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1

Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington  

SciTech Connect

PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

2000-12-11

2

Proceedings: 1981 PCB Seminar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EPRI PCB seminar, held in Dallas, Texas, on December 1 to 3, 1981, was the first comprehensive seminar covering PCB problems and solutions of interest to the electric utilities. The purpose of the meeting, attended by 300 participants, was to present ...

G. Addis J. Marks

1982-01-01

3

ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND  

PubMed Central

The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance.

Pavananunt, Pirudee

2012-01-01

4

Pitting corrosion of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the experiments performed during the last few decades which enhance knowledge of the pitting of aluminum. Specifically, metastable and stable pits, pit chemistry and the effect of intermetallics on pitting are discussed. The properties of metastable alloys and inhibition of Al are also discussed.

Z Szklarska-Smialowska

1999-01-01

5

Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in indoor air.  

PubMed

Indoor air levels of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (mono- and non-ortho substituted PCB) of various buildings were determined. As a consequence of the presence of joint sealings containing PCB, total PCB concentrations in indoor air up to 4,200 ng/m3 were detected (data based on a survey including 29 sampling sites). In a PCB contaminated industrial building, total indoor air PCB levels up to 13,000 ng/m3 were measured. Typical PCB congeners in indoor air include PCB 28, PCB 52, and PCB 101. Concentrations of coplanar (dioxin-like) PCB have been determined for six different sites. The most abundant coplanar PCB congener in indoor air is PCB 118, followed by PCB 105, PCB 123, and PCB 77 in various order. Levels of coplanar PCB, expressed as toxicity equivalents (TEG), do correlate well with the total indoor air PCB concentration: a total PCB level of 1,000 ng/m3 corresponds to a concentration of coplanar PCB of 1.2 pg TEQ/m3. Based on this correlation and on an indoor air PCB level of 6,000 ng/m3 (tentative guideline value for PCB in indoor air in Switzerland based on a daily exposure of 8 h), the maximum daily intake of coplanar PCB via indoor air was estimated to be 0.6 pg TEQ/kg body weight. PMID:12487293

Kohler, Marti; Zennegg, Markus; Waeber, Roger

2002-11-15

6

Illicit cigarette trade in Thailand.  

PubMed

The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991-2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

Pavananunt, Pirudee

2011-11-01

7

Martian Central Pit Craters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ('floor pits') as well as on top of central peaks ('summ...

E. Hillman N. G. Barlow

2005-01-01

8

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in

Steinhaeusler Friedrich; Zaitseva Lyudmila

2008-01-01

9

Dietary PCB intake in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was analysed for its polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PCB levels (sum of 23 congeners), an average daily dietary intake estimate of PCBs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest

Stefan Voorspoels; Adrian Covaci; Hugo Neels

2008-01-01

10

Current sensor in PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel DC\\/AC current sensor works on the fluxgate principle. The core in the form of a 7\\/10 mm ring made of electrodeposited Permalloy is sandwiched into the middle of the printed circuit board (PCB), while the sensor excitation winding is also integrated in the copper layers of the PCB. In order to lower the sensor power consumption, the excitation

P. Ripka; J. Kubik; M. Duffy; W. G. Hurley; S. O'Reilly

2002-01-01

11

To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington

Galya I Balatsky; William R Severe; Richard K Wallace

2010-01-01

12

To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking  

SciTech Connect

The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling. In most cases, sellers do not find legitimate buyers; however, there have been specific cases where sellers did find actual terrorist group representatives. There appears to be a connection between terrorist groups engaged in trafficking conventional arms and explosives components that are also looking for both nuclear materials and radioisotopes. Sale opportunities may create additional demand for such materials. As we can observe from Figure 1, many cases in the mid-90s involved kilogram quantities of material. There were smaller amounts of material moved in 2001, 2003 and 2006. While we have seen less trafficking cases involving PujHEU in recent years, the fact that it continues at all is troubling. The trafficking cases can be presented through their life cycle: Diversion of materials leads to Trafficker and then to Terrorist/Proliferator. Most of the information we have in trafficking cases is on the Trafficker. In 16 cases reported by the IAEA, there are 10 prosecutions of the involved trafficker. However, there are no confirmed diversions of material recorded in any of the 18 seizures. Most seizures were sting operations performed by law enforcement or security agents with no actual illicit end-user involved.

Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

13

Current sensor in PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel DC\\/AC current sensor works on the fluxgate principle. The core in the form of a 7\\/10-mm ring made of electrodeposited permalloy is sandwiched in the middle of a printed circuit board (PCB), whereas the sensor excitation winding is also integrated in the copper layers of the PCB. To lower the sensor power consumption, the excitation winding was tuned

Pavel Ripka; Jan Kubik; Maeve Duffy; William Gerard Hurley; Stephen O'Reilly

2005-01-01

14

Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

15

Domestic Geographic Variation in Illicit Drug Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is conjectured that: (1) because of poor information flows and significant lateral transaction costs, illicit drug prices increase as one moves away from the source of those drugs, and (2) because of economies of scale, illicit drug prices are negatively related to market size. Hypotheses derived from these two conjectures are tested with data provided by the Middle Atlantic-Great

Jonathan P. Caulkins

1995-01-01

16

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for th...

K. T. Klasson B. S. Evans

1993-01-01

17

PCB Destruction and Mobility Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this research is to provide scientific evidence to better define how the rate and extent of PCB and PAH biodegradation in soil/sludge/sediment materials is influenced by the rate and extent of chemical desorption from the solid to the surround...

2000-01-01

18

Solvent decontamination of PCB electrical equipment  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) which are used as dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors, are toxic relatively inert materials which are persistent and widespread in the environment and biomagnified in the food chain. Disposal of contaminated electrical equipment requires removal of the majority of PCB's. Various solvent cleaning techniques have been investigated for decontamination of intact transformers and shredded capacitors. The PCB content of transformers which originally contained 180-270 kg PCB was reduced by 99.72-99.96 percent. The relatively small amount of retained PCB resides primarily in the interstices and absorbent material of the core and coil assembly. Shredded power factor correction capacitors were decontaminated using trichlorethylene in a multistage cocurrent batch extraction process. The PCB content was reduced by 99.9 percent, leaving a residual PCB content of 0.01 kg per capacitor.

Hawthorne, S.H.

1982-11-01

19

Consequence of Body Packing of Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: During the last decade, increased rates of drug traffic have led the smugglers to use various methods. One of these methods of illicit drug smuggling is body packing. Smuggling by intra-abdominal concealment is called \\

Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

20

Pitted Keratolysis and 'Dermatophilus congolensis'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pitted keratolysis is a multifocal superficial erosion of the stratum corneum, usually limited to the soles of the feet. A causative agent has been described previously, but its identity is unclear. While studying a lesion of pitted keratolysis, we found ...

L. R. Rubel

1971-01-01

21

Pitting of 3003 aluminum  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al.

Lee, R.

1996-12-31

22

Central pit craters on Ganymede  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central pit craters are common on Mars, Ganymede and Callisto, and thus are generally believed to require target volatiles in their formation. The purpose of this study is to identify the environmental conditions under which central pit craters form on Ganymede. We have conducted a study of 471 central pit craters with diameters between 5 and 150 km on Ganymede and compared the results to 1604 central pit craters on Mars (diameter range 5-160 km). Both floor and summit pits occur on Mars whereas floor pits dominate on Ganymede. Central peak craters are found in similar locations and diameter ranges as central pit craters on Mars and overlap in location and at diameters <60 km on Ganymede. Central pit craters show no regional variations on either Ganymede or Mars and are not concentrated on specific geologic units. Central pit craters show a range of preservation states, indicating that conditions favoring central pit formation have existed since crater-retaining surfaces have existed on Ganymede and Mars. Central pit craters on Ganymede are generally about three times larger than those on Mars, probably due to gravity scaling although target characteristics and resolution also may play a role. Central pits tend to be larger relative to their parent crater on Ganymede than on Mars, probably because of Ganymede's purer ice crust. A transition to different characteristics occurs in Ganymede's icy crust at depths of 4-7 km based on the larger pit-to-crater-diameter relationship for craters in the 70-130-km-diameter range and lack of central peaks in craters larger than 60-km-diameter. We use our results to constrain the proposed formation models for central pits on these two bodies. Our results are most consistent with the melt-drainage model for central pit formation.

Alzate, Nathalia; Barlow, Nadine G.

2011-02-01

23

PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) retrofill: Fact or fiction  

SciTech Connect

PCB transformers changes form the fire safety engineers friend to the environmental engineers worst nightmare, when it became apparent that PCB filled devices are a source of highly toxic chemicals when they are burned improperly. This concern, combined with new regulations, is prompting engineers worldwide to actively plan and design PCB replacements. The two most commonly used PCB mitigation methods are retrofill and retrofit. This report will address retrofill only and is directed toward environmental concerns, facility interfaces, outage requirements, and application questions. This information is offered to help engineers make informed decisions regarding the best way to replace PCB transformers. This overview also addresses whether PCB retrofill is a viable fact'' or is it fiction'' without merit. 3 figs.

Seifert, G.D.

1990-01-01

24

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated

K. T. Klasson; B. S. Evans

1993-01-01

25

PCB equipment, operations, and management reference manual  

SciTech Connect

Organizational support and personnel assignment are major factors in managing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of electrical equipment. This requires a recordkeeping and reporting system to keep all parties informed and to assist with decision making. The manual outlines the management tools and procedures for planning a response to PCB spills and managing the transport, storage, and disposal of contaminated equipment. It also describes the health and safety aspects, and analyzes the economics of PCB management. Three appendices define terms and present PCB regulations and occupational-exposure guidelines. 17 figures, 14 tables. (DCK)

Not Available

1983-01-01

26

Pit disassembly motion control  

SciTech Connect

A Department of Energy (DOE) Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed for the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The facility will recover plutonium from excess nuclear weapon pits defined in START II and START III treaties. The plutonium will be stored and used to produce mixed oxide reactor fuel at another new DOE facility. Because of radiation dose issues, much of the pit disassembly work and material transfer will be automated. Automated material handling systems will interface with disassembly lathes, conversion reactors that produce oxide for storage, robotic container welding stations, vault retrieval systems, and nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation. The goal is to use common motion control hardware for material transfer and possibly common motion controllers for the unique PDCF systems. The latter is complicated by the different directions manufactures are considering for distributed control, such as Firewire, SERCOS, etc., and by the unique control requirements of machines such as lathes compared to controls for an integrated NDA system. The current design approach is to standardize where possible, use network cables to replace wire bundles where possible, but to first select hardware and motion controllers that meet specific machine or process requirements.

Christensen, L. (Lowell); Pittman, P. C. (Pete C.)

2001-01-01

27

DYNAMIC MASS BALANCE OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

In Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, about 3.7 metric tons of PCB remain in the active sediment and inputs from the Saginaw River and atmospheric deposition contribute about 1.4 kg PCB per day. In 1977 the U.S. E.P.A. initiated a research effort on Saginaw Bay which was chosen because of ...

28

Solvent Decontamination of PCB Electrical Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) which are used as dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors, are toxic relatively inert materials which are persistent and widespread in the environment and biomagnified in the food chain. Disposal of contaminated electrical equipment requires removal of the majority of PCB's. Various solvent cleaning techniques have been investigated for decontamination of intact transformers and shredded capacitors. The

S. Hugh Hawthorne

1982-01-01

29

PCB with fully integrated optical interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for miniaturization and design flexibility of polymer optical waveguides integrated into electrical printed circuit boards (PCB) calls for new coupling and integration concepts. We report on a method that allows the coupling of optical waveguides to electro-optical components as well as the integration of an entire optical link into the PCB. The electro-optical devices such as lasers

Gregor Langer; Valentin Satzinger; Volker Schmidt; Gerhard Schmid; Walter R. Leeb

2011-01-01

30

Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder: International Cooperation Against Illicit Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

From human trafficking to smuggling small arms to looting antiquities, illicit trade poses significant threats to international order. So why is it difficult to establish international cooperation against illicit trade? Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder offers a novel, thought-provoking answer to this crucial question. Conventional wisdom holds that powerful criminal groups obstruct efforts to suppress illicit trade. In contrast, Asif Efrat

Asif Efrat

31

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

1993-11-29

32

Stochastic simulation of pitting corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simulation of pit initiation is the starting point for the simulation and understanding of stress corrosion cracking (SCC).\\u000a The corrosion process is a phenomenon where few variables are deterministic. It has been found in previous research that not\\u000a only the pitting potential is a random variable with a known distribution [1], [2] but also the pit growth rate follows

J. López La Cruz; M. A. Gutiérrez; L. Koene

33

State Drug Control and Illicit Drug Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of state criminal justice expenditures and state public health expenditures on deterring illicit drug use. The empirical model is based on a demand and supply model of drug markets. The effect of a given expenditure on criminal justice or public health programs is dependent on the magnitude of the resulting

Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

1999-01-01

34

Consumer misbehavior: why people buy illicit goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade in contraband amounts to billions of dollars each year, and yet the buyers of these products are still a mystery. The purpose of this study was to model the decision to purchase illicit goods, using four predictor measures: product type, buying situation, perceived criminal risk, and price. Part-worth conjoint analysis was used to obtain individual weights of main effects

Nancy D. Albers-Miller

1999-01-01

35

Illicit drugs and the environment - A review.  

PubMed

Illicit drugs and their metabolites are the latest group of emerging pollutants. Determination of their concentration in environment (such as water bodies, soil, sediment, air) is an indirect tool to estimate the community level consumption of illicit drug and to evaluate potential ecotoxicological impacts from chronic low level exposure. They enter the wastewater network as unaltered drugs and/or their active metabolites by human excretion after illegal consumption or by accidental or deliberate disposal from clandestine drug laboratories. This article critically reviews the occurrence and concentration levels of illicit drugs and their metabolites in different environmental compartments (e.g., wastewater, surface waters, groundwater, drinking water, and ambient air) and their potential impact on the ecosystem. There is limited published information available on the presence of illicit drugs in the environment, reports are available mainly from European countries, UK, USA, and Canada but there is a lack of information from the remainder of the world. Although the environmental concentrations are not very high, they can potentially impact the human health and ecosystem functioning. Cocaine, morphine, amphetamine, and MDMA have potent pharmacological activities and their presence as complex mixtures in water may cause adverse effect on aquatic organisms and human health. However, there is no current regulation demanding the determination of occurrence of these emerging pollutants in treated wastewater, surface water, drinking water, or atmosphere. Thus, critical investigation on distribution pattern of this new group of emerging contaminant and their potential harmful impact on our environment needs immediate attention. PMID:22726813

Pal, Raktim; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Kirkbride, K Paul; Naidu, Ravi

2012-06-21

36

Illicit drug profiling: the Australian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit drug profiling provides law enforcement agencies with physical and chemical information that may assist in identifying and disrupting drug trafficking organizations. Detailed chemical analysis provides information which when compared to historical data allows investigators to determine the geo-location of cultivated drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Similar analyses of synthetic drugs afford information on synthetic route and precursor chemicals.

Michael Collins; Juuso Huttunen; Ian Evans; James Robertson

2007-01-01

37

Russia and the illicit arms trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disintegration of the Soviet militaryindustrial complex, the prospect of conventional armsand nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of massdestruction and their ingredients finding their wayfrom Russia into other hands has become a matter ofconcern for both the Russian Federation and theinternational community. This article explores thescale, forms and consequences of illicit transfers ofconventional arms and weapons of mass destruction

John Berryman

2000-01-01

38

Illicit anabolic–androgenic steroid use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that

Gen Kanayama; James I. Hudson; Harrison G. Pope Jr.

2010-01-01

39

Comprehensive Approach to Combating Illicit Trafficking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Responsible for more than $300 billion per year in trade and comprising a wide variety of products shipped over a complex web of interlocking transport routes, illicit trafficking constitutes a major security challenge that no single country or anti-traff...

2010-01-01

40

Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

With garbage and recycling as the only two disposal options, we confirm prior results that the optimal curbside fee for garbage collection equals the direct resource cost plus external environment cost. When illicit burning or dumping is a third disposal option that cannot be taxed directly, the optimal curbside tax on garbage changes sign. The optimal fee structure is a

Don Fullerton; Thomas C. Kinnaman

1995-01-01

41

Law Enforcement and Illicit Drug Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

he reduction of illicit drug use in Australia will require a whole- of-government approach, and should be based on three funda- mental strategies: education, treatment for the drug dependent, and law enforcement. A wide variety of Australian institutions can and should con- tribute to each of these three. Our task here is not comprehensive. On the contrary, its scope is

Adam Graycar; Diana Nelson; Mick Palmer

42

13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

43

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles of illicit drug use and treatment of illicit drug users.  

PubMed

Many clinicians are confronted by the use of illicit drugs on a daily basis. The unsanctioned use of opioids, psychostimulants, benzodiazepines, alcohol and nicotine is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Multiple factors have inhibited the scientific study of these agents including prohibition, public denial and lack of commercial interests. In dealing with problems related to these drugs, clinicians need a scientific understanding of their pharmacology, quantifiable effects and potential adverse effects. Illicit drug users select drugs with particular pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic properties. Generally, rapid absorption, rapid entry into the central nervous system, high bioavailability, short half-life, small volume of distribution and high free drug clearance are pharmacokinetic characteristics which predict a high potential for harmful use because these factors increase positive reinforcement. Drug users adapt the method and route of drug administration to optimise the delivery of the drug to the brain while attempting to maximise the bioavailability of the drug. Inhalation and smoking are the routes of administration which allow the most rapid delivery of drug to the brain, while intravenous injection maximises the bioavailability of an administered drug. Each route of administration results in attendant complications related to mucosal damage, carcinogenesis and risk of infection. Negative reinforcement or withdrawal is a major drive to recurrent use. Many illicit drugs have pharmacological features that promote dependence, including long half-life, low free drug clearance and sufficient drug exposure to allow development of tolerance. The preventive or reductive pharmacotherapeutics of illicit drug use makes use of several subsets of agents: those which act on the same receptor or system as the illicit drug (such as methadone), those which produce an adverse reaction on consumption of the illicit drug (such as disulfiram) and those which symptomatically attenuate illicit drug withdrawal symptoms (such as clonidine). Many new agents are being trialled as potential preventive or reductive agents. It is important to consider pharmacotherapy as only one potential part of the treatment of illicit drug users. The complications of illicit drug use present many therapeutic challenges. As with all patients consuming multiple drugs, illicit drug users are prone to developing drug interactions. The most common interactions seen in practice are pharmacodynamic in nature, most often due to the additive effects of different drugs on the central nervous system. However, alcohol, cocaine, disulfiram, methadone and tricyclic antidepressants may be involved in important pharmacokinetic interactions. Of these the effect of long term alcohol consumption in increasing the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol and of cytochrome P450 3A microsomal enzyme stimulating drugs in diminishing the efficacy of methadone are the most commonly encountered. PMID:9391747

Quinn, D I; Wodak, A; Day, R O

1997-11-01

44

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics.

Brieger, G.; Hunter, R.D. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States))

1993-10-01

45

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of\\u000a this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB\\u000a concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed

Robert F Herrick; John D Meeker; Larisa Altshul

2011-01-01

46

Statement of basis/proposed plan for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G). Revision 1, Final  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G (BRP6G) located at SRS, in northwestern Barnwell County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process. Arsenic, beryllium, iron, and octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin isomers (OCDD) concentrations in the pit soil are at levels consistent with those found in the background. Therefore, the only contamination attributable to actions in BRP6G is PCB-1254. After the risk contributions of these chemicals are eliminated, the only remaining risk attributable to the pit soil is from PCB-1254 (about 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} via ingestion of vegetables grown on-site). The maximum concentration of PCB-1254 detected in the pit was 0.115 mg/kg, approximately 10% of the residential action level for PCBs of 1 mg/kg. Based on the results of the remedial investigation and the BRA, it is proposed that No Action be performed for the BRP6G. Considering the low levels of residual contamination present principally below 1.2 meters (4 feet) within the pit and the associated risks (about 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}) within the lower level of EPA`s target risk range, action is not warranted for this unit.

Palmer, E.

1996-10-24

47

Potential of PCB photochemistry at Moccasin Bend.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TVA/EPRI Tailored Collaborative Project (open quotes)Biotransformation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Contaminated Soils(close quotes), has as its objective biotransformation of PCB contaminated soils at utility sites (Phase I Report March 199...

M. M. Hinton M. J. Beck

1993-01-01

48

Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation, as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components, and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy the function of the networks and their processes. The complexities inherent to the characterization and anticipation of illicit nuclear trafficking networks requires that a variety of modeling and knowledge technologies be jointly harnessed to construct an effective analytical and decision making workflow in which specific case studies can be built in reasonable time and with realistic effort. In this paper, we explore a solution to this challenge that integrates evidentiary and dynamic modeling with knowledge management and analytical gaming, and demonstrate its application to a geopolitical region at risk.

Sanfilippo, Antonio; Butner, Scott; Cowell, Andrew; Dalton, Angela; Haack, Jereme; Kreyling, Sean; Riensche, Rick; White, Amanda; Whitney, Paul

49

Soil Contamination from PCB-Containing Buildings  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials, such as caulking used around windows and expansion joints, may constitute a source of PCB contamination in the building interiors and in surrounding soil. Several studies of soil contamination have been conducted around buildings where the caulking has been removed by grinding or scraping. The PCBs in soil may have been generated in the process of removing the caulking, but natural weathering and deterioration of the caulking may have also been a source. Objectives The objectives of this study were to measure PCB levels in soil surrounding buildings where PCB-containing caulk was still in place, and to evaluate the mobility of the PCBs from caulking using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1311). Discussion We found soil PCB contamination ranging from 3.3 to 34 mg/kg around buildings with undisturbed caulking that contained 10,000–36,200 mg/kg PCBs. The results of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (leachate concentrations of 76–288 mg PCB/L) suggest that PCBs in caulking can be mobilized, apparently as complexes with dissolved organic matter that also leach off the caulking material. Conclusions and Recommendations Although these new findings are based on a small sample size, they demonstrate the need for a national survey of PCBs in building materials and in soil surrounding these buildings. Because the buildings constructed during the time the PCB caulking was in use (1960s and 1970s) include schools, hospitals, and apartment buildings, the potential for exposure of children is a particular concern. It is necessary to reconsider the practice of disposing of old PCB caulking removed during building renovations in conventional landfills, given the apparent mobility of PCBs from the caulking material. Disposal of some caulking material in nonhazardous landfills might lead to high PCB levels in landfill leachate.

Herrick, Robert F.; Lefkowitz, Daniel J.; Weymouth, George A.

2007-01-01

50

Crime, Illicit Markets, and Money Laundering  

Microsoft Academic Search

organized crime is perhaps best understood as the continuation of com- merce by illegal means, with transnational criminal organizations as the illicit coun- terparts of multinational corporations. During the 1990s, transnational organized crime—and the related phenomena of illegal markets and money laundering—were transformed from an unrecognized problem to an issue taken seriously by govern- ments, both individually and collectively. Indeed,

Phil Williams

51

Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation,\\u000a as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components,\\u000a and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated\\u000a with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy

Antonio P. Sanfilippo; Scott Butner; Andrew J. Cowell; Angela C. Dalton; Jereme N. Haack; Sean J. Kreyling; Roderick M. Riensche; Amanda M. White; Paul D. Whitney

2011-01-01

52

Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.  

PubMed

The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

2009-09-18

53

Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use  

PubMed Central

The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied.

Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

2009-01-01

54

Safety measures for prevention of PCB accidents.  

PubMed Central

This paper attempts to clarify the most common measures available for the fire and electrical engineer in the prevention of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) hazards. It points out the risks and the potential for making large risks involved in the use of transformers and capacitors more manageable. The focus in solving the PCB problem is on priority. This should be reflected in the agenda of the workshop: it should discuss not only transformers and capacitors as such, but deal more with questions concerning waste disposal, getting correct information to people on substances containing PCBs and on the proper and nonpanicky handling of such substances. The PCB issue does not lend itself to any black and white solution. Instead, a number of different aspects have to be taken into account. Any solutions arrived at are therefore always compromises between risk evaluation and cost effectiveness. Reduction of PCB risks does not have to result, for example, in an increase in fire risks. It is preferable to move step by step and avoid making irretractable decisions. Alternatives available for replacing PCB-filled devices or the widely used method of refilling PCB-filled transformers with silicone oils are not discussed. Refilling is not dealt with because its capacity to reduce the fire risk sufficiently in locations where these transformers are usually found in northern Europe is not known with certainty.

Pajari, J

1985-01-01

55

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish  

SciTech Connect

PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

Elskus, A.A.

1992-01-01

56

Distributions and Characteristics of Martian Central Pit Craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of ~1500 central pit craters on Mars finds that floor pits are more common and larger than summit pits. Pit craters are commonly associated with multiple layer ejecta morphologies. Regional variations in pit crater distribution are seen.

Barlow, N. G.; Hillman, E.

2006-03-01

57

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

PubMed Central

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m?3 to 5500 pg m?3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.

HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

2010-01-01

58

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

59

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m -3 to 5500 pg m -3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like or neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.

Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Martinez, Andres; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

2010-04-01

60

Effect of PCB Surface Modifications on the EMC-to-PCB Adhesion in Electronic Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of interfacial adhesion between epoxy molding compound (EMC) and printed circuit board (PCB) were investigated. The surface conditions of solder resist (SR) layers, which were used as an outer skin of PCB, were varied within the range that would be encountered in the manufacturing process and reliability test conditions. First, the number of times of plasma treatment on

Dong Kil Shin; Young Hee Song; Jay Im

2010-01-01

61

Medical Use, Illicit Use and Diversion of Prescription Stimulant Medication†  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with the illicit use of prescription stimulants and to assess the relationship between the medical and illicit use of prescription stimulants among undergraduate college students. A Web survey was self-administered by a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large public midwestern university in the spring of 2003. A total of 8.1% reported lifetime illicit use of prescription stimulants and 5.4% reported past year illicit use. The number of undergraduate students who reported illicit use of prescription stimulants exceeded the number of students who reported medical use of prescription stimulants for ADHD. The leading sources of prescription stimulants for illicit use were friends and peers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed several risk factors for illicit use of prescription stimulants such as being male, White, member of a social fraternity or sorority, Jewish religious affiliation, and lower grade point average. All of these characteristics were also related to medically prescribed use of prescription stimulants. Those who initiated medically prescribed use of prescription stimulants for ADHD in elementary school were generally not at increased risk for illicit use of prescription stimulants or other drugs during college as compared to those who were never prescribed stimulant medication. The present study provides evidence that the illicit use of prescription stimulants is a problem among undergraduate college students, and certain subgroups appear to be at heightened risk.

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

2006-01-01

62

Role Culture Plays in China's Illicit Drug/Chemical Foreign Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chinese culture plays a major role in the formation of China's policies regarding its exportation of illicit drugs and precursor chemicals. China is a major producer of illicit drugs and precursor chemicals. The trafficking of illicit drugs is a transnati...

J. Schoeman

2008-01-01

63

Portable instrument for detection of illicit drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, portable instrument, model NDS-2000 for the detection of illicit drugs was developed. The instrument is based on surface ionization detection system, where ionization is carried out on a heated filament. Positive ions formed in the process are drifted to a collector and a signal is registered. The front-end of the instrument consists of an integral vacuum sampler with built-in desorber system for narcotic particles. The model NDS-2000 has an internal microprocessor and LCD display, as well as visible and audible alarm indicators. RS-232 port on the instrument provides communication to an external PC for data storage and printing.

Nacson, Sabatino; Walker, H.; Chang, Allan; Siu, Tony; McNelles, L.; Uffe, M.

1997-02-01

64

Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*  

PubMed Central

This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon.

GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

2011-01-01

65

Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

DeVolpi, A.

1997-10-01

66

ENVIROGARD PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE INC.: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the demonstration and evaluation of an immunoassay field screening technology designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil. he immunoassay technology was the EnviroGard PCB Test developed by Millipore, Inc. he technology was dem...

67

Illicit Drug and Injecting Equipment Markets Inside English Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, disrupting the supply of illicit drugs and injecting equipment inside Her Majesty's (HM) prisons has become an important focus for prison drug policy. This paper presents findings from qualitative research, which invited 24 drug injectors with prison experience to discuss the role and operation of illicit drug and injecting equipment markets inside prison. These data were obtained

Rhidian Hughes

2003-01-01

68

A GENERAL MODEL OF THE GEOGRAPHY OF ILLICIT RETAIL MARKETPLACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sellers and buyers of illicit goods and services (e.g., drugs, sex, stolen merchandise, stolen and illegal firearms) must find ways of meeting each other and making exchanges in order to get the rewards they seek. However, they also risk having their money or illicit goods stolen by others or being apprehended by the police. There are two strategies that participants

John E. Eck

69

Medical Use, Illicit Use and Diversion of Prescription Stimulant Medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with the illicit use of prescription stimulants and to assess the relationship between the medical and illicit use of prescription stimulants among undergraduate college students. A Web survey was self-administered by a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large public midwestern university in the spring

Sean Esteban McCabe; Christian J. Teter; Carol J. Boyd

2006-01-01

70

Pedagogical Patronizing of the Pharmacodynamic Promises of Illicit Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews popular drug education textbooks and curricula. Finds most juxtapose physiologic effects of licitly manufactured drugs under headings representing illicitly prepared drugs, ignoring literature reporting that illicit drugs contain adulterants and substitutes. Concludes that one cannot extrapolate results of licitly pure drug lots…

Belcastro, Philip A.

1992-01-01

71

Vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use among bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit steroid use, for purposes of performance and physique enhancement, is widely deemed unnecessary, wrong and dangerous. Such activity would appear especially foolhardy when engaged in by non-professional athletes who otherwise adhere to ‘healthy’ exercise regimens. Here a gap exists between many illicit steroid users’ actions and societal expectations. Using qualitative data generated in South Wales, this paper explores bodybuilders’

Lee F. Monaghan

2002-01-01

72

Cigarette prices and illicit drug use: is there a connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using cross-sectional data from the United States, this study examines the effects of cigarette prices on the use of marijuana and illicit drugs (including marijuana, cocaine, heroin, inhalants, hallucinogens or any prescription drugs for nonmedical use). Five primary contributions of this work are: First, it provides evidence on the cross-relation between cigarettes and marijuana and illicit drugs. Second, besides the

Rajeev K. Goel

2009-01-01

73

PCB annual report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Stringent government regulations control the use and disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) materials. These same regulations require accurate recordkeeping by the owner/operator of a facility where PCBs are in use. This report details efforts to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act and the US EPA's newly formulated regulations. This document provides detailed records of PCB materials still in use, PCB wastes generated, their origins, storage of PCB wastes and offsite shipments of this waste during CY 1982.

Clark, T.T.; Eisenhower, B.M.

1984-07-01

74

Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6166 (United States)

2007-07-01

75

The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.  

PubMed

One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs. PMID:21799144

Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

2011-07-28

76

Using EXPRESS data modeling technique for PCB assembly analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an electronic assembly consisting of many electronic parts on a circuit board. From design to assembly, a PCB has many related data that need to be recorded, retrieved and updated in a database to support its life-cycle activities. This research focuses on the data modeling of PCB assembly and its part definition, specifically to support

Amy J. C. Trappey; Thu-Hua Liu; Chii-Tong Hwang

1997-01-01

77

Dechlorination of PCB in the presence of plant nitrate reductase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dechlorination of PCB, specifically the noncoplanar congener PCB 153, has been observed in the presence of a crude nitrate reductase extract from Medicago sativa leaves. These observations were further confirmed using a commercially available and pure nitrate reductase from Zea mays. The presence of nitrate reductase increased PCB 153 dechlorination. Then, the addition of molybdenum, the enzyme's cofactor, enhanced

Kristie D. Magee; A. Michael; H. Ullah; S. K. Dutta

2008-01-01

78

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD? PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The EnviroGard? polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

79

Characterization of products recycling from PCB waste pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of printed circuit board (PCB) waste is an important subject not only for the protection of environment but also for the recovery of valuable materials. A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering valuable products and energy from PCB waste was presented. Pyrolysis of PCB waste was performed on a fixed-bed reactor. The properties of the pyrolytic

Cui Quan; Aimin Li; Ningbo Gao; Zhang dan

2010-01-01

80

Mothers Who Use Illicit Drugs:an Exploration of Professional Workers’ Perceptions Towards Mothers Who Use Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much has been written in recent times about women’s drug use, there has been a scarcity of research into motherhood and drug use in Ireland as it remains both a complex and sensitive issue. Since the 1980’s Ireland has seen a dramatic and unprecedented increase in the availability of illicit drugs. This increased availability reflects rising consumption of illicit

2010-01-01

81

Investigating PCB traces for fine pitch applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface mounted (SM) components are considered to be dominant in electronics technology. Fine pitch SM components are becoming common due to miniaturization tendencies. Ball Grid Array (BGA) components are classified as fine pitch, if the pitch is 1 mm (39 mil) or smaller [1]. These ICs desire careful approach in Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design. In order to compare the

Attila Geczy; Zsolt Illyefalvi-Vitez

2010-01-01

82

Fingerprinting PCB patterns among Mohawk women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association of contaminated fish consumption and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden by comparing the similarity of the congener pattern in yellow perch, caught near the point source of industrial pollution, and in other local fish to the pattern found in the breast milk of Mohawk women from Akwesasne, a Native American community located along the St.

SYNI-AN HWANG; BAO-ZHU YANG; EDWARD F FITZGERALD; BRIAN BUSH; KATSI COOK

2001-01-01

83

HIGH RESOLUTION PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential environmental and health impact of PCBs must account not only for the integrated quantitation of the PCBs mixtures but also the concentrations of the specific congeners which are potentially toxic. The authors confirm the feasibility of high resolution PCB analysis ...

84

Optical PCB using waveguide-embedded backplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical optical printed circuit board (PCB) was demonstrated, using a waveguide-embedded optical backplane and processing boards. The polymeric waveguide was produced by means of a hot embossing technique then embedded following a conventional lamination processes. The core size of waveguide was 100 x 60 mum2 (input section), 60 x 60 mum2 (output section), and the propagation loss of tapered

Keun Byoung Yoon; In-Kui Cho; Seung-Ho Ahn; Jin Tae Kim

2004-01-01

85

3D integration with PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of 3D integration and packaging of power electronics using printed circuit board (PCB) technology is presented. This is to show how power electronics can benefit from the same advantages that have been exploited by the microelectronic industry, for some time already, regarding high density packaging, as implemented in modern digital photo and video cameras for example. Complementary technologies,

E. C. W. de Jong; L. A. Ferreira; P. Bauer

2006-01-01

86

INTERACTIVE PIT LAKES 2004 CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This CD and the workshop provide a pit lakes forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international approaches, including arid and wet regions throughout the world. These approaches include characterization, modeling/monitoring, and treatment and r...

87

Adhesive pit and fissure sealant  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An adhesive pit and fissure sealant for tooth surfaces which consists of a first material of a lower alkyl .alpha.-cyanoacrylate and ultra-microfine particles of silicon dioxide, a second material of a di-lower-alkylformamide and a third material of a hardening promoter.

Takeuchi; Mitsuharu (Ichikawa, Ichikawa, Chiba, JA); Otsuki; Akira (Tasuchiura, Ibaragi, JA)

1977-03-22

88

Quantitative damage evaluation of localized deep pitting  

SciTech Connect

Localized deep pitting is considered difficult to precisely measure and evaluate using simple techniques and daily-use analysis approaches. A case study was made of carbon steel heat exchangers in a typical fresh cooling water environment that experienced severe pitting. To effectively and precisely evaluate the encountered pitting damage, a simple measurement and analyses approach was devised. In this article, the pitting measurement technique and the damage evaluation approach are presented and discussed in detail.

Al Beed, A.A.; Al Garni, M.A.

2000-04-01

89

[Use of illicit substances in the workplace].  

PubMed

The development of addictive behaviors is a source of worry and concern for workplace and occupational physicians. To estimate the prevalence of behaviors, two types of surveys can be carried out: self-assessment surveys and biological testing in the workplace. For the latter, when a settlement is within the company, the prevalence is often lower compared to those enterprises that have not adapted this policy. Very few investigations have been published in France to date. Data published by the United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime (UNODC) shows a stable consumption of illicit substances in recent years. They reported consumption in the world among the general population (all subjects aged 15 to 64). For France, were described a prevalence estimated in 2005 to 8.6%, 0.6% and 0.2% for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamine derivatives, respectively, and in 2007 to 4.6% for opiates. Some prevalence in the workplace have been reported in Europe in chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, automotive, in the transport sector and in medical and military fields. However, it appears that few surveys in the workplace have been published in France, this lack may be explained by a desire for anonymity on the subject at the level of company management and doctors work that focus on individual support with the problem of addiction. Screening for illicit substances is necessary because these psychotropic substances affect alertness and pose risks in the workplace, especially such that the association cannabis-alcohol further increases the risk. Knowledge of consumption is, moreover, an important factor in job security. It may be acquired if reliable methods, inexpensive to allow routine screening. Publication of results will reveal the extent of the problem and implement more effective campaigns of information and prevention in the workplace. PMID:22341004

Lhermitte, M; Frimat, P; Labat, L; Haguenoer, J-M

2012-01-09

90

Modeling pitting degradation of corrosion resistant alloys  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological, stochastic model of pit initiation and growth was developed in support of waste package container design and performance assessment. This model can simulate the time evolution of the distribution in pit depths on a metal surface exposed to an aggressive environment. It can simulate pit initiation and growth under variable-environment histories such as those anticipated in the repository.

Henshall, G.A.

1996-11-01

91

Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational normal faulting and sub-vertical fissuring provide the simplest and most comprehensive mechanisms to explain the regional associations, detailed geometry, and progression of pit chain development.

Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

2003-12-01

92

The Limnology of Summer Camp Pit Lake: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water bodies are expected to form in several pits at the Getchell Open Pit Mine after mining has ceased due to inflowing surface and ground water. Predicting the long-term geochemical behavior of the pit water is important in assessing potential environmental effects. One of the pits, the Summer Camp Pit, began to develop a pit lake in 1991 when

J. V. Parshley; R. J. Bowell

2003-01-01

93

Safety evaluation for remote pit refurbishment using the pit viper  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to record and evaluate the hazardous conditions associated with remote pit refurbishment using the Pit Viper. These hazardous conditions were identified during a Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP). Included in the evaluation is a comparison to the hazardous conditions currently included in the Authorization Basis (AB), documented in the Hazard Analysis Database (CHG 2000c) The hazardous conditions related to the Pit Viper are correlated to similar hazardous conditions as mapped to the analyzed accidents. Finally, the controls necessary to prevent a resulting accident or to mitigate the consequences were determined during the control decision/allocation process. The results of the control allocation are listed in this document. This document is not intended to authorize the activity. It documents the results of the hazard identification process and subsequent control decision process as defined in the AB. The hazard identification/evaluation process is used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

GRAMS, W.H.

2001-09-21

94

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB-153) and (PCB-77) absorption in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HK2) cells in vitro: PCB levels and cell death  

PubMed Central

An understanding of congener specific cellular absorption of PCBs is important to the study of the organ specific body burden of an individual and to their toxic effects. We have previously demonstrated that single PCB congeners induce cytotoxicity, as evidenced by decreased cellular viability and accelerated apoptotic death. There is very little, if any, information available on the differences in toxicity due to the nature of absorption of PCBs in different cells. To obtain such information human liver (HepG2) cells (in medium with 10% FBS) were exposed to 70?M of both PCB-153 (non-coplanar hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB-77 (coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl), and human kidney (HK2) cells in serum free medium were exposed to 80 and 40 ?M of PCB-153 and PCB-77 respectively, according to their LC50 values in these cells. Medium and cells were collected separately at each time interval from 30 minutes to 48 hours, and PCB concentrations were analyzed in both by GC-MS using biphenyl as an internal standard following hexane: acetone (50:50) extraction. We also performed trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and fluorescence microscopic studies in assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death. About 40% of PCB-153 (35 ?M, 50% of the maximum value) was detected in HepG2 cells within 30 minutes, and it reached its highest concentration at 6 hours (60 ?M), concomitant with the PCB depletion in the medium (5?M). For PCB-77, the highest concentrations within the cells were reached at 3 hours. However, the absorption levels of PCB-153 and PCB-77 in HK2 cells reached their peaks at 3 and 6 hours respectively. Exposure of human liver and kidney cells to PCB-153 and PCB-77 caused accelerated apoptotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. The studies demonstrated that (1) liver cells initiate the absorption of PCBs much faster than kidney cells; however, the concentration reaches its maximum level much earlier in kidney cells; (2) both PCB-153 and PCB-77 induced enhanced apoptotic death in liver and kidney cells; (3) kidney cells are more vulnerable to PCBs based on the results of apoptosis and cellular viability, even with almost similar absorption or tissue burden of PCBs.

Ghosh, Somiranjan; De, Supriyo; Chen, Yongqing; Sutton, Darryl C.; Ayorinde, Folahan O.; Dutta, Sisir K.

2010-01-01

95

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB-153) and (PCB-77) absorption in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HK2) cells in vitro: PCB levels and cell death.  

PubMed

An understanding of congener specific cellular absorption of PCBs is important to the study of the organ specific body burden of an individual and to their toxic effects. We have previously demonstrated that single PCB congeners induce cytotoxicity, as evidenced by decreased cellular viability and accelerated apoptotic death. There is very little, if any, information available on the differences in toxicity due to the nature of absorption of PCBs in different cells. To obtain such information human liver (HepG2) cells (in medium with 10% FBS) were exposed to 70 ?M of both PCB-153 (non-coplanar hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB-77 (coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl), and human kidney (HK2) cells in serum free medium were exposed to 80 and 40 ?M of PCB-153 and PCB-77 respectively, according to their LC(50) values in these cells. Medium and cells were collected separately at each time interval from 30 min to 48 h, and PCB concentrations were analyzed in both by GC-MS using biphenyl as an internal standard following hexane:acetone (50:50) extraction. We also performed trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and fluorescence microscopic studies in assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death. About 40% of PCB-153 (35 ?M, 50% of the maximum value) was detected in HepG2 cells within 30 min, and it reached its highest concentration at 6h (60 ?M), concomitant with the PCB depletion in the medium (5 ?M). For PCB-77, the highest concentrations within the cells were reached at 3h. However, the absorption levels of PCB-153 and PCB-77 in HK2 cells reached their peaks at 3 and 6h respectively. Exposure of human liver and kidney cells to PCB-153 and PCB-77 caused accelerated apoptotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. The studies demonstrated that (1) liver cells initiate the absorption of PCBs much faster than kidney cells; however, the concentration reaches its maximum level much earlier in kidney cells; (2) both PCB-153 and PCB-77 induced enhanced apoptotic death in liver and kidney cells; and (3) kidney cells are more vulnerable to PCBs based on the results of apoptosis and cellular viability, even with almost similar absorption or tissue burden of PCBs. PMID:20723988

Ghosh, Somiranjan; De, Supriyo; Chen, Yongqing; Sutton, Darryl C; Ayorinde, Folahan O; Dutta, Sisir K

2010-08-17

96

Identification of Substances Interfering with Illicit Drug Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to intensified urine testing for illicit drugs, drug users have attempted to falsify results by several schemes including in vitro adulteration of specimens. Additives that were claimed to invalidate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) drug assays were i...

S. L. Mikkelsen

1988-01-01

97

Coastal Illicit Connection Identification and Elimination Grant Project, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (DES) received funds in 2005 from the New Hampshire Estuaries Project (NHEP) to administer grants to coastal municipalities to eliminate illicit discharges into their storm drainage systems. This fina...

J. Marcoux

2006-01-01

98

Importance of International Technical Nuclear Forensics to Deter Illicit Trafficking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a transboundary problem that requires a cooperative approach involving international nuclear forensics to ensure all states understand the threat posed by nuclear smuggling as well as a means to best deter the m...

D. K. Smith

2007-01-01

99

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB exposure for construction workers.

Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

2007-01-01

100

Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation.  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent. Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2.5 (or 3.6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation.

Lepine, F; Masse, R

1990-01-01

101

PCB levels in human fluids: Sheboygan cohort study, Sheboygan maternal/infant PCB study  

SciTech Connect

The PCB problem in the United States today has been raised to national concern with the discovery of PCBs in human breast milk above the highest recommended level for any commercially sold flood. This study, done in Sheboygan, Wisconsin in 1980-81, was to determine if (1) there were high levels of PCBs in mother's serum and breast milk in the vicinity of a PCB spill, (2) if these levels could be linked to the women's consumption of local fish, and (3) if the infants born to these women in the study showed signals of impaired health, growth, and development. Seventy-three women participated in the study, 62 who were breast-feeding their children, and 11 who were bottle-feeding their children. The serum PCB levels for the study population ranged from 1.29 to 14.90 ppb with a mean of 5.76 ppb. The breast milk PCB levels for the women who were breast feeding was 0.29 to 4.04 ppm with a mean of 1.13 ppm. The infants showed signs of impaired health as a result of in utero exposure to PCBs. No negative effects from exposure to breast milk PCB could be discerned up to 4 months postpartum.

Smith, B.J.

1983-01-01

102

A rapid method for profiling samples of illicit heroin.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to profile samples of illicit heroin. It involved derivatization and gas chromatographic separation followed by a fully automated data analysis. Six major constituents (acetylcodeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, papaverine, noscapine, codeine, and morphine) were tested and analyzed. The square cosine function was used to evaluate correlation values. The method proved to be efficient and reliable providing information on links between illicit heroin samples. PMID:22522843

Zhang, Jian-xin; Chen, Cun-yi

2012-04-23

103

Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.  

PubMed Central

Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

Johnston, L E

1985-01-01

104

PCB's in Suburban Watershed, Reston, Va  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Lake Anne basin increased from water (<0.05-0.2 ppb), to bed sediment (<2.5-105 ppb), to fish (140-700 ppb) in an average ratio of 1:500:3000. The highest concentrations were observed in the lake, which is 10 years old, and receives no sewage or industrial waste discharges. Evidence indicates that the polvchlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) originate from diffuse sources associated with urban development and living.

Martell, J. M.; Rickert, D. A.; Siegel, F. R.

1975-01-01

105

PCB — Approaches to Removal From the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of the most recalcitrant compounds with proved negative effect on the\\u000a human health. They may be removed from the environment by chemical, physical and biological methods, while the latter ones\\u000a through microorganisms or plants represent more economical way of removal. This study describes use of bacteria isolated in\\u000a the Czech Republic from PCB

K. Demnerová; M. Macková; J. Pazlarová; M. Vosahlíková; H. Nováková; E. Jindrová; E. Ryslavá; T. Macek; N. Vrchotova; V. Brenner; L. Pavl?; S. Totevová; T. Kristoffer; D. D. Focht; F. Fava; D. Gioia; L. Marchetti; J. S. Fletcher; M. B. Leigh; P. Kucerová; H. Stiborová; V. Mateju; M. Sobotka; F. Kastanek; P. Kastanek; L. Kasák

106

Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs  

PubMed Central

The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public, midwestern research university in the United States self-administered a Web-based survey. The prevalence rate for illicit use within the past year was highest for pain medication, followed by stimulant medication, sedative or anxiety medication, and sleeping medication. Women generally reported higher past-year medical use rates. However, undergraduate men reported higher illicit use rates. The illicit use-medical use ratio for stimulant medication was the highest among the 4 classes of prescription drugs. Medical users of stimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were the most likely to be approached to divert their medication. Multivariate results indicated that illicit users of prescription drugs were more likely to use other drugs than were students who did not use prescription drugs illicitly. The authors provide evidence that prescription drug abuse is a problem among college students.

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Teter, Chrisian J.

2006-01-01

107

PCB augments LH-induced progesterone synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A great deal of attention has been focused on various environmental contaminants and their toxic effects on mammalian systems. Important among the compounds studied are the organochlorine pesticides and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The accumulation and persistence of these contaminants in the biosphere has accentuated their public health significance and limited their widespread commercial utilization. Changes in reproductive function have proven to be one of the more detrimental effects of chronic exposure to PCB or hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Reports in the literature have implicated potential target tissues such as the ovary, steroid-hydroxylating enzymes in the liver, and hypothalamus. The present experiment was designed to study the effect of acute in-vivo exposure to PCB (Clophen A-30) and HCB on LH-induced progesterone synthesis in-vitro. In order to obtain large amounts of luterin tissue relatively uniform in nature, the PMS-HCG primed immature rat model was utilized. This priming procedure, as described by Parlow (1958), results in a pronounced capacity for progesterone synthesis by the excessive numbers of induced corpora.

Fuller, G.B. (Albany Medical College, Holloman AFB, NM); Knauf, V.; Mueller, W.; Hobson, W.C.

1980-07-01

108

Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations.  

PubMed

Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n?=?24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n?=?410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker's measured serum PCB levels and the same worker's cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14-24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22-39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A

2013-03-10

109

Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination of the congener. The authors used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, the authors found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing K{sub ow} or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. The authors concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5--8 chlorine atoms/molecule, K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desourcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

1999-11-01

110

PCB annual report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory-1984  

SciTech Connect

Stringent government regulations control the use and disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) materials. These same regulations require accurate recordkeeping by the owner/operator of a facility where PCBs are in use. This report details Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) efforts to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act and the US Environmental Protection Agency's new regulations found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This document provides detailed records of PCB materials still in use, PCB wastes generated, their origins, storage of PCB wastes and off-site shipments of this waste during CY 1984.

Horton, C.Y.; Barkenbus, B.D.

1985-08-01

111

PCB annual report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory - 1985  

SciTech Connect

It is the policy of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to submit a Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Annual Report as required by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Stringent government regulations control the use and disposal of PCB materials. These regulations require accurate recordkeeping by the owner/operator of a facility where PCBs are in use. This report details ORNL efforts to comply with the TSCA regulations found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations and contains records of: (a) PCB equipment in use and removed from service; and (b) PCB wastes generated, stored, and shipped off-site during calendar year 1985.

Barkenbus, B.D.

1986-08-01

112

40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces...Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with Ã...a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...

2010-07-01

113

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

2009-07-01

114

40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With ç...

2009-07-01

115

40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces...Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with Ã...a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...

2009-07-01

116

40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With ç...

2010-07-01

117

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

2010-07-01

118

40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household...

2013-07-01

119

MUTAGENICITY OF 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE, PCB3, AND 4-OH-PCB3 IN THE LUNG OF TRANSGENIC BIGBLUE® RATS  

PubMed Central

Recent findings of high levels of predominantly lower chlorinated biphenyls in indoor and outdoor air open the question of possible health consequences. Lower chlorinated biphenyls are more readily metabolized to reactive and potentially harmful intermediates, acting as mutagens and cancer initiators. The goal of this study was to assess the mutagenicity of PCB3 in the lungs of rats. Male BigBlue® 334 Fisher transgenic rats, which carry the bacterial lacI gene as a target of mutagenicity, were given intraperitoneal injections of corn oil, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, positive control), 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) or its metabolite 4-hydroxy-PCB3 (4-OH-PCB3) weekly for 4 weeks. Lungs tissue was harvested to determine mutant frequencies, mutation spectra, and pathological changes. 3-MC caused a 15-fold increase in mutant frequency and an increase in transversion type mutations; a very early occurrence of this type of mutation in lung tissue was previously identified in Ki-ras oncogenes of lung tumors from 3-MC exposed mice. The 2-fold increase in the mutant frequency after treatment with PCB3 and 4-OH-PCB3 was not statistically significant, but a shift in the mutation spectra, especially with PCB3, and an increase in mutations outside of the hotspot region for spontaneous mutations (bp 1-400), suggest that PCB3 and possibly 4-OH-PCB3 are mutagenic in the rat lung.

Maddox, Catherine; Wang, Bingxuan; Kirby, Patricia A.; Wang, Kai; Ludewig, Gabriele

2008-01-01

120

Cause of pitting in beryllium  

SciTech Connect

Light microscopy, bare-film radiography, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microprobe and physical testing were used to examine beryllium specimens exhibiting a stratified, pitted, pattern after chemical milling. The objective was to find the cause of this pattern. Specimens were found to have voids in excess of density specification allowances. These voids are attributed, at least in part, to the sublimation of beryllium fluoride during the vacuum hot pressing operation. The origin of the pattern is attributed to these voids and etching out of fines and associated impurities. Hot isostatic pressing with a subsequent heat treatment close residual porosity and dispersed impurities enough to correct the problem.

Kershaw, R.P.

1982-04-16

121

Buprenorphine tapering schedule and illicit opioid use  

PubMed Central

Aims To compare the effects of a short or long taper schedule after buprenorphine stabilization on participant outcomes as measured by opioid-free urine tests at the end of each taper period. Design This multi-site study sponsored by Clinical Trials Network (CTN, a branch of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse) was conducted from 2003 to 2005 to compare two taper conditions (7 days and 28 days). Data were collected at weekly clinic visits to the end of the taper periods, and at 1-month and 3-month post-taper follow-up visits. Setting Eleven out-patient treatment programs in 10 US cities. Intervention Non-blinded dosing with Suboxone® during the 1-month stabilization phase included 3 weeks of flexible dosing as determined appropriate by the study physicians. A fixed dose was required for the final week before beginning the taper phase. Measurements The percentage of participants in each taper group providing urine samples free of illicit opioids at the end of the taper and at follow-up. Findings At the end of the taper, 44% of the 7-day taper group (n = 255) provided opioid-free urine specimens compared to 30% of the 28-day taper group (n = 261; P = 0.0007). There were no differences at the 1-month and 3-month follow-ups (7-day = 18% and 12%; 28-day = 18% and 13%, 1 month and 3 months, respectively). Conclusion For individuals terminating buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence, there appears to be no advantage in prolonging the duration of taper.

Ling, Walter; Hillhouse, Maureen; Domier, Catherine; Doraimani, Geetha; Hunter, Jeremy; Thomas, Christie; Jenkins, Jessica; Hasson, Albert; Annon, Jeffrey; Saxon, Andrew; Selzer, Jeffrey; Boverman, Joshua; Bilangi, Richard

2011-01-01

122

Illicit drug use and responses in six Pacific Island countries.  

PubMed

We report here on the illicit drug situation in six Pacific nations: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. The report is based on the 'Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific', commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. The situational analysis was a comprehensive desk-based review; data sources included published and unpublished literature and information from key informants. A range of psychoactive substances have been used traditionally across the Pacific region. Cannabis is the by far the most common and widespread illicit drug used in the six Pacific Islands reviewed. Drugs such as heroin, methamphetamines and cocaine are not used commonly due to their high cost compared to the average income. Currently, there is no overall regional or country-based illicit drug policy for the Pacific and few treatment programs; limited data exist to aid in understanding illicit drug use and the harms associated with its use in the Pacific. This review highlights the urgent need for strategic alcohol and drug research in the Pacific as a foundation for the development of policy. PMID:16854668

Devaney, Madonna L; Reid, Gary; Baldwin, Simon; Crofts, Nick; Power, Robert

2006-07-01

123

Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically an oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable that the pitting occurred during an idle period (a drought) due to oxygen ingress and failure to maintain a sufficient excess of the

A. M. Heyes

2001-01-01

124

The pit-craters and pit-crater-filling lavas of Masaya volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lava flowing into a pit crater will become entrapped to form an inactive lava lake. At Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) pit filling lavas are exposed in the walls of Nindiri, Santiago and San Pedro pits. Mapping of these lavas shows that fill can involve emplacement of both 'a'a and pahoehoe, with single fill units ranging in thickness from 2 to 22

Andrew J. L. Harris

2009-01-01

125

NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETECTION OF PITS AND PIT FRAGMENTS IN DRIED PLUMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An economical, non-destructive device was constructed to detect pits in dried plums. The device compresses the product between a roller and a force transducer, which detects the extra force generated when a pit is present. Two methods of classifying pitted fruit were developed, one based on the maxi...

126

PCB EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES: A THEORETICAL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a theoretical assessment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formation and destruction in conventional fossil fuel fired sources. Results suggest a small but finite possibility that PCB isomers may be found in their emissions. The study was the result of...

127

Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations  

SciTech Connect

PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

1987-12-01

128

Mechanical response of PCB assemblies during infrared reflow soldering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element structural model is developed to predict the thermomechanical behavior of printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies during infrared reflow soldering. Specifically, the model predicts the amount of board warpage, the effects of increased PCB assembly stiffness resulting from the solder joint formation, and the size of gaps generated at the module lead solder pad interface. In this paper,

Sandeep Mittal; Glenn Y. Masada; Theodore L. Bergman

1996-01-01

129

Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2 to 2.6 THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

2006-11-01

130

Cannabis and other illicit drug use in epilepsy patients.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among epilepsy patients and its effects on the disease. METHODS: We systematically interviewed epilepsy outpatients at a tertiary epilepsy clinic. Predictors for active cannabis use were analysed with a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 310 subjects were enrolled; 63 (20.3%) reported consuming cannabis after epilepsy was diagnosed, and 16 (5.2%) used other illicit drugs. Active cannabis use was predicted by sex (male) [odds ratio (OR) 5.342, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.416-20.153] and age (OR 0.956, 95% CI 0.919-0.994). Cannabis consumption mostly did not affect epilepsy (84.1%). Seizure worsening was observed with frequent illicit (non-cannabis) drug use in 80% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis use does not seem to affect epilepsy; however, frequent use of other drugs increases seizure risk. PMID:23311572

Hamerle, M; Ghaeni, L; Kowski, A; Weissinger, F; Holtkamp, M

2013-01-11

131

Illicit Drug Use in Heavy Smokers With and Without Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective The prevalence of cigarette smoking among people with schizophrenia is greater than that of the general population. Because smoking and use of other drugs covary, we examined illicit drug use in current smokers not trying to quit or reduce their tobacco use. We recruited outpatient participants who had a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (schizophrenia, n=70) and a control group who had no Axis I psychiatric disorders (control, n=97). During a 2-3 hour session, participants completed demographic and research questionnaires, including the Drug Use Survey (DUS). Results Participants with schizophrenia were older than controls (p<0.001) and smoked more cigarettes per day (p=0.01), but did not differ in degree of nicotine dependence. Ever using a drug was similar between the groups, except that significantly more participants with schizophrenia reported ever using hallucinogens (p<0.001) and inhalants (p=0.001). For alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana, fewer participants with schizophrenia were current users, but more participants with schizophrenia were past users (p’s<0.0001). Heavy smokers from the general population continued to use illicit drugs throughout their lives, while schizophrenia participants had the highest period of illicit drug use in their 20’s. Conclusions These data suggest that illicit drug use tends to be high in heavy cigarette smokers, regardless of a schizophrenia diagnosis. However, while illicit drug use is high across the lifespan of heavy smokers in the general population, heavy smokers with schizophrenia use illicit drugs mostly in the first decade of their illness.

Mackowick, Kristen M.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Wehring, Heidi J.; Liu, Fang; McMahon, Robert P.; Kelly, Deanna L.

2012-01-01

132

Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

2012-01-01

133

Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface

D. Wyrick; D. A. Ferrill; A. P. Morris; S. L. Colton; D. W. Sims

2003-01-01

134

On the Mechanism of Pitting of Aluminum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Engell-Stolica potentiostatic method has been used for the kinetic study of the mechanism of pitting initiation of Al 1199. A statistical treatment of induction time has been developed in order to get meaningful data. Pitting initiation has been found...

T. H. Nguyen R. T. Foley

1979-01-01

135

Observations of cavitation erosion pit formation.  

PubMed

Previous investigations showed that a single cavitation bubble collapse can cause more than one erosion pit (Philipp & Lauterborn [1]). But our preliminary study showed just the opposite - that in some cases a single cavitation pit can result from more than one cavitation event. The present study shows deeper investigation of this phenomenon. An investigation of the erosion effects of ultrasonic cavitation on a thin aluminum foil was made. In the study we observed the formation of individual pits by means of high speed cameras (>1000 fps) and quantitatively evaluated the series of images by stereoscopy and the shape from shading method. This enabled the reconstruction of the time evolution of the pit shape. Results show how the foil is deformed several times before a hole is finally punctured. It was determined that larger single pits result from several impacts of shock waves on the same area, which means that they are merely special cases of pit clusters (pit clusters where pits overlap perfectly). Finally it was shown that a thin foil, which is subjected to cavitation, behaves as a membrane. It was concluded that the physics behind erosion depends significantly on the means of generating cavitation (acoustic, hydrodynamic, laser light) and the specimen characteristics (thin foil, massive specimen), which makes comparison of results of materials resistance to cavitation from different experimental set-ups questionable. Further development of the shape from shading method in the scope of cavitation erosion testing will enable better evaluation of cavitation erosion models. PMID:23403307

Dular, Matevž; Delgosha, Olivier Coutier; Petkovšek, Martin

2013-01-31

136

Energy saving ideas for open pit mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing cost of diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. The possibility of combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is offered by the application of semi-mobile crushing

W. Rixen; K. J. Benecke

1981-01-01

137

THE LIHIR OPEN PIT GOLD MINE REVISITED  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last TOUGH2 Symposium (White et al., 2003) we described initial modelling of the geothermal system and groundwater in the vicinity of the open pit Lihir gold mine. This mine pit is planned ultimately to reach more than 200 meters below sea level and is being dug into an active geothermal system with some of the area to be

Stephen White; John Burnell; Markos Melaku; Roy Johnstone

2006-01-01

138

Illicit i.v. drugs. A public health approach.  

PubMed

This article explores, from a public health perspective, the harm done by Canadian drug laws, to both individuals and society. It challenges the perceived dichotomy of legalization and criminalization of intravenous drugs. The article then expands the discussion by exploring eight legal options for illicit drugs and examines how these options interact with the marginalization of users, the illicit drug black market, and levels of drug consumption. While the main focus of this article is intravenous drugs, it draws some lessons from cannabis research. PMID:12448865

Haden, Mark

139

Congenital optic nerve pit in trisomy 18.  

PubMed

The authors report the first case of trisomy 18 associated with a clinically detectable optic nerve pit. A female infant with a birth weight of 2,150 g was born by cesarean section to a healthy 40-year-old woman at 38 weeks of gestation. Trisomy 18 had been diagnosed by prenatal genetic testing. Ophthalmologic examination was remarkable for bilateral narrowed palpebral fissures with punctal agenesis, corectopic pupils without reaction to light, bilateral inferior peripapillary retinochoroidal hypopigmentation, and significant optic nerve cupping in the left eye with associated temporal optic nerve pit. It has generally been accepted that optic nerve pits are a congenital anomaly. However, the pathophysiological background of optic nerve pits remains unclear and controversial. This is the first clinical and photographic documentation of an optic nerve pit in a neonate and in Edwards syndrome. PMID:23739588

Villegas, Victor M; Chang, Jonathan S; Hess, Ditte J; Berrocal, Audina M

2013-06-04

140

KINETICS OF PITTING CORROSION IN GELS.  

SciTech Connect

An investigation has been carried out on stainless steel to determine the important parameters that related the changes in pH around pits to the current coming from the pits. Potentiodynamic measurements at 1 mV/s were made on Type 302 stainless steel in agar containing 1M NaCl and a wide range pH indicator. Many pits suddenly appeared at the pitting potential, as indicated by the red, low pH region around the pits. Simulations of the changes in pH were based on diffusion from a point current source. The results also were considered in terms of the effects of a minimum detectable thickness of pH change within the gel.

ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.

2000-10-22

141

Accountability Quality Shuffler Measurements on Pits  

SciTech Connect

Pits have generally been treated as accountable units that are intact if merely present and they are excluded from the more demanding nondestructive assay requirements. As pits begin to flow into disposition streams, there may be more incentive to measure the masses of their fissile components for accountability purposes. This Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) Lifecycle Project has explored some ways in which such measurements may be done successfully. The active neutron instrument called a shuffler has been used to measure a variety of actual pits, and a calculational technique has been developed to accurately predict such count rates. Passive multiplicity counting has previously been applied to pits for determining their plutonium contents. This combination of measurement and calculational techniques provide powerful and accurate tools for determining the fissile contents of pits with the quality needed for accountability purposes.

Rinard, P.M.

2000-10-01

142

The relationship between induction time for pitting and pitting potential for high purity aluminum.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine if a distribution of pit induction times (from potentiostatic experiments) could be used to predict a distribution of pitting potentials (from potentiodynamic experiments) for high-purity aluminum. Pit induction times were measured for 99.99 Al in 50 mM NaCl at potentials of -0.35, -0.3, -0.25, and -0.2 V vs. saturated calomel electrode. Analysis of the data showed that the pit germination rate generally was an exponential function of the applied potential; however, a subset of the germination rate data appeared to be mostly potential insensitive. The germination rate behavior was used as an input into a mathematical relationship that provided a prediction of pitting potential distribution. Good general agreement was found between the predicted distribution and an experimentally determined pitting potential distribution, suggesting that the relationships presented here provide a suitable means for quantitatively describing pit germination rate.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Vandenavyle, Justin J.; Martinez, Michael A.

2003-08-01

143

Illicit drug-related psychopharmacological violence: The current understanding within a causal context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews past research on psychopharmacological violence associated with illicit drug use within the criteria for causality. There appears to be prior evidence suggesting that illicit drug use and violent offending are related in certain circumstances; and other studies conclude that illicit drug use may be correlated with violent victimization. However, those studies that also adequately assessed temporal order

Joseph B. Kuhns; Tammatha A. Clodfelter

2009-01-01

144

Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994-1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs that Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

1999-01-01

145

STATE DRUG CONTROL SPENDING AND ILLICIT DRUG PARTICIPATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of state criminal justice expenditures and state public health expenditures on deterring illicit drug use. The empirics are based on a demand-and-supply model of drug markets. The effect of a given expenditure on criminal justice or public health programs is dependent on the magnitude of the resulting shifts in the

H Saffer; FJ Chaloupka; D Dave

2001-01-01

146

Demographic Differentials in the Demand for Alcohol and Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to estimate demographic differentials in alcohol and illicit drug use, participation, own price effects and cross price effects. This paper uses a data set of over 49,000 individuals from the National Household Survey of Drug Abuse and links drug and alcohol prices and policies to the individual records. The size of this data set

Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

1998-01-01

147

Patterns of Illicit Drug Use in Viral Hepatitis Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patterns of illicit drug usage in viral hepatitis patients seen at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina in 1970-1971 are described. Of 112 patients (average age 21) admitted to the Naval Hospital, 78 (70%) admitted to the repeated use of mind altering drugs. ...

R. P. Wenzel J. F. Adams E. P. Smith

1973-01-01

148

Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9, 161 undergraduate students attending a large, public, midwestern research university in the United States self-administered a Web-based survey. The prevalence

Sean Esteban McCabe; Christian J. Teter; Carol J. Boyd

2006-01-01

149

Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables.

Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

1993-01-01

150

Illicit Drugs: Price Elasticity of Demand and Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1998 National Drug Control Strategy established an ambitious national agenda for reducing illicit drug use by 25 percent as of 2002 and by 50 percent as of 2007. When it established those targets, the Office of National Drug Control Policy recognized ...

L. Hozik P. Johnston Q. McMullen S. Han W. Rhodes

2002-01-01

151

ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for

S. Gosav; M. Praisler; D. O. Dorohoi

2007-01-01

152

Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal…

Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

2008-01-01

153

Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore…

Hemingway, Judy

2006-01-01

154

Pregnancy and Illicit Drug Use. The NHSDA Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A great deal of medical, governmental, and media attention has been given to the use of illicit drugs by pregnant women because of risks to unborn children. The 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) includes information on the past month us...

2001-01-01

155

A Survey of Thai Student use of Illicit Drugs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a survey of drug use by 1,506 Thai students, about one-fourth report having used illicit drugs and 6% report current use. Point prevalence of drug use in this population appears to be much lower than that reported by local news media. Prevalence and pa...

R. J. Schneider P. Sansingkeo S. Punnahitanond

1977-01-01

156

International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more

D K Smith; S Niemeyer

2004-01-01

157

Acts of terror, illicit drugs and money laundering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlights the connexions between terrorism, illicit drugs and money laundering; the author is General Counsel for the Executive Office of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy in the USA. Describes how money laundering is intimately linked to terrorism and drug trafficking in Colombia, using the example of the Black Market Peso Exchange, a complex underground financial system to

Ed Jurith

2003-01-01

158

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ILLICIT DRUG ENFORCEMENT POLICY AND PROPERTY CRIMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some justify the law enforcement emphasis on controlling illicit drug markets by contending that drug users attempting to finance their habits often are responsible for property crime. Yet, in Florida at least, the increased effort to control drug markets has been accompanied by increasing property crime. The fact is that law enforcement resources are scarce, and many resources now being

BRUCE L. BENSON; DAVID W. RASMUSSEN

1991-01-01

159

Childhood Victimization and Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989–1995 and again in middle

Cathy Spatz Widom; Naomi R. Marmorstein; Helene Raskin White

2006-01-01

160

Illicit Drug Use Among Older Adults. The NSDUH Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An estimated 4.3 million adults aged 50 or older, or 4.7 percent of adults in that age range, had used an illicit drug in the past year, based on data from 2006 to 2008. Marijuana use was more common than nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs for adul...

2009-01-01

161

Clinical review: Major consequences of illicit drug consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because illicit drugs are now widely consumed, every doctor needs to know their acute medical consequences and complications. Here, we review the problems associated with the different drugs from a systems-based viewpoint. Apart from the respiratory depressant effect of opioids, crack cocaine is the most common cause of respiratory complications, mainly linked with its mode of use, with airway burns,

Robert J Devlin; John A Henry

2008-01-01

162

Drug intelligence based on organic impurities in illicit MA samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major objective of the European project “Collaborative Harmonisation of Methods for Profiling of Amphetamine Type Stimulants” (CHAMP), funded by the sixth framework programme of the European Commission, consisted of the harmonisation of a gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) method for the analysis of organic impurities found in illicit methamphetamine (MA) samples in a drug intelligence perspective. Statistical analysis provided a

L. Dujourdy; V. Dufey; F. Besacier; N. Miano; R. Marquis; E. Lock; L. Aalberg; S. Dieckmann; F. Zrcek; J. S. Bozenko Jr.

2008-01-01

163

Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981-2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the years, policymakers and researchers have constructed estimates of the price and purity of illicit drugs as a means to monitor the status of drug markets and to gauge the effectiveness of efforts to cope with the illegal drug problem. Notwithst...

A. Cseko A. Fries C. C. Gaither E. Schulman R. W. Anthony

2008-01-01

164

PCB contamination of the scallop capital  

SciTech Connect

Localized PCB contamination was first documented in 1978 when the U.S. EPA published a New England wide summary report. Today, the New Bedford area according to EPA's recent Remedial Action Master Plan is considered to contain...''one of the most extensive cases of environmental contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).'' Harbor sediments contain PCBs levels in thousands of ppm in the tidal flats at the northern extremity of the estuary. These sediments exceed federal waste criteria by several orders of magnitude. Twenty-eight square miles of productive lobstering grounds are closed to fishing. Lesser, yet significant, areas are closed to the taking of finfish and shellfish. Sampling at two industrial properties has documented the existence of high levels in upland sediments. Steps have been taken to remove and contain these contaminated sediments.

Weaver, G.

1986-02-01

165

Structural characterization of the PIT-1/ETS-1 interaction: PIT-1 phosphorylation regulates PIT-1/ETS-1 binding  

PubMed Central

The POU-domain transcription factor Pit-1 and Ets-1, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, can associate in solution and synergistically activate the prolactin promoter by binding to a composite response element in the prolactin promoter. We mapped the minimal region of Ets-1 required for the interaction with the Pit-1 POU-homeodomain. Here, we describe a detailed NMR study of the interaction between the POU-homeodomain of Pit-1 and the minimal interacting region of Ets-1. By using heteronuclear single quantum coherence titration experiments, we were able to map exact residues on the POU-homeodomain that are involved in the interaction with this minimal Ets-1 interaction domain. By using our NMR data, we generated point mutants in the POU-homeodomain and tested their effect on the interaction with Ets-1. Our results show that phosphorylation of Pit-1 can regulate the interaction with Ets-1.

Augustijn, Kevin D.; Duval, Dawn L.; Wechselberger, Rainer; Kaptein, Rob; Gutierrez-Hartmann, Arthur; van der Vliet, Peter C.

2002-01-01

166

Metastable pitting of aluminum and Al-Cu alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metastable pitting behavior and the transition from metastable to stable pitting on high purity aluminum and two Al-Cu alloys (aged Al-2%Cu and AA2024-T3) were investigated. Experiments on pure Al were done potentiostatically, and nominally identical electrodes galvanic coupling experiments were conducted with the Al-Cu alloys. Applied potential, chloride concentration, and exposure time were the variables used to establish the critical potentials for pit stabilization and signature time series of metastable and stable pitting events. A distribution of pitting and repassivation (transition) potentials were observed at each Clsp- concentration. Factors controlling the transition from metastable to stable pitting were identified by comparing the electrochemical behavior of stable pits at elapsed times equal to the mean lifetime of metastable pits. This comparison also provided insight on the origins of statistical distributions of pitting potentials. A key criterion for pit stabilization is that individual pits exceed a threshold of Isbpit/rsbpit > 10sp{-2} A/cm at all times during pit growth. This parameter was linked to pit growth and mass transport conditions leading to the formation of a depassivating pit chemistry. Methods from electrochemical noise analyses were compared using the galvanic coupling time series. Isbpit/rsbpit analysis of the metastable pit current spikes provided a better indication of the transition to stable pitting than the pitting index and electrochemical noise resistance. Power spectral density plots of the current and potential time series provided qualitative information on pit susceptibility. Temporal analyses of the galvanic coupling current time series provided evidence that some correlation may exist between individual metastable pitting events. The metastable pitting events were found to deviate from Poisson behavior with increasing activity. Metastable pitting events may have an influence on subsequent pitting events at higher activity.

Pride, Sheldon Tyrone

167

Okay, Kids, Everyone into the Pit!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a typical food chain and the interrelationship between plants and animals. Describes the "Food Chain Pit" game which can be used to help students create food chains of different habitats. (RT)

Belle, Bob; And Others

1988-01-01

168

Investigating Processes of Sedimentation in Gravel Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a field investigation where students will explore and observe sediments within a local gravel pit and from their observation create an investigation that will help to determine the nature of the sediments.

Olson, Melissa

169

Energy saving ideas for open pit mining  

SciTech Connect

The use of semi-mobile crushing plants in open pit mines makes a combination of trucks and conveyors economical and energy efficient. The increasing cost of Diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. Combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is made possible by using semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors.

Not Available

1981-06-01

170

Thermal analysis of simulated Pantex pit storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates potential pit storage configurations that could be used at the Mason and Hanger Pantex Plant. The study utilizes data from a thermal test series performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that simulated these stora...

S. M. Aceves

1996-01-01

171

Manure pit injuries: Rare, deadly, and preventable  

PubMed Central

A male worker entered an underground manure pit and lost consciousness. His coworker tried to rescue him and also lost consciousness in the pit. Emergency service arrived in minutes and removed both of them from the pit. Both men suffered anoxic brain injury and died in the hospital. Cases from Iowa Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program Data Base program were reviewed. Occupational mortality rate was found to be 7.4 per 10,000 per year for occupational deaths related to agriculture compared to 3.1 per 10,000 per year for deaths not related to agriculture. In most of the cases associated with sewage or livestock waste handling, victims died of asphyxiation. While manure pit injury is rare, it has an extremely high fatality rate. The most effective strategy to decrease mortality is active prevention.

Hallam, Daniel M; Liao, Junlin; Choi, Kent

2012-01-01

172

Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment  

SciTech Connect

The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system reliability and reduce integration difficulties. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approach. During integration, multiple areas where technology development would enhance the effectiveness of the system were identified. Most notable of these areas were the manipulator control system, tool design, and tool handling. Various issues were identified regarding the interfacing of the Pit Viper with the Tank Farm environment and the maturity of remote/ robotic systems for unstructured environments.

Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick L.

2002-08-08

173

EVALUATION OF PCB DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY IN AN INDUSTRIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the evaluation program undertaken to determine the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) destruction efficiency during a May 1980 verification co-firing of waste oil containing approximately 500 ppm of PCBs, in accordance with applicable state and federal regulation...

174

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM PCB METHOD: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

175

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

176

Analysis of Polychlorinated Byphenyl (PCB) in Human Blood Serum Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 208 human blood serum samples and two mother's milk samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The samples were supplied to Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc. (ESE) in frozen condition by the Department of Health, Educat...

C. L. Stratton P. C. Geiszler

1977-01-01

177

Unique temperature-activated neurons from pit viper thermosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Rattlesnakes, copperheads, and other pit vipers have highly sensitive heat detectors known as pit organs, which are used to sense and strike at prey. However, it is not currently known how temperature change triggers cellular and molecular events that activate neurons supplying the pit organ. We dissociated and cultured neurons from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) in nervating the pit

Todd C. Pappas; Massoud Motamedi; Burgess N. Christensen

2004-01-01

178

Clearing rain from open-pit mine  

SciTech Connect

Because of the large yearly rainfall in Panguna, Bougainveille Island, North Solomons Province, Papua New Guinea, unique problems have developed for the open-pit copper mine operated there by Bougainville Copper Limited. The large size of ths pit intercepts numerous streams and drainways which enter the area. The article discusses various methods to reduce and eliminate this water. Methods discussed are channels, pumping and tunneling.

Not Available

1984-05-01

179

Behaviour of longitudinally aligned corrosion pits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion normally results in pits or groups of pits being formed locally or over an area of the pipe wall. To assess the severity of such corrosion, the analytical techniques of the American Gas Association, Report NG-18, have been used as the basis of existing American and Canadian pipeline design codes.1,2 (Ref. 1—ANSI\\/ASME, Guide for Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping

B. A. Chouchaoui; R. J. Pick

1996-01-01

180

Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children.  

PubMed Central

In the last decade advances in the analytic methods for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have resulted in widespread availability of congener-specific analysis procedures, and large amounts of data on PCB congener profiles in soil, air, water, sediments, foodstuffs, and human tissues have become available. These data have revealed that the PCB residues in environmental media and human tissues may not closely resemble any of the commercial PCB mixtures, depending on source of exposure, bioaccumulation through the food chain, and weathering of PCBs in the environment. At the same time, toxicological research has led to a growing awareness that different classes of PCB congeners have different profiles of toxicity. These advances in analytic techniques and toxicological knowledge are beginning to influence the risk assessment process. As the data from ongoing PCB studies assessing the mediators of neurobehavioral outcomes in children are published, the weight of evidence for PCB effects on neurodevelopment is growing. Studies in Taiwan, Michigan (USA), New York (USA), Holland, Germany, and the Faroe Islands have all reported negative associations between prenatal PCB exposure and measures of cognitive functioning in infancy or childhood. The German study also reported a negative association between postnatal PCB exposure and cognitive function in early childhood--a result that had not been found in previous studies. Only one published study in North Carolina (USA) has failed to find an association between PCB exposure and cognitive outcomes. Despite the fact that several more recent studies have used congener-specific analytic techniques, there have been only limited attempts to assess the role of specific PCB congeners or classes of congeners in mediating neurodevelopmental outcomes. From a statistical standpoint, attempts to determine the role of individual congeners in mediating outcomes are hampered by the fact that concentrations of most individual congeners are highly correlated with each other and with total PCBs. From a toxicological standpoint, these efforts are hampered by the fact that many of the PCB congeners present in human tissues have never been studied in the laboratory, and their relative potency to produce nervous system effects is unknown. More complete information on the health effects of various congeners or congener classes would allow more informed scientific and risk assessment decisions.

Schantz, Susan L; Widholm, John J; Rice, Deborah C

2003-01-01

181

Perinatal co-exposure to methylmercury and PCB153 or PCB126 in rats alters the cerebral cholinergic muscarinic receptors at weaning and puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few decades, combined exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and seafood, and their potentially interactive effects on neurodevelopment, have been giving increasing cause for concern. We examined the combined effects of MeHg and either a non-dioxin PCB (PCB153) or a dioxin-like PCB (PCB126) congener on the developing brain cholinergic muscarinic receptors (MRs). These

Teresa Coccini; Elisa Roda; Anna F. Castoldi; Matteo Goldoni; Diana Poli; Graziella Bernocchi; Luigi Manzo

2007-01-01

182

Patterns of PCB accumulation by fry of lake trout  

SciTech Connect

A study examining the accumulation pattern of PCBs by lake trout fry exposed through the period of yolk absorption and the onset of feeding is presented. The PCB uptake pattern was examined by exposing the fry to a nominal concentration of 50 ng/l PCB (Aroclor 1254) for 48 days. The fry were sampled and analyzed for PCB concentration seven times during the exposure. The patterns of PCB concentration in the lake trout fry appeared similar, regardless of how the data were expressed (wet weight concentration, dry weight concentration, or body burden). PCBs in exposed fry increased slowly, peaked at day 32 (just before yolk absorption was complete) and decreased by day 48. Although these patterns appeared similar, important differences in the relative changes in PCB levels of exposed fry became evident when the different ways of expressing the uptake data were compared. It was determined that physiological changes in the fry through yolk absorption and initial feeding were responsible for the differences between PCB levels based on wet weight, dry weight, and body burden.

Mac, M.T.; Seelye, J.G.

1981-09-01

183

A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

2004-01-01

184

Neurobehavioral and somatic effects of perinatal PCB exposure in rats  

SciTech Connect

Developing rats were exposed to TCBs via provision of diets containing 0.02 (no PCB added), 2.4, 26, or 269 ppm Aroclor 1254 to sperm-positive female rats from mating to weaning of their pups. Provision of the 269 ppm diet decreased the number of impregnated rats that delivered a litter and lowered pup birth weight, and most pups died within 7 days of birth. Preweaning pup growth was reduced in the 26 ppm condition and slightly reduced in the 2.5 ppm condition. The ontogeny of negative geotaxis, auditory startle, and air righting was delayed in pups from the 26 ppm condition. Pups in the 2.5 ppm condition had slightly delayed development of auditory startle. Maximal electroshock seizure tests on postweaning rats showed that perinatal PCB exposure decreased seizure severity of both the 2.5 and 26 ppm groups. PCB exposure increased pup liver weights at birth and dam and pup liver weights at weaning. Spleen and thymus weights were lower in PCB-exposed pups, while brain weights were unaffected. Analytical determination of PCB levels in brain showed greater maternal transfer of PCBs during lactation than during gestation. Elevated PCB levels were detectable in brains of perinatally exposed adult rats.

Overmann, S.R.; Kostas, J.; Wilson, L.R.; Shain, W.; Bush, B.

1987-10-01

185

Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153  

PubMed Central

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4?,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2?,3,4,4?,5? pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter time points. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly differently from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

2009-01-01

186

Perinatal exposure to low doses of PCB 153 and PCB 126 affects maternal and neonatal immunityin goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant does (10 goats\\/group) were dosed orally either with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 (98 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d) or PCB 126 (ng\\/kg body weight\\/d) dissolved in corn oil or with corn oil only (control group) from gestation day (GD) 60 until delivery. An additional group (n = 5) of pregnant does received the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.4 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d)

Jan L. Lyche; Erik Ropstad; Hans J. S. Larsen; Janneche Utne Skaare; Aage Tverdal; Grethe M. Johansen

2006-01-01

187

How do Australian news media depict illicit drug issues? An analysis of print media reporting across and between illicit drugs, 2003–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMedia reporting on illicit issues has been frequently criticised for being sensationalised, biased and narrow. Yet, there have been few broad and systematic analyses of the nature of reporting. Using a large sample and methods commonly adopted in media communications analysis this paper sought to identify the dominant media portrayals used to denote illicit drugs in Australian newspapers and to

Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes; Kari Lancaster; Bridget Spicer

2011-01-01

188

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully developed flower bud ready for harvesting. Using eight additional characteristics describing the grow room and cultivation parameters, regression analysis with subset selection was carried out to develop two models for the yield of indoor cannabis cultivation. The median Dutch illicit grow room consists of 259 cannabis plants, has a plant density of 15 plants/m(2), and 510 W of growth lamps per m(2). For the median Dutch grow room, the predicted yield of female flower buds at the harvestable developmental stage (stage 10) was 33.7 g/plant or 505 g/m(2). PMID:17018080

Toonen, Marcel; Ribot, Simon; Thissen, Jac

2006-09-01

189

[Bayonet finger and the use of illicit drugs].  

PubMed

Prevalence of "bayonet finger", a semiologic sign of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was determined in male illicit drug users, admitted in psychiatric hospital. A control group, paired in sex, age and social status, was built from the general population. The sign was observed en 165/345 (47.8%) drug users and 13/50 (26%) controls, the difference being statistically significant. Bearers of this sign had 2.61 odds ratio, 1.84 relative risk and 92.7% probability for being drug users. The observations suggest that, for males: (1) ADHD and related syndromes should be present in approximately half of illicit drug users and should represent a vulnerability factor for becoming drug user; (2) individuals presenting "bayonet finger", mainly adolescent, should deserve special attention for prevention of drug use. PMID:11400030

Borini, P

2001-06-01

190

International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

2004-09-18

191

Skiba Thresholds in Optimal Control of Illicit Drug Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the last quarter of a century, dynamic models with multiple steady states have been studied in numerous areas of economics.\\u000a The corresponding history-dependence of optimal paths constitutes a low-level form of complexity. The purpose of the present\\u000a paper is to illustrate this fact for three selected models in the control of illicit drug consumption, which are validated\\u000a with empirical

Gustav Feichtinger; Gernot Tragler

192

The illicit transport of narcotic drugs by air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trafficking and illicit use of drugs has been a serious problem globally over the years, affecting peoples’ lives and\\u000a the aviation industry has not escaped the scourge. The illegal carriage by air of narcotics and other psychotropic substances\\u000a and its various corollaries of violence or narco-terrorism as it is popularly known, has shown that the activity can cause\\u000a various

Ruwantissa Abeyratne

2008-01-01

193

Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron interrogation systems  

SciTech Connect

Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of these materials. Two particular techniques, Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis, are discussed. Examples of modeling studies are provided which illustrate the applications of these two techniques.

Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

1994-06-01

194

Organized criminal involvement in the illicit antiquities trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the ”glocal” perspective of a large sample of archaeologists conducting fieldwork throughout the world and working on\\u000a the very sites of interest to looters, this paper explores the question whether and to what extent organized crime is involved\\u000a in the theft and illicit export of archaeological resources. Two major findings are presented: first, archaeologists tend\\u000a almost unanimously to consider

Blythe Bowman Proulx

2011-01-01

195

Illicit and Nonmedical Drug Use Among Older Adults: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Substance abuse among older adults is a looming public health concern. The number of Americans aged 50+ years with a substance use disorder is projected to double from 2.8 million in 2002-2006 to 5.7 million in 2020. The authors provide a review of epidemiological findings for this understudied area of research by focusing on illicit drug use disorders and

Li-Tzy Wu; Dan G. Blazer

2011-01-01

196

Route of Administration of Illicit Drugs among Remand Prison Entrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To describe the self-reported routes of administration of illicit drugs among subjects entering a remand prison and the different drugs used by this population. Methods: A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 770 subjects, was conducted in Geneva (Switzerland). Participants were assessed with the semi-structured interview from the Council of Europe Pompidou Group multi-city study. Results: 428 (55.6%) subjects

G. Niveau; C. Ritter

2008-01-01

197

Tank Riser Pit Decontamination System (Pit Viper) Return on Investment and Break-Even Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study assessed the cost benefit of Pit Viper deployment for 80 tank farm pits between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2012 under the technical baseline for applicable double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) projects. After this assessment had been completed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) published the Hanford Performance Management Plan (August 2003), which accelerated the schedule for SST retrieval. Then, DOE/CH2M HILL contract modification M064 (October 2002) and The Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan (March 2003) further accelerated SST retrieval and closure schedules. Twenty-six to 40 tanks must be retrieved by 2006. Thus the schedule for SST pit entries is accelerated and the number of SST pit entries is increased. This study estimates the return on investment (ROI) and the number of pits where Pit Viper deployment would break even or save money over current manual practices. The results of the analysis indicate a positive return on the federal investment for deployment of the Pit Viper provided it is used on a sufficient number of pits.

Young, Joan K.; Weimar, Mark R.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Hernandez, Melissa

2003-06-30

198

[Illicit sales of drugs in Senegal. Consequences for community health].  

PubMed

The relatively recent development of parallel drug markets in the Third World has not yet been specifically studied. A research on illicit drug sale was carried out in Pikine, a 600,000 people suburb of Dakar: all items provided by all sellers observed on the markets of the town were inventoried; their indications and posologies were given by a sample of 20 among the 100 identified sellers; complementary information was obtained from the official structures of drug distribution. The list of all medications available shows 23 items--12 directed at [symptoms], and 11 at [causes]. The indications and posologies are remarkably similar for the 20 sellers, whose training was done in well-structured channels outside the official network. Evaluation of the potential consequences of these parallel markets for community health shows: 1) a probably beneficial impact of some medications, such as analgesics, antimalarials, antibiotic eye ointment; 2) exposure to individual risks (tetracyclines, sulfamids) and collective risks (antibiotics, not widespread yet, but capable of selecting resistant germs). Moreover, this illicit sale must be understood in its social context where buying drugs on the markets is the least expensive and most accessible solution for underprivileged people, because of scarcity of resources in the dispensaries. Thus, rather than to automatically condemn illicit drug sale, it seems more appropriate and urgent to evaluate the risks of medications available in each of the countries involved, to develop health information in the population, and meanwhile to make access to drugs in primary health care structures easier. PMID:3802316

Fassin, D

1986-01-01

199

Hand injuries secondary to subcutaneous illicit drug injections.  

PubMed

We present a retrospective analysis of 32 patients admitted over a 5-year period to a metropolitan regional trauma center with recently induced subcutaneous ("skin pop") illicit drug injectional injuries involving the hand. Cocaine derivatives were the most frequently reported illicit drug used (75%). All patients had local disease manifested by subcutaneous abscess formation, and several had regional disease (cellulitis, lymphangitis, or lymphadenopathy), but only one patient had systemic illness. Microbiological analysis revealed endogenous integumentary and oral flora sensitive to oral preparations of several antibiotic medications including cephalosporins. Primary therapy included intravenous administration of antibiotic medications in all instances and simple incision and drainage under local anesthesia in 26 patients (81%). Six patients (19%) required more radical operative therapy. All patients were hospitalized and recovered without sequelae, with preservation of hand function after follow-up evaluation, which ranged from weeks to months, except for 1 patient who required digital amputation because of necrosis. Although the issue of compliance in terms of wound and general medical care for this patient population is problematic, analysis of the data suggested that patients with illicit drug injectional injuries of the hand confined to subcutaneous regions could be effectively and safely managed in outpatient settings by simple wound care and orally administered cephalosporin medications. PMID:7702297

Thomas, W O; Almand, J D; Stark, G B; Parry, S W; Rodning, C B

1995-01-01

200

Sharp Increase in Illicit Drug Use in Greece: Trends from a General Population Survey on Licit and Illicit Drug Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to follow trends in the prevalence of licit and illicit substance use between 1984 and 1998 in the Greek general population. Data are drawn from two nationwide cross-sectional household surveys. Probability samples consisted of 4,297 (1984) and 3,759 (1998) 12- to 64-year-old respondents. Regular tobacco smoking in the total sample increased in women and decreased in men

A. Kokkevi; M. Loukadakis; S. Plagianakou; K. Politikou; C. Stefanis

2000-01-01

201

Biotransformation of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) by liver microsomes from four species of sea turtles.  

PubMed

The rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners were determined in hepatic microsomes from four species of sea turtles, green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Hydroxylation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), an ortho-meta unsubstituted rodent cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A substrate PCB, was not observed in sea turtle microsomes. Sea turtle microsomes hydroxylated 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), a meta-para unsubstituted rodent P450 family 2 substrate PCB, at rates ranging from less than 0.5 to 53 pmol/min/mg protein. The P450 inhibitor ketoconazole inhibited hydroxylation of PCB 52, supporting the role of P450 catalysis. Sea turtle PCB 52 hydroxlyation rates strongly correlated with immunodetected P450 family 2-like and less so with P450 family 3-like hepatic proteins. Testosterone 6?-, 16?-, 16?-hydroxylase activities were also significantly correlated with the expression of these enzymes, indicating that P450 family 2 or P450 family 3 proteins are responsible for PCB hydroxylation in sea turtles. This study indicated species-specific PCB biotransformation in sea turtles and preferential elimination of meta-para unsubstituted PCB congeners over ortho-meta unsubstituted PCB congeners consistent with PCB accumulation patterns observed in tissues of sea turtles. PMID:21480586

Richardson, Kristine L; Schlenk, Daniel

2011-04-20

202

Sierra Leone’s illicit diamonds: the challenges and the way forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Kimberley Process Certificate Scheme has considerably reduced the flow of conflict diamonds from 4% to less than\\u000a 1%, other forms of illicit diamonds are estimated at 20% of global production. While scholars and policy makers have given\\u000a considerable attention to illicit mining and smuggling (with some success), illicit exploitation still hinders revenue generation\\u000a that is needed for economic

Sigismond A. Wilson

2011-01-01

203

Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB153 or PCB126 impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18093177

Piedrafita, Blanca; Erceg, Slaven; Cauli, Omar; Monfort, Pilar; Felipo, Vicente

2008-01-01

204

Modeling trapping mechanism for PCB adsorption on activated carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) in fishmeal and fish oil produced for use in feed for salmon is above present European legislation levels in some regions of the world and different decontamination approaches have been proposed [1]. One of these is adsorption on activated carbon. This approach appears to be efficient for adsorption of PCDD/F but less efficient for DL-PCB [2]. Activated carbon consists of slit pores with average sizes of 20 - 50 A?ngstroms. One hypothesis [2] for the mechanism of trapping DL-PCB is reduced ability for intramolecular movements of the PCB molecules inside the slit pores. In order to investigate this hypothesis we have used quantum mechanics [3] to characterize two DL-PCB congeners, respectively congener 77 (3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) and Triolein (18:1) [4] as a major constituent of the solvent fish oil. A model for activated carbon was constructed using a crystal structure of graphite from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database [5]. The crystal structure used was originally from Wyckoff [6]. A small program had to be written to generate the desired graphite structure as it contains no less than 31232 Carbon atoms. Partial atomic charges were estimated using QM with DFT/B3LYP/6-311+g** and SM6 [7].

Jensen, Bjørnar; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Oterhals, A.?ge

2012-12-01

205

PCB-77 disturbs iron homeostasis through regulating hepcidin gene expression.  

PubMed

PCBs are a family of persistent environmental toxicants with a wide spectrum of toxic features, such as immunotoxicity, hepatoxicity, endocrine disruption effects, and oncogenic effects. To date, little has been done to investigate the potential influence of PCB exposure on iron metabolism. Deregulated iron would lead to either iron deficiency or iron excess, coupled with various diseases such as anemia or hemochromatosis. Iron metabolism is strictly governed by the hepcidin-ferroportin axis, and hepcidin is the key regulator that is secreted by hepatocytes. Here, we found that PCB-77 could go through plasma membrane and accumulate in hepatocytes. PCB-77 was demonstrated to suppress hepcidin expression in HepG2 and L-02 hepatocytes. Moreover, hepatic hepcidin was observed to be inhibited in mice upon administration of PCB-77. Due to reduced hepcidin concentration, serum iron content was increased, with a significant reduction of splenic iron content. Together, we deciphered the molecular mechanism responsible for PCB-conducted disturbance on iron homeostasis, i.e. through misregulating hepatic hepcidin expression. PMID:24055725

Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shuping; Lin, Ronghai; Li, Long; Zhang, Daoqiang; Li, Xinghong; Liu, Sijin

2013-09-19

206

Energy saving ideas for open pit mining  

SciTech Connect

The increasing cost of diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. The possibility of combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is offered by the application of semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. In the first part of this article. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while in the second section. Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors. Since a belt conveyor cannot transport rocks of a size often produced when blasting hard strata, a crusher must be installed before the belt conveyor to reduce the material to a transportable size. This also serves as a primary crusher. The crushing plant is positioned centrally in the mine and trucks haul overburden and ore from the individual faces to the crusher without having to climb long gradients. Therefore, truck haul distances and operating costs are significantly reduced. The resulting savings in operating costs greatly exceeds the additional capital costs for the crushing plant. The use of fully mobile crushers directly fed by the face shovel is well established. Whereas the partial elimination of truck haulage by semi-mobile in-pit crushers is a more recent development. This latter method restricts truck haulage to in-pit operation only, saving costly haulage of material up-grade out of the pit to the crusher or overburden dump. It is particularly applicable to operations where blending is required. In such cases, the flexibility and adaptability of trucks to frequently changing faces is essential, while the semi-mobile crusher reduces haul distances to a minimum.

Rixen, W. (Krupp Industrie-Und Stahlbau, Duisberg, Germany); Benecke, K.J.

1981-05-01

207

Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

2008-03-01

208

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sealants; caulking; Galbestos; non-liquid building demolition debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste from the shredding of automobiles or household appliances from which PCB small capacitors have been removed (shredder fluff). (ii)...

2013-07-01

209

Partial pressures of PCB-11 in air from several Great Lakes sites.  

PubMed

Relatively high concentrations of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) have been reported in water and air, and it has been suggested that this compound did not come from commercial PCB products. We report here data on atmospheric partial pressures of PCB-11 and of total PCBs at five sites around the Great Lakes and demonstrate that both total PCBs and PCB-11 track human population density. In addition, we show that with the exception of Chicago, the PCB congener pattern at our sampling sites is best represented by Aroclor 1242; in Chicago, the pattern is best represented by a 1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1242 and 1254. With the possible exception of Sturgeon Point New York, the levels of PCB-11 in air have not changed between January 2004 and December 2007. The source of PCB-11 may be related to yellow pigments, to the degradation of more highly chlorinated PCB congeners, or to both. PMID:19764206

Basu, Ilora; Arnold, Karen A; Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A

2009-09-01

210

Specific human CYP 450 isoform metabolism of a pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-IUPAC# 101)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyl IUPAC# 101-PCB 101 (chlorination pattern-2,2?,4?,5,5?) is a common, persistent non-coplanar PCB congener found in the ambient environment but information related to its metabolism in humans is lacking. Previous studies indicate PCB 101 is rapidly metabolized in mammals through CYP 2B and 3A family enzymes. Recently, PCB metabolism through a 2A family isoform in hamsters was also reported. To

Joseph E. McGraw; Donald P. Waller

2006-01-01

211

Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.  

PubMed

Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure. PMID:19184731

Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik

2009-01-01

212

Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (?0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

2010-06-01

213

OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN EXPLOSIVE CHARGE TO REMOVE OVERBURDEN AND ACCESS COAL SEAMS LOCATED 200 FEET BELOW FOR STRIPPING. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

214

Study on the plasma treatment of waste oil containing PCB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of treatment of transformer oil containing less than 2 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in a plant of high-temperature plasma melting of ash residues after the municipal waste incineration. The content of undecomposed PCBs, dioxins, and other hazardous waste in all secondary products of treatment (off gases; slag; secondary fly ash; process water used for slag granulation) was analyzed by different methods. Performed analytical investigations showed high ecological degree of PCB decomposition in the plant of plasma-thermal treatment of ashes after incinerators.

Park, H. S.; Lukashov, V. P.; Vashchenko, S. P.; Morozov, S. V.

2009-12-01

215

Immunity of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng children in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

Up to now, there has been no studies about the immune status of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies. In an earlier study, Yu-Cheng babies were reported to have a high infant mortality rate. It was reported that these babies would easily catch cold, experience diarrhea and abdominal pains. Recently, it was found that the bronchitis rate of Yu-Cheng babies is higher than in control babies. Because of high risk of infection, it is presumed that these babies might suffer immunosuppression to a certain extent. According to these findings, investigations into the immune functions of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies are needed.

Lan, Shou Jen; Yen, Yea Yin; Chen, Eng Rin; Ko, Ying Chin (Graduate Institute of Medicine of Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung City (Taiwan)); Lan, Joung Liang (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan))

1990-02-01

216

[Patterns and modalities of illicit drug consumption in France].  

PubMed

After recalling the current patterns and trends of illicit drug use in France, the MILDT president outlined a four-year plan of prevention, treatment, enforcement and research. The overriding aim is to reduce overall drug consumption and thereby to diminish its morbidity and mortality, and its negative impact on the family and society. The president ended by describing the public tools and resources available to reach these objectives, and underlined the central role of MILDT in developing and coordinating these tools. PMID:18819681

Apaire, Etienne

2008-02-01

217

Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

1994-07-01

218

Detection of pits in fresh cherries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are a number of x-ray imaging techniques that could be implemented for the detection of pits in cherries, including linescan and real-time imaging using an image intensifier and CCD camera. However, x-ray imaging equipment is both expensive and bulky, and implementation on the processing line ...

219

Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necro- tizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was

Petra A. Volmer; Valentina Merola; Tanasa Osborne; Keith L. Bailey; Gavin Meerdink

220

COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

221

Magma Pathways, Calderas, and Pit Craters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students trace the path that magma takes from the mantle to the surface and learn how calderas and pit craters form. The site contains seven activities from kindergarten level to twelfth grade and includes the required materials and worksheets. There is also a virtual field trip including both Crater Rim Drive and Chain of Craters Road.

222

GRAPEVINE RUPESTRIS STEM PITTING-ASSOCIATED VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a recently identified virus and belongs to the Foveavirus genus within the Flexiviridae family. Its single–stranded RNA genome contains five open reading frames that potentially encode the replication related proteins, a triple gene bloc...

223

40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.359 ...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With ç...

2010-07-01

224

40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from...Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in...6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting...

2010-07-01

225

40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.359 ...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With ç...

2009-07-01

226

77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9644-2; CERCLA-04-2012-3763] Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County...Amended Settlement concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The...Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

2012-03-07

227

77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CERCLA-04-2012-3763; FRL 9637-7] Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County...past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston, Calhoun...Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

2012-02-27

228

40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from...Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in...6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting...

2009-07-01

229

Analysis of PCB subassembly dynamic responses using integrated analytical, numerical and experimental techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical shock causes multiple PCB bending or vibration which induces the solder joint fatigue failure. The solder joint failures are strongly dependent on many factors. In particular, PCB design and mounting method is one of the key factors. It determines the dynamic responses, and the degree of PCB flexing which is the root cause of solder joint failure. In

Jing-en Luan; Tong Yan Tee

2005-01-01

230

PCB residues in plankton and sediment in the Southwestern Coast of Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Jensen in 1966 first identified polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the Swedish environment, numerous studios bave shown their world-wide distribution at all environmental levels. Analyses of fish samples have shown that the Baltic Sea is rather contaminated by both OOT and PCB compounds (JENSEN et al. 1972a). The PCB levels in the fish ™ coastal areas give strong evidence o™

R. R. Linko; P. Rantamaki; K. Urpo

1974-01-01

231

Localized Enrichment of PCB Levels in Street Dust Due to Redistribution by Wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a project to identify PCB sources in combined sewer overflows discharging to the Buffalo River, NY, nine street and two unpaved aggregate parking lot dust and dirt samples were collected and analyzed for selected PCB congeners and total PCBs. Without exception, the dust and dirt samples had greater concentrations associated with the higher-chlorinated homologue groups. PCB-congeners 153,

K. N. Irvine; B. G. Loganathan

1998-01-01

232

DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C57BL/6 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of PCB atropisomers is present in technical PCB mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective distribution, metabolism, and dispo...

233

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). 761.205 Section...205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). (a)(1) All...or prior to February 5, 1990 shall notify EPA of their PCB waste activities by...

2013-07-01

234

Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

Roeder-Smith, Lynne

2002-06-30

235

Controls on pit lake water quality at sixteen open-pit mines in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five mines in Nevada currently have, or will likely have, a pit lake. The large bulk mineable deposits in Nevada mined below the water table are of several types, including Carlin-type Au, quartz-adularia precious metal, quartz-alunite precious metal and porphyry-Cu (-Mo) deposits. Of the 16 past or existing pit lakes at 12 different Nevada mines, most had near neutral pH

Lisa Shevenell; Katherine A Connors; Christopher D Henry

1999-01-01

236

The Aspiration of Bordered Pits in Conifer Wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of tension in a radial strand of a bordered pit membrane during drying has been derived theoretically from two approaches. One considers the mechanical extension of the strand, while the other considers the surface tension force caused by an annular liquid meniscus in the pit chamber. The tension has been calculated for pits in earlywood, in latewood and

J. A. Petty

1972-01-01

237

99. ARAIII. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

99. ARA-III. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. Bridge over pit in use for operations. Shows water in pool, reactor, hoist, operators, and general view of interior of reactor pit area. August 12, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4454. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

238

Reduction of soaking pit fuel consumption in the steel industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures taken at the Kimitsu Works to improve fuel consumption in soaking pits involve improving the heat retaining method for the oversoaking stage and improving the method for retaining heat in empty pits. The transition of the overall fuel consumption of the soaking pits at the steel production plant and the 82.3% fuel savings from implementing the improvements for operation

Akashi

1980-01-01

239

10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. Note the difference in configuration within this turbine pit as compared to one of the original pits illustrated in photograph number MT-105-A-11. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

240

Pitting corrosion on weld joints of offshore structure jackets  

SciTech Connect

During underwater inspection, pitting corrosion was observed on weld joints of offshore structure jackets. A detailed investigation was carried out to find the cause of the pitting. Pitting and galvanic corrosion studies and cathodic protection experiments were carried out in synthetic seawater and in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Field exposure studies also were carried out. Remedial measures are described.

Anto, P.F.

2000-04-01

241

Pit alignment and earthworks between Marygoldhill Plantation and Drakemire, Berwickshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A co-linear alignment of pits and ditch segments accompanied by a bank are cut by the ramparts of an enclosure annexed to one of the Bunkle Edge Iron-Age forts. Excavation of three consecutive pits of the alignment showed that they may have held posts, In contrast to the Irregularities of the other pits which had been used for quarrying.

Peter Strong

242

Pitting corrosion of copper. An equilibrium - mass transport study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits on copper is described. The model is used to predict the potentials below which copper is immune to pitting. The criteria used for immunity against pitting is that the volume of the cuprous oxide ...

C. Taxen

1996-01-01

243

Dynamic scaling of pit-size distribution in corrosion patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growth model is presented to simulate the corrosion pattern in pitting corrosion in three dimensions. The pitting corrosion is controlled by diffusion of anions toward the metal surface. The computer simulation is performed to study the scaling structure of pit-size distribution in the corrosion pattern. It is shown that a transition occurs in the overall corrosion pattern from disconnected

Takashi Nagatani

1992-01-01

244

Structural transition in pitting corrosion of binary alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growth model is proposed to simulate the pit formation in pitting corrosion of binary alloys. The metal is modeled by a random binary alloy where one species is easy to dissolve and the other species is hard to dissolve. The pit growth model is described by the anti-diffusion-limited aggregation model. A computer simulation is performed to form the corrosion

Takashi Nagatani

1992-01-01

245

Particle-induced pitting corrosion of aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pitting corrosion has been identified as one of the principal precursors to fatigue crack initiation and growth in aluminum alloys. It has been attributed to the galvanic coupling between the constituent particles in the alloy and the surrounding matrix. To better understand particle induced pitting corrosion, the efforts of this dissertation research were directed toward fuller characterizations or the constituent particles, the morphology of corrosion pits, and the mechanism, processes, and kinetics of pitting. Model alloys were used to estimate their electrochemical properties and to develop information on the galvanic coupling between the alloy and constituent particles. In situ monitoring and pit replication techniques were developed to provide information on the processes of pitting corrosion in real-time and on the morphology of corrosion pits in three dimensions. Pitting is caused by the matrix dissolution due to the galvanic effect between particle-matrix coupling. Two pit morphology, general pits and severe pits, were induced due to the difference in particle distribution density. General pits are caused by individual particles and severe pits are induced by particle clusters at or beneath the surface. Corrosion of the particle-matrix couples is cathodically controlled and is governed by the particle size. Pit replica technique faithfully duplicated and reflected all of the key features of corrosion pits. This technique provides a 3-dimensional perspective and can aid in the quantitative assessments of the kinetics and the mechanistic understanding of pitting corrosion. A Conceptual Model was proposed to describe the mechanism of particle induced pitting. This model provides a new framework for understanding and modeling the nucleation and growth of corrosion pits in aluminum alloys. A Model for General Pitting has been established to describe the development of pitting at single particles in terms of the particle size and limiting cathodic current density over the particle. A simplified approach for modeling the growth of severe pits is described. Suggestions for further research are described, which include the development of mechanistic model that incorporates the potential and current distributions on the particle and the matrix, and methods for characterizing the spatial distribution of particles and clusters in aluminum alloys.

Liao, Chi-Min

246

Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

2010-01-01

247

Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem): differences in characteristics and misuse.  

PubMed

There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate. PMID:19493637

Carter, Lawrence P; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R

2009-06-02

248

A World Health Organization Perspective on Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol and illicit drug use has a significant impact on global health. Alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide, particularly in developing countries and countries in transition, leading to an increasing number of health and social problems, both acute and chronic. Illicit drug use is also increasing, particularly injection drug use, followed by an epidemic spread of HIV and other blood-borne infections.

Maristela G. Monteiro

2001-01-01

249

Illicit drug use research in Latin America: Epidemiology, service use, and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use, services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that

Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola; María Elena Medina-Mora; Cristina G. Magaña; William A. Vega; Christina Alejo-Garcia; Tania Real Quintanar; Luc ´ õa Vazquez; Patricia D. Ballesteros; Juan Ibarra; Heidi Rosales

2006-01-01

250

Steroidogenic enzyme gene expression profiles in the testis of cattle treated with illicit growth promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the effect of illicit growth promoters (GPs) upon the cattle transcriptome has drawn the increasing attention of the scientific community. In the present study, the pre-transcriptional effects of three different illicit protocols on a set of target genes, including steroidogenic enzymes and three related transcription factors, were estimated in cattle testis.Beef cattle were administered with dexamethasone (DEX) orally (group

Rosa M. Lopparelli; Vanessa Zancanella; Mery Giantin; Licia Ravarotto; Giandomenico Pozza; Clara Montesissa; Mauro Dacasto

2011-01-01

251

Family structure, personality, drinking, smoking and illicit drug use: a study of UK teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a survey of 7722 15–16 year old school students in the United Kingdom were used to examine relationships between family structure and using alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Respondents living with both parents were significantly less likely to participate in all of these, with girls more affected, particularly as regards cigarette smoking and illicit drugs. For other families,

Patrick Miller

1997-01-01

252

Do efforts to reduce the supply of illicit drugs increase turf war violence? a theoretical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models illicit drug dealers as territorial monopolists. The model shows that an increase in efforts to reduce the\\u000a supply of illicit drugs decreases a dealer’s expected monopoly returns over drug turf. Consequently, efforts to acquire drug\\u000a turf through violence are reduced.

Robert T. Burrus

1999-01-01

253

76 FR 58466 - Models To Advance Voluntary Corporate Notification to Consumers Regarding the Illicit Use of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards and Technology National Telecommunications...110829543-1541-01] Models To Advance Voluntary...Regarding the Illicit Use of Computer Equipment...Standards and Technology; U.S. Department...on potential models for detection...botnets' illicit use of computer equipment...Standards and Technology at the...

2011-09-21

254

Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use Among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies examining media content, 95% found a statistically significant association between increased

Marcella Nunez-Smith; Elizabeth Wolf; Helen Mikiko Huang; Peggy G. Chen; Lana Lee; Ezekiel J. Emanuel; Cary P. Gross

2010-01-01

255

Illicit Drug and Injecting Equipment Markets inside English Prisons: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, disrupting the supply of illicit drugs and injecting equipment inside Her Majesty's (HM) prisons has become an important focus for prison drug policy. This paper presents findings from qualitative research, which invited 24 drug injectors with prison experience to discuss the role and operation of illicit drug and injecting…

Hughes, Rhidian

2003-01-01

256

International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation

J Herbillon; L Koch; G Mason; S Niemeyer; N Nikiforov

1999-01-01

257

Use of Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Tobacco Among Characters on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research of addictive substances suggests that use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco is overrepresented on prime-time television (TV). These studies, however, have relied on frequency counts of the substance, rather than the prevalence of use among characters. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco users among characters on

Judith A. Long; Patrick G. O'Connor; George Gerbner; John Concato

2002-01-01

258

Looking at forensic intelligence from the metaphysical perspective: citing illicit heroin profiling as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as illicit drugs are concerned, drug profiling utilizing various analytical methods to trace the origin, manufacturing process and distribution chain is a key element in forensic intelligence. Setting aside the practical use of drug profiles, forensic laboratory findings with close reference to that of illicit heroin could also provide metaphyiscal insights about the nature of such intelligence work.

Kar-Weng Chan; Guan-Huat Tan; Richard C. S. Wong

2012-01-01

259

Prevalence and Motives for Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants in an Undergraduate Student Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants and alcohol and other drugs (AODs), associated with these motives, the authors distributed a self-administered Web survey TO a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate college students. Of the study participants, 8.1% reported lifetime and 5.4% reported past-year illicit

Teter, Christian J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Boyd, Carol J.; Guthrie, Sally K.

2005-01-01

260

Determinants of Property Crime Among Illicit Opiate Users Outside of Treatment Across Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminal activities account for a major proportion of the social costs related to illicit drug use. This article examines the factors contributing to property crime activity among a community sample of 653 untreated regular illicit opiate users in 5 Canadian cities (OPICAN study). Multivariate analyses showed the frequency of heroin, cocaine, and crack use, gender, housing status, and past criminal

Patrik Manzoni; Serge Brochu; Benedikt Fischer; Jürgen Rehm

2006-01-01

261

The risk for mild kidney function decline associated with illicit drug use among hypertensive men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have examined the deleterious effect of illicit drug use on kidney function. Methods: Six hundred forty-seven patients enrolled in the Hypertension Clinic of the Veterans Administration Medical Center of New Orleans, LA, were interviewed regarding illicit drug use and followed up for a median of 7 years to determine the incidence of mild kidney function decline (increase

Suma Vupputuri; Vecihi Batuman; Paul Muntner; Lydia A. Bazzano; John J. Lefante; Paul K. Whelton; Jiang He

2004-01-01

262

Illicit Methadone Use and Abuse in Young People Accessing Treatment for Opiate Dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study looked at illicit methadone use in a group of young people attending a Dublin clinic for treatment of opiate dependence. A structured questionnaire was designed and administered to eligible participants (aged 25 years or under on treatment for opiate dependence). Of the total number of participants (n = 81), 73% reported illicit methadone use before treatment entry

Aoife Roche; Sara McCabe; Bobby P. Smyth

2008-01-01

263

Drinking and smoking as concurrent predictors of illicit drug use and positive drug attitudes in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the relationship between smoking and drinking, and the use of illicit drugs in a cohort of London adolescents. A high prevalence of drug experimentation and positive attitudes to illicit drug use were characteristic of those who both drank alcohol and smoked cigarettes on a regular basis. There was then a clear hierarchy in which lower prevalence of

David Best; Salman Rawaf; Jenny Rowley; Karen Floyd; Victoria Manning; John Strang

2000-01-01

264

Internal and External Factors Associated with Illicit Prescription Drug Use in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

With data suggesting emerging adulthood is a time of increased risk for illicit prescription drug use, it is essential that factors contributing to this be understood to guide prevention efforts. Internal factors (stress, GPA, gender) and external factors (type of institution, living situation) were assessed in tandem with perceptions of harm and illicit prescription drug use. In accordance with nationwide

Robyn A. Dolson; Eric Tompkins; Tanya L. Tompkins

2012-01-01

265

Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

2010-01-01

266

Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.  

PubMed

This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2010-11-01

267

Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa  

PubMed Central

This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2008-01-01

268

Analysis of illicit amphetamine seizures by capillary zone electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Capillary zone electrophoresis was applied for the determination of amphetamine and related substances in seized drugs. A buffer made of 0.1 M phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethanolamine was selected. With this background electrolyte, triethanolamine is adsorbed to the capillary wall and the electroosmotic flow is reversed. This gives rise to peaks with good symmetry, high efficiency and reproducible migration times. The separation of the different analytes was performed in a fused-silica capillary thermostatted at 25 degrees C and the applied voltage was 25 kV. Under these experimental conditions, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine, N-methyl-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-butamine and ephedrine were resolved within 8 min and without interference from adulterants usually found in illicit powders. Their identification by the migration time was confirmed by their UV spectra recorded with a diode array UV detector (190-350 nm). The selected method was then applied to identify these substances in illicit tablets known as "Ecstasy" and the MDMA determined in these samples according to a laboratory validation procedure. PMID:12498266

Piette, Véronique; Parmentier, Frans

2002-12-01

269

Poisoning with illicit substances: toxicology for the anaesthetist.  

PubMed

The consumption of illicit substances represents a considerable threat to the health and wellbeing of particular sectors of our communities. Hospitalisation is sometimes required for the treatment of the direct toxic effects of the drugs as well as for injuries sustained while under their influence. Although poisoning with 'traditional' substances of abuse such as opioids, cocaine and cannabis still predominate in terms of numbers, the availability and use of new psychoactive substances are on the rise. These latter agents, some of which began life as failed pharmaceutical products, have enjoyed renewed status as recreational stimulants, entactogens or hallucinogens, properties that originally precluded them from legitimate use. These drugs may act by enhancing endogenous release of neurotransmitters, inhibiting their reuptake back into neurons or having direct effects on receptors, and may involve adrenergic, dopaminergic or serotonergic systems. The use of intravenous lipid emulsion for the symptomatic treatment of drug overdose has become a fertile ground for research and may hold promise as a non-specific treatment for poisoning with illicit substances. Dexmedetomidine, an ?(2)-receptor agonist with a central sympatholytic effect, may be able to counteract the cardiovascular and central nervous system overstimulation that may accompany stimulant toxicity. PMID:23210561

Wong, G T C; Irwin, M G

2013-01-01

270

Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

271

A PCB system integration concept for power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current passive components construction technologies and power converters manufacturing methods are the main barriers limiting the power density improvement. In this paper a new PCB system integration concept for power converters construction - power sandwich, that allows for a high density packaging, effective thermal management and automated manufacturing is introduced. In the Power sandwich integration concept new passive components, x-dimension

I. Josifovic; J. Popovic-Gerber; Jan Abraham Ferreira

2009-01-01

272

Relative Permittivity Variation Surrounding PCB Via Hole Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As integrated circuit technology advancements are pushing data rates to 6 Gb\\/s and beyond, channel simulations are becoming a necessity. As part of the topology modeling and simulation, the correct value of permittivity surrounding a printed circuit board (PCB) via hole structure is required for better accuracy. This paper presents data to suggest the relative permittivity of the dielectric surrounding

Lambert Simonovich

2008-01-01

273

EVALUATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR PESTICIDES AND PCB'S IN RAW WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The general EPA protocol for screening industrial effluents for priority pollutants (Federal Register 38, No. 75, Part II), has been tested for its applicability to the analysis of the priority pollutant pesticides and PCB's in raw wastewater. Raw wastewater from the municipal se...

274

IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

275

Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Dechlorination and Biodegradation Endpoints  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation served as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation, thus allowing evaluation of several of the most common transformation patterns. Correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0).

Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

1999-04-19

276

Modeling marine impacts of ocean incineration of PCB waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four level atmospheric - ocean - sediments transport model has been coupled to an ecosystem model to estimate the magnitude of effects of ocean-based incineration of PCB wastes. The atmospheric (top) layer of the model has a seasonally variable thickness, a reflecting boundary at the top, and an absorbing boundary at the air-water interface. Upper and lower layers of

Mark Reed; Katherine Jayko; Deborah French

1985-01-01

277

Characterization of coreless printed circuit board (PCB) transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, coreless printed-circuit-board transformers are characterized. A range of coreless printed circuit board (PCB) transformers with different geometric parameters have been fabricated and tested. Based on a recently reported analytic method, the self inductance of these transformers is calculated. This analytical method is also extended to cover the prediction of the transformers' mutual inductance. All calculated parameters have

S. C. Tang; S. Y. Hui; H. S.-H. Chung

2000-01-01

278

Logistic regression tree applied to classify PCB golden finger defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic inspection and classification of printed circuit board (PCB) defects remains a problem in the Integrated Circuit (IC) industry. In a small volume, large production variety environment, some of the widely used defects classification tools are the Bayes classifier, the linear discriminant function (LDF) classifier, the minimum distance classifier, and the K-nearest neighbour (K-NN) classifier. These classifiers all have shortcomings

B. C. Jiang; C. C. Wang; P. L. Chen

2004-01-01

279

ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) LOADING TRENDS IN LAKE MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

PCB concentrations in coregonid fishes (bloater chubs) collected from Lake Michigan between 1972 and 1980 are used to infer a historical loading trend for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A mass balance model was developed to describe the dynamics of PCBs by assuming that histor...

280

Component analysis of illicit heroin samples with GC/MS and its application in source identification.  

PubMed

A novel method based on GC/MS and GC for component analyses of seized illicit heroin was established by using SKF525A as an internal standard. The main components in illicit heroin products such as heroin, O3-acetylmorphine, monoacetylcodeine, and O6-acetylmorphine were determined quantitatively and the organic adulterants such as paracetamol, acetaminophen caffeine and theophylline were detected qualitatively using the developed method. With these obtained data, 500 seized illicit heroin samples were divided into nine groups. The decomposition pattern of heroin was studied. The dependencies of both the decomposition pattern and the content ratios of monoacetylcodeine to heroin and monoacetylcodeine to O6-acetylmorphine on the source of the seized illicit heroin were observed. This information was used to develop a novel method for its source identification. The examination results were in agreement with the practical cases, thus providing significant information for detection of criminal cases involving illicit heroin. PMID:14979348

Zhang, Daming; Shi, Xuejun; Yuan, Zengping; Ju, Huangxian

2004-01-01

281

Reference standards for quantitative trace analysis of PCB's by GC. Technical PCB formulations for the calibration of ECD and MSD responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of any technical PCB formulation can be determined directly by analyzing the PCB sample by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), provided the relative molecular masses of the components are known. The responses of electron capture and selected-ion monitoring, mass-spectra detectors can then be calibrated for individual PCB congeners by correlation of the chromatographic patterns with

J. Krupcík; A. Kocan; J. Petrík; P. A. Leclercq; K. Ballschmiter

1993-01-01

282

Red cell pits appear preferentially in old cells after splenectomy.  

PubMed

The percentage of erythrocytes with pits in the peripheral blood after splenectomy was followed in 4 patients. The pit counts started to increase soon after surgery and were above 20% on the 20th postsplenectomy day. The results demonstrate that the majority of pits developed in circulating erythrocytes. Two other patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia who had failed to respond to splenectomy presented an increase of pit counts from 5.5-13% to 29.8-47.4%, accompanying an increase of erythrocyte life-span during corticosteroid treatment. The data indicate that pits are formed preferentially in older erythrocytes. PMID:3098028

Zago, M A; Covas, D T; Figueiredo, M S; Bottura, C

1986-01-01

283

Adapting the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) to examine the feasibility of monitoring trends in the markets for ‘party drugs’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS), Australia’s strategic early warning system for illicit drug trends, has monitored annual trends in the markets for the four main illicit drug classes, cannabis, methamphetamine, cocaine and heroin. In 2000, a 2-year trial was implemented to examine the feasibility of using similar methodology to monitor trends in the markets for ‘party drugs’.

Libby Topp; Courtney Breen; Sharlene Kaye; Shane Darke

2004-01-01

284

Prenatal PCB exposure and neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) performance.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between prenatal (cord blood) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) performance in babies born to women who consumed contaminated Lake Ontario fish. Cord blood PCBs, DDE, HCB, Mirex, lead, and hair mercury levels were determined for 152 women who reported never consuming Lake Ontario fish and 141 women who reported consuming at least 40 PCB-equivalent lbs. of Lake Ontario fish over their lifetime. Earlier work demonstrated that the newborns of fish eaters are exposed to a more heavily chlorinated distribution of PCB congeners, and that highly chlorinated PCBs (hepta-, octa-, and nonachlorinated biphenyls) are most strongly correlated with breast milk levels, perhaps providing the best index of PCB exposure in the Oswego cohort. Given the above, one would predict that these PCBs would be related to impaired performance on those NBAS clusters associated with fish consumption: namely Habituation, Autonomic, and Reflex clusters of the NBAS. Excepting the Relex cluster, these predictions were confirmed. Results revealed significant linear relationships between the most heavily chlorinated PCBs and performance impairments on the Habituation and Autonomic clusters of the NBAS at 25-48 h after birth. Additionally, higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with a nonspecific performance impairment on the NBAS as evidenced by a significantly greater proportion of NBAS scales in which poor performance was exhibited (more than 1 standard deviation below the mean) in the most highly exposed neonates. Moreover, PCBs of lighter chlorination were unrelated to NBAS performance, as were DDE, Mirex, HCB, lead, and mercury. These results corroborate our earlier findings linking Lake Ontario fish consumption to the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners, and suggest that the chlorination and persistence of PCBs may be an important factor both for exposure assessment and for determining relationships with neurobehavioral functions. PMID:10642111

Stewart, P; Reihman, J; Lonky, E; Darvill, T; Pagano, J

285

PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments  

SciTech Connect

PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh [University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MA (USA). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2007-07-01

286

Mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-poisoned rats  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-poisoned rats, the following two experiments were carried out. Experiment No. 1: Rats were separated into three groups. Group 1 was fed a normal diet, group 2 was fed a PCB-supplemented diet, and group 3 was fed a dichlorodiphyltrichloroethane (DDT)-supplemented diet. After 5 months, the rats were killed. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in livers of the PCB- and DDT-exposed rats had increased. The activity of catalase was increased in the PCB-fed rats but decreased after the administered of DDT. The glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased only in the PCB-administered rats. These results indicate that PCB and DDT have some effects to enhance lipid oxidation. It is probable that the decrease in glutathione peroxidase is the major reason for the increase of lipid oxidation in PCB-poisoned rats. The mechanism of lipid peroxidate production in DDT-poisoned rats could be different from the case of PCB poisoning. Experiment No. 2: Rats were separated into two groups. To one group, normal diet was given and to the other group PCB-supplemented diet was given. After 1 month, the rats were killed. In PCB-exposed rats, activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were increased. The increase in glutathione reductase could be compensation for a decrease in glutathione peroxidase. It is probable that PCB is metabolized to make glutathione conjugates by the action of glutathione S-transferase.

Kamohara, K.; Yagi, N.; Itokawa, Y.

1984-06-01

287

Optic Disc Pit with Sectorial Retinitis Pigmentosa  

PubMed Central

Sectorial retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and optic disc pit (ODP) are rare clinical conditions. We present a 40-year-old woman with a history of mild night blindness and decreased vision in the right eye for about 5 years. Fundus examination revealed retinal pigmentary changes in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula and reduced arterial calibre and ODP at the temporal edge of the optic disc. In addition, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and multifocal electroretinogram scans confirmed these clinical findings. Visual acuity was decreased due to an atrophic-appearing foveal lesion. No intervention was suggested because of the poor visual potential. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to describe coexistent optic disc pit and sectorial RP in the superior and inferotemporal sectors covering the macula in the same eye with figures.

Taskapili, Muhittin; Yilmaz, Tolga; Teke, Mehmet Yasin

2013-01-01

288

Verminous myelitis in a pit bull puppy.  

PubMed

A 10-week-old, male pit bull dog presented to the referring veterinarian with hind limb paresis and epaxial muscle atrophy. No spinal lesions were identified at gross necropsy; however, histologically there was marked granulomatous myelitis in the spinal cord between T13 and L2 with occasional, intralesional nematode larvae. Based on morphologic characteristics, the nematode larvae were identified as Strongyloides spp., possibly Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:19407100

Snook, Eric R; Baker, David G; Bauer, Rudy W

2009-05-01

289

Mauling by pit bull terriers: case report.  

PubMed

A child with extensive soft-tissue defects following an attack by four pit bull terriers is presented. Some future procedures are required and she will have a permanent gait disability. The multidisciplinary management of this patient is described. The escalating problem of dog attacks in the United States is discussed. It is hoped that increased physician and public awareness will expedite the enactment and enforcement of effective vicious-dog legislation. PMID:2709463

Baack, B R; Kucan, J O; Demarest, G; Smoot, E C

1989-04-01

290

Bases for pump pit requirements calculations  

SciTech Connect

A task team is preparing the Process Requirements for the interarea transfer pump pits at the Defense Waste Process Facility (DWPF). The team is developing requirements to prevent flammable mixtures from forming and requires values to use on the generation of various components such as benzene, hydrogen, and N20. The purpose of this memorandum is to document values to be used and to provide sample calculations using these values. There are no recommendations contained in this document.

Jacobs, R.A.

1992-02-13

291

2,2?,3,5?,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 95) AND ITS HYDROXYLATED METABOLITES ARE ENANTIOMERICALLY ENRICHED IN FEMALE MICE  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and laboratory studies link polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several neurotoxic PCB congeners are chiral and undergo enantiomeric enrichment in mammalian species, which may modulate PCB developmental neurotoxicity. This study measures levels and enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 and its hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in adult female C57Bl/6 mice following subchronic exposure to racemic PCB 95. Tissue levels of PCB 95 and OH-PCBs increased with increasing dose. Dose-dependent enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 was observed in brain and other tissues. OH-PCBs also displayed enantiomeric enrichment in blood and liver, but were not detected in adipose and brain. In light of data suggesting enantioselective effects of chiral PCBs on molecular targets linked to PCB developmental neurotoxicity, our observations highlight the importance of accounting for PCB and OH-PCB enantiomeric enrichment in the assessment of PCB developmental neurotoxicity.

Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Stamou, Marianna; Truong, Kim M.; El-Komy, Mohammed H.M.E.; Lein, Pamela J.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2012-01-01

292

Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

Harlow, D. Gary

2012-08-01

293

Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

Harlow, D. Gary

2011-08-01

294

PCB congener distributions in muscle, liver and gonad of Fundulus heteroclitus from the lower Hudson River Estuary and Newark Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradients in sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and PCB congener profiles exist along the Hudson River (NY, USA). We evaluated site and tissue differences in PCB concentration and congener profiles in resident mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) collected from PCB-contaminated sites in the lower Hudson River and the New York\\/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Fish were collected from three PCB-contaminated sites Piermont Marsh

E. Monosson; J. T. F. Ashley; A. E. McElroy; D. Woltering; A. A. Elskus

2003-01-01

295

Respiratory Disease following Illicit Injection of Silicone: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Unregulated, pseudomedical procedures risk serious sequelae even when otherwise safe compounds are used. Silicone is commonly used legally in cosmetic procedures owing to its durability, resistance to heat and aging, and low immunogenicity. However, inappropriate or illegal silicone injection can pose severe local and systemic complications including serious pulmonary compromise. We describe the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis and progressive shortness of breath following illicit silicone injections to the gluteal fat and was found to have new, diffuse, bilateral, ground-glass opacities on contrast-enhanced pulmonary computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy elucidated that this was a lipoid pneumonia-type injury secondary to silicone infiltration. PMID:23956752

Essenmacher, Alex Charles; Astani, Seyed Amin

2013-07-15

296

Research approaches in illicit drug use: a critical review.  

PubMed

Research approached and substantive findings pertaining to determinants of the nonmedical use of illicit psychoactive drugs are reviewed. Discussion focuses upon the dimensions of drug use as a behaviorial phenomenon, the findings and limitations of four basic approaches to research in the ares--sociocultural, psychopathological, functionalist, and social learning-- and upon methodological problems. Drug use must be treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, with analyses extending well beyond simple user vs. nonuser comparisons or arbitrary categories of users. Research must be conducted within a coherent field-theoretical conceptual framework, directed toward the formulation of nomothetic laws concerning patterns of drug use. Inadequacies in sampling and measurement and the absence of longitudinal design have compromised the utility of a vast research literature. PMID:1091527

Sadava, S W

1975-02-01

297

Opportunities and risks of the proposed FCTC protocol on illicit trade.  

PubMed

Illicit trade in tobacco products presents a threat to public health because it undermines the use of tax and price policies, which are among the most effective mechanisms for reducing tobacco consumption. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are in the final stages of negotiating a protocol aimed at strengthening international cooperation in the fight against illicit tobacco trade. While an effective multilateral response to illicit tobacco trade would make a significant contribution to global tobacco control, achieving this through the FCTC forum is challenging. First, while illicit tobacco trade is a health problem, the expertise, experience and capacity needed to combat illicit trade are not traditionally found in health agencies. The development of links with other agencies, both domestic and international, is critical to ensure both an effective response and an efficient use of limited governmental and non-governmental resources. Second, in many parts of the world, the tobacco industry cooperates closely with governments in the combating of illicit trade. This cooperation poses risks for tobacco control, particularly if relationships and norms of cooperation spill over into other areas of FCTC implementation. An examination of the industry's positioning suggests that it sees an opportunity to portray itself as 'legitimate' and 'responsible', a friend of governments, and a way to integrate itself into FCTC processes. This paper makes suggestions for moving forward in this challenging area towards ensuring that the approach taken actually reduces illicit tobacco trade, strengthens tobacco tax policies and does not operate to undermine the FCTC. PMID:21821819

Liberman, Jonathan; Blecher, Evan; Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Burke, Fishburn

2011-08-05

298

Self-treatment: illicit buprenorphine use by opioid-dependent treatment seekers.  

PubMed

Outpatient-based opioid treatment (OBOT) with buprenorphine is an important treatment for people with opioid dependence. No quantitative empirical research has examined rationales for use of illicit buprenorphine by U.S. opioid-dependent treatment seekers. The current study sequentially screened OBOT admissions (n = 129) during a 6-month period in 2009. This study had two stages: (a) a cross-sectional epidemiological analysis of new intakes and existing patients already receiving a legal OBOT prescription (n = 78) and (b) a prospective longitudinal cohort design that followed 76% of the initial participants for 3 months of treatment (n = 42). The primary aims were to establish 2009 prevalence rates for illicit buprenorphine use among people seeking OBOT treatment, to use quantitative methods to investigate reasons for this illicit use, and to examine the effect of OBOT treatment on illicit buprenorphine use behavior. These data demonstrate a decrease in illicit use when opioid-dependent treatment seekers gain access to legal prescriptions. These data also suggest that the use of illicit buprenorphine rarely represents an attempt to attain euphoria. Rather, illicit use is associated with attempted self-treatment of symptoms of opioid dependence, pain, and depression. PMID:20434868

Schuman-Olivier, Zev; Albanese, Mark; Nelson, Sarah E; Roland, Lolita; Puopolo, Francyne; Klinker, Lauren; Shaffer, Howard J

2010-07-01

299

Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine, and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and 9 opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine, and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identified almost twice as many cocaine and cannabis cases as Medical Examiner (ME) case histories, and were crucial in establishing a detailed lifetime substance use history. Toxicology identified 91% cocaine, 68% cannabis, 80% phencyclidine, and 100% opioid cases, with hair testing increasing detection for all drug classes. A cocaine or cannabis use history was corroborated by general toxicology with 50% and 32% sensitivity, respectively, and with 82% and 64% sensitivity by hair testing. Hair testing corroborated a positive general toxicology for cocaine and cannabis with 91% and 100% sensitivity, respectively. Case history corroborated hair toxicology with 38% sensitivity for cocaine and 79% sensitivity for cannabis, suggesting that both case history and general toxicology underestimated cocaine use. Identifying ante-mortem substance use in human postmortem cases are key considerations in case diagnosis and for characterization of disorder-specific changes in neurobiology. The sensitivity and specificity of substance use assessments increased when ME case history was supplemented with structured next-of-kin interviews to establish a detailed lifetime substance use history, while comprehensive toxicology, and hair testing in particular, increased detection of recent illicit substance use.

Lehrmann, E; Afanador, ZR; Deep-Soboslay, A; Gallegos, G; Darwin, WD; Lowe, RH; Barnes, AJ; Huestis, MA; Cadet, JL; Herman, MM; Hyde, TM; Kleinman, JE; Freed, WJ

2008-01-01

300

Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

2004-11-01

301

Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. DESIGN: Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. SETTING: 18 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. RESULTS: Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. PMID:23233420

Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

2012-12-10

302

Development of a Synthetic PCB Mixture Resembling the Average Polychlorinated Biphenyl Profile in Chicago Air  

PubMed Central

Studies of environmental and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ideally performed with PCB mixtures reflecting the composition of environmental PCB profiles to mimic actual effects and to account for complex interactions among individual PCB congeners. Unfortunately, only a few laboratory studies employing synthetic PCB mixtures have been reported, in part because of the challenges associated with the preparation of complex PCB mixtures containing many individual PCB congeners. The objective of this study was to develop a PCB mixture that resembles the average PCB profile recorded from 1996 to 2002 at a satellite station of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network located at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, Illinois, using commercial PCB mixtures. Initial simulations, using published Aroclor profiles, showed that a mixture containing 65% Aroclor 1242 and 35% Aroclor 1254 was a good approximation of the target profile. A synthetic Chicago air mixture (CAM) was prepared by mixing the respective Aroclor's in this ratio, followed by GC/MS/MS analysis. Comparison of the PCB profile of the synthetic mixture with the target profile suggests that the synthetic PCB mixture is a good approximation of the average IIT Chicago air profiles (similarity coefficient cos ? = 0.82; average relative percent difference = 84%). The synthetic CAM was also a reasonable approximation of the average of 184 PCB profiles analyzed in 2007 at 37 sites throughout Chicago as part of the University of Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program (isbrp), with a cos ? of 0.70 and an average relative percent difference of 118%. While the CAM and the two Chicago air profiles contained primarily di- to pentachlorobiphenyls, higher chlorinated congeners, including congeners with seven or eight chlorine atoms, were underrepresented in the synthetic CAM. The calculated TCDD toxic equivalency quotients of the synthetic CAM (2.7 ng/mg PCB) and the IIT Chicago air profile (1.6 ng/mg PCB) were comparable, but lower by two orders of magnitude than the isbrp Chicago air profile (865 ng/mg PCB) due to surprisingly high PCB 126 levels in Chicago air. In contrast, the calculated neurotoxic equivalency quotients of the CAM (0.33 mg/mg PCB) and the two Chicago air profiles (0.44 and 0.30 mg/mg PCB, respectively) were similar. This study demonstrates the challenges and methods of creating and characterizing synthetic, environmental mixtures of PCBs.

Zhao, H.; Adamcakova-Dodd, A.; Hu, D.; Hornbuckle, K.C.; Just, C.L.; Robertson, L.W.; Thorne, P.S.; Lehmler, H.-J.

2009-01-01

303

Illicit Use of Specific Prescription Stimulants Among College Students: Prevalence, Motives, and Routes of Administration  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the illicit use of specific prescription stimulants among college students and add to our understanding of reasons (motives) and routes of administration associated with illicit use of these drugs. Methods A random sample of 4580 college students self-administered a Web-based survey. The survey contained a variety of items pertaining to the illicit use of prescription stimulants. An extensive list of prescription stimulants was provided, and students were asked to select all the specific prescription stimulants that they had used illicitly. Items were also included to assess the motives and routes of administration associated with illicit use of prescription stimulants. Results Lifetime and past-year prevalence rates for illicit use of prescription stimulants were 8.3% (382 students) and 5.9% (269 students), respectively. Approximately three fourths (75.8%) of the 269 past-year illicit users of prescription stimulants reported using an amphetamine-dextroamphetamine combination agent (e.g., Adderall) in the past year, and approximately one fourth (24.5%) reported using methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate, Methylin). Past-year illicit use of prescription stimulants was more than 3 times more likely among Caucasians (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–6.6) and Hispanics (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6–9.3) compared with African-Americans, and more than twice as likely among Caucasians (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4) and Hispanics (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–5.1) compared with Asians. The most commonly reported motives for illicit use were to help with concentration (65.2%), help study (59.8%), and increase alertness (47.5%). Other motives included getting high (31.0%) and experimentation (29.9%). Nearly every illicit user (95.3%) reported oral administration, and 38.1% reported snorting prescription stimulants. Conclusion Illicit use of amphetamine-dextroamphetamine is more prevalent than illicit use of methylphenidate formulations among college students.

Teter, Christian J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; LaGrange, Kristy; Cranford, James A.; Boyd, Carol J.

2006-01-01

304

PCB concentration in fish in a river system after remediation of contaminated sediment  

SciTech Connect

An 1991 investigation of PCB concentrations in water and fish along a river was repeated in 1996 after the completion of a remediation of PCB-containing sediment in a lake within the river system. The PCB concentrations in the lake water decreased significantly, and the concentrations in fish was halved (significantly lower) after remediation. PCB still remaining in littoral sediment was probably the cause for a recorded gradient of PCB concentrations in fish from the lake and downstream. The PCB concentrations in water and fish was lower in 1996 compared to 1991 in all locations studied. The decreased levels of PCB in fish between the years for the two upstream locations, probably results from a decline in background PCB exposure. Monitoring data from 30 years back, recorded in a south Swedish lake, has shown a 5% decline per year in the PCB concentration in pike. The data on PCB concentration in fish from the two upstream locations were recalculated on the basis of this yearly decline and resulted in concentrations close to those measured in 1996. The results indicated, that changes in background exposure must be taken into account when evaluating the success of remedial actions measures carried out over several years.

Bremle, G.; Larsson, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology

1998-11-15

305

PCB congeners in tissues of European otter (Lutra lutra)  

SciTech Connect

Otters (Lutra lutra) have declined over much of their European range during the past forty years and are now absent from large areas of the lowlands of Western Europe. The most likely cause of the decline is the effects of bioaccumulating contaminants, organochlorine pesticides and PCBs having been implicated. There have been several recent studies of organochlorine residues (pesticides and PCBs) in otter tissues and scats have been used to monitor residues in otter populations. However, only from The Netherlands have data on individual PCB congeners in otter tissues and scats been reported; this Dutch otter population is now extirpated. We report a survey of PCB congeners in samples of tissues and scats from several populations of otters. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Mason, C.F.; Ratford, J.R. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom))

1994-10-01

306

Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that the pits are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity or explosive eruption. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying material. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, substrate dissolution (analogous to terrestrial karst), fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView™ Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (1) visible faulting to (2) faults and pits to (3) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to determine a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. Volumes of approximately 150 pits from five areas were calculated to determine volume size distribution and regional trends. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational normal faulting and sub-vertical fissuring provide the simplest and most comprehensive mechanisms to explain the regional associations, detailed geometry, and progression of pit chain development.

Wyrick, Danielle; Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; Colton, Shannon L.; Sims, Darrell W.

2004-06-01

307

Development of the RF SAW filters based on PCB substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently produced RF SAW (surface acoustic wave) filters are made using HTCC (high temperature cofired ceramic) with CSP (chip scale package) technology. This paper describes the development of a new 1.4 times 1.1 and 2.0 times 1.4 mm RF SAW filter based on PCB (printed circuit board) substrate instead of HTCC package, which reduces the cost of materials by 40%.

Youngjin Lee; Jongin Im; Seunghee Lee

2006-01-01

308

Enhanced peak power CO2 laser processing of PCB materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser drilling has become a common processing step in the fabrication of printed circuit boards (PCB's). For this work, a recently developed enhanced peak power CO2 laser (~2.5 kW peak power, 200W average) or ultra-super pulse (USP) laser is used to drill alumina and copper coated dielectric laminate materials. The higher peak power and faster response times (than conventional CO2

C. J. Moorhouse; F. Villarreal; J. J. Wendland; H. J. Baker; D. R. Hall; D. P. Hand

2005-01-01

309

3-D visual inspector of PCB using laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel automated inspecting system has been developed that uses a multifunction sensor which moves on a printed circuit board (PCB) at high speed and measures 3-D information and the brightness of the object. Due to the capability of the 3-D shape-scanning method, this 3-D visual inspector can inspect solder-joint quality as well as solder volume and shape, regardless of

J. Yano; O. Yamada; E. Hiraoka; K. Kaida

1990-01-01

310

Orientation dependence and bonding during pitting corrosion of HCP metals.  

SciTech Connect

The orientation dependence of pitting in single crystal beryllium (Be) is compared to the observations for single crystal zinc (Zn) reported by other investigators. The pit walls in stable propagating pits for prism planes were always square; in the (ioio) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}2{bar 1}0] directions while in the (110) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}100] directions. In addition, for the (ioio) and (11{bar 2}0) surfaces the pit interiors were characterized by crystallographically oriented parallel plates of unattacked Be. The orientation of these lamella was quite different than those observed in Zn. To explain this difference, the electron density distributions in the metal lattices are analyzed. A conceptual model for crystallographic pitting is introduced. In this model it is proposed that the crystallographic pits observed in single crystal hcp metals reflects the bond energy in the lattice.

Lillard, Robert Scott

2002-01-01

311

Liberation characteristic and physical separation of printed circuit board (PCB).  

PubMed

Recycling of printed circuit board (PCB) is an important subject and to which increasing attention is paid, both in treatment of waste as well as recovery of valuable material terms. Precede physical and mechanical method, a good liberation is the premise to further separation. In this study, two-step crushing process is employed, and standard sieve is applied to screen crushed material to different size fractions, moreover, the liberation situation and particles shape in different size are observed. Then metal of the PCB is separated by physical methods, including pneumatic separation, electrostatic separation and magnetic separation, and major metal contents are characterized by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Results show that the metal and nonmetal particles of PCB are dissociated completely under the crush size 0.6mm; metal is mainly enriched in the four size fractions between 0.15 and 1.25 mm; relatively, pneumatic separation is suitable for 0.6-0.9 mm size fraction, while the electrostatic separation is suitable for three size fractions that are 0.15-0.3mm, 0.3-0.6mm and 0.9-1.25 mm. The whole process that involves crushing, electrostatic and magnetic separation has formed a closed cycle that can return material and provide salable product. PMID:21683567

Guo, Chao; Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Fu, Jiangang; Yi, Xin

2011-06-16

312

Multivariate data analysis of pollutant profiles: PCB levels across Europe.  

PubMed

It is not always recognised that standard multivariate analyses applied to pollution profile data (i.e. where data are relative amounts of pollutants expressed as proportions of their total) give rise to problems in the analysis and interpretation of results: a simple solution is to carry out analyses on log-ratios of proportions. However, while solving many problems, this approach is very sensitive to the issue of values below detection limits. These approaches have been applied to a dataset of the levels of 29 PCB congeners in ambient air samples across Europe during the summer of 2002. Multivariate descriptive methods (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) and inferential techniques (multivariate ANOVA, multiple linear and logistic regression) and graphical tools (2D and 3D plots, principal components plots, biplots and triangular diagrams) were used to analyse the proportions of five PCB homologues (tri-hepta). These established that there was considerable difference in the pollution profiles of the 71 samples: the greatest variation was between samples with differing ratios of tri-hexa and tri-hepta PCB homologues, and the samples showed little sign of consistent clusters. There was a significant difference between typical profiles from rural and urban areas such that urban samples (and those with high total PCBs) had higher proportions of tetra- and tri-PCBs compared to hexa- and hepta-PCBs. PMID:17208279

Howel, Denise

2007-01-08

313

Microbially initiated pitting on 316L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pitting corrosion of 316L stainless steel ennobled in the presence of manganese-oxidizing bacteria, Leptothrix discophora, was studied in a low-concentration sodium chloride solution. Corrosion coupons were first exposed to the microorganisms in a batch reactor until ennoblement occurred, then sodium chloride was added, which initiated pitting. The pits had aspect ratios (length divided by width) and shapes closely resembling the

M Geiser; R Avci; Z Lewandowski

2002-01-01

314

Coordinate Measuring Machine Pit Artifact Inspection Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this document is to outline a procedure for dimensional measurement of Los Alamos National Laboratory's CMM Pit Artifact. This procedure will be used by the Manufacturing Practice's Inspection Technology Subgroup of the Interagency Manufacturing Operations Group and Joint Operations Weapon Operations Group (IMOG/JOWOG 39) round robin participants. The intent is to assess the state of industry within the Nuclear Weapons Complex for measurements made on this type of part and find which current measurement strategies and techniques produce the best results.

Montano, Joshua D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

315

The Pit and the Safety Pendulum  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

2000-11-01

316

Olive tree, Olea europaea L., leaves as a bioindicator of atmospheric PCB contamination.  

PubMed

Olive tree leaf samples were collected to investigate their possible use for biomonitoring of lipophilic toxic substances. The samples were analyzed for 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners. Twelve congeners were detected in the samples. PCB-60, 77, 81, 89, 105, 114, and 153 were the most frequently detected congeners ranging from 32 % for PCB-52 to 97 % for PCB-81. ?12PCBs concentration varied from below detection limit to 248 ng/g wet weight in the sampling area, while the mean congener concentrations ranged from 0.06 ng/g (PCB-128?+?167) to 64.2 ng/g wet weight (PCB-60). Constructed concentration maps showed that olive tree leaves can be employed for the estimation of spatial distrubution of these congeners. PMID:23589241

Sofuoglu, Sait C; Yayla, Burak; Kavcar, P?nar; Ates, Duygu; Turgut, Cafer; Sofuoglu, Aysun

2013-04-16

317

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

318

NNICC Report 1997: The Supply of Illicit Drugs to the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the 20th assessment that the National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee (NNICC) has prepared. The NNICC Report 1997, entitled The Supply of Illicit Drugs to the United States, has in recent years become a comprehensive assessment o...

1997-01-01

319

Statistical and Legal Aspects of the Forensic Study of Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prosecuting those arrested for the unlawful possession, distribution or importation of illicit drugs, such as powder cocaine, crack cocaine, heroin and LSD, is usually both time-consuming and expensive, primarily because of the need to determine \\

Alan Julian Izenman

2001-01-01

320

Illicit Drug Use among Older Adults. The NSDUH Report. September 1, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illicit drug use generally declines as individuals move through young adulthood into middle adulthood and maturity, but research has shown that the baby-boom generation (persons born between 1946 and 1964) has relatively higher drug use rates than previou...

2011-01-01

321

Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections.  

PubMed

Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with fiber-optic cables is a powerful tool to detect illicit connections in storm sewer systems. High-frequency temperature measurements along the in-sewer cable create a detailed representation of temperature anomalies due to illicit discharges. The detection limits of the monitoring equipment itself are well-known, but there is little information available on detection limits for the discovery of illicit connections, as in mixing of sewers, and attenuation also plays an important role. This paper describes the results of full-scale experiments aiming to quantify the detection limits for illicit connections under various sewer conditions. Based on the results, a new monitoring set-up for (partially) filled sewer conduits has been proposed. PMID:23787308

Nienhuis, Jaap; de Haan, Cornelis; Langeveld, Jeroen; Klootwijk, Martijn; Clemens, François

2013-01-01

322

Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981 Through the Second Quarter of 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report extends, improves, and augments previous estimates of trends in the price and purity of five major illicit drugs powder cocaine, crack cocaine, heroin, d-methamphetamine, and marijuana using data from the 1981-2003 Drug Enforcement Administrat...

2004-01-01

323

Genetic and cell-free studies of PCB biodegradation in pseudomonas putida LB400. Book chapter. [PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)  

SciTech Connect

An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBs, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. The genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. The ability of cell-free extracts of P. putida LB400 to degrade PCBs has been examined. Results indicate that the enzymes for PCB metabolism are present in the soluble portion of the extract.

Mondello, F.J.; Bopp, L.H.

1987-01-01

324

High accumulation of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners in marine mammals from Brazil: A serious PCB problem.  

PubMed

Blubber samples from three delphinid species (false killer whale, Guiana and rough-toothed dolphin), as well as liver samples from franciscana dolphins were analyzed for dioxins and related compounds (DRCs). Samples were collected from 35 cetaceans stranded or incidentally captured in a highly industrialized and urbanized area (Southeast and Southern Brazilian regions). Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 83% of the total TEQ for all cetaceans. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs, for franciscanas (82%), and mono-ortho PCBs (up to 80%), for delphinids, constituted the groups of highest contribution to total TEQ. Regarding franciscana dolphins, significant negative correlations were found between total length (TL) and three variables, ?TEQ-DRCs, ?TEQ-PCDF and ?TEQ non-ortho PCB. An increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal may be a plausible explanation for these findings. This hypothesis is reinforced by the significant negative correlation found between TL and PCB126/PCB169 concentration ratio. DRC concentrations (ng/glipids) varied from 36 to 3006, for franciscana dolphins, as well as from 356 to 30,776, for delphinids. The sum of dioxin-like and indicator PCBs varied from 34,662 to 279,407ng/glipids, for Guiana dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state, which are among the highest PCB concentrations ever reported for cetaceans. The high concentrations found in our study raise concern not only on the conservation of Brazilian coastal cetaceans, but also on the possibility of human health problem due to consumption of fish from Brazilian estuaries. PMID:23827355

Dorneles, Paulo R; Sanz, Paloma; Eppe, Gauthier; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Martínez, María A; Secchi, Eduardo R; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Cremer, Marta; Alonso, Mariana B; Torres, João P M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Das, Krishna

2013-07-02

325

Prevalence and Motives for Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants in an Undergraduate Student Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants and alcohol and other drugs (AODs), associated with these motives, the authors distributed a self-administered Web survey TO a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate college students. Of the study participants, 8.1% reported iifetime and 5.4% reported past-year illicit use of prescription stimulants. The most prevalent motives given for

Christian J Teter; Sean Esteban McCabe; James A Cranford; Carol J Boyd; Saliy K Guthrie

2005-01-01

326

Illicit methylphenidate use: a review of prevalence, availability, pharmacology, and consequences.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) is one of the most widely available prescription stimulants. In response to an increase in stimulant treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, the prescription and production rates of MPH have increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given that college students and adolescents might be attracted to MPH for its attention-focusing, weight loss, or euphoric effects, there is concern that the rise in therapeutic use of MPH might also coincide with a rise in illicit (non-medical) use. After a dramatic increase in the 1990s, recent large-scale surveys of high-school students suggest that rates of illicit MPH use are either holding steady, or even decreasing in this population. Across studies, annual usage rates for secondary school students are below 5%, and lifetime usage rates remain below 7%. Among college students, self-reported rates range from 1.5% to 31% among the various surveys, with the most nationally representative study estimating annual illicit MPH usage at about 4%. Although more research is needed to corroborate findings, this review was able to begin developing a profile of individuals who might be more likely to illicitly use MPH. Among college students, available evidence suggests illicit MPH users were more likely to be white, male, affiliated with a formally organized fraternity, and more likely to use other illicit and illegal substances. The majority of college students reported that the primary reason for use was to improve academic performance. Future studies should provide more information on the motivations and subtypes of illicit MPH, especially repeated users and those diagnosed with ADHD. Research on prevention of illicit MPH or other stimulants used to treat ADHD would make major contributions to the literature. PMID:19630746

Bogle, Kristin E; Smith, Bradley H

2009-05-01

327

The Social Cost of Alcohol, Tobacco and Illicit Drugs in France, 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim, Design and Setting: The economic costs of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs to French society are estimated using a cost of illness framework. Measurements: For the cause of disease or death (using ICD-9 categories), pooled relative risk estimates from meta-analyses were combined with prevalence data by age and gender to derive the proportion attributable to alcohol, tobacco and\\/or illicit

Philippe Fenoglio; Véronique Parel; Pierre Kopp

2003-01-01

328

Illicit Drugs Along the Ebro River Basin: Occurrence in Surface and Wastewater and Derived Consumption Estimations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The study of illicit drugs and metabolites in the aquatic environment has a double objective: (1) to investigate the environmental\\u000a concentrations of this group of emerging contaminants in order to assess their potential ecotoxicological risk and (2) to\\u000a estimate drug abuse by the population at the community level. The present work reports on the occurrence of illicit drugs\\u000a and metabolites

Cristina Postigo; Miren de Alda; Damià Barceló

329

Trauma Activation Patients: Evidence for Routine Alcohol and Illicit Drug Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Statistics from the National Trauma Data Bank imply that discretionary blood alcohol and urine drug testing is common. However, there is little evidence to determine which patients are appropriate for routine testing, based on information available at trauma center arrival. In 2002, Langdorf reported alcohol and illicit drug rates in Trauma Activation Patients. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a retrospective investigation of alcohol and illicit drug rates in consecutive St. Elizabeth Health Center (SEHC) trauma patients. SEHC Trauma Activation Patients are compared with the Langdorf Activation Patients and with the SEHC Trauma Nonactivation Patients. Minimum Rates are positive tests divided by total patients (tested and not tested). Activation patients: The minimum alcohol rates were: SEHC 23.1%, Langdorf 28.2%, combined 24.8%. The minimum illicit drug rates were: SEHC 15.7%, Langdorf 23.5, combined 18.3%. The minimum alcohol and/or illicit drug rates were: SEHC 33.4%, Langdorf 41.8%, combined 36.2%. Nonactivation patients: The SEHC minimum alcohol rate was 4.7% and the minimum illicit drug rate was 6.0%. Conclusions Alcohol and illicit drug rates were significantly greater for Trauma Activation Patients, when compared to Nonactivation Patients. At minimum, Trauma Activation Patients are likely to have a 1-in-3 positive test for alcohol and/or an illicit drug. This substantial rate suggests that Trauma Activation Patients, a readily discernible group at trauma center arrival, are appropriate for routine alcohol and illicit drug testing. However, discretionary testing is more reasonable for Trauma Nonactivation Patients, because minimum rates are low.

Dunham, C. Michael; Chirichella, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

330

Testing for fetal exposure to illicit drugs using umbilical cord tissue vs meconium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:We assessed the agreement of testing for fetal exposure to illicit drugs contrasting paired specimens of meconium vs umbilical cord tissue.Methods:We obtained paired samples of meconium and umbilical cord tissue from 118 pregnancies with high suspicion of illicit drug use by the mothers. Each specimen was tested for amphetamines, opiates, cocaine, cannabinoids, and phencyclidine using drug class-specific immunoassays.Results:The agreement of

D Montgomery; C Plate; S C Alder; M Jones; J Jones; R D Christensen

2006-01-01

331

Illicit drug use, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in the US adult population.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in select populations, but it is unknown whether the same association exists in the general population. By using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5861 adults who were questioned about illicit drug use, including cocaine, methamphetamines, and heroin, during their lifetime. The primary outcome was CKD as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate ?60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation or by microalbuminuria. We also examined the association between illicit drug use and blood pressure (BP) ?120/80, ?130/85, and ?140/90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between illicit drug use and CKD and BP. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar between illicit drug users and nonusers (100.7 vs 101.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.4), as was albuminuria (5.7 vs 6.0 mg/g creatinine, P = 0.5). Accordingly, illicit drug use was not significantly associated with CKD in logistic regression models (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.27) after adjusting for other important factors. However, illicit drug users had higher systolic (120 vs 118 mm Hg, P = 0.04) and diastolic BP (73 vs 71 mm Hg, P = 0.0003) compared with nonusers. Cocaine use was independently associated with BP ?130/85 mm Hg (OR, 1.24; CI, 1.00-1.54), especially when used more during a lifetime (6-49 times; OR, 1.42; CI, 1.06-1.91). In a representative sample of the US population, illicit drug use was not associated with CKD, but cocaine users were more likely to have elevated BP. PMID:22735028

Akkina, Sanjeev K; Ricardo, Ana C; Patel, Amishi; Das, Arjun; Bazzano, Lydia A; Brecklin, Carolyn; Fischer, Michael J; Lash, James P

2012-06-23

332

The differential impact of risk factors on illicit drug involvement in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Background Initiation of drug use and progression to abuse\\/dependence involve complex pathways. Potential risk factors may correlate with initiation or progression or both. Are there risk factors that associate with illicit drug use or illicit drug abuse\\/dependence? Is the magnitude of the association the same for use and abuse\\/dependence? Does this pattern of association differ across categories of

Arpana Agrawal; Charles O. Gardner; Carol A. Prescott; Kenneth S. Kendler

2005-01-01

333

Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

1992-01-01

334

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base PCB inventory, assessment, and cleanup project summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), of the United States Air Force (USAF) Air Force Logistics Command, requested Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) assistance through the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in characterizing and remediating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill sites at the base. In addition, WPAFB requested assistance in identifying PCB-filled and PCB-contaminated equipment at WPAFB in Dayton, Ohio.

A. M. Boehmer; D. C. Freund

1991-01-01

335

Analysis of PCB by on-line coupled HPLC-HRGC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  On-line coupled HPLC-GC has been used for the fractionation and analysis of polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) according to their planarity.\\u000a HPLC elution with porous graphitic carbon (PGC) as stationary phase, enables fractionation of PCB into classes according to\\u000a the amount ofortho-substitution, which is related to congener toxicity. This is a preliminary step before GC analysis, which enables complete\\u000a separation of PCB congeners

M. C. Pietrogrande; M. Michi; M. Nunez Plasencia; F. Dondi

2002-01-01

336

Coreless printed circuit board (PCB) transformers with multiple secondary windings for complementary gate drive circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the modeling and implementation of a coreless printed circuit board (PCB)-based transformer with “multiple” secondary outputs. This new PCB transformer has been successfully applied in complementary gate drive circuits in a novel low-profile power converter with high-power density and a converter bridge. The PCB-based transformers do not require the manual winding procedure and thus simplify the manufacturing

S. C. Tang; S. Y. Hui; Henry Shu-Hung Chung

1999-01-01

337

2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) Atropisomers Interact Enantioselectively with Hepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is a chiral and highly neurotoxic PCB congener of environmental relevance. (+)-PCB 136 was previously shown to be enriched in tissues from mice treated with racemic PCB 136. We investigated the spectral interactions of (+)-, (-)- and (±)-PCB 136 with mouse and rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to test the hypothesis that enantioselective binding to specific P450 enzymes causes the enrichment of (+)-PCB 136 in vivo. Hepatic microsomes prepared from C57BL/6 mice or Long Evans rats treated with ?-naphthoflavone or 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone (prototypical inducers of CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A, respectively) were used to determine first, if the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer binds to hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater extent than does the (-)-PCB 136 atropisomer; and second, if P450 enzymes of one subfamily bind the two PCB 136 atropisomers more efficiently than do P450 enzymes of other subfamilies. Increasing concentrations of (+)-, (-)- or (±)-PCB 136 were added to hepatic microsomes and the difference spectrum and maximal absorbance change, a measure of PCB binding to P450 enzymes, were measured. A significantly larger absorbance change was observed with (+)-PCB 136 than with (-)-PCB 136 with all four hepatic microsomal preparations in mice and rats, indicating that (+)-PCB 136 interacted with microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater degree than did (-)-PCB 136. In addition, binding of the PCB 136 atropisomers was greatest in microsomes from PB-treated mice and rats, and was inhibited by CYP2B antibodies, indicating the involvement of CYP2B enzymes. Together these results suggest preferential binding of (+)-PCB 136 to P450 enzymes (such as CYP2B and CYP3A) in hepatic microsomes, an observation that may explain the enantioselective enrichment of the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer in tissues of mice.

Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2008-01-01

338

Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bordered pits play an important role in permitting water flow among adjacent tracheary elements in flowering plants. Variation in the bordered pit structure is suggested to be adaptive in optimally balancing the conflict between hydraulic efficiency (con- ductivity) and safety from air entry at the pit membrane (air seeding). The possible function of vestured pits, which are bor- dered pits

Steven Jansen; Pieter Baas; Peter Gasson; Frederic Lens; Erik Smets

2004-01-01

339

Risk assessment of technologies for detecting illicit drugs in containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national facility for testing and evaluating existing and emerging prototype systems in an operational environment. The results of initial tests using the advanced x-ray subsystem installed at the testbed are given in this paper. A description of typical cargo contents and those characteristics applicable to nuclear interrogation techniques are provided in the appendix.

Brandenstein, Albert E.

1995-03-01

340

Illicit Use of Pharmaceutical Opioids Among Young Polydrug Users in Ohio  

PubMed Central

This study, conducted in Columbus, Ohio, identified the predictors of current (past 30 day) illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids among young individuals (n=402) with a history of MDMA/ecstasy use who were recruited in 2002–2003 using respondent-driven sampling. To be eligible, participants had to be 18–30 years old, not involved in a drug abuse treatment, and report MDMA/ecstasy use at least once in the past 6 months. About 81% reported lifetime, and more than 31% reported current illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids. Logistic regression analysis revealed that illicit use of pharmaceutical tranquilizers and pharmaceutical stimulants were the strongest predictors of illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids. Risk of pharmaceutical opioid use was also greater among those who had higher levels of depressive symptoms and reported current use of hallucinogens and inhalants. Our findings suggest that the non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids is a part of polydrug use practices that often incorporate illicit use of other prescription drugs. The observed relationship between depressive symptoms and illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids may have important implications for prevention programming and should be examined in future research.

Daniulaityte, R.; Falck, R.; Wang, J.; Carlson, R.

2009-01-01

341

Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street) methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use.

Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M; Chan, Christina A; Frye, Victoria; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

2008-01-01

342

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

343

PCB-153 exposure coordinates cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism in human mammary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) is a non-metabolizable environmental chemical contaminant commonly found in breast milk of PCB exposed individuals, suggesting that chronic exposure to PCB-153 could have adverse health effects. We have shown previously that PCB-153 increased reactive oxygen species levels in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, which were associated with DNA damage, growth inhibition, and cytotoxicity. This study investigates the hypothesis that PCB-153 exposure coordinates cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism by inhibiting cyclin D1 accumulation. PCB-153 treated MCF-10A cells exhibited a dose and time dependent decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels. The decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels was associated with an inhibition in AKT and GSK-3beta phosphorylation, which correlated with an increase in cyclin D1-T286 phosphorylation. Fibroblasts carrying a mutant form of cyclin D1 (T286A) were resistant to PCB-153 induced degradation of cyclin D1. Pre-treatment of cells with a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) suppressed PCB-153 induced decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels. Interestingly, suppression in cyclin D1 accumulation was associated with an increase in cellular glucose consumption, and hexokinase II and pyruvate kinase protein levels. These results suggest that cyclin D1 coordinates cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism in PCB-153 treated non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. PMID:20394812

Venkatesha, Venkatasubbaiah A; Kalen, Amanda L; Sarsour, Ehab H; Goswami, Prabhat C

2010-04-13

344

PCB-153 EXPOSURE COORDINATES CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION AND CELLULAR METABOLISM IN HUMAN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) is a non-metabolizable environmental chemical contaminant commonly found in breast milk of PCB exposed individuals, suggesting that chronic exposure to PCB-153 could have adverse health effects. We have shown previously that PCB-153 increased reactive oxygen species levels in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, which were associated with DNA damage, growth inhibition, and cytotoxicity. This study investigates the hypothesis that PCB-153 exposure coordinates cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism by inhibiting cyclin D1 accumulation. PCB-153 treated MCF-10A cells exhibited a dose and time dependent decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels. The decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels was associated with an inhibition in AKT and GSK-3? phosphorylation, which correlated with an increase in cyclin D1-T286 phosphorylation. Fibroblasts carrying a mutant form of cyclin D1 (T286A) were resistant to PCB-153 induced degradation of cyclin D1. Pre-treatment of cells with a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) suppressed PCB-153 induced decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels. Interestingly, suppression in cyclin D1 accumulation was associated with an increase in cellular glucose consumption, and hexokinase II and pyruvate kinase protein levels. These results suggest that cyclin D1 coordinates cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism in PCB-153 treated non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells.

Venkatesha, Venkatasubbaiah A.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswam, Prabhat C.

2010-01-01

345

PCB annual report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1983. [Polychlorinated biphenyl  

SciTech Connect

Stringent government regulations control the use and disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) materials. These same regulations require accurate recordkeeping by the owner/operator of a facility where PCBs are in use. This report details ORNL efforts to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act and the US Environmental Protection Agency's new regulations found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This document provides detailed records of PCB materials still in use, PCB wastes generated, their origins, storage of PCB wastes and off-site shipments of this waste during CY 1983.

Eisenhower, B.M.; Horton, C.Y.; Barkenbus, B.D.

1985-07-01

346

Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).  

PubMed

The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants. PMID:23098163

Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

2012-11-06

347

EPA engineering issue: Technology alternatives for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil and sediment  

SciTech Connect

The document is intended to familiarize On-scene Coordinators (OSCs) and Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) with issues important to the successful selection of technology alternatives available for the remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with PCBs at Superfund sites. The primary purpose of the report is to provide OSCs and RPMs with information on established, demonstrated, and emerging technology alternatives for remediating PCB-contaminated soil and sediment. The secondary purpose is to provide basic information on characteristics of PCBs, regulations governing PCB remediation, sampling and data collection methods applicable to PCB contamination, analytical methods and technologies used to quantify PCB contamination, treatability studies, and sources of further information.

Davila, B.; Whitford, K.W.; Saylor, E.S.

1993-10-01

348

PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility.

Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

1982-06-01

349

EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.  

EPA Science Inventory

There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

350

ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

2007-05-01

351

Determination of disulfiram by micellar liquid chromatography in illicit preparations.  

PubMed

Presently, disulfiram is used in aversion therapy for recovering alcoholics. It acts by inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase, leading to high blood levels of acetaldehyde. A simple direct injection micellar liquid chromatographic procedure was developed to determine disulfiram in illicit preparations (ayurvedic, herbal, divine ash, and traditional medicine), as well as in pharmaceuticals and biological samples (urine). After application of a predictive optimization strategy, the proposed method was developed using a 0.1 M sodium dodecyl sulfate-butanol 4% (v/v) buffered to pH 7 as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, an octyl silyl (C8) 150 mm column, and diode array detection at 248 nm. Under the above conditions, the analysis time was below 8 min. Validation studies were based on U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The LOD (3 x SD criterion) was 15 ng/mL and LOQ (10 x SD criterion) was 70 ng/mL for disulfiram. The intraday and interday precisions were below 3.5%, recoveries were in the range of 97-102%, and robustness was below 3%. The optimized and validated micellar liquid chromatographic method was successfully applied to the determination of disulfiram in ayurvedic, herbal, divine ash, and other samples. The procedure developed could also be used in the fields of QC, routine analysis, and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:21919341

Mourya, Sandeep-Kumar; Dubey, Swati; Durgabanshi, Abhilasha; Shukla, Sudheer Kumar; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Bose, Devasish

352

Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products.  

PubMed

The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 304 seizures of illicit Cannabis products was determined using gas chromatography. This procedure results in the conversion of THC acid to THC itself and thus gives the total THC content of the material, which reflects its potency as experienced by the smokers. The study was carried out over three years, thus enabling comparisons to be made between THC levels from a given country of origin over this time span in addition to any variations between the countries. In the early part of the study, herbal cannabis from South East Asia was consistently the best quality and that from the Caribbean the poorest quality. In the third year of the study, the material from South East Asia was in general no richer in THC than material from other areas of the world. Cannabis resins normally had higher THC contents than most herbal material, but the highest levels were found in "hash oil" from the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:6268233

Baker, P B; Bagon, K R; Gough, T A

1980-01-01

353

Ready Access to Illicit Drugs among Youth and Adult Users  

PubMed Central

Background Current drug-control strategies in Canada focus funding and resources predominantly on drug law enforcement, often at the expense of preventive, treatment, and harm reduction efforts. This study aimed to examine the availability of the most commonly used substances in Vancouver, Canada after the implementation of such strategies. Methods Using data from two large cohorts of drug-using youth and adults in Vancouver from the calendar year 2007, we assessed perceived availability of heroin, crack, cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and marijuana. Results Compared to youth (n = 330), a greater proportion of adults (n = 1160) reported immediate access (i.e., within ten minutes) to heroin (81.0% vs. 55.9%, p < 0.001), crack (90.4% vs. 69.3%, p < 0.001) and cocaine (83.7% vs. 61.1%, p < 0.001). Conversely, larger proportions of youth reported immediate access to crystal methamphetamine (62.8% vs. 39.4%, p < 0.001) and marijuana (88.4% vs. 73.2%, p < 0.001) compared to adult users. Conclusions Regardless of differences in illicit drug availability by age, all drugs are readily accessed in Vancouver despite drug law enforcement efforts. This includes drugs that are frequently injected and place users at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and transmission of other blood-borne disease.

Hadland, Scott E.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Montaner, Julio S.; Wood, Evan

2012-01-01

354

Violence toward women and illicit androgenic-anabolic steroid use.  

PubMed

Substantial evidence now suggests that increased aggression is associated with illicit use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes. Anecdotal reports claim that wives and girlfriends of the athlete sometimes become victims of physical abuse when their significant other is using these drugs. We sought to investigate these claims empirically. Twenty-three AAS user strength athletes and 14 nonuser athletes, recruited in the course of a larger study, were interviewed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Conflict Tactics Scales to assess their relationships with their significant other. AAS users were asked about their relationship during their most recent "cycle" of AAS use and their most recent AAS-free period. Nonusers were asked about their relationship in the last 3 months. AAS users reported significantly more fights, verbal aggression, and violence toward their significant others when using AAS than when not using AAS. The AAS users on-drug differed significantly from nonusers on two of these indices, but AAS users off-drug did not significantly differ from nonusers. These findings support the anecdotal evidence that wives and girlfriends of AAS users may be at risk of serious injury from users while they are on-drug. Thus, AAS use may impose risks not only to the user, but also to the women close to them. PMID:7951641

Choi, P Y; Pope, H G

1994-03-01

355

Reduced lung function and bullae resulting from illicit drug use.  

PubMed

Emphysema is a progressive, disabling disease. Emphysematous bullae form as a result of local areas of alveolar weakness and parenchymal remodeling. They grow as a result of preferential inflation during inspiration and elastic recoil of the surrounding lung tissue. Isolated apical bullae can be a consequence of illicit drug use, as was suspected in this patient. In the case of cocaine and marijuana smoking, direct drug toxicity or drug-induced vasoconstriction presumably contributes to bullae development. LVRS is often used to treat patients with bullae and severe underlying emphysema, although these patients are difficult to assess and their disease course is hard to predict. LVRS is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. The best candidates for surgery have enlarged, well-localized bullae and minimal underlying lung disease. Early postoperative results include relief of shortness of breath, improved lung function, increased energy level and physical mobility, and improved ability to function during daily activities. LVRS may decrease the need for supplemental oxygen as soon as a few weeks after surgery, and benefits may be sustained for years. The best results are seen in patients with large bullae that cause the greatest compression of almost normal underlying lung. However, clinical and symptomatic improvement may be greater than actual spirometric measurements. PMID:21748955

Jay, Amy L

2011-07-01

356

Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants.  

PubMed

It is now well established that residues from therapeutic drugs consumed by humans can end up, through the sewage system, in the surface water of populated areas. Given that the global production of major illicit drugs is comparable to that of widely used pharmaceuticals, we tested for the presence of drugs of abuse (cocaine, opioids, amphetamines and cannabis derivatives), some related opioid pharmaceuticals (codeine and methadone) and/or their metabolites in Italian and British surface waters. Having identified residues of all major drugs of abuse in raw and treated urban wastewater, we now measured their levels in several rivers and lakes by a selective multi-residue assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Recoveries in surface water were generally higher than 80%, with overall variability of the method lower than 10%. LODs were generally lower than 0.2 ng/L, and LOQs were lower than 0.6 ng/L, with few exceptions. Many of the tested substances were found in both rivers and lakes, at concentrations ranging from high pg/L to high ng/L, with loads in rivers in the range of tenths to hundreds of grams per day. Our data indicate that residues of drugs of abuse have become widespread surface water contaminants in populated areas. Since most of these residues still have potent pharmacological activities, their presence in the aquatic environment may have potential implications for human health and wildlife. PMID:17935751

Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara; Bagnati, Renzo; Chiabrando, Chiara; Grassi, Paola; Fanelli, Roberto

2007-09-21

357

Nonlinearity of electrochemical noise caused by pitting corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of statistical quantities other than spectrum or amplitude distribution can provide additional information about mechanisms of electrochemical noise generation. The third-order cumulant and bispectrum are used to determine whether the nonlinear components exist in the observed noise. The electrochemical current noise, recorded under conditions when pitting corrosion dominated, is analyzed. Transients, characteristic for metastable pitting, are observed. The recognized

J Smulko; K Darowicki

2003-01-01

358

Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally

Danielle Wyrick; David A. Ferrill; Alan P. Morris; Shannon L. Colton; Darrell W. Sims

2004-01-01

359

NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETECTION OF PITS IN DRIED PLUMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economical, non-destructive device was constructed to detect pits in dried plums (prunes). The device compresses the product between a roller and a force transducer, which detects the higher force generated when a pit is present. Two methods of classifying fruit were developed, one based on the maximum magnitude of the compression force and the other on analysis of the

R. P. Haff; E. S. Jackson; T. C. Pearson

360

Austempering retards pitting failure in ductile iron spur gears  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of austempering process on pitting formation in spur gears made of ductile iron is analysed. A series of experiments are carried out to determine the pitting formation life. Gear test specimens were first austenitized in a salt bath at 900 °C for 90 min after which they were tempered in a salt bath at 250,

K. Aslanta?; S. Ta?getiren; Y. Yalç?n

2004-01-01

361

Enhanced deposition to pits: A local food source for benthos  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Particle deposition experiments using mimics of biogenous negative relief (“pits”) and low-excess-density particles in a small annular flume indicate a significantly enhanced deposi- tion rate (number of particles per time) compared to smooth, flat patches of the same diameter. This study included flow visualizations as well as observations of particle residence times, particle concentrations in the pits, and particle

Patricia L. Yager; Arthur R. M. Nowell; Peter A. Jumars

1993-01-01

362

In-pit movable crushing\\/conveying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mature open pit mines throughout the world can probably achieve a marked reduction in overall mining costs by installing movable gyratory crushing and conveying systems within the pit. Truck haulage would be limited to transporting material for the short distance between the working face and the nearest crusher module. The work of elevating the materials is handled by belt

Almond

1982-01-01

363

Conceptual Designs of Retaining Structures for Open Pit Backfilling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a study to determine the potential use of retaining structures in open pit backfilling. The report contains the results of research and review of an open pit mine environment, mine waste disposal, and past and current use of retaining...

S. Rudchenko R. Upsahl J. P. Ashby G. A. Mathieson

1981-01-01

364

DETECTING PITS IN TART CHERRIES BY HYPERSPECTRAL TRANSMISSION IMAGING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imagi...

365

Building materials as a source of PCB pollution in Bergen, Norway.  

PubMed

Although PCB is a globally recognised pollutant, an understanding of its transport from man-made building materials to the environment is poorly constrained. This paper presents data from a study that was conducted in order to determine the extent of PCB usage in plaster on building façades in the Bergen area, Norway. The study was to determine whether PCB concentrations vary according to building usage type and age. One aim was also to determine the nature and extent of displacement of PCB from the façade into the surrounding soil. Buildings built between 1952 and 1979 were chosen for the study. Three different media were sampled during the study; surface soil, plaster and paint. Samples were then analysed for PCB7 content. The results show that there is a difference in PCB usage in buildings of different age and usage type. Residential buildings and schools demonstrated higher PCB concentrations in both soil and plaster than buildings designated for office use, storage, or for industrial purposes. Buildings erected in the 1950s and 1960s also show a higher PCB concentration than buildings from a later date. It appears that the usage of PCB for these purposes decreased in the 1970s. Thirty percent of the soil samples showed a higher PCB concentration than the Norwegian action level. The soil samples tend to have a higher concentration than the corresponding plaster from the adjacent wall, which probably has its cause in the high soil organic matter contents that retains PCB. Plaster has not been considered a pollution source in previous studies; therefore this study demonstrates a new source that needs to be considered in emission calculations. PMID:15144784

Andersson, M; Ottesen, R T; Volden, T

2004-06-01

366

Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

1977-01-01

367

Electron transfer sensitized photodechlorination of surfactant solubilized PCB 138.  

PubMed

Sensitized photodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB 138, in three different surfactant solutions was studied. The sensitizer of choice was leuco-methylene blue, which was produced in situ from methylene blue using either triethylamine or sodium borohydride. Three types of surfactants, anionic (SDS), neutral (TWEEN 80), and cationic (CTAB) at different concentrations were investigated. The neutral and cationic surfactants were found to be more effective than anionic. In each case the surfactant concentration was found to play a significant role in the rate of dechlorination. For different sensitized systems (triethylamine or sodium borohydride), a different product distribution and a different pathway of dechlorination was observed. PMID:23141843

Yu, Linlong; Izadifard, Maryam; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H

2012-11-09

368

Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier.  

PubMed

Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necrotizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was determined to be thallium sulfate obtained by a person with the intent to harm family members. Although thallium has not been produced in the United States for 20 years, this report demonstrates the need to consider thallium toxicosis as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with vague and mixed gastrointestinal and neurological signs. PMID:16566274

Volmer, Petra A; Merola, Valentina; Osborne, Tanasa; Bailey, Keith L; Meerdink, Gavin

2006-01-01

369

Microbial contents of soil from fire pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

2006-12-01

370

Profile of bordered pit aspiration in Cryptomeria japonica using confocal laser scanning microscopy: pit aspiration and heartwood color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine trees of Cryptomeria japonica from six elite tree clones with a broad range of heartwood colors were selected. The profiles of pit aspiration percentage (ASP) of earlywood and latewood from pith to bark for green and air-dry conditions were determined to study the relationship between heartwood color and pit aspiration. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observations showed that the

Junji Matsumura; Yoko Yamasaki; Kazuyuki Oda; Yoshitake Fujisawa

2005-01-01

371

Discovery of gas-discharged pits (gas pit) in the plains of the Yellow River delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kind of special sedimentary structures are developed in the overwater plains of the Yellow River delta. They look like funnels:\\u000a round or nearly round, concave of pit-like, with a diameter ranging from several centimeters to 20 or 30 cm, and depth from\\u000a several millimeters to over 20 cm. There is a vertical pipe (called gas discharging conduit) in the

Jianhua Zhong; Yaoqi Zhou; Shoujun Li; Shaolan Wang

1999-01-01

372

Control of pit-lake water chemistry by secondary minerals, Summer Camp pit, Getchell mine, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Summer Camp pit of the Getchell mine in northern Nevada, the sulfate mineralogy is complex and includes gypsum, jarosite, pickeringite–halotrichite, copiapite, melanterite, langite, and bukovskyite that occur along with scorodite–mansfieldite and Ca–Cu–Zn arsenate minerals. Leaching of these minerals by meteoric water seasonally contributes As, Fe, Ca, trace metals, sulfate, and hydrogen ions to the lake. During the early

R. J. Bowell; J. V. Parshley

2005-01-01

373

Integrated Forensics Approach to Fingerprint PCB Sources in Sediments using Rapid Sediment Characterization (RSC) and Advanced Chemical Fingerprinting (ACF).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical document demonstrates an integrated approach to fingerprint sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination that combines sediment screening technologies on a large number of field samples followed by detailed PCB congener analysis in...

G. Durell G. Johnson J. Leather M. Mills

2012-01-01

374

21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials...of toxic industrial chemicals manufactured and...equipment and machinery in food packaging manufacturing...Since PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB contamination of food-packaging...

2013-04-01

375

21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials...of toxic industrial chemicals manufactured and...equipment and machinery in food-packaging manufacturing...Since PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB contamination of food-packaging...

2013-04-01

376

Monitoring of PCBs at facilities related with PCB-containing products and wastes in South Korea.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contents were analyzed in samples collected from facilities related to PCB-containing products or wastes in South Korea. Average concentrations of the atmospheric ?(209) PCBs were 7420 (37.0-104,048)pgm(-3) and 16.8 (ND-34.2 )fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) in indoor air samples; and 1670 (106-13,382)pgm(-3) and 5.64 (ND-36.0) fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) in outdoor air samples. The highest levels were observed in indoor air samples from disposal facilities (7336-104,048 pg m(-3)), followed by production (330-25,057 pg m(-3)), recycling, and storage facilities, indicating that PCB emissions from PCB-containing products and wastes remains very high and the facilities related with those may be an important source to atmospheric PCBs. Principal component analysis of PCB profiles showed that the homologue patterns of PCBs in outdoor and indoor air samples collected from the facilities were similar to those of boundary air samples and PCB commercial products, e.g. Aroclor 1016, 1221, 1232 and 1242. Evaluation of the PCB mass balance in a facility, dismantling and solvent-washing PCB-contaminated transformers, showed that of the total PCBs treated in this facility, approximately 0.0022% was emitted to the atmosphere, and most was transferred to waste oil for disposal by incineration or chemical methods. PMID:22014439

Jin, Guang-Zhu; Fang, Ming-Liang; Kang, Jung-Ho; Park, Hyokeun; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2011-09-28

377

DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C56BL/6 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

At room temperature, nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of each of these PCB atropisomers is present in technical mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective dis...

378

Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

2004-01-01

379

Relationship of Perinatal PCB Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Reply to Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) examine various technical issues related to six studies of perinatal PCB exposure and neurodevelopment and one study of adult PCB exposure and motor function. They raise questions about possible imperfections of the studies, but many of their assertions are unsupported or frankly…

Gladen, Beth C.; Rogan, Walter J.

2004-01-01

380

CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

381

PCB levels and congener patterns from Korean municipal waste incinerator stack emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congener specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) data from the stack gas of nine Korean municipal waste incinerators was used to determine characteristic congener patterns of emitted PCBs. Principal component analysis revealed three classes of incinerators according to their pattern of PCB congener emissions: those resembling the background sampling material; those producing large quantities of a few tetra-chlorinated congeners; those producing large

M. G Ikonomou; P Sather; Jeong-Eun Oh; Won-Yong Choi; Yoon-Seok Chang

2002-01-01

382

Effect of PCB finish on the reliability and wettability of ball grid array packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic protective coatings (OPC) and metallic plating chemistries have emerged as alternatives to traditional hot air solder leveling (HASL) to ensure the solderability of printed circuit boards (PCB). This study examined a number of commercially-available printed circuit board finishes to determine their intrinsic solderability and their effect on the solder joint reliability of ball grid array (BGA) packages. The PCB

Edwin Bradley; Kingshuk Banerji

1996-01-01

383

Effect of PCB finish on the reliability and wettability of ball grid array packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic protective coatings (OPC) and metallic plating chemistries have emerged as alternatives to traditional hot air solder leveling (HASL) to ensure the solderability of printed circuit boards (PCB). This study examined a number of commercially-available printed circuit board finishes to determine their intrinsic solderability and their effect on the solder joint reliability of Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages. The PCB

Edwin Bradley; Kingshuk Banerji

1995-01-01

384

INCA: an expert system for process planning in PCB assembly line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of INCA, an expert system that tackles the problem of optimization of the automatic insertion of components on printed circuit board (PCB) in the production assembly line. The authors describe the present situation in the PCB assembly line for component insertion, why an expert system has been chosen and the benefits expected from its introduction, how

Patrizia Cavalloro; Emanuela Cividati

1988-01-01

385

PCB and PCT levels in cultivated and free?living mussels of galicia (North west Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCB and PCT residues were measured in free?living (FM) and cultivated mussels (CM) from ten sites in Galicia by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and capillary column. The level of PCB1260 and PCT5460 in FMs increases going from Muros?Noya to Vigo estuarine bay. There was a trend of increase from north to south.

M. E. Alvarez Piñeiro; M. A. Lage Yusty; J. Simal Lozano

1996-01-01

386

Biomarkers of exposure: Novel methods for the chemical analysis of PCB  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the extent of migration of PCB from a Superfund chemical dump site to the inhabitants of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, we have developed an ultrasensitive chemical analysis of milk, blood, and urine. The method, which measures 68 PCB congeners, p, p[prime]-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and mirex, uses conventional gas chromatography. The data are organized using widely available

B. Bush; E. F. Fitzgerald; P. M. Ramarumo

1993-01-01

387

Levels of DDT and PCB Compounds in North Atlantic Fin-back Whales  

PubMed Central

DDT and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds were found in blubber tissue samples of 12 North American fin-back whales collected in 1970 and 1971. Concentrations of DDT and metabolites ranged up to 2.557 ppm, while the highest PCB concentration was 0.185 ppm Gas chromatographic results were confirmed by chemical derivatization.

Saschenbrecker, P. W.

1973-01-01

388

Environmental and occupational exposures and serum PCB concentrations and patterns among Mohawk men at Akwesasne  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to address the question of how fish consumption, occupation, and outdoor air affected serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns among 139 Native American men living near three hazardous waste sites. They were interviewed about their residential, occupational, and dietary histories, and donated 20 ml of venous blood for congener-specific PCB analysis. The similarity in the congener

Edward F Fitzgerald; Syni-An Hwang; Marta Gomez; Brian Bush; Bao-Zhu Yang; Alice Tarbell

2007-01-01

389

RESIDUES OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) IN A 'CLADOPHORA' COMMUNITY ALONG THE LAKE HURON SHORELINE  

EPA Science Inventory

PCB residues were measured in samples of Cladophora, Ulothrix, net plankton, water, and fish collected in the Harbor Beach area of Lake Huron. The PCB patterns in the samples were found to match a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and 1254. Aroclor 1242 represented about 60% of the mixture...

390

PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie.  

PubMed

Male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie, which is greatly effected by urbanization, agriculture, and industry, were analyzed for PCB and PBDE concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver to evaluate exposure to these chemicals through habitat interactions. Additional male carp from two nearby relatively clean lakes (Bear Lake and Hemlock Lake, NY) were also sampled as controls. While PCBs were detected in muscle, liver, and plasma of Lake Erie carp, the largest concentrations were found in muscle, which also had the most number of congeners. The dominant congeners were PCB 138 and PCB 153. Concentrations of PCB 153 in the muscle were correlated with fish length, total weight, and age. Therefore, larger (and generally older) carp had the highest concentrations of PCB 153. In contrast, PBDEs were found only in muscle with the predominant congener being PBDE 47. The total PCB concentrations in muscle of male carp from eastern Lake Erie (ranging from nd to 15,000 ng g(-1) lipid) were 100-fold higher than the total PBDE observed (1.5-100 ng g(-1) lipid), indicating a higher level of contamination of PCBs in Lake Erie. The high PCB levels in carp points to PCB resistance to metabolic degradation. PMID:20609460

Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Lupton, Sara; Clapsadl, Mark; Samara, Fatin; Gatto, Louis; Biniakewitz, Robert; Aga, Diana S

2010-07-06

391

40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8 Section 261.8 Protection...HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of...

2013-07-01

392

Formulation and Characterization of an Experimental PCB Mixture Designed to Mimic Human Exposure from Contaminated Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each environmental exposure matrix contains a unique mixture of PCB congeners. Since several congener types have multiple and distinct biological actions, it is important to characterize congener profiles in exposure sources. The Fox River Environment and Diet Study (FRIENDS) is assessing the human health effects of consumption of PCB-contaminated fish from the Fox River in northeastern Wisconsin. Concurrent laboratory studies

Paul J. Kostyniak; Larry G. Hansen; John J. Widholm; Rich D. Fitzpatrick; James R. Olson; Jennifer L. Helferich; Kyung Ho Kim; Helen J. K. Sable; Rich F. Seegal; Isaac N. Pessah; Susan L. Schantz

2005-01-01

393

AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB NEAR THREE LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nomi...

394

[Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].  

PubMed

In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare, especially with atypical antidepressants. However, the risk of acting out exists and the responsibility of antidepressant agents in the genesis of suicidal tendencies is now established. The disinhibiting effects of benzodiazepines are well-known and proven by clinical trials. It's a "model" of acting out, and the causal relationship is undeniable. That cocaïne is related to violent behaviour is demonstrated by its pharmacological actions on CNS. The chronic use of cocaïne induces "a limbic dyscontrol syndrome" based on the altered activity of limbic structures. On the contrary, we could not demonstrate a causal relationship between aggression and either cannabis, ecstasy or phencyclidine. Cannabis abusers look particularly for euphoria and relaxing effects. Aggression as an adverse cannabis reaction is very rare and occurs in most cases in association with other drugs and in predisposed individuals. Ecstasy use may lead to long-term alterations of neuronal function in the human CNS and cause psychiatric disorders. However, there is insufficient information about long-term use of ecstasy to estimate its role in the occurrence of behavioural disorders. Clinical and forensic assumptions about phencyclidine and violence were not warranted. However, the substance-effect relationships can be criticized in the case of alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne. In fact, individual, social and psychiatric factors exert an influence on behaviour that is superior to the pharmacological effect of psychotropic agents. The most important parameter in drug-induced behavioural disinhibition is dosage, but mode of administration is also important. In addition, polysubstance abuse is very common. Substances may be taken simultaneously and alcohol is frequently combined with drugs. The combinations of substances result in multiple interactions, and very little is known about the effects of these interactions on violence in humans. Co-occurrence of substance abuse and other mental disorders is also very frequent. Multiple substanc

Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

395

Gonadotropins in doping: pharmacological basis and detection of illicit use.  

PubMed

Parenteral administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone in males and these gonadotropins can therefore be used by athletes to enhance muscle strength. However, they are more expensive and less efficient than testosterone and anabolic steroids. Therefore their main use is probably to stimulate gonadal testosterone production during and after self-administration of testosterone or anabolic steroids. A positive effect of hCG on muscle strength has not been demonstrated in women and elevated concentrations of hCG in females are often caused by pregnancy. The use of gonadotropins is therefore prohibited only in males but not in females. HCG occurs at low but measurable concentrations in plasma and urine of healthy males and can be measured by sensitive methods. However, the characteristics of the method to be used for doping control have not been defined. Virtually all commercially available hCG assays have been designed for determination of hCG in serum rather than urine, which is used for doping control. Methods based on mass spectrometric detection of fragments derived from hCG extracted from urine by immunoadsorption have been developed but their suitability for doping control remains to be determined. The concentrations of LH in serum and urine are variable and more then 10-fold higher than those hCG. It is therefore difficult to detect illicit use of LH. The characteristics and reference values for hCG and LH assays used in doping control and the cutoff values need to be defined. PMID:18414398

Stenman, U-H; Hotakainen, K; Alfthan, H

2008-04-14

396

Chemiluminescence detection of heroin in illicit drug samples.  

PubMed

Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453

Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

2013-07-30

397

The Task of Detecting Illicit Nuclear Material: Status and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 1994, police at the Munich airport intercepted a suitcase from Moscow with half a kilogram of nuclear-reactor fuel, of which 363 grams was weapons- grade plutonium. A few months later police seized 2.7 kilograms of highly enriched uranium from a former worker at a Russian nuclear institute and his accomplices in Prague. These are just two of 18 incidents involving the smuggling of weapons grade nuclear materials between 1993 and 2004 reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consequences of a stolen or improvised nuclear device being exploded in a U.S. city would be world changing. The concern over the possibility of a nuclear weapon, or the material for a weapon or a radiological dispersion device, being smuggled across U.S. borders has led to the deployment of radiation detection equipment at the borders. Related efforts are occurring around the world. Radiation portal monitors are used as the main screening tool, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. Passive detection techniques combined with imaging, and possibly active techniques, are the current available tools for screening cargo for items of concern. There are a number of physics limitations to what is possible with each technology given the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials, commercial sources, and medical radionuclides in the stream of commerce. There have been a number of lessons learned to date from the various efforts in the U.S. and internationally about the capability for interdicting illicit nuclear material.

Kouzes, Richard

2006-04-01

398

Effects of long-term maternal exposure to low doses of PCB126 and PCB153 on the reproductive system and related hormones of young male goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, female goats were orally exposed to PCB126 or PCB153, at 49 ng\\/kg body weight per day and 98mg\\/kg body weight per day respectively, from gestational day 60 until delivery at approximately day 150. Exposure of the offspring contin- ued via lactation until postnatal day 40. Reproductive toxicity in the male offspring was studied by the evaluation of

Irma C Oskam; Jan L Lyche; Anette Krogenæs; Ragnar Thomassen; Janneche U Skaare; Richard Wiger; Ellen Dahl; Torres Sweeney; Audun Stien; Erik Ropstad

2005-01-01

399

Bacterial strains isolated from PCB-contaminated sediments and their use for bioaugmentation strategy in microcosms.  

PubMed

This study was focused on the characterization of 15 bacterial strains isolated from long-term PCB-contaminated sediment located at the Strážsky canal in eastern part of Slovakia, in the surroundings of a former PCB producer. PCB-degrading strains were isolated and identified as Microbacterium oleivorans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Brevibacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas mandelii, Rhodococcus sp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas sp., Ochrobactrum sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Starkeya novella by the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. This study presents a newly isolated bacterial strain S. novella with PCB-degrading ability in liquid medium as well as in sediment. For A. xylosoxidans, the bphA gene was identified. The best growth ability in the presence of all sole carbon sources (biphenyl and PCBs vapor) was obtained for Ochrobactrum sp. and Rhodococcus sp. Uncultured Achromobacter sp. showed the highest potential for bioaugmentation of PCB-contaminated sediment. PMID:23553615

Dudášová, Hana; Luká?ová, Lucia; Murínová, Slavomíra; Puškárová, Andrea; Pangallo, Domenico; Dercová, Katarína

2013-04-01

400

Sulfate conjugates are urinary markers of inhalation exposure to 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3).  

PubMed

PCBs are contaminants in the air of older buildings and cities, which raises the concern of inhalation exposure. No reliable biomarker of such exposure is available. We exposed rats to air containing 2 mg/m(3) PCB3 via nose-only inhalation for 2 h, collected urine, and analyzed it by LC/MS. Each rat inhaled an estimated dose of 35 ?g PCB3, and excreted 27 ± 2% of it as sulfates within 24 h. Peak excretion occurred within 6 h. PCB sulfates were stable in urine for at least three days at room temperature without chemical preservatives. These data support the use of PCB sulfate conjugates as suitable urinary biomarkers of PCB3 and other airborne PCBs. PMID:23713983

Dhakal, Kiran; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Thorne, Peter S; Robertson, Larry W

2013-05-28

401

Distribution pattern and reduction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bluefish fillets through adipose tissue removal  

SciTech Connect

Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a migratory pelagic species of fish usually travel in large groups of like size along the Atlantic coast. Bluefish of all sizes are caught both commercially and recreationally for human consumption. Owing to its predacious nature, bluefish feed throughout the water column on a large variety of smaller fish and invertebrates. Bluefish bioaccumulate contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) into various adipose tissues from the water column and through the marine food chain. Two recent reports concluded that PCB concentrations for all except some of the large bluefish caught along the Atlantic coast fell below the limit of 2 ..mu..g/g set by FDA. The purpose of this study was to observe the distribution pattern of PCB in the various edible tissues. Further, it was to determine if the removal of adipose tissues would result in reduced PCB level and therefore decrease PCB exposure to the consumer.

Sanders, M.; Haynes, B.L.

1988-11-01

402

PCB and DDE residues in milk supplies of Ontario, Canada 1985-1986  

SciTech Connect

Concerns on the presence of PCB's in milk have arisen because of spills of these industrial chemicals on roads, around storage sites, and because of their presence in waste oils used to treat gravel roads with up to 25 ppm being allowed up to 1970 and 5 ppm up to 1984. The possibility of the spread of PCB into water supplies of rural areas of the province has been a constant concern and the presence of PCB in bovine milk serves as a reliable indicator of the degree of contamination. Milk supplies in Southern Ontario have been monitored for PCB and DDE since 1970-71. In 1985-86 the monitoring program was extended to include all regions of the province where milk is produced in order to further assess the incidence, levels, and trends of PCB in the provincial milk supply.

Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1989-05-01

403

Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment.  

PubMed Central

Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxinlike toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products.

Abramowicz, D A

1995-01-01

404

Migration and Opportunistic Feeding Increase PCB Accumulation in Arctic Seabirds.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses. PMID:24024972

Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

2013-10-04

405

Earthworm metabolomic responses after exposure to aged PCB contaminated soils.  

PubMed

(1)H NMR metabolomics was used to measure earthworm sub-lethal responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically contaminated (>30 years) soils (91-280 mg/kg Aroclor 1254/1260) after two and 14 days of exposure. Although our previous research detected a distinct earthworm metabolic response to PCBs in freshly spiked soil at lower concentrations (0.5-25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254), the results of this study suggest only weak or non-significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles and soil PCB concentrations. This concurs with the expectation that decades of contaminant aging have likely decreased PCB bioavailability and toxicity in the field. Instead of being influenced by soil contaminant concentration, earthworm metabolic profiles were more closely correlated to soil properties such as total soil carbon and soil inorganic carbon. Overall, these results suggested that (1)H NMR metabolomics may be capable of detecting both site specific responses and decreased contaminant bioavailability to earthworms after only two days of exposure, whereas traditional toxicity tests require much more time (e.g. 14 days for acute toxicity and >50 days for reproduction tests). Therefore, there is significant opportunity to develop earthworm metabolomics as a sensitive tool for rapid assessment of the toxicity associated with contaminated field soils. PMID:22623111

Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison

2012-05-24

406

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations.

Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

2011-01-01

407

Enhanced peak power CO2 laser processing of PCB materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser drilling has become a common processing step in the fabrication of printed circuit boards (PCB's). For this work, a recently developed enhanced peak power CO2 laser (~2.5 kW peak power, 200W average) or ultra-super pulse (USP) laser is used to drill alumina and copper coated dielectric laminate materials. The higher peak power and faster response times (than conventional CO2 lasers) produced by the USP laser are used to produce high speed alumina laser scribing and copper coated laminate microvia drilling processes. Alumina is a common PCB material used for applications, where its resistance to mechanical and thermal stresses is required. Here we present a comprehensive study of the melt eject mechanisms and recast formation to optimise the speed and quality of alumina laser scribing. Scribe speeds of up to 320 mms-1 (1.8 times current scribe rate) have been achieved using novel temporal pulse shapes unique to the USP laser. Also presented is the microvia drilling process of copper dielectric laminates, where the multi-level configuration presents different optical and thermal properties complicating their simultaneous laser ablation. In our experiments the USP laser has been used to drill standard thickness copper films (up to 50 ?m thick) in a single shot. This investigation concentrates on understanding the mechanisms that determine the dielectric undercut dimensions.

Moorhouse, C. J.; Villarreal, F.; Wendland, J. J.; Baker, H. J.; Hall, D. R.; Hand, D. P.

2005-06-01

408

PCB reduction and clinical improvement by detoxification: an unexploited approach?  

PubMed

1. A detoxification trial was administered to a female worker from a capacitor factory who had been exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other lipophilic industrial chemicals. 2. The patient presented with severe abdominal complaints, chloracne, liver abnormalities, and a spontaneous nipple discharge of approximately 50 ml d-1. 3. PCB levels were high in adipose tissue (102 mg kg-1), serum, (512 micrograms l-1), skin lipids (66.3 mg kg-1), and in the nipple discharge (712 micrograms l-1). 4. The patient's history, the medical evaluation and prior unsuccessful symptomatic treatments were indicative of consequences elicited by occupational exposure to chemicals. 5. Detoxification treatment reduced the PCB levels in adipose tissue to 37.4 mg kg-1 and in serum to 261 micrograms l-1, a 63% and 49% reduction, respectively. 6. The nipple discharge ceased and the symptoms improved. 7. Excretion of intact PCBs in sebum was appreciable before treatment and was enhanced by up to five-fold during detoxification. 8. This therapeutic approach appears promising for cases involving occupational exposure to lipophilic chemicals. PMID:2143911

Tretjak, Z; Shields, M; Beckmann, S L

1990-07-01

409

Ultrasonic recovery of copper and iron through the simultaneous utilization of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) spent acid etching solution and PCB waste sludge.  

PubMed

A method was developed to recover the copper and iron from Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing generated spent acid etching solution and waste sludge with ultrasonic energy at laboratory scale. It demonstrated that copper-containing PCB spent etching solution could be utilized as a leaching solution to leach copper from copper contained PCB waste sludge. It also indicated that lime could be used as an alkaline precipitating agent in this method to precipitate iron from the mixture of acidic PCB spent etching solution and waste sludge. This method provided an effective technique for the recovery of copper and iron through simultaneous use of PCB spent acid solution and waste sludge. The leaching rates of copper and iron enhanced with ultrasound energy were reached at 93.76% and 2.07% respectively and effectively separated copper from iron. Followed by applying lime to precipitate copper from the mixture of leachate and rinsing water produced by the copper and iron separation, about 99.99% and 1.29% of soluble copper and calcium were settled as the solids respectively. Furthermore the settled copper could be made as commercial rate copper. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and temperature. This method provided a simple and reliable technique to recover copper and iron from waste streams generated by PCB manufacturing, and would significantly reduce the cost of chemicals used in the recovery. PMID:20932641

Huang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang

2010-09-16

410

Effects of Smoking Cessation on Illicit Drug Use among Opioid Maintenance Patients: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Opioid treatment program patients and staff often have concerns that smoking cessation may jeopardize abstinence from illicit drug use. In this study, we evaluated whether smoking abstinence produced with a two-week contingency-management (CM) intervention was associated with relapse to illicit drug use among patients enrolled in opioid maintenance. Opioid-maintenance patients who were stable in treatment and abstinent from illicit drugs were enrolled in a 14-day smoking-cessation study. Participants were dichotomized into Abstainers (> 90% smoking-negative samples, n=12) and Smokers (< 10% smoking-negative samples, n=16). Illicit drug assays included opioids, oxycodone, propoxyphene, cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine and benzodiazepines. There were no differences between the Abstainers and Smokers, with 99% and 96% of samples testing negative for all illicit drugs in each group, respectively. Data from this study provide no evidence that smoking cessation among stable opioid-maintained patients undermines drug abstinence and lend support for programs that encourage smoking cessation during drug abuse treatment.

Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Reimann, Edward; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

2009-01-01

411

A further component analysis for illicit drugs mixtures with THz-TDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.

Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui

2009-07-01

412

Relationship between the Foveal Avascular Zone and Foveal Pit Morphology  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the relationship between foveal pit morphology and size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Methods. Forty-two subjects were recruited. Volumetric images of the macula were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Images of the FAZ were obtained using either a modified fundus camera or an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope. Foveal pit metrics (depth, diameter, slope, volume, and area) were automatically extracted from retinal thickness data, whereas the FAZ was manually segmented by two observers to extract estimates of FAZ diameter and area. Results. Consistent with previous reports, the authors observed significant variation in foveal pit morphology. The average foveal pit volume was 0.081 mm3 (range, 0.022 to 0.190 mm3). The size of the FAZ was also highly variable between persons, with FAZ area ranging from 0.05 to 1.05 mm2 and FAZ diameter ranging from 0.20 to 1.08 mm. FAZ area was significantly correlated with foveal pit area, depth, and volume; deeper and broader foveal pits were associated with larger FAZs. Conclusions. Although these results are consistent with predictions from existing models of foveal development, more work is needed to confirm the developmental link between the size of the FAZ and the degree of foveal pit excavation. In addition, more work is needed to understand the relationship between these and other anatomic features of the human foveal region, including peak cone density, rod-free zone diameter, and Henle fiber layer.

Dubis, Adam M.; Hansen, Benjamin R.; Cooper, Robert F.; Beringer, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

2012-01-01

413

PCB congeners transferred by human milk, with an estimate of their daily intake.  

PubMed

The degree of exposure by nursing mothers to individual polychronated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was studied and an estimate made of the daily intake by their infants. Epidemiological data from 100 nursing mothers were collected; 11 individual PCB congeners were determined in samples of the mothers' milk and the toxicity equivalent (TEQ) calculated. The mothers' data and the congener levels were statistically correlated. In over 80% of the samples, PCB congeners nos 180, 28, 138 and 170 were identified, and in over 70%, PCB congeners nos 188, 52, 187 and 153. PCB congeners nos 183, 101 and 118 were identified in percentages of between 39 and 15% of the samples. The highest levels detected were those in PCB no. 28 (1.626 ppb), and the lowest concentrations corresponded to PCB no. 183 (0.109 ppb). The toxicity equivalent (TEQ) was calculated from the toxic equivalent factor (TEF) of the congeners studied. There were no statistical differences between the geographical place of residence, age, occupation, and the congeners studied. There was a significant differentiation with respect to the birthplace, the location of industrial estates and the irrigation facilities in the area of residence, to smoking, the consumption of a varied diet, meat, fish or industrially processed foods, the physical constitution of the mothers, number of children and lactation periods, and PCB congener levels. The total PCB daily intake estimate was under the acceptable daily intake (ADI) limits of tolerance (WHO, 1988), and it was not possible to come to any conclusions for the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the 11 congeners studied since these have not yet been established. It was thus proposed to use the EDIs obtained in order to establish the ADIs of the individual PCB congeners. PMID:10566879

Angulo, R; Martínez, P; Jodral, M L

1999-11-01

414

The Effects of a Dredge Excavation Pit on Benthic Macrofauna in Offshore Louisiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over two years after the original creation of a sand excavation pit 8 km off the Louisiana coast, benthic macrofauna communities and sedimentary characteristics are still effected. Macrofaunal communities inside the pit had lower abundance, biomass, and diversity than communities outside the pit. This difference, however, was only significant with some of the stations outside the pit. Results from multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis showed that macrofaunal communities were less than 32% similar inside the pit to communities outside the pit. The polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta was the most abundant species outside the excavation pit, but the species was only counted once inside the pit. The most dominant species, which made up over 90% of organisms inside the pit, was the pioneer polychaete Paraprionospio pinnata. Only three species were found at each station inside the pit as opposed to 9-27 species at stations outside the pit. All species inside the pit were also found outside the pit; thus, change was due to a loss of species rather than replacement by different species. Sediment inside the pit contained more silt and clay; however, no difference in water quality was detected compared with outside the pit. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed near the dredge pit in 2005 and could have effected sediment transport in the region. Because the macrofaunal community inside the pit has not recovered within 38 months, it is likely that it will require more time before it resembles the surrounding conditions.

Palmer, Terence A.; Montagna, Paul A.; Nairn, Robert B.

2008-04-01

415

The effects of a dredge excavation pit on benthic macrofauna in offshore Louisiana.  

PubMed

Over two years after the original creation of a sand excavation pit 8 km off the Louisiana coast, benthic macrofauna communities and sedimentary characteristics are still effected. Macrofaunal communities inside the pit had lower abundance, biomass, and diversity than communities outside the pit. This difference, however, was only significant with some of the stations outside the pit. Results from multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis showed that macrofaunal communities were less than 32% similar inside the pit to communities outside the pit. The polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta was the most abundant species outside the excavation pit, but the species was only counted once inside the pit. The most dominant species, which made up over 90% of organisms inside the pit, was the pioneer polychaete Paraprionospio pinnata. Only three species were found at each station inside the pit as opposed to 9-27 species at stations outside the pit. All species inside the pit were also found outside the pit; thus, change was due to a loss of species rather than replacement by different species. Sediment inside the pit contained more silt and clay; however, no difference in water quality was detected compared with outside the pit. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed near the dredge pit in 2005 and could have effected sediment transport in the region. Because the macrofaunal community inside the pit has not recovered within 38 months, it is likely that it will require more time before it resembles the surrounding conditions. PMID:18247082

Palmer, Terence A; Montagna, Paul A; Nairn, Robert B

2008-04-01

416

Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits.  

PubMed

Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important. PMID:1746147

Gregory, D G; Edwards, W C

1991-10-01

417

41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ON THE CEILING BEAMS AND COLUMNS OF PARK WILDLIFE ARE ORIGINAL TO THE OLD SIDE DINING ROOM. THE SIDE DINING ROOM WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT BY ROBERT REAMER IN 1927. IN 1962 WHEN IT WAS CONVERTED INTO THE BEAR PIT A WALL WAS ADDED BETWEEN THE THREE COLUMNS THAT SEPARATE THIS ROOM FROM THE MAIN DINING ROOM. THE ORIGINAL BEAR PIT ETCHINGS DEPICTING BEARS TENDING BAR AND PLAYING THE PIANO WERE MOUNTED ON THE WALL BETWEEN THE COLUMNS. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

418

Media exposure and tobacco, illicit drugs, and alcohol use among children and adolescents: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies examining media content, 95% found a statistically significant association between increased media exposure and negative outcomes. Similarly, of the 12 studies evaluating the quantity of media exposure, 67% reported an association with a negative outcome. Overall, all 17 of the identified longitudinal studies supported a causal association between media exposure and negative outcomes over time. The evidence was strongest for links between media exposure and tobacco use; it was moderate for illicit drug use and alcohol use. Substantial variability in methodological rigor across studies and expanding definitions of media exposure contribute to persistent gaps in the knowledge base. PMID:20687006

Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Gross, Cary P

2010-07-01

419

Searching for illicit materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence stimulated by narrow-band photon sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of an experimental study of the sensitivity of two distinct classes of systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to search for illicit materials in containers. One class of systems is based on the direct detection of NRF photons emitted from isotopes of interest. The other class infers the presence of a particular isotope by observing the preferential attenuation of resonant photons in the incident beam. We developed a detailed analytical model for both approaches. We performed experiments to test the model using depleted uranium as a surrogate for illicit material and used tungsten as a random choice for shielding. We performed the experiments at Duke University's High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS). Using the methodology we detail in this paper one can use this model to estimate the performance of potential inspection systems in certifying containers as free of illicit materials and for detecting the presence of those same materials.

Johnson, M. S.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hall, J. M.; McNabb, D. P.; Kelley, J. H.; Huibregtse, C.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.

2012-08-01

420

Illicit drugs in Canadian municipal wastewater and estimates of community drug use.  

PubMed

In this study of wastewater treatment plants in three Canadian cities, selected illicit drugs, including cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), amphetamine, methamphetamine and ecstasy (i.e. MDMA) were detected in untreated wastewater. Cocaine was the most widely used illicit drug at a median level for the 3 cities of 15.7 doses per day per 1000 people. For the other drugs, the median doses per day per 1000 people were 1.8 for amphetamine, 4.5 for methamphetamine and 0.4 for ecstasy. Methamphetamine use was highest in the largest city and cocaine use was lowest in the smallest city. Removal of the illicit drugs by wastewater treatment was generally >50%, except in a WWTP that uses primary treatment. The community consumption estimate for ecstasy in the present study is far below published estimates of the prevalence of ecstasy use among the Canadian population, which may be due to only occasional use of ecstasy. PMID:20667638

Metcalfe, Chris; Tindale, Kathryn; Li, Hongxia; Rodayan, Angela; Yargeau, Viviane

2010-07-29

421

Illicit drug users in Northern Ireland: perceptions and experiences of health and social care professionals.  

PubMed

Over the 30 years of conflict, Northern Ireland escaped the worst excesses of illegal drug trafficking and usage. This was in large part due to the 'policing' of local community crime by paramilitaries. However, since the first 'cease-fire' in 1994 the province has witnessed a dramatic and unprecedented rise in the availability of illicit drugs. This increased availability reflects rising consumption of these drugs in the province. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions that a sample of health and social care professionals' hold of illicit drug users in Northern Ireland. A survey methodology was used. Community settings across Northern Ireland were accessed. Focus groups and face-to-face interviews were used as data collection methods. Thirty-five health and social care professionals took part in this study. Thirty-two took part in six focus groups; three respondents underwent one-to-one interview. The participating professionals reported to have little or no education or training in the care and treatment of illicit drug users. Some stated that they would reject the offer of education and training in this area to prevent contact with illicit drug users. Many displayed strongly negative views of this client group, often expressing a preference not to care for or treat these people, preferring all their care to be given by specialists in illicit drug treatment. These findings indicate that most of the health and social care professionals who took part in this study appear unprepared and unwilling to meet the challenge of caring for illicit drug users. The findings will be of interest to service providers within and outside the UK. PMID:17087670

McLaughlin, D; McKenna, H; Leslie, J; Moore, K; Robinson, J

2006-12-01

422

A risk profile of elite Australian athletes who use illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Much of the literature investigating the relationship between sports participation and substance use has focused upon student populations, with little focus being given to athletes who participate at elite levels. Identifying why some athletes may be at a greater risk for substance use can help in the design and implementation of prevention initiatives. Data for the current study was from 1684 self-complete surveys with elite Australian athletes. Eight percent (n=134) of the sample reported the use of at least one of the six illicit drugs under investigation (ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, meth/amphetamine, ketamine and GHB) in the past year. Having been offered or having had the opportunity to use illicit drugs in the past year, knowing other athletes who use drugs and identifying as a 'full-time athlete' were significant predictors of past-year illicit drug use, while having completed secondary education or a post-school qualification was associated with a lower likelihood of past-year illicit drug use. Athletes are part of a sportsnet that includes family, coaches, support staff and other athletes, and these relationships may encourage the use, supply and demand for drugs. The current findings suggest that relationships with some of those in the sportsnet may play an important role when understanding illicit drug use among elite athletes. As education appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of illicit drug use among this group, initiatives should encourage athletes to engage in off-field pursuits which may also help prepare them for life after sport. PMID:21963151

Dunn, Matthew; Thomas, Johanna O

2011-09-10

423

Role of individual, peer and family factors in the use of cannabis and other illicit drugs: A longitudinal analysis among Finnish adolescent twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough use of illicit drugs shows varying degree of heritability, the influence of shared and unique environmental factors predominate among adolescents. We explored factors predicting use of cannabis and other illicit drugs among Finnish adolescent twins.

Tellervo Korhonen; Anja C. Huizink; Danielle M. Dick; Lea Pulkkinen; Richard J. Rose; Jaakko Kaprio

2008-01-01

424

Comparative cost-effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing the global burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use together pose a formidable challenge to international public health. Building on earlier estimates of the demonstrated burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use at the global level, this review aims to consider the comparative cost-effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for reducing the global burden of disease from these three risk factors. Although the number

DAN CHISHOLM; CHRIS DORAN; KENJI SHIBUYA; J URGEN REHM

2006-01-01

425

Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

426

Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

427

The role of conduct disorder in explaining the comorbidity between alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundConduct disorder (CD), alcohol dependence (AD), and illicit drug dependence (IDD) frequently co-occur. This paper describes the result of an investigation of the extent to which comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adolescents are explained by etiological factors in common with conduct disorder.

Tanya M. M. Button; Soo Hyun Rhee; John K. Hewitt; Susan E. Young; Robin P. Corley; Michael C. Stallings

2007-01-01

428

The drugs that dare not speak their name: Injecting and other illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C infection.  

PubMed

Exploration of patients' illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is largely absent from the clinical literature. This paper explores injecting and other illicit drug use among people receiving interferon-based treatment for HCV infection, from the perspective of one group of health professionals. Data are presented from a qualitative study of six health professionals responsible for managing HCV treatment regimens at three major metropolitan hospitals across Sydney, Australia. During semi-structured in-depth interviews, participants discussed patients' use of injected and non-injected illicit drugs while coping with a demanding therapeutic regimen. Health professionals highlighted the socially conservative environment of healthcare and its negative perceptions of illicit drug users. Also discussed are the management of people who inject during treatment and the efficacy of cannabis to reduce side effects. The findings of this study indicate that while the health professionals adopted a harm reduction approach to patients' illicit drug use during HCV treatment, information regarding the risks and benefits of illicit drug use is silenced in this context. While ever prohibition remains Australia's illicit drug policy this situation appears unlikely to change. Research which investigates the extent of illicit drug use during HCV treatment, the risks and benefits associated with their use in this context, and the harms of perpetuating a duplicitous healthcare system is required. PMID:17854725

Hopwood, Max; Treloar, Carla

2007-01-23

429

The drugs that dare not speak their name: Injecting and other illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of patients’ illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is largely absent from the clinical literature. This paper explores injecting and other illicit drug use among people receiving interferon-based treatment for HCV infection, from the perspective of one group of health professionals. Data are presented from a qualitative study of six health professionals responsible for

Max Hopwood; Carla Treloar

2007-01-01

430

Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit

van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

2011-01-01

431

Managing confidentiality in illicit drugs research: ethical and legal lessons from studies in remote Aboriginal communities.  

PubMed

Assuring participant confidentiality in illicit drugs research has raised legal questions and challenges both for researchers and ethics committees. There are similar challenges for clinicians. To study cannabis use in Aboriginal people in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), a risk-management approach was successful. Aboriginal participants were informed in their own language that confidentiality could not be assured if they disclosed information about illegal behaviours. Researchers avoided questions of intrinsic interest to law enforcement. Relationships between researchers and study participants and the integrity of the study were preserved. These considerations have relevance for clinicians as well as researchers dealing with the influence of illicit behaviours on health. PMID:18190418

Clough, A; Conigrave, K

2008-01-01

432

10. Interior view of shop area showing grease pit ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Interior view of shop area showing grease pit - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Company Maintenance Shop & Arms Room, North of Park Avenue at Forty-ninth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

433

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

434

15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

435

14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

436

Interior of wheel pit looking northwest; detail of pelton wheel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of wheel pit looking northwest; detail of pelton wheel with backshot nozzle and deflectors (above), and undershot nozzle and deflectors (below). - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

437

Torus-margo pits help conifers compete with angiosperms.  

PubMed

The unicellular conifer tracheid should have greater flow resistance per length (resistivity) than the multicellular angiosperm vessel, because its high-resistance end-walls are closer together. However, tracheids and vessels had comparable resistivities for the same diameter, despite tracheids being over 10 times shorter. End-wall pits of tracheids averaged 59 times lower flow resistance on an area basis than vessel pits, owing to the unique torus-margo structure of the conifer pit membrane. The evolution of this membrane was as hydraulically important as that of vessels. Without their specialized pits, conifers would have 38 times the flow resistance, making conifer-dominated ecosystems improbable in an angiosperm world. PMID:16373568

Pittermann, Jarmila; Sperry, John S; Hacke, Uwe G; Wheeler, James K; Sikkema, Elzard H

2005-12-23

438

13. VIEW OF BARBECUE PIT, FACING EAST. (BUILDING 132 IS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF BARBECUE PIT, FACING EAST. (BUILDING 132 IS IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT.) - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Structures, Bordered by Hardee & Thorne Avenues & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

439

38. Concrete foundations of the fuel oil pit west of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Concrete foundations of the fuel oil pit west of the tool storage building between the north and south roundhouses. - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

440

BOILER SHOP, NORTH END, WITH DROP PIT IN FOREGROUND AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILER SHOP, NORTH END, WITH DROP PIT IN FOREGROUND AND SP 2902 PASSENGER CAR UNDER RESTORATION, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Boiler Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

441

Preliminary Report on Fractured Igneous-Rock Environment Test Pits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three large calibration models or test pits were completed on May 1, 1981, at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Denver Federal Center Calibration Facility. Each calibration model was constructed of large stone blocks that have a cored borehole an...

M. A. Mathews J. Scott C. M. LaDelfe

1983-01-01

442

6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT PIT, RACK AND PINION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT PIT, RACK AND PINION GEAR (NORTH ABUTMENT). - Chicago River Bascule Bridge, Wabash Avenue, Spanning Chicago River at North Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

443

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A ) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted...the allowances for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B ) Classification. Frozen red tart...

2009-01-01

444

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A ) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted...the allowances for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B ) Classification. Frozen red tart...

2013-01-01

445

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from any adhering sirup, sugar, or other packing medium. (c) (A ) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted...the allowances for this classification specified in Table I. (d) (B ) Classification. Frozen red tart...

2010-01-01

446

11. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SCALE - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

447

12. LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, WITH SCALE, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, WITH SCALE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

448

10. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

449

28. (Credit unknown) Low service pump pit (erected in 19111912 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. (Credit unknown) Low service pump pit (erected in 1911-1912 near Cross Bayou) as it appears today (1980). - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

450

Etch-Pitting Characteristics of High-Purity Molybdenum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The etch-pitting behavior of single and polycrystalline molybdenum was examined using various etching solutions and prior heat treatments. Murakami's solution, Wolff's solution, oxalic acid and sulphuric acid in methanol are found effective on planes in a...

H. L. Prekel A. Lawley

1965-01-01

451

15. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE PIT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING FACILITