sadraddini) and white bass (Morone chrysops). Because the exponential model postulates monotonic decrease of the PCB in the PCB concentrations of walleye skinless­boneless filet data, which is manifested after the mid-90s

  2. Microwave Laminate PCB Compatible RF MEMS Technology for Wireless Communication Systems

    E-print Network

    De Flaviis, Franco

    Microwave Laminate PCB Compatible RF MEMS Technology for Wireless Communication Systems * Bedri A microwave laminate printed circuit board (PCB) compatible RF MEMS technology for wireless communication be fabricated on any PCB substrate and they can be monolithically integrated with antenna elements on the same

  3. A Provably Good Approximation Algorithm for Rectangle Escape Problem with Application to PCB Routing

    E-print Network

    Young, Evangeline Fun Yu

    A Provably Good Approximation Algorithm for Rectangle Escape Problem with Application to PCB), which is motivated by PCB bus escape routing. Given a rectangular region R and a set S of rectangles the results. Our approach is tested on a set of industrial PCB bus escape routing problems. Experimental

  4. PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension A column experiment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension ­ A column experiment was systematically due to significant levels of PCB-DL and PCDD/F in fish tissue. New campaigns of characterization of cubic meters of contaminated sediments and to improve the understanding of the behavior of PCB

  5. Test Code: PCB (short answer type) 2013 M.Tech. in Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Test Code: PCB (short answer type) 2013 M.Tech. in Computer Science Syllabus and Sample Questions) in the forenoon session is the 1st part, and · Test PCB (short answer type) in the afternoon session is the 2nd part. The PCB test will consist of two groups. Group A (24 Marks) : All candidates have to answer

  6. A Model of Long-Term PCB Fate in San Francisco Bay

    E-print Network

    A Model of Long-Term PCB Fate in San Francisco Bay Model Formulation, Calibration, and Uncertainty: Oram, J.J, J.A. Davis, and J.E. Leatherbarrow, 2008. A Model of Long-Term PCB Fate in San Francisco Bay) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 B. SEDIMENT TRANSPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 C. PCB TRANSPORT

  7. Potential Impact of PCB's on Bluefish, Pomatomus sa/tatrix, Management

    E-print Network

    Potential Impact of PCB's on Bluefish, Pomatomus sa/tatrix, Management PETER J. ELDRIDGE and G prevention of recruitment overfishing and reduction in waste of bluefish. In 1985, a Federal survey found PCB the reproductive ca pability of bluefish while minimizing hu man health risks associated with dietary intake of PCB

  8. Chemical and Mechanical Analysis of PCB Surface Treated by Argon Plasma to Enhance Interfacial Adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Kil Shin; Hyo Sug Lee; Jay Im

    2009-01-01

    Plasma treatment of printed circuit board (PCB) is a common step in the electronic packaging processes in order to modify the surface and enhance its adhesion to molding compound. In this paper, PCB surface modifications resulting from plasma treatment were investigated by chemical and mechanical analysis methods. The PCB substrate in consideration was for multichip package, consisting of a core

  9. Efficiency measures of PCB manufacturing firms using relational two-stage data envelopment analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiang-tai Liu; Rong-tsu Wang

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan is currently the fourth largest contributor to the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. In exploring the operation activities of PCB industry, most studies focuses primarily on manufacturing or production technologies. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of PCB manufacturing firms in Taiwan. Since the whole production process of the manufacturing firms can be divided into two sub-processes: production

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of PCB atropisomers is present in technical PCB mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective distribution, metabolism, and dispo...

  11. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  12. Prescribing Some Criminological Theory: An Examination of the Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Maahs, Jeffrey R; Weidner, Robert R; Smith, Ryan

    2014-08-25

    Recent evidence indicates that the illicit use of prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin is common across college campuses and in professions (e.g., trucking) where staying awake and focused is valued. Existing research has established use patterns and explored respondents' reasons for using these stimulants. Less is known, however, about whether or how well mainstream criminological theory explains this type of illegal activity. This article reports results from a survey (N = 484) of college students from a Midwestern university, examining whether measures of strain, self-control, and social learning predict the illicit use of prescription stimulants. Measures from social learning and social control theories were significant predictors of illicit use of prescription stimulants, whereas the measure of academic strain was not; the strongest predictor of illicit use of prescription stimulants was general deviance. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25156423

  13. Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections.

    PubMed

    Nienhuis, Jaap; de Haan, Cornelis; Langeveld, Jeroen; Klootwijk, Martijn; Clemens, François

    2013-01-01

    Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with fiber-optic cables is a powerful tool to detect illicit connections in storm sewer systems. High-frequency temperature measurements along the in-sewer cable create a detailed representation of temperature anomalies due to illicit discharges. The detection limits of the monitoring equipment itself are well-known, but there is little information available on detection limits for the discovery of illicit connections, as in mixing of sewers, and attenuation also plays an important role. This paper describes the results of full-scale experiments aiming to quantify the detection limits for illicit connections under various sewer conditions. Based on the results, a new monitoring set-up for (partially) filled sewer conduits has been proposed. PMID:23787308

  14. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  15. PCB congener profile in the serum of humans consuming Great Lakes fish.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, H E; Gardiner, J C; Pandya, J R; Sweeney, A M; Gasior, D M; McCaffrey, R J; Schantz, S L

    2000-01-01

    The State of Michigan has a long history of research into human exposure to environmental contaminants through consumption of recreationally caught fish. A large cohort of Lake Michigan residents who eat fish (fish-eaters) and those who do not eat fish (nonfish-eaters) established in 1980 served as the basis for the congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure evaluation reported here. In this paper we present the serum PCB congener profile for a subset of this cohort who were over 50 years of age. Serum samples were collected in 1993-1995 and were evaluated by a dual column capillary column gas chromatography procedure capable of detecting over 90 PCB congeners. This evaluation demonstrated significant PCB exposure in the fish-eaters (mean serum PCB of 14.26 ppb; n = 101). This elevated exposure allowed the establishment of a detailed profile of the PCB congeners found in humans exposed by this route. Twenty-two congeners of varying concentrations were the most prevalent and constituted over 95% of the total PCB present in most subjects. Four congeners, 138/163 (2,2',3,4,4',5-PCB/2,3,3',4', 5,6-PCB), 180 (2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-PCB), and 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-PCB), accounted for 55-64% of the total PCB load. Other congeners, some of toxicologic significance, were also detected by this analytical protocol. Nonfish-eaters had lower total serum PCB levels (mean = 4. 56; n = 78), but the same general pattern of PCB congeners was present. It was demonstrated that careful selection of a subset of prevalent PCB congeners could provide a cost-effective assessment of exposure without losing critical scientific information. Images Figure 1 PMID:10656858

  16. West-East Convergence in the Prevalence of Illicit Drugs: Socioeconomics or Culture?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Tauchmann; RWI Essen

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to West-Germany, illicit drugs were virtually absent in the East-Germany until 1990. Yet, after the collapse of the former GDR, East-Germany was expected to encounter a sharp increase in the prevalence of substance abuse. By analyzing individual data, we find that East-Germany largely caught up with West-Germany?s ever-growing prevalence of illicit drugs within a single decade. We decompose

  17. Police drug crackdowns and hospitalisation rates for illicit-injection-related infections in New York City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah L. F. Cooper; David Wypij; Nancy Krieger

    2005-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this analysis tests the hypothesis that eight police drug crackdowns implemented in 27 New York City police precincts between 1995 and 1999 were associated with subsequent increases in monthly precinct-specific hospitalisation rates for illicit-injection-related abscesses, cellulitis, and endocarditis. Crackdowns are sustained police initiatives designed to reduce the possession and sale of illicit drugs through heightened surveillance and

  18. Denitrification in gravel-pit lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Helmer; Louis Labroue

    1993-01-01

    By constructing a budget of nitrate inputs and outputs in several gravel-pit lakes and directly measuring denitrification\\u000a through the emission of N2O (using acetylene method), it was possible to evaluate the depolluting activity in the lakes in relation to groundwaters.\\u000a Seasonal monitoring of the denitrification process allowed us to appraise the influence of various factors such as nitrate\\u000a concentration, the

  19. PCB-Raumluftmessungen in den PQE-Bauabschnitten (23.02, 23.03, 23.11, 23.12) der HHU Dsseldorf PCB-Konzentration

    E-print Network

    Schiller, Stephan

    #12;#12;PCB-Raumluftmessungen in den PQE-Bauabschnitten (23.02, 23.03, 23.11, 23.12) der HHU Düsseldorf - Grün: - Gelb: - Rot: PCB-Konzentration 1) [ng/m³] 23.02. 00 65 120040-RLM-122 26.07.2012 25,3 22,8 1.944 19 A50 Status-quo gemäß PCB- Richtlinie Florisil TÜV 23.02. 02 67 120040-RLM-124 26.07.2012 26

  20. ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) LOADING TRENDS IN LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCB concentrations in coregonid fishes (bloater chubs) collected from Lake Michigan between 1972 and 1980 are used to infer a historical loading trend for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A mass balance model was developed to describe the dynamics of PCBs by assuming that histor...

  1. The Effect of Intrauterine PCB Exposure on Visual Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Measures of prenatal exposure in 123 infants to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cord serum PCB level, and maternal report of contaminated fish consumption predicted less preference for a novel stimulus on Fagan's test of visual recognition memory (VRM) at 7 months. Preference for novelty decreased in a dose-dependent fashion and postnatal…

  2. Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

  3. Duration of breastfeeding and serum PCB 153 concentrations in children.

    PubMed

    Lancz, Kinga; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Jusko, Todd A; Murínová, Lubica; Wimmerová, So?a; Sov?íková, Eva; Dedík, Ladislav; Strémy, Maximilián; Drobná, Beata; Farkašová, Dana; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals which, because of their lipophilic properties, are abundant in human breast milk. Breastfed infants are therefore at risk of being exposed to considerable amounts of PCBs. The commonly used exposure estimations, based solely on breast milk PCB levels and duration of breastfeeding, may lead to exposure misclassification. To improve assessments of exposure to PCBs, we determined PCB 153 serum concentration, as a model substance for PCBs, at the critical time of weaning for each child in 305 breastfed infants from 5 single time point concentration measurements spread over 7 years and data on duration of breastfeeding, using an earlier developed model of the system type. We approximated the dependence of PCB 153 serum concentration, Ctbf, adjusted to cord serum concentration, C0, on nursing period, by a polynomial function Ctbf/C0=0.596+0.278t-0.0047t(2) which reliably predicts exposure to PCB 153 of breastfed infants, important for assessment of dose-outcome relationships. Adjustment of current serum concentrations to cord serum concentration improved validity of exposure assessment. PMID:25460618

  4. EVALUATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR PESTICIDES AND PCB'S IN RAW WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general EPA protocol for screening industrial effluents for priority pollutants (Federal Register 38, No. 75, Part II), has been tested for its applicability to the analysis of the priority pollutant pesticides and PCB's in raw wastewater. Raw wastewater from the municipal se...

  5. Electromagnetic characterization of PCB cards for mobile phones

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Electromagnetic characterization of PCB cards for mobile phones Ali Jazzar(*), Edith Clavel state, more the price linked to the EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) requirements is important .Thus the electromagnetic perturbations inside and outside the structure. The required CAD tool to achieve this modeling

  6. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...mineral oil-filled electrical equipment is unknown, any person must assume it to be PCB-Contaminated...manufacture and the type of dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer...PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the capacitor...

  7. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...mineral oil-filled electrical equipment is unknown, any person must assume it to be PCB-Contaminated...manufacture and the type of dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer...PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the capacitor...

  8. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...mineral oil-filled electrical equipment is unknown, any person must assume it to be PCB-Contaminated...manufacture and the type of dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer...PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the capacitor...

  9. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...mineral oil-filled electrical equipment is unknown, any person must assume it to be PCB-Contaminated...manufacture and the type of dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer...PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the capacitor...

  10. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...mineral oil-filled electrical equipment is unknown, any person must assume it to be PCB-Contaminated...manufacture and the type of dielectric fluid are unknown, any person must assume the transformer...PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the capacitor...

  11. PCB sediment decontamination processes selection for test and evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Carpenter; D. L. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Eight emerging alternative treatment processes for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments were rated comparatively as to the desirability of their immediate thorough test and evaluation (T and E) based on their scores on five criteria: the probability of cleaning sediments to 2 ppm PCBs or less; the availability of a test system; the test effort required; the time required to

  12. PCB and organochlorine pesticides in Canadian human milk — 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Harvey Newsome; David Davies; Josée Doucet

    1995-01-01

    Human milk (497 samples) representing donors from across Canada were analyzed for 24 organochlorine pesticides and industrial chemicals and 40 PCB congeners. PCBs, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trans nonachlor were present in all samples. Compared to earlier surveys in Canada, concentrations of most residues determined declined, and were lower than those reported recently in European countries. Although regional differences were

  13. VLSI\\/PCB placement with obstacles based on sequence pair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Murata; Kunihiro Fujiyoshi; Mineo Kaneko

    1998-01-01

    In a typical very large scale integration\\/printed circuit board (VLSI\\/PCB) design, some modules are preplaced in advance, and the other modules are requested to be placed without overlap with each other and with these preplaced modules. The presence of such obstacles introduces inconsistency to a coding scheme, called sequence pair, which has been proposed for an obstacle free placement problem.

  14. DDT and PCB in Marine Animals from Swedish Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jensen; A. G. JOHNELS; M. OLSSON; G. OTTERLIND

    1969-01-01

    Analyses of pesticide residues in a wide range of marine organisms from the coastal waters of Sweden show that there is a marked contamination in the Baltic. There are signs of an increase in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from north to south in this area. Exceptionally large amounts of residues were found in white tailed eagles from the archipelago of Stockholm.

  15. Micro via and line patterning for PCB using imprint technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seunghyun Ra; Choonkeun Lee; Jaechoon Cho; Sangmoon Lee; Jungwoo Lee; Myungho Hong; Jungbok Kwak

    2008-01-01

    Today’s electronic devices such as mobile phones, PDA, computers, etc. have more functions in a smaller size. Thus conducting lines and via holes of PCB (printed circuit board) which has a role of land for all kinds of electronic components are getting finer. In this study, the conducting lines and via holes are produced using thermal imprint technique rather than

  16. PCB integrated inductors for low power DC\\/DC converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Ludwig; Maeve Duffy; T. O'Donnell; P. McCloskey; S. C. O. Mathuna

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of printed circuit board (PCB) integrated inductors for low power DC\\/DC buck converters. Coreless, magnetic plates and closed core structures are compared in terms of achievable inductance, power handling and efficiency in a footprint of 10 × 10 mm2. The magnetic layers consist of electroplated NiFe, so that the process is fully compatible with standard

  17. Modular Interconnection System for Optical PCB and Backplane Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacki Agelis; Sofia Jacobsson; Magnus Jonsson; Arne Alping; Per Ligander

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a way of building modular systems with a powerful optical interconnection network. Each module, placed on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), has a generic optical communication interface with a simple electronic router. Together with optical switching using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology, packet switching over reconfigurable topologies is possible. The interconnection system gives the possibility to integrate electronics

  18. Polymer Multimode Waveguide Optical and Electronic PCB Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Selviah

    The paper describes the research in the £1.3 million IeMRC Integrated Optical and Electronic Interconnect PCB Manufacturing (OPCB) Flagship Project in which 8 companies and 3 universities carry out collaborative research and which was formed and is technically led by the author. The consortium's research is aimed at investigating a range of fabrication techniques, some established and some novel, for

  19. Metabolism of different PCB congeners in plant cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annelen Wilken; Claudia Bock; Maria Bokern; Hans Harms

    1995-01-01

    The metabolism of 10 different congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was tested in cell cultures of 12 different plant species. The rate of metabolism was determined through comparison with cells inactivated by treatment with perchloric acid. The metabolism of defined PCB congeners was strongly dependent on the plant species. In particular, two Fabaceae species exhibited high capacities for metabolizing different

  20. Application of Process Management Tools for PCB Manufacturing and Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiri Tupa; Josef Basl; Vlastimil Skocil

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents the important steps of process management (PM) tools application for the printed circuits boards (PCB) manufacturing and diagnostics. The PM approach is a way of production and non-production activities management in manufacturing systems. The implementation of the approach represents the integration of knowledge from more areas of the science. The goal of PM application is improvement of

  1. Polymer multimode waveguide optical and electronic PCB manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviah, David R.

    2009-02-01

    The paper describes the research in the Â#1.3 million IeMRC Integrated Optical and Electronic Interconnect PCB Manufacturing (OPCB) Flagship Project in which 8 companies and 3 universities carry out collaborative research and which was formed and is technically led by the author. The consortium's research is aimed at investigating a range of fabrication techniques, some established and some novel, for fabricating polymer multimode waveguides from several polymers, some formulations of which are being developed within the project. The challenge is to develop low cost waveguide manufacturing techniques compatible with commercial PCB manufacturing and to reduce their alignment cost. The project aims to take the first steps in making this hybrid optical waveguide and electrical copper track printed circuit board disruptive technology widely available by establishing and incorporating waveguide design rules into commercial PCB layout software and transferring the technology for fabricating such boards to a commercial PCB manufacturer. To focus the research the project is designing an optical waveguide backplane to tight realistic constraints, using commercial layout software with the new optical design rules, for a demonstrator into which 4 daughter cards are plugged, each carrying an aggregate of 80 Gb/s data so that each waveguide carries 10 Gb/s.

  2. EVLA Memo # 78 EVLA Chamber Characterization confirms PCB RFI emissions

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    EVLA Memo # 78 EVLA Chamber Characterization confirms PCB RFI emissions Levels and module shielding. The RFI feedback of a single dish with all its shielding must not exceed the EVLA harmful levels. It is possible that some of the RFI in each antenna could cross-correlate if it leaks around to each antennas own

  3. Estimating dermal transfer from PCB-contaminated porous surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey M. Slayton; Peter A. Valberg; A. Dallas Wait

    1998-01-01

    Health risks posed by dermal contact with PCB-contaminated porous surfaces have not been directly demonstrated and are difficult to estimate indirectly. Surface contamination by organic compounds is commonly assessed by collecting wipe samples with hexane as the solvent. However, for porous surfaces, hexane wipe characterization is of limited direct use when estimating potential human exposure. Particularly for porous surfaces, the

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS OF PCB IN GREAT LAKES FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews and evaluates previously reported PCB levels in a variety of fish sampled from various locations in the Great Lakes. Higher concentrations in fish appear to be related to near-shore sampling where higher exposure to bottom sediments occurs to the flora and fau...

  5. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 ?mol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:26086818

  6. Colloque Eau, Dchets et Dveloppement Durable, 21 24 mars 2012, Agadir, Maroc Adsorption de PCB par des phases HDL organomodifies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Colloque Eau, Déchets et Développement Durable, 21 ­ 24 mars 2012, Agadir, Maroc Adsorption de PCB 80026 F-63171 Aubière France Résumé : Les PCB sont des polluants persistants pour lesquels il faut capacité de HDL à piéger un membre de la famille des PCB, le 4- chlorobiphényle (PCB 3). Les matériaux

  7. Metabolic consequences of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.L. Jr. (Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA); Landrigan, P.J.; Glueck, C.J.; Zack, M.M. Jr.; Liddle, J.A.; Burse, V.W.; Housworth, W.J.; Needham, L.L.

    1980-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were discovered in sewage sludge used for fertilizer in Bloomington, Indiana. The PCB had been discharged into the municipal sewage system by an electrical capacitor manufacturing plant. To study the epidemiology and metabolic consequences of PCB exposure an epidemiologic and clinical survey was conducted. Mean serum PCB levels were 17.4 ppB in 89 sludge users, 75.1 ppB in 18 workers with occupational exposure to PCB, 33.6 ppB in 19 members of those workers' families, and 24.4 ppB in 22 community residents without unusual exposure to PCB. In sludge users PCB levels were associated positively with per cent performance of garden care (p = 0.035) and negatively with wearing gloves while gardening (p = 0.021), but were not significantly associated with the amount of sludge used or the duration of exposure. In no groups were chloracne or systemic symptoms of PCB toxicity noted, nor were significant correlations found between PCB levels and tests of hematologic, hepatic, or renal function. Plasma triglyceride levels increased significantly with serum PCB concentrations in both alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers (r = 0.541, n = 36, p < 0.001 for nondrinkers). These data indicate that PCB may alter lipid metabolism at levels of exposure and bioaccumulation insufficient to produce overt symptoms.

  8. Mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-poisoned rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kamohara, K.; Yagi, N.; Itokawa, Y.

    1984-06-01

    To clarify the mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-poisoned rats, the following two experiments were carried out. Experiment No. 1: Rats were separated into three groups. Group 1 was fed a normal diet, group 2 was fed a PCB-supplemented diet, and group 3 was fed a dichlorodiphyltrichloroethane (DDT)-supplemented diet. After 5 months, the rats were killed. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in livers of the PCB- and DDT-exposed rats had increased. The activity of catalase was increased in the PCB-fed rats but decreased after the administered of DDT. The glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased only in the PCB-administered rats. These results indicate that PCB and DDT have some effects to enhance lipid oxidation. It is probable that the decrease in glutathione peroxidase is the major reason for the increase of lipid oxidation in PCB-poisoned rats. The mechanism of lipid peroxidate production in DDT-poisoned rats could be different from the case of PCB poisoning. Experiment No. 2: Rats were separated into two groups. To one group, normal diet was given and to the other group PCB-supplemented diet was given. After 1 month, the rats were killed. In PCB-exposed rats, activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were increased. The increase in glutathione reductase could be compensation for a decrease in glutathione peroxidase. It is probable that PCB is metabolized to make glutathione conjugates by the action of glutathione S-transferase.

  9. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MA (USA). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation. PMID:25213805

  11. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  12. Reduced lung function and bullae resulting from illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Jay, Amy L

    2011-07-01

    Emphysema is a progressive, disabling disease. Emphysematous bullae form as a result of local areas of alveolar weakness and parenchymal remodeling. They grow as a result of preferential inflation during inspiration and elastic recoil of the surrounding lung tissue. Isolated apical bullae can be a consequence of illicit drug use, as was suspected in this patient. In the case of cocaine and marijuana smoking, direct drug toxicity or drug-induced vasoconstriction presumably contributes to bullae development. LVRS is often used to treat patients with bullae and severe underlying emphysema, although these patients are difficult to assess and their disease course is hard to predict. LVRS is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. The best candidates for surgery have enlarged, well-localized bullae and minimal underlying lung disease. Early postoperative results include relief of shortness of breath, improved lung function, increased energy level and physical mobility, and improved ability to function during daily activities. LVRS may decrease the need for supplemental oxygen as soon as a few weeks after surgery, and benefits may be sustained for years. The best results are seen in patients with large bullae that cause the greatest compression of almost normal underlying lung. However, clinical and symptomatic improvement may be greater than actual spirometric measurements. PMID:21748955

  13. ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

  14. 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) induces mutations in the livers of transgenic Fisher 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Esch, Harald L; Kirby, Patricia A; Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2007-02-01

    4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) is found in small amounts in commercial PCB mixtures, indoor and outdoor air, and in food. In contrast to highly chlorinated congeners that are more resistant to metabolic attack, PCB3 is more readily converted by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes to monohydroxy-PCBs and further to dihydroxy-metabolites, which can be oxidized to quinones. Our recent studies demonstrated the initiating action of PCB3 in the livers of male rats. Therefore we hypothesized that PCB3 and/or its metabolite(s) are mutagenic in rat livers in vivo. To investigate the mutagenicity and the types of mutations generated by PCB3, male Fischer 344 BigBlue rats, transgenic for the lacI gene, were injected intraperitoneally with PCB3 (600 micromol/kg), 4-hydroxy-PCB3 (4-HO-PCB3, 400 micromol/kg), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, 300 micromol/kg, positive control) and corn oil (negative control) once per week, for 4 weeks. Animals were killed 17 days after the last injection and the mutant frequency of the liver lacI gene determined. 3-MC induced a 4-fold increase of the mutant frequency of the lacI gene in the liver. The mutant frequency in PCB3-treated animals was also significantly elevated. In contrast, 4-HO-PCB3 induced a non-significant doubling of the mutant frequency. The mutation spectrum of solvent control mutants was characterized by transitions, whereas in 3-MC-animals, transversion and frameshift mutations predominated. The PCB3-induced mutation spectrum was similar to that of the 3-MC-induced mutants. In contrast, the mutation spectrum of the 4-HO-PCB3 group hardly differed from that of the control animals. This study demonstrates for the first time the mutagenicity of a PCB in vivo. PMID:16950798

  15. Orientation dependence and bonding during pitting corrosion of HCP metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, Robert Scott

    2002-01-01

    The orientation dependence of pitting in single crystal beryllium (Be) is compared to the observations for single crystal zinc (Zn) reported by other investigators. The pit walls in stable propagating pits for prism planes were always square; in the (ioio) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}2{bar 1}0] directions while in the (110) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}100] directions. In addition, for the (ioio) and (11{bar 2}0) surfaces the pit interiors were characterized by crystallographically oriented parallel plates of unattacked Be. The orientation of these lamella was quite different than those observed in Zn. To explain this difference, the electron density distributions in the metal lattices are analyzed. A conceptual model for crystallographic pitting is introduced. In this model it is proposed that the crystallographic pits observed in single crystal hcp metals reflects the bond energy in the lattice.

  16. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States. PMID:26020136

  17. Surface Roughness and Metastable Pitting of Amorphous Nickel Alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Zuo; S. Fu

    1998-01-01

    The effects of surface finish on nucleation and growth of metastable pits on an amorphous Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B alloy was studied using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization tests. Nucleation of metastable pits on the amorphous alloy was facilitated significantly by a rougher surface. Both growth rate constants and peak currents of metastable pits followed a log-normal distribution. A rougher surface also promoted the

  18. W-320 pit liner vs. coating cost risk benefit analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Symons

    1994-01-01

    This report evaluates the costs and the risk trade-offs associated with the two pit lining or confinement options being considered as part of the Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Project. Both of these pit secondary confinement options (i.e., stainless steel pit liners and epoxy coating) can be implemented in a fashion that complies with criteria for secondary containment systems specified by

  19. Electrochemical repairing of pitted 18-8 stainless steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Duan; Y. C. Li; C. W. Yan

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the reaction essential of electrochemical repairing method, which was developed to repair the passive\\u000a film on pits and suppress pitting corrosion on passive 18-8 stainless steel (18-8ss) after occurrence of pitting, the electrochemical\\u000a characteristics, morphology and composition of passive film after different treatments were investigated by electrochemical\\u000a impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Cyclic Voltammogram (CV), Scanning electron microscopy

  20. Pitting of Space Shuttle's Inconel Honeycomb Conical Seal Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank; Gentz, Steven J.; Miller, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the approach, findings, conclusions and recommendations associated with the investigation of the conical seal pitting. It documents the cause and contributing factors of the pitting, the means used to isolate each contributor, and the supporting evidence for the primary cause of the pitting. Finally, the selection, development and verification of the repair procedure used to restore the conical seal panel is described with supporting process and metallurgical rationale for selection.

  1. The Pit and the Safety Pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

    2000-11-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

  2. PCB concentration in fish in a river system after remediation of contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology] [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

    1998-11-15

    An 1991 investigation of PCB concentrations in water and fish along a river was repeated in 1996 after the completion of a remediation of PCB-containing sediment in a lake within the river system. The PCB concentrations in the lake water decreased significantly, and the concentrations in fish was halved (significantly lower) after remediation. PCB still remaining in littoral sediment was probably the cause for a recorded gradient of PCB concentrations in fish from the lake and downstream. The PCB concentrations in water and fish was lower in 1996 compared to 1991 in all locations studied. The decreased levels of PCB in fish between the years for the two upstream locations, probably results from a decline in background PCB exposure. Monitoring data from 30 years back, recorded in a south Swedish lake, has shown a 5% decline per year in the PCB concentration in pike. The data on PCB concentration in fish from the two upstream locations were recalculated on the basis of this yearly decline and resulted in concentrations close to those measured in 1996. The results indicated, that changes in background exposure must be taken into account when evaluating the success of remedial actions measures carried out over several years.

  3. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  4. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  5. Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among young drug users is not a widespread problem in Sweden. Harm-reduction measures should target drug users with more severe problems, among whom illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common and pose a medical risk. Illicit use of other prescription drugs, which are less controlled and more widely used by young people, is an important issue for further research. PMID:24139199

  6. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. (Institute of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain))

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  7. US hospitalizations and costs for illicit drug users with soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Traci A; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bradley, Katharine

    2010-10-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common complications of illicit drug use. Studies at single, urban hospitals demonstrate high rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for these infections. This study sought to estimate nationwide and regional incidence and costs of hospitalizations for illicit drug users with SSTIs in the US. AHRQ's Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to conduct a retrospective cross-sectional, time-series study. Hospitalizations of illicit drug users with SSTIs were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Clinical Modification codes. An estimated 106,126 hospitalizations for illicit drug users with SSTIs represented 0.07% of all US non-Federal hospitalizations from 1998 to 2001 and cost over 193 million dollars in 2001. Higher rates of hospitalization were found in the West, Northeast, and urban teaching hospitals. Hospitalization rates for illicit drug users with SSTIs vary significantly according to US region. Resources to reduce the incidence and severity of these infections should be targeted accordingly. PMID:19381818

  8. Low-cost PCB antenna for UWB applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. N. Low; J. H. Cheong; C. L. Law

    2005-01-01

    This letter presents a low-cost knight's helm shape double-sided printed circuit board (PCB) antenna of size 3 cm×3 cm for ultra-wideband (UWB) application. The antenna has a return loss of more than 10 dB, constant group delay and gain flatness over the frequency range set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for UWB application. Satisfactory performance was obtained using FR4

  9. Reversible and resistant components of PCB adsorption-desorption: isotherms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic M. Di Toro; Lewis M. Horzempa

    1982-01-01

    Results from laboratory equilibration studies indicate that sediment-adsorbed 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) fractions may be comprised of both reversibly and strongly bound or resistant components. This evidence suggests that for many environmental modeling efforts it may be inappropriate to treat this and other PCB isomer adsorption reactions as either completely reversible or completely irreversible. The initial refinement of such models requires a

  10. Polymer multimode waveguide optical and electronic PCB manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Selviah

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the research in the £1.3 million IeMRC Integrated Optical and Electronic Interconnect PCB Manufacturing (OPCB) Flagship Project in which 8 companies and 3 universities carry out collaborative research and which was formed and is technically led by the author. The consortium's research is aimed at investigating a range of fabrication techniques, some established and some novel, for

  11. SEASONAL INFLUENCES ON PCB RETENTION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN FISH

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Kleinow, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that fish from waters with PCB-contaminated sediments accumulate PCBs and related chemicals, and that people who eat fish from contaminated waters have higher body burdens of PCBs and PCB metabolites than those who do not. PCBs and their metabolites are potentially toxic, thus it is important to human health to understand the uptake, biotransformation and elimination of PCBs in fish, since these processes determine the extent of accumulation. The intestinal uptake of PCBs present in the diet of fish into fish tissues is a process that is influenced by the lipid composition of the diet. Biotransformation of PCBs in fish, as in mammals, facilitates elimination, although many PCB congeners are recalcitrant to biotransformation in fish and mammals. Sequential biotransformation of PCBs by cytochrome P450 and conjugation pathways is even less efficient in fish than in mammalian species, thus contributing to the retention of PCBs in fish tissues. A very important factor influencing overall PCB disposition in fish is water temperature. Seasonal changes in water temperature produce adaptive physiological and biochemical changes in fish. While uptake of PCBs from the diet is similar in fish acclimated to winter or summer temperatures, there is evidence that elimination of PCBs occurs much more slowly when the fish is acclimated at low temperatures than at warmer temperatures. Research to date suggests that the processes of elimination of PCBs are modulated by several factors in fish including seasonal changes in water temperature. Thus, the body burden of PCBs in fish from a contaminated location is likely to vary with season. PMID:23494683

  12. The use of artificial intelligence in PCB manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Hidde; A. Prusak

    1992-01-01

    Based on the concept of a standardised, productindependent and production-independent system for factory automation, this\\u000a article presents some general thoughts concerning the acquisition of operation data, machine data and quality data for manufacturing\\u000a and discusses the application of artificial intelligence in the sector of PCB manufacturing. The aim of this system is to\\u000a achieve data-supported work processes and an uninterrupted

  13. 3-D visual inspector of PCB using laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yano; O. Yamada; E. Hiraoka; K. Kaida

    1990-01-01

    A novel automated inspecting system has been developed that uses a multifunction sensor which moves on a printed circuit board (PCB) at high speed and measures 3-D information and the brightness of the object. Due to the capability of the 3-D shape-scanning method, this 3-D visual inspector can inspect solder-joint quality as well as solder volume and shape, regardless of

  14. Influence of nutrition in PCB-induced vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional profile of an individual can influence the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), prevalent environmental pollutants, are highly lipid-soluble toxic compounds that biomagnify through trophic levels and pose cancer, neurocognitive, and atherosclerotic risk to human populations. There is a growing body of knowledge that PCBs can initiate inflammatory responses in vivo, and this inflammation can be either exacerbated or ameliorated by nutrition. Data indicate that diets high in certain dietary lipids such as omega-6 fatty acids can worsen PCB-induced vascular toxicity while diets enriched with bioactive food components such as polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can improve the toxicant-induced inflammation. There is evidence that bioactive nutrients protect through multiple cell signaling pathways, but we have shown that lipid raft caveolae and the antioxidant defense controller nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) both play a predominant role in nutritional modulation of PCB-induced vascular toxicity. Interestingly, there appears to be an intimate cross-talk between caveolae-related proteins and cellular Nrf2, and focusing on the use of specific bioactive food components that simultaneously alter both pathways may produce a more effective and efficient cytoprotective response to toxicant exposure. The use of nutrition as a protective tool is an economically beneficial means to address the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants and may become a sensible means to protect human populations from PCB-induced vascular inflammation and associated chronic diseases. PMID:23417440

  15. Influence of nutrition in PCB-induced vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional profile of an individual can influence the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), prevalent environmental pollutants, are highly lipid soluble toxic compounds that biomagnify through trophic levels and pose cancer, neuro-cognitive, and atherosclerotic risk to human populations. There is a growing body of knowledge that PCBs can initiate inflammatory responses in vivo, and this inflammation can be either exacerbated or ameliorated by nutrition. Data indicate that diets high in certain dietary lipids such as omega-6 fatty acids can worsen PCB-induced vascular toxicity while diets enriched with bioactive food components such as polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can improve the toxicant-induced inflammation. There is evidence that bioactive nutrients protect through multiple cell signaling pathways, but we have shown that lipid raft caveolae and the antioxidant defense controller Nrf2 both play a predominant role in nutritional modulation of PCB-induced vascular toxicity. Interestingly, there appears to be intimate cross-talk between caveolae-related proteins and cellular Nrf2, and focusing on the use of specific bioactive food components that simultaneously alter both pathways may produce a more effective and efficient cytoprotective response to toxicant exposure. The use of nutrition as a protective tool is an economically beneficial means to address the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants and may become a sensible means to protect human populations from PCB-induced vascular inflammation and associated chronic diseases. PMID:23417440

  16. Advanced methods for electromagnetic investigation of PCB/PWB layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codreanu, N. D.; Ionescu, C.; Svasta, P.; Golumbeanu, V.

    2007-05-01

    High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology is a way to condense electronic circuits for ruggedness, radiation hardening, and high performance. HDI minimizes the size and weight of electronic products while maximizing their performances. HDI circuits offer new solutions to signal integrity (SI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) concerns, concerns which are expected to grow more and more as rise/fall times continue to drop. Because PCB manufacturers have developed new materials and technological solutions, indispensable at this moment is to perform a deep virtual characterization of structures directly related to HDI. This paper presents investigations and results focused on the main areas of SI and EMC, as noise at PCB level (reflections, and crosstalk), electromagnetic interference (EMI) and on-board interconnection delay. The authors have evaluated various HDI-PCB items and structures using the MoM full-wave electromagnetic simulation method. After modeling and simulation a link to classical circuit simulators was created by extracting RLCG elements and various parameters, which are directly related to the total current along the HDI structures. The paper offers a new way to find the solutions for keeping the integrity of signals and electromagnetic compliance.

  17. Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Lawson, W.G.

    1981-10-01

    Survival, behavior, and reproduction of Hydra viridis was studied in animals treated with the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (PCB), Aroclor 1254. PCB was administered as a component of the culture medium (artificial pond water) in concentrations varying from 0.2 mg/l to 100.0 mg/l PCB. Reagent grade acetone was employed as a carrier for the PCB due to its low solubility in water. Control animals were maintained in a 250.0 mg/l acetone culture medium. Aroclor 1254 was lethally toxic to H. viridis with concentrations of 20.0 mg/l producing 100% mortality after a 24 hour exposure. Sublethal PCB concentrations as low as 2.0 mg/l caused lethargic behavior and decreased feeding. Reproduction was suppressed in concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/l, and morphological abnormalities occurred at PCB levels of 2.0 mg/l or greater.

  18. Identification of a novel PCB source through analysis of 209 PCB congeners by US EPA modified method 1668.

    PubMed

    Litten, Simon; Fowler, Brian; Luszniak, Diane

    2002-03-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs in surface waters and effluent waste streams flowing into New York/New Jersey Harbor were sampled by large volume filtration and solid phase extraction (XAD-2). Passive hexane samplers were employed in sewer trackdown. Extraction media were analyzed for 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD/Fs and all 209 PCB congeners. The non-Aroclor PCB congener, 3,3'-DiCB, was ubiquitous in the harbor and was found to be associated with pigment manufacture. Knowledge of inadvertent synthesis of non-Aroclor PCBs is not new but its magnitude and the generation of congeners with dioxin-like properties from this process is novel. PMID:12002476

  19. Changes in the PCB world with new packaging technologies and the integration of passive components into the PCB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter G. Weiss

    1998-01-01

    New developments in the semi-conductor industry lead to higher I\\/O counts. Packaging is changing to new, smaller packages, like TCPs and CSPs, and the pitch density increases as well. For the fanout of such pages on the PCB, new design rules have to be applied. Blind via holes, sequential build-up technologies, new ways to form holes, new materials, a lot

  20. Searching for illicit materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence stimulated by narrow-band photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hall, J. M.; McNabb, D. P.; Kelley, J. H.; Huibregtse, C.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2012-08-01

    We report the results of an experimental study of the sensitivity of two distinct classes of systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to search for illicit materials in containers. One class of systems is based on the direct detection of NRF photons emitted from isotopes of interest. The other class infers the presence of a particular isotope by observing the preferential attenuation of resonant photons in the incident beam. We developed a detailed analytical model for both approaches. We performed experiments to test the model using depleted uranium as a surrogate for illicit material and used tungsten as a random choice for shielding. We performed the experiments at Duke University's High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS). Using the methodology we detail in this paper one can use this model to estimate the performance of potential inspection systems in certifying containers as free of illicit materials and for detecting the presence of those same materials.

  1. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899

  2. 2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) Atropisomers Interact Enantioselectively with Hepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is a chiral and highly neurotoxic PCB congener of environmental relevance. (+)-PCB 136 was previously shown to be enriched in tissues from mice treated with racemic PCB 136. We investigated the spectral interactions of (+)-, (-)- and (±)-PCB 136 with mouse and rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to test the hypothesis that enantioselective binding to specific P450 enzymes causes the enrichment of (+)-PCB 136 in vivo. Hepatic microsomes prepared from C57BL/6 mice or Long Evans rats treated with ?-naphthoflavone or 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone (prototypical inducers of CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A, respectively) were used to determine first, if the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer binds to hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater extent than does the (-)-PCB 136 atropisomer; and second, if P450 enzymes of one subfamily bind the two PCB 136 atropisomers more efficiently than do P450 enzymes of other subfamilies. Increasing concentrations of (+)-, (-)- or (±)-PCB 136 were added to hepatic microsomes and the difference spectrum and maximal absorbance change, a measure of PCB binding to P450 enzymes, were measured. A significantly larger absorbance change was observed with (+)-PCB 136 than with (-)-PCB 136 with all four hepatic microsomal preparations in mice and rats, indicating that (+)-PCB 136 interacted with microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater degree than did (-)-PCB 136. In addition, binding of the PCB 136 atropisomers was greatest in microsomes from PB-treated mice and rats, and was inhibited by CYP2B antibodies, indicating the involvement of CYP2B enzymes. Together these results suggest preferential binding of (+)-PCB 136 to P450 enzymes (such as CYP2B and CYP3A) in hepatic microsomes, an observation that may explain the enantioselective enrichment of the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer in tissues of mice. PMID:18494506

  3. Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

  4. Model of PCB in the Lake Michigan lake trout food chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert V. Thomann; John P. Connolly

    1984-01-01

    An age-dependent food chain model that considers species bioenergetics and toxicant exposure through water and food is developed. The model is successfully calibrated to 1971 PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan alewife and lake trout by using a dissolved PCB concentration in the water of 5-10 ng\\/L. The model indicates that for the top predator lake trout, PCB exposure through the

  5. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5?×?10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

  6. Dependence of the Critical Pitting Temperature on surface roughness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Moayed; N. J. Laycock; R. C. Newman

    2003-01-01

    It has been known for many years that highly alloyed stainless steels display a critical pitting temperature (CPT), which is the lowest temperature at which the growth of stable pits is possible. In the work reported here, the effect of varying surface roughness was investigated using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic CPT measurements on 904L stainless steel in 1 M NaCl. The

  7. Geomechanical Measurements and Computations at an Open Pit Marble Quarry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Iabichino; M. Cravero

    This paper reports on a geomechanical monitoring and computation experience at an open pit quarry. The quarry site belongs to a white marble basin (Carrara marble) in the Apuane Alps, where intensive quarry exploitations (both open pit and underground) have been developed, and a high rock spur has been left in place. In consideration of the particular geometry of the

  8. Are ball pits the playground for potentially harmful bacteria?

    PubMed

    Davis, S G; Corbitt, A M; Everton, V M; Grano, C A; Kiefner, P A; Wilson, A S; Gray, M

    1999-01-01

    Ball pits, enclosed play areas with padded floors and pits of small plastic balls, have become popular features for children at fast food restaurants. This pilot study sought to identify and confirm bacterial organisms that place children at a potential health risk in three play pits within fast food restaurants. Data for this descriptive study were randomly collected from restaurants offering play pits with multicolored, round, hollow, plastic balls within urban communities of the Tidewater region of Virginia. Specimens were collected from entrances into the ball pits as well as various areas of the bottom lining to incur a representative sample. Results indicated an increased level of normal flora as well as nonhuman flora, demonstrating that bacteria are present within the ball pits. The results question the safety of these play pits for both health care providers and parents. Nurses play a vital role in public awareness through health education. Disinfection protocol and proper handwashing are the keys to making ball pit play areas safe for children. PMID:10532011

  9. Kelly Campbell PitE Department Administrator GSI Timeline Review

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    Kelly Campbell­ PitE Department Administrator #12;Agenda GSI Timeline Review Application process demo Selection Criteria Making a good 1st impression GSI Requirements Benefits GEO Agreement Graduate Teacher Certification via Rackham #12;GSI Timeline Feb 18: PitE Info Session Feb 18: Positions

  10. Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle Wyrick; David A. Ferrill; Alan P. Morris; Shannon L. Colton; Darrell W. Sims

    2004-01-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally

  11. INTERGRANULAR CORROSION OF SINGLE PHASE ALUMINIUM AS A PITTING PHENOMENON

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INTERGRANULAR CORROSION OF SINGLE PHASE ALUMINIUM AS A PITTING PHENOMENON M. METZGER Department of pitting corrosion in sulfuric acid containing sodium chloride were described. Intergranular fissuring in producing this type of attack. The intergranular corrosion phenomena which are exhibited by high purity

  12. Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Straskraba; L. E. Kissinger

    1984-01-01

    Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and

  13. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than...

  14. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than one-half...

  15. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than...

  16. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than one-half...

  17. 7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than...

  18. Pitting formation under the conditions of fretting fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. P. Datsyshyn; O. S. Kalakhan; V. M. Kadyra; R. B. Shchur

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a numerical-analytic model used for the analysis of durability and fracture of bodies whose contact occurs under the conditions of fretting fatigue, we predict and study the process of pitting formation in these bodies. It is assumed that pitting is initiated by a surface macrocrack formed in the contact region somewhat earlier and propagating as a

  19. Illicit drug users in Northern Ireland: perceptions and experiences of health and social care professionals.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, D; McKenna, H; Leslie, J; Moore, K; Robinson, J

    2006-12-01

    Over the 30 years of conflict, Northern Ireland escaped the worst excesses of illegal drug trafficking and usage. This was in large part due to the 'policing' of local community crime by paramilitaries. However, since the first 'cease-fire' in 1994 the province has witnessed a dramatic and unprecedented rise in the availability of illicit drugs. This increased availability reflects rising consumption of these drugs in the province. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions that a sample of health and social care professionals' hold of illicit drug users in Northern Ireland. A survey methodology was used. Community settings across Northern Ireland were accessed. Focus groups and face-to-face interviews were used as data collection methods. Thirty-five health and social care professionals took part in this study. Thirty-two took part in six focus groups; three respondents underwent one-to-one interview. The participating professionals reported to have little or no education or training in the care and treatment of illicit drug users. Some stated that they would reject the offer of education and training in this area to prevent contact with illicit drug users. Many displayed strongly negative views of this client group, often expressing a preference not to care for or treat these people, preferring all their care to be given by specialists in illicit drug treatment. These findings indicate that most of the health and social care professionals who took part in this study appear unprepared and unwilling to meet the challenge of caring for illicit drug users. The findings will be of interest to service providers within and outside the UK. PMID:17087670

  20. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3%. PMID:16883377

  1. The Growing Problem of Illicit Substance Abuse in the Elderly: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Grossberg, George T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore and integrate the extant data on the subject of illicit substance use and abuse in the elderly and to determine shortcomings in the current understanding of the problem and potential topics of future research. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE was searched (1960–2011) using the keywords substance use disorders and geriatrics; PsycINFO was searched (1967–2011) using the keywords drug abuse and geriatrics. Data Extraction: The searches of Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO returned 35 and 85 results, respectively. Other relevant articles were identified by checking reference lists of the identified studies. A total of 26 articles with a focus on use of illicit substances, excluding alcohol, over-the-counter drugs, and prescription drugs, in the elderly were determined to be applicable to the review. Data Synthesis: Limited data were available to combine between studies, but certain conclusions could be generalized among separate sources. Results: Geriatric substance abuse is a topic of growing interest, importance, and research; however, most of the existing literature has focused on licit substances. Illicit substance abuse has been incorrectly assumed to end as patients age, whereas in reality, elderly drug users are increasingly common and have a unique profile quite different from that of their younger counterparts. Conclusions: Geriatric substance abuse is a common problem and includes both licit and illicit substances. There are not yet reliable screening instruments or treatment methods for identification and treatment of illicit substance abuse in the elderly. A high index of suspicion and consideration of illicit substance use as a real possibility are vital for early recognition and diagnosis of such abuse in the elderly. PMID:23251860

  2. 43 CFR 3603.11 - What rights pertain to users of community pits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false What rights pertain to users of community pits? 3603.11 Section 3603.11...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Disposal of Materials-Community Pits and Common Use Areas §...

  3. 43 CFR 3603.21 - What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas? 3603...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Reclamation...What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas?...

  4. 43 CFR 3603.10 - Disposal of mineral materials from community pits and common use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disposal of mineral materials from community pits and common use areas. 3603...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Disposal of Materials-Community Pits and Common Use Areas §...

  5. 43 CFR 3603.21 - What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas? 3603...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Reclamation...What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas?...

  6. 43 CFR 3603.11 - What rights pertain to users of community pits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false What rights pertain to users of community pits? 3603.11 Section 3603.11...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Disposal of Materials-Community Pits and Common Use Areas §...

  7. 43 CFR 3603.10 - Disposal of mineral materials from community pits and common use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disposal of mineral materials from community pits and common use areas. 3603...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Disposal of Materials-Community Pits and Common Use Areas §...

  8. 43 CFR 3603.11 - What rights pertain to users of community pits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false What rights pertain to users of community pits? 3603.11 Section 3603.11...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Disposal of Materials-Community Pits and Common Use Areas §...

  9. 43 CFR 3603.21 - What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas? 3603...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Reclamation...What reclamation requirements pertain to community pits and common use areas?...

  10. 43 CFR 3603.10 - Disposal of mineral materials from community pits and common use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disposal of mineral materials from community pits and common use areas. 3603...3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Community Pits and Common Use Areas Disposal of Materials-Community Pits and Common Use Areas §...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

  15. The drugs that dare not speak their name: Injecting and other illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Max; Treloar, Carla

    2007-10-01

    Exploration of patients' illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is largely absent from the clinical literature. This paper explores injecting and other illicit drug use among people receiving interferon-based treatment for HCV infection, from the perspective of one group of health professionals. Data are presented from a qualitative study of six health professionals responsible for managing HCV treatment regimens at three major metropolitan hospitals across Sydney, Australia. During semi-structured in-depth interviews, participants discussed patients' use of injected and non-injected illicit drugs while coping with a demanding therapeutic regimen. Health professionals highlighted the socially conservative environment of healthcare and its negative perceptions of illicit drug users. Also discussed are the management of people who inject during treatment and the efficacy of cannabis to reduce side effects. The findings of this study indicate that while the health professionals adopted a harm reduction approach to patients' illicit drug use during HCV treatment, information regarding the risks and benefits of illicit drug use is silenced in this context. While ever prohibition remains Australia's illicit drug policy this situation appears unlikely to change. Research which investigates the extent of illicit drug use during HCV treatment, the risks and benefits associated with their use in this context, and the harms of perpetuating a duplicitous healthcare system is required. PMID:17854725

  16. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  17. Secrets of the Noachian Highlands: Pit Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A) Context Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] B) Gullies in M12-00595 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] C) Layers and gullies in M09-00539, M15-00964

    Among the most exciting places that the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has photographed during its three and a half years in orbit has been this crater in central Noachis Terra. Located at 47oS, 355oW, the crater appears to have been almost completely filled, and subsequently eroded in localized pits, by unknown processes. In this one place we see elements of the two most important results of the MOC investigation--the discovery of young gullies formed by fluid erosion and the occurrence of thick sequences of layered rock attesting to a martian past of substantial geologic activity.

    Picture A shows the location of the other two figures, which are sections of three of about a dozen images acquired of this crater. Picture B (M12-00595) shows examples of gullies on the pit walls. Their contributary pattern (including the angles at which they join) argues for fluid behavior during their creation; the dark floors suggest that they have been active recently (or else they, like the slopes around them and most of Mars, would be lighter-toned owing to the accumulation of dust). These gullies are formed well down on the pit wall, where a distinctive, boulder-rich layer is found. Figure C, a mosaic of two high resolution images (M09-00539 and M15-00964), shows an area somewhat higher in the sequence of layered material that fills the crater. This sequence clearly alternates between layers that either contain or erode to form boulders and layers that do not have boulders. Note in particular the overhanging layers near the top center--such overhangs are evidence of the strength of the material. Here, too, gullies appear to start at specific layers; these, however, may not be as young as those seen in (B), as they appear to have at least a thin covering of dust. How it is that this crater came to be filled with layers of material containing (or eroding to create) boulders is a mystery.

  18. Biostimulation of PCB-degrading bacteria by compounds released from plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.S.; Hegde, R.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology; Donnelly, P.K. [Santa Fe Junior Coll., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Flavonoid and coumarin compounds produced by plants supported the growth of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria, and the bacteria retained their PCB-degrading properties. Root leachates and washings from mulberry trees also supported the growth of a PCB-degrading bacterium. These results indicate that chemicals released by some plant roots may serve as cometabolites for PCB-degrading bacteria. Identification of the right plant species and development of appropriate cultivation practices promises to lead to an ecologically sound means to achieve sustained in situ degradation of PCBs at contaminated terrestrial sites.

  19. PCB congener profiles in nestling tree swallows and their insect prey.

    PubMed

    Papp, Zsuzsanna; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sebastian, Mary; Smits, Judit E G

    2007-02-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are widely used as indicators of local polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in North America. Although determining total PCB residues in tissues is useful in environmental monitoring, analysis of PCB congener profiles may reveal sources of contamination and thus prove to be a more refined tool to track contaminants through the food web. To show how differences in PCB congener patterns in birds can be linked to the PCB patterns in their prey, we evaluated PCB congeners in tissues of tree swallow nestlings and their insect prey using principal component analysis and Euclidean similarities. The PC1 scores for PCB residues in nestlings fell between those of the Hexagenia (Ephemeroptera, mayflies) and Chironomidae (Diptera, midges), the two major prey groups of the nestlings. The congener pattern was not related to the location of nest boxes within the study area. However, Hexagenia insects and the nestlings that consumed them were richer in less chlorinated congeners and had higher PC1 scores than Chironomidae insect. In concordance, congener pattern of nestlings that hatched earlier and consumed more mayflies was more similar than that of other nestling to the pattern of nestings texagenia as calculated by Euclidean similarities. We point to the importance of understanding the seasonal availability of specific types of insect prey and their PCB congener pattern before these data are applied in models of trophic transfer of individual PCB congeners within a food web. PMID:17165104

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Keir, Michael J; Whittle, D Michael; Noguchi, George E

    2010-03-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout. PMID:20067852

  1. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  2. Mapping sand and gravel pits in the Patuxent River watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, T. J.; Witt, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    LANDSAT data from July 1973 and June 1978 for the Patuxent River Watershed of Maryland were processed in an effort to devise an economical method of monitoring the reclamation of sand and gravel pits. ASTEP-II and IDIMS software were utilized to derive signatures for sand and gravel pits and other land use/land cover types. Both unsupervised and supervised classifications of the two data sets were produced. Resultant statistics and color output products were compared in order to determine the extent of reclamation and expansion of sand and gravel pits over the five-year time span and to check the locations of more recent sand and gravel pits. Preliminary results indicate that, for a selected northern sub-acre, signatures derived for sand and gravel pits were nearly 90 percent accurate.

  3. Crevice and pitting corrosion behavior of stainless steels in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zaragoza-Ayala, A.E.; Orozco-Cruz, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico

    1999-11-01

    Pitting and crevice corrosion tests in natural seawater were performed on a series of stainless steels (i.e., S31603, N08904, S32304, S31803, S32520, N08925 and S31266) in order to determine their resistance to these types of localized corrosion. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements for these alloys show for short exposure times an ennoblement in the OCP. After a certain time, occasional fall and rise in the OCP values was observed, which can be related to nucleation and repassivation of pits and/or crevices on the metal surface. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior and microscopic observations shows that only S31603 and S32304 alloys were susceptible to crevice and pitting corrosion, whereas the remaining alloys exhibited good resistance. Pitting potentials determined by the potentiodynamic technique also show S3 1603 and S32304 are susceptible to pitting corrosion under the experimental conditions used in this work.

  4. Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier.

    PubMed

    Volmer, Petra A; Merola, Valentina; Osborne, Tanasa; Bailey, Keith L; Meerdink, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necrotizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was determined to be thallium sulfate obtained by a person with the intent to harm family members. Although thallium has not been produced in the United States for 20 years, this report demonstrates the need to consider thallium toxicosis as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with vague and mixed gastrointestinal and neurological signs. PMID:16566274

  5. Discovery of gas-discharged pits (gas pit) in the plains of the Yellow River delta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Zhong; Yaoqi Zhou; Shoujun Li; Shaolan Wang

    1999-01-01

    A kind of special sedimentary structures are developed in the overwater plains of the Yellow River delta. They look like funnels:\\u000a round or nearly round, concave of pit-like, with a diameter ranging from several centimeters to 20 or 30 cm, and depth from\\u000a several millimeters to over 20 cm. There is a vertical pipe (called gas discharging conduit) in the

  6. Patterns in stream fish assemblage structure and function associated with a PCB gradient.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Sparks, Daniel W

    2013-08-01

    Stream fish assemblage structure and function were examined for significant response along a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gradient from two PCB-contaminated streams (Clear Creek and Richland Creek watershed) at three locations and a control stream (Little Indian Creek), Indiana, USA. Fish were sampled in the summer months of 1995 and from 1999 to 2002. 51 fish assemblage attributes-including structure (i.e., fish composition) and function (i.e., trophic, reproductive, condition guilds), biomass, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) metric scores-were evaluated for significance according to an increasing PCB gradient. Eight biomass attributes of fish assemblages decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species biomass, number of sunfish biomass, percent sunfish biomass, number of sucker biomass, percent sucker biomass, biomass of sensitive species, percent sensitive species biomass, and percent carnivore biomass. Three biomass attributes increased with PCB concentration: percent minnow biomass, percent pioneer species biomass, and percent tolerant species biomass. Seven species composition and relative abundance characters decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species; number of darter, madtom, and sculpin; number of darter; number of sunfish; number of sucker; number of sensitive species; and percent individuals as carnivores. Percent individuals as pioneer species increased with increasing PCB concentration. Two IBI metrics, percent individuals as headwater species and number of minnow species, increased as PCB concentrations increased, whereas number of sucker species and percent individuals as pioneer species decreased with increasing PCB concentration class. We observed a direct response between decreased relative abundance and biomass of carnivores and increased relative abundance minnows as the PCB gradient increased. Total IBI score did not detect subtle changes to the fish community that were observed along a PCB gradient, whereas diagnostic analysis of the individual metrics did. PMID:23604193

  7. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  8. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ``did what he/she was told.`` The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician`s office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface.

  9. Pit assisted oxygen chemisorption on GaN surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna T C, Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha; Kaur, Mandeep; Singh, Sandeep; Gupta, Govind

    2015-06-01

    A comprehensive analysis of oxygen chemisorption on epitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) films grown at different substrate temperatures via RF-molecular beam epitaxy was carried out. Photoemission (XPS and UPS) measurements were performed to investigate the nature of the surface oxide and corresponding changes in the electronic structure. It was observed that the growth of GaN films at lower temperatures leads to a lower amount of surface oxide and vice versa was observed for a higher temperature growth. The XPS core level (CL) and valence band maximum (VBM) positions shifted towards higher binding energies (BE) with oxide coverage and revealed a downward band bending. XPS valence band spectra were de-convoluted to understand the nature of the hybridization states. UPS analysis divulged higher values of electronic affinity and ionization energy for GaN films grown at a higher substrate temperature. The surface morphology and pit structure were probed via microscopic measurements (FESEM and AFM). FESEM and AFM analysis revealed that the film surface was covered with hexagonal pits, which played a significant role in oxygen chemisorption. The favourable energetics of the pits offered an ideal site for oxygen adsorption. Pit density and pit depth were observed to be important parameters that governed the surface oxide coverage. The contribution of surface oxide was increased with an increase in average pit density as well as pit depth. PMID:25991084

  10. PCB-Caulk Replacement Project Johnson Space Center Houston, TX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, William M.; Stanch, Penney M.; Molenda, William

    2011-01-01

    Wet method reduced exposure by minimizing overall respirable particulate release. Dry method didn't introduce delays for primer/caulk application. Removed caulks came in many forms, from dry powdery to tarry sticky. Varying textures were not sampled or packaged differently. During the course of the project, EPA modified recommended practices to include full containment for exterior caulk removal. Changes are ongoing. Initial recommendations were directed to school buildings. EPA is researching risks due to caulk. Exposure guidance lacking except for 2 of 209 PCB congeners. Work was safely completed on schedule and under budget.

  11. Automatic PCB inspection system based on virtual instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiju; Wang, Ping; Ma, Lei

    2006-02-01

    These years, with the development of more complicated manufacturing method and new electronic component are developed, the quality and performance in production line can no more be well monitored by only visual inspection. On the basis of Virtual Instruments technique, a new system is developed to construct a reliable inspection and control system. This system can find defections such as missing, converting, and inclining in PCB automatic. It will highly upgrade the inspection speed and precision, contrasted to traditional way of visual-inspection. This system is flexible, easy to be extended, thus greatly deducing the cost.

  12. Contamination of silos in Switzerland by PCB residues in coatings

    SciTech Connect

    de Alencastro, L.F.; Prelaz, V.; Tarradellas, J.

    1984-09-01

    From the end of 1982 to the beginning of 1983 some Swiss Cantonal Laboratories for Food Control have detected high levels of PCBs in the milk output from several dairy farms at Laufental, in the northwest of Switzerland. These investigations showed that the silo coatings and consequently the silage from these silos were at the origin of the milk contamination. Four farms which produced the most polluted milk were investigated, specifically to determine PCB migration from coating material into the concrete walls and silage. This paper presents the results of this investigation.

  13. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10?3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

  14. Development of a fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug--GBL.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Duanting; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Eng, Pei Sze Fronia; Lee, Sung-Chan; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-14

    The first fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug, GBL, was developed and named Green Date. It shows high fluorescence enhancement to GBL and allows its detection in different drinks. The mechanism between GBL and Green Date was explored. This discovery may help to prevent the drug-facilitated sexual assault problems. PMID:23728479

  15. Illicit Drugs and Alcohol in Breast Milk: Assessing Risk to Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry C. Nipper

    There is no question that breast-feeding is beneficial to both mother and infant. Manifold advantages ensue from the process; protection against infection and reduced risk of exposure to external sources of food contamination are only two of the many. Yet, the degree and risk involved from in vivo contamination of this precious fluid through maternal use of illicit drugs, tobacco

  16. Illicit Drug Use and Its Health Consequences in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine: Impact of Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir B. Poznyak; Vadim E. Pelipas; Anatoliy N. Vievski; L. Miroshnichenko

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyze the impact of the transition period on illicit drug use and its health consequences in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Available data were compiled to illustrate the trends and policy responses since 1991, when the countries had become politically independent and implemented radical changes in their social systems, which is particularly

  17. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  18. Combinations of Prescription Drug Misuse and Illicit Drugs among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C.; Wells, Brooke E.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse remains a critical drug trend. Data indicate that young adults in nightlife scenes misuse prescription drugs at high rates. As such, continued surveillance of the patterns of prescription drug misuse among young adults is necessary, particularly assessments that spotlight specific areas of risk, such as polydrug use. Methods Prevalence and correlates of recent combinations of prescription drugs and other substances among urban young adults recruited at nightlife venues using time-space sampling are assessed via prevalence estimates and logistic regression analyses. Results Overall, 16.4% of the sample reported combining illicit drug use with prescription drug misuse. Of those who reported any prescription drug misuse, 65.9% used prescription drugs in combination with at least one of the illicit drugs assessed. The most common combination was marijuana, followed by alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy, and psychedelics. Being male and identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual predicted the combination of prescription drugs with ecstasy, cocaine, and psychedelics. Conclusions Rates of combining alcohol and illicit drug use with prescription drug misuse were high, especially among men and those identified as a sexual minority. These rates are alarming in light of the host of negative health outcomes associated with combining prescription and illicit drugs. PMID:24462348

  19. Decision biases and persistent illicit drug use: an experimental study of distributed choice and addiction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene M Heyman; Brian Dunn

    2002-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that differences in drug use are correlated with differences in decision making. The subjects were 22 drug clinic patients who had used either opiates or stimulants for an average of 10 years, and 21 community residents who reported that they had rarely used illicit addictive drugs. The procedure consisted of a series of binary choices

  20. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

  1. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  2. The consequences of knowing: Ethical and legal liabilities in illicit drug research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Fitzgerald; Margaret Hamilton

    1996-01-01

    Ethnographic research into illicit drug use necessarily involves the researcher being aware of illegal activities. Information about illegal activities is obtained through the establishment of confidential relationships with research participants; however there are legal and ethical obligations on researchers to breach confidential relationships formed in the research environment. The recent suspension of a research project by an Institutional Ethics Committee

  3. The occurrence of illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and surface waters in Nebraska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon L. Bartelt-Hunt; Daniel D. Snow; Teyona Damon; Johnette Shockley; Kyle Hoagland

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a

  4. DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

  5. Locating illicit connections in storm water sewers using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Hoes, O A C; Schilperoort, R P S; Luxemburg, W M J; Clemens, F H L R; van de Giesen, N C

    2009-12-01

    A newly developed technique using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has been developed to find illicit household sewage connections to storm water systems in the Netherlands. DTS allows for the accurate measurement of temperature along a fiber-optic cable, with high spatial (2m) and temporal (30s) resolution. We inserted a fiber-optic cable of 1300m in two storm water drains. At certain locations, significant temperature differences with an intermittent character were measured, indicating inflow of water that was not storm water. In all cases, we found that foul water from households or companies entered the storm water system through an illicit sewage connection. The method of using temperature differences for illicit connection detection in storm water networks is discussed. The technique of using fiber-optic cables for distributed temperature sensing is explained in detail. The DTS method is a reliable, inexpensive and practically feasible method to detect illicit connections to storm water systems, which does not require access to private property. PMID:19735929

  6. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  7. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

  8. Evaluation and analysis of non-intrusive techniques for detecting illicit substances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Micklich; C. T. Roche; C. L. Fink; T. J. Yule; J. C. Demirgian; T. D. Kunz; S. J. Ulvick; J. Cui

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) have been tasked by the Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center of the Office of National Drug Control Policy to conduct evaluations and analyses of technologies for the non-intrusive inspection of containers for illicit substances. These technologies span the range of nuclear, X-ray, and chemical techniques used in nondestructive sample analysis.

  9. Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kodo Kawase; Yuichi Ogawa; Yuuki Watanabe; Hiroyuki Inoue

    2003-01-01

    The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from

  10. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

  11. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    E-print Network

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece21 *Co-first authors. ABSTRACT Aims To perform wastewater population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants

  12. Licit and Illicit Use of Prescription Psychostimulants in Upperclassmen and Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Brynne; Langdon, Su

    2013-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants after college has not been well researched. In an online survey, current upperclassmen undergraduates (N = 96) and recent alumni (N = 337) reported licit and illicit use of prescription stimulants, perceptions of peer use, self-diagnosis of attention disorder, and plans for continued use. Post-graduate rate of use…

  13. Discussing illicit drugs in public internet forums: visibility, stigma, and pseudonymity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica J. Barratt

    2011-01-01

    It has been claimed that people discuss their own illicit drug use online because anonymity allows them to avoid the legal and social risks of identifying themselves as drug users. Discourses around the risks, strategies and management of online drug discussion were produced by interviewing 26 'party drug' users who reported participating in internet forums where drugs were discussed. Three

  14. International Policy on Illicit Drug Trafficking: The Formal and Informal Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy Fazey

    2007-01-01

    In the last 10 years the world's leading economic powers have driven important changes in international policy on illicit drug trafficking. They have set up and financed semi-formal or informal transnational groups to proactively implement policy on the ground. This is a reaction to the bureaucratic, formal mechanisms of the United Nations and its agencies, where policy is diluted by

  15. Perspectives on the organisation and control of the illicit traffic in antiquities in South East Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Adler; Duncan Chappell; Kenneth Polk

    2009-01-01

    We intend addressing three issues in till paper. First we will describe in detail not available elsewhere the patterns that are found in the illicit traffic in antiquities that flow out of Southeast Asia in particular from Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar Thailand and Vietnam. Second, we shall examine the focus of organized crime that have emerged in order to support

  16. The effects of a dredge excavation pit on benthic macrofauna in offshore Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Terence A; Montagna, Paul A; Nairn, Robert B

    2008-04-01

    Over two years after the original creation of a sand excavation pit 8 km off the Louisiana coast, benthic macrofauna communities and sedimentary characteristics are still effected. Macrofaunal communities inside the pit had lower abundance, biomass, and diversity than communities outside the pit. This difference, however, was only significant with some of the stations outside the pit. Results from multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis showed that macrofaunal communities were less than 32% similar inside the pit to communities outside the pit. The polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta was the most abundant species outside the excavation pit, but the species was only counted once inside the pit. The most dominant species, which made up over 90% of organisms inside the pit, was the pioneer polychaete Paraprionospio pinnata. Only three species were found at each station inside the pit as opposed to 9-27 species at stations outside the pit. All species inside the pit were also found outside the pit; thus, change was due to a loss of species rather than replacement by different species. Sediment inside the pit contained more silt and clay; however, no difference in water quality was detected compared with outside the pit. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed near the dredge pit in 2005 and could have effected sediment transport in the region. Because the macrofaunal community inside the pit has not recovered within 38 months, it is likely that it will require more time before it resembles the surrounding conditions. PMID:18247082

  17. Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters and phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells: Redundant roles for PiT-1 and PiT-2

    PubMed Central

    Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Lau, Wei Ling; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; Chavkin, Nick; Wallingford, Mary C.; Peterson, Danielle F.; Li, Xianwu; Liu, Yonggang; Chin, Michael T.; Levi, Moshe; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum phosphate has emerged as a major risk factor for vascular calcification. The sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, was previously shown to be required for phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation and calcification of cultured human VSMCs, but its importance in vascular calcification in vivo, as well as the potential role of its homologue, PiT-2, have not been determined. We investigated the in vivo requirement for PiT-1 in vascular calcification using a mouse model of chronic kidney disease, and the potential compensatory role of PiT-2 using in vitro knockdown and over-expression strategies. Approach and Results Mice with targeted deletion of PiT-1 in VSMCs were generated (PiT-1?sm). PiT-1 mRNA levels were undetectable whereas PiT-2 mRNA levels were increased 2 fold in the vascular aortic media of PiT-1?sm compared to PiT-1flox/flox control. When arterial medial calcification was induced in PiT-1?sm and PiT-1flox/flox by chronic kidney disease followed by dietary phosphate loading, the degree of aortic calcification was not different between genotypes, suggesting compensation by PiT-2. Consistent with this possibility, VSMCs isolated from PiT-1?sm mice had no PiT-1 mRNA expression, increased PiT-2 mRNA levels, and no difference in sodium-dependent phosphate uptake or phosphate-induced matrix calcification compared to PiT-1flox/flox VSMCs. Knockdown of PiT-2 decreased phosphate uptake and phosphate-induced calcification of PiT-1?sm VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of PiT-2 restored these parameters in human PiT-1-deficient VSMCs. Conclusions PiT-2 can mediate phosphate uptake and calcification of VSMCs in the absence of PiT-1. Mechanistically, PiT-1 and PiT-2 appear to serve redundant roles in phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23968976

  18. SIMPLE PCB BASED S-PARAMETER EXTRACTION METHOD FOR RF AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Sung Woo

    1 SIMPLE PCB BASED S-PARAMETER EXTRACTION METHOD FOR RF AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS S. C. Choi, J. E. Youm-parameters, de-embedding, printed circuit board (PCB), RF amplifier Abstract A new, simple S-parameter extraction method of RF transistor and amplifier is proposed and demonstrated. The method is based on one

  19. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Hanchin, Patrick A; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J

    2009-07-15

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE. PMID:19446308

  1. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 ...With § 761.61 § 761.358 Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method...

  2. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 ...With § 761.61 § 761.358 Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method...

  3. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8 Section 261.8 Protection...HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of...

  4. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative. In this study, we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77, and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal, and redox cycling (i.e., sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting, and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after 2 weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests that they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  5. EFFECTS OF PCB (AROCLORR 1254) ON NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN RHESUS (MACACA MULATA) MONKEYS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of low level chronic polychlorinated biphenyl - Aroclor 1254 - (PCB) exposure were investigated on nonspecific immune parameters in female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Five groups of monkeys were orally administered PCB at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 40, or 80 ug/...

  6. Removal of dioxins, PCB's and other halogenated organic compounds from wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Ying; S. A. Sojka

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes the combination of physicochemical and biological treatment processes for removing dioxins, PCB's, and other halogenated organic compounds from raw wastewater, in a pretreatment zone to produce pretreated wastewater still containing minor proportions, of dioxins and PCB's and then in a reaction zone wherein final effluent is produced. This comprises the physiocochemical process consisting of subjecting the raw

  7. Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

  8. Relationship of Perinatal PCB Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Reply to Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladen, Beth C.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) examine various technical issues related to six studies of perinatal PCB exposure and neurodevelopment and one study of adult PCB exposure and motor function. They raise questions about possible imperfections of the studies, but many of their assertions are unsupported or frankly…

  9. Development of a CTD system for environmental measurements using novel PCB MEMS fabrication techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Allison Broadbent

    2005-01-01

    The development of environmental continuous monitoring of physicochemical parameters via portable small and inexpensive instrumentation is an active field of research as it presents distinct challenges. The development of a PCB MEMS-based inexpensive CTD system intended for the measurement of environmental parameters in natural waters, is presented in this work. Novel PCB MEMS fabrication techniques have also been developed to

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C56BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At room temperature, nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of each of these PCB atropisomers is present in technical mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective dis...

  11. Using both linear and non-linear dimensional analysis, correction and prediction to improve PCB yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Kelley

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – To present an update and the latest results from work on a project aimed at enabling printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing to reduce the effect upon production yields by material distortions during the manufacturing process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Measurement data was collated from inspection steps within the PCB manufacturing process and analysed to provide data describing the distortions of

  12. RESIDUES OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) IN A 'CLADOPHORA' COMMUNITY ALONG THE LAKE HURON SHORELINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCB residues were measured in samples of Cladophora, Ulothrix, net plankton, water, and fish collected in the Harbor Beach area of Lake Huron. The PCB patterns in the samples were found to match a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and 1254. Aroclor 1242 represented about 60% of the mixture...

  13. Statistical analysis for test lands positioning and PCB deformation during electrical testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Han; Arkady Voloshin

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a systematic, accurate and robust method for printed circuit board (PCB) positioning evaluation in the testing fixture. Theoretical analysis and experimental observation of tolerance distribution in bed-of-nails fixture were involved. Actual deformation of PCB (translation, rotation and deflection) could be obtained based upon a proposed model. The combined accuracy of the test

  14. The importance of runoff to DDT and PCB inputs to the Sado estuary and Ria Formosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Ferreira; C. Vale

    1995-01-01

    PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites were determined in suspended sediments and in the oysterCrassostrea angulata from the upper Sado estuary over two years (1987\\/88 and 1990) and from Ria Formosa during 1990. Levels of DDT concentrations in suspended sediments collected in both estuarine areas, either in 1988 or 1990, increased in winter. Otherwise, PCB concentrations varied in an erratic way.

  15. AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB NEAR THREE LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nomi...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

  17. 41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ON THE CEILING BEAMS AND COLUMNS OF PARK WILDLIFE ARE ORIGINAL TO THE OLD SIDE DINING ROOM. THE SIDE DINING ROOM WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT BY ROBERT REAMER IN 1927. IN 1962 WHEN IT WAS CONVERTED INTO THE BEAR PIT A WALL WAS ADDED BETWEEN THE THREE COLUMNS THAT SEPARATE THIS ROOM FROM THE MAIN DINING ROOM. THE ORIGINAL BEAR PIT ETCHINGS DEPICTING BEARS TENDING BAR AND PLAYING THE PIANO WERE MOUNTED ON THE WALL BETWEEN THE COLUMNS. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  18. Hand Function is Altered in Individuals with a History of Illicit Stimulant Use

    PubMed Central

    Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Flavel, Stanley C.; Wilcox, Robert A.; Thewlis, Dominic; Vogel, Adam P.; White, Jason M.; Todd, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy are a significant worldwide problem. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate hand function in adults with a history of illicit stimulant use. We hypothesized that prior use of illicit stimulant drugs is associated with abnormal manipulation of objects. The study involved 22 subjects with a history of illicit stimulant use (aged 29±8 yrs; time since last use: 1.8±4.0 yrs) and two control groups comprising 27 non-drug users (aged 25±8 yrs) and 17 cannabis users with no history of stimulant use (aged 22±5 yrs). Each subject completed screening tests (neuropsychological assessment, medical history questionnaire, lifetime drug history questionnaire, and urine drug screen) prior to gripping and lifting a light-weight object with the dominant right hand. Horizontal grip force, vertical lift force, acceleration, and first dorsal interosseus electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded during three trials. In trial one, peak grip force was significantly greater in the stimulant group (12.8±3.9 N) than in the control groups (non-drug: 10.3±4.6 N; cannabis: 9.4±2.9 N, P<0.022). However, peak grip force did not differ between groups in trials two and three. The results suggest that individuals with a history of stimulant use overestimate the grip force required to manipulate a novel object but, are able to adapt grip force in subsequent lifts. The results suggest that movement dysfunction may be an unrecognized consequence of illicit stimulant use. PMID:25545892

  19. What Users Think about the Differences between Caffeine and Illicit/Prescription Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Andreas G.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE. PMID:22768218

  20. Prescription Drugs, Alcohol, and Illicit Substance Use and Their Correlations Among Medical Sciences Students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Abbas; Fotouhi, Akbar; Zeraati, Hojjat; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use among young people is a major public health problem in Iran. Objectives: The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of substance misuse and its determinants in medical sciences students in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a randomly selected sample of 1992 medical sciences students during 2012-2013. Anonymous, structured questionnaires were distributed among the students in each selected class. Substance misuse was defined according to cultural and epidemiological features. Data analysis was performed using chi-squared test, Fisher’s exact test, and binary logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of prescription drug misuse, last year alcohol use, and ever illicit substance use was 4.9%, 6.9%, and 2.9%, respectively. The result of multiple logistic regression model showed that being a male (OR = 4.0), hookah use in the last year (OR = 3.2), prescription drug misuse (OR = 3.2), and alcohol use in the last year (OR = 3.3) were associated with the students’ illicit substance use. Last year alcohol use (OR = 5.3), ever illicit substance use (OR = 3.2), and illicit substance use in friends (OR = 2.6) were associated with prescription drug misuse. Conclusions: Our results suggested that the prevalence of prescription drugs, alcohol and illicit substance use was relatively low, though still significant, among Iranian students, which was strongly associated with family and friends’ use. The findings of this research can be used for planning and evaluating interventions by considering the risk factors and protective factors in Universities. PMID:25821750

  1. Vulnerability to Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Those Dependent on Alcohol or Illicit Drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs are vulnerable to cigarette smoking and related adverse health outcomes. Less research has been conducted regarding whether these same groups are vulnerable to smokeless tobacco (ST) use. The goal of this study is to examine vulnerability to ST use among individuals with other drug dependence. Methods: Utilizing the most recent (2011) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NDSUH), we determined odds ratios (ORs) for current cigarette smoking and ST use among those with current alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana dependence, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. Vulnerability to cigarette smoking was assessed to confirm that alcohol and illicit drug dependence were associated with increased smoking in these data sets, as shown in prior studies. Identical analyses were completed in the 2009 and 2010 NSDUH to assess generality. Results: Odds for current cigarette smoking were increased for each category of dependence (p < .0005): alcohol (OR with 99% CI = 3.30 [2.58, 4.21]), cocaine (OR = 4.50 [1.53, 13.20]), heroin (OR = 7.84 [1.92, 32.03]), and marijuana (OR = 3.55 [2.59, 4.88]). Odds for current ST use were also increased among those with alcohol dependence (OR = 1.56 [1.06, 2.30], p = .003) but not illicit drug dependence. Generality of the findings was confirmed in the 2009 and 2010 NSDUH. Conclusions: Consistent with earlier reports, alcohol and illicit drug dependence are associated with robust increases in risk for cigarette smoking. In the case of alcohol dependence, but not illicit drug dependence, this vulnerability also extends to ST use. PMID:24081975

  2. Effects of long-term maternal exposure to low doses of PCB126 and PCB153 on the reproductive system and related hormones of young male goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irma C Oskam; Jan L Lyche; Anette Krogenæs; Ragnar Thomassen; Janneche U Skaare; Richard Wiger; Ellen Dahl; Torres Sweeney; Audun Stien; Erik Ropstad

    2005-01-01

    In this study, female goats were orally exposed to PCB126 or PCB153, at 49 ng\\/kg body weight per day and 98mg\\/kg body weight per day respectively, from gestational day 60 until delivery at approximately day 150. Exposure of the offspring contin- ued via lactation until postnatal day 40. Reproductive toxicity in the male offspring was studied by the evaluation of

  3. Sulfate conjugates are urinary markers of inhalation exposure to 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3)

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Kiran; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    PCBs are contaminants in the air of older buildings and cities, which raises the concern of inhalation exposure. No reliable biomarker of such exposure is available. We exposed rats to air containing 2 mg/m3 PCB3 via nose-only inhalation for 2 h, collected urine, and analyzed it by LC/MS. Each rat inhaled an estimated dose of 35 ?g PCB3, and excreted 27±2 % of it as sulfates within 24 h. Peak excretion occurred within 6 h. PCB sulfates were stable in urine for at least three days at room temperature without chemical preservatives. These data support the use of PCB sulfate conjugates as suitable urinary biomarkers of PCB3 and other airborne PCBs. PMID:23713983

  4. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    no name on report

    2014-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  5. Short term effects of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures and individual PCB congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yu-Chyu

    1992-01-01

    in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats. (December 1992) Yu-Chyu Chen, B. S. , D. V. M. National Chung-Hsing University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Stephen H. Safe This study investigated the hepatic effects of the following commercial polychlorinated...) monoortho coplanar PCBs, (b) diortho coplanar PCB s. 20 induced rat hepatic microsomal AHH activities (Alvares et al. , 1977; Stonard et al. , 1976; Parkinson et al. , 1983). However, Parkinson et al. (1983) reported that 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'- and 2, 2...

  6. 950 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 5, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 Development of RF-MEMS Switch on PCB

    E-print Network

    Cetiner, Bedri A.

    950 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 5, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 Development of RF-MEMS Switch on PCB systems switches on a laminated printed circuit board (PCB). The process simplifies the fabrication process without sacrificing the RF performance of switches on the PCB. The proposed process patterns a 17

  7. Effect of Conductor Surface Roughness upon Measured Loss and Extracted Values of PCB Laminate Material Dissipation Factor

    E-print Network

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Effect of Conductor Surface Roughness upon Measured Loss and Extracted Values of PCB Laminate Material Dissipation Factor Scott Hinaga Technical Leader, PCB Technology Group Cisco Systems, Inc. San-standard insertion loss estimation techniques assume that the copper conductors (PCB traces) are smooth, when in fact

  8. Performance Driven Multi-Layer General Area Routing for PCB MCM Designs Jason Cong and Patrick H. Madden

    E-print Network

    Madden, Patrick H.

    Performance Driven Multi-Layer General Area Routing for PCB MCM Designs Jason Cong and Patrick H a new global router appropriate for Multichip Module MCM and dense Printed Circuit Board PCB design interconnect layers, each with a large routing capacity 10 . The MCM PCB routing prob- lem in general may

  9. Editor, Times Union Judith Enck of USEPA writes to justify the cleanup of PCB's from the Hudson River in her

    E-print Network

    Editor, Times Union Judith Enck of USEPA writes to justify the cleanup of PCB's from the Hudson dollars, wastes fuel, and causes additional air pollution. It is not a proper solution for residual PCB's, which should be fully thermally destroyed. In 1987, I authored a chapter on PCB disposal in the CRC text

  10. PCB contamination does not alter aerobic metabolism and tolerance to hypoxia of juvenile sole (Solea solea L. 1758)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PCB contamination does not alter aerobic metabolism and tolerance to hypoxia of juvenile sole and PCB-contaminated fish via food pathway was determined using respirometry techniques. Furthermore, the hypoxia tolerance in control and PCB-contaminated fish was evaluated by assessing their critical oxygen

  11. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 CONTACTLESS THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION METHOD OF PCB-S USING AN IR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 CONTACTLESS THERMAL CHARACTERIZATION METHOD OF PCB-S USING AN IR and the places of high dissipation elements on an operating PCB board (PCI or AGP cards in a rack-house of a PC/P" #12;Gy. Bognár, V. Székely, M. Rencz Contactless thermal characterization method of PCB-s using an IR

  12. Minimum PCB Footprint Point-of-Load DC-DC Converter Realized with Switched-Capacitor Architecture

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Seth

    Minimum PCB Footprint Point-of-Load DC-DC Converter Realized with Switched-Capacitor Architecture in printed circuit board (PCB) footprint, passive component height and cost when compared to surveyed buck a significant proportion of the overall printed-circuit- board (PCB) area that the converter occupies. As shown

  13. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states-1978–81

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Reichel; S. K. Schmeling; E. Cromartie; T. E. Kaiser; A. J. Krynitsky; T. G. Lamont; B. M. Mulhern; R. M. Prouty; C. J. Stafford; D. M. Swineford

    1984-01-01

    In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens

  14. The three-dimensional structure of 3,3?,4,4?-tetrachlorobiphenyl, a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Nadim S.; Parkin, Sean; Luthe, Gregor; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of PCB 77 (3,3?,4,4?-tetrachlorobiphenyl, C12H6Cl4), a dioxin-like PCB congener, is described. The dihedral angle of PCB 77 is 43.94(6)°, which is slightly larger than calculated or experimental dihedral angles of biphenyl derivatives in solution but smaller than experimental dihedral angles in the gas phase. PMID:17723240

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  16. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    PubMed

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses. PMID:24024972

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  18. Detailed PCB congener characterization of influent and effluent at New York and New Jersey WPCPs

    SciTech Connect

    Durell, G.S.; Lizotte, R.D. Jr. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States); Solomon, M.H.; Green, J.W. [New York City DEP, Corona, NY (United States); Spadone, J.; Pires, L. [Linden Roselle Sewerage Authority, Linden, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The waste streams at 26 New York City and New Jersey water pollution control plants (WPCP) were characterized for PCB. Time-integrated influent and effluent samples were collected during normal and high (storm) flow conditions; high flow influent simulated what may by-pass the plant and be discharged through combined sewer overflows. State-of-the-art congener-specific analytical methods were used to achieve detection limits from 0.05 to 0.3 ng/L. Concentrations of 71 individual PCB congeners that constitute approximately 95% of the total PCB in Aroclors and environmental samples were determined. The PCB concentrations and congener distributions varied notably among plants. Individual congener concentrations were typically well below 1 ng/L in the effluent, with a few congeners being detected at 5 to 10 ng/L levels in some samples. The concentrations were under 1 ng/L in most influent samples, with occasional determinations above 10 ng/L. The average total PCB concentration, defined as the sum of the 71 individual congener concentrations, at the 26 WPCPs were 27, 110, and 160 ng/L for normal flow effluent, normal flow influent, and high flow influent, respectively. The results indicate that PCB levels in New York City and New Jersey WPCP discharges are generally low, with most effluent having total PCB concentrations below 0.05 {micro}g/L. The PCB levels in the influent were commonly under 0.1 {micro}g/L and became slightly elevated at most plants during storms while at some plants the increase in flow appeared to dilute the PCB in the influent. The WPCPs remove, on average, approximately 75% of the PCB received in the influent.

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  20. The Fate of Inhaled 14C-labelled PCB11 and its Metabolites In Vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The production ban of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) technical mixtures has left the erroneous impression that PCBs exist only as legacy pollutants. Some lower-chlorinated PCBs are still being produced and contaminate both indoor and ambient air. Objectives To inform PCB risk assessment, we characterized lung uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PCB11 as a signature compound for these airborne non-legacy PCBs. Methods After delivering [14C]PCB11 to the lungs of male rats, radioactivity in 34 major tissues and 5 digestive matter compartments was measured at 12, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 720 min postexposure, during which time the excreta and exhaled air were also collected. [14C]PCB11 and metabolites in liver, blood, digestive matter, urine and adipose tissues were extracted separately to establish the metabolic profile of the disposition. Results [14C]PCB11 was distributed rapidly to all tissues after 99.8% pulmonary uptake and quickly underwent extensive metabolism. The major tissue deposition of [14C]PCB11 and metabolites translocated from liver, blood and muscle to skin and adipose tissue 200 min postexposure, while over 50% of administered dose was discharged via urine and feces within 12 h. Elimination of the [14C]PCB11 and metabolites consisted of an initial fast phase (t½ = 9-33 min) and a slower clearance phase to low concentrations. Phase II metabolites dominated in liver, blood and excreta after 25 min postexposure. Conclusions This study shows that PCB11 is completely absorbed after inhalation exposure and is rapidly eliminated from most tissues. Phase II metabolites dominated with a slower elimination rate than the PCB11 or phase I metabolites and thus can best serve as urine biomarkers of exposure. PMID:24275706

  1. Retaining latch for a water pit gate

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    The present invention relates to retaining devices which are used to latch two elements or parts together and, more particularly, to gate latches for use in locking a gate to a wall bracket in a water pit utilized to store or handle hazardous materials. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame.

  2. Molten salt corrosion of SiC: Pitting mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Thin films of Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 at 1000 C lead to severe pitting of sintered alpha-SiC. These pits are important as they cause a strength reduction in this material. The growth of product layers is related to pit formation for the Na2CO3 case. The early reaction stages involve repeated oxidation and dissolution to form sodium silicate. This results in severe grain boundary attack. After this a porous silica layer forms between the sodium silicate melt and the SiC. The pores in this layer appear to act as paths for the melt to reach the SiC and create larger pits.

  3. VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE NO. 17 OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE NO. 17 OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) JUST SOUTH OF TURNTABLE - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  4. VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE POISED OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE POISED OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) JUST SOUTH OF TURNTABLE - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  5. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH TURNTABLE & ROUNDHOUSE, ASH PIT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH TURNTABLE & ROUNDHOUSE, ASH PIT IN FOREGROUND - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  6. 12. Detail view of locomotive turntable pit. Central of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of locomotive turntable pit. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. Pitting corrosion of the laser surface melted Alloy 600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Joung Soo; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of laser surface melting (LSM) on the resistance to pitting corrosion of Ni-base Alloy 600 was investigated by a potentiodynamic polarization test in 1 M NaCl solutions at pH values of 4 and 10 at temperatures of 30, 60 and 90 °C. The pitting potentials of Alloy 600 were markedly increased by the LSM process, when compared with those of the non-laser treated Alloy 600. From the microscopic examination after the corrosion test, it was found that the pitting was initiated at the junction between a TiN inclusion and the matrix, possibly at the site of a sulfide physically associated with the TiN inclusion. The homogeneous micro-structure associated with the reduction of the inclusion size during the LSM process could be attributed to the improvement of the pitting corrosion properties in the LSM Alloy 600.

  9. 15. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE PIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE PIT TO RIGHT AND POWERHOUSE TO LEFT - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

  10. Interior of wheel pit looking northwest; detail of pelton wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of wheel pit looking northwest; detail of pelton wheel with backshot nozzle and deflectors (above), and undershot nozzle and deflectors (below). - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  11. 38. Concrete foundations of the fuel oil pit west of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Concrete foundations of the fuel oil pit west of the tool storage building between the north and south roundhouses. - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  12. 22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP IN GEARING THAT DRIVES OPERATING WHEEL, WITH HYDRAULIC SHAFT BRAKE - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  13. CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  14. BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  15. Bioprospecting in the Berkeley pit: Bio active metabolites from acid mine waste extremophiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea A. Stierle; Donald B. Stierle

    2005-01-01

    The Berkeley Pit Lake system in Butte, Montana is part of the largest EPA Superfiind site in North America. It includes Berkeley Pit Lake, an abandoned open-pit copper mine, 1300 feet deep and one mile across. During its thirty years of operation the Pit and surrounding deep shaft mines were dewatered through constant pumping. On Earth Day 1982 the pumps

  16. Characterization of pitting corrosion in aluminum films by light scattering Y.-P. Zhao,a)

    E-print Network

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    -0 Pitting corrosion results in extremely localized holes in metals.1 Recently, pitting of thin films hasCharacterization of pitting corrosion in aluminum films by light scattering Y.-P. Zhao,a) C 1998 We report a detailed study of the morphology of pits formed by corrosion of aluminum thin films

  17. Effect of iron exposure in SRB media on pitting initiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Starosvetsky; O. Khaselev; J. Starosvetsky; R. Armon; J. Yahalom

    2000-01-01

    Pitting corrosion of iron (99.9%) in Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) media containing 0.09–0.30 g\\/l sulphides and 0.1–5.0 g\\/l [Cl?] was studied. Iron electrode immersed in SRB media undergoes fast activation and numerous active sites formed on the surface. Depending on exposure time, pitting was initiated at different potentials. After short period (<2 h) in open circuit potential, when active sites were

  18. Using Pit to improve security in low-level programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif Pedersen; Hassan Reza

    2010-01-01

    Pit (Pedersen on http:\\/\\/pit.devpit.org, 2008; Pedersen and Reza in ISOLA ’06: proceedings of the second international symposium on leveraging applications of formal methods,\\u000a verification and validation (ISOLA 2006), pp. 111–118, 2006) is a new language for low-level programming, designed to be a self-hosting alternative to C. The novelty is that it supports\\u000a automated memory management without excluding manual memory management,

  19. 54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photocopied August 1978. INTERIOR OF A TAIL PIT OR TAIL RACE AT THE EAST END OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 17, 1900. THE PRE-MOULDED BLOCKS WHICH FORMED THE SIDE WALLS AND THE ARCHED FOREBAY WALL ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE. THE MONOLITHIC FLOOR OF THE TAIL PIT, HOWEVER, HAS NOT YET BEEN POURED: NEITHER HAS THE MONOLITHIC ARCHED ROOF. (75) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. Storage of subbituminous slack coal in open pits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Goodman; V. F. Parry; W. S. Landers

    1946-01-01

    Six methods of storing coal were investigated by the Bureau, and the dry, open-pit method proved to be the most satisfactory for other than very large consumers. Based on studies made at subbituminous coal-storage sites of the Great Western Sugar Co., report contains details of coal-storing techniques, with gas analyses, changes in physical and chemical properties, temperature tables, pit-construction data,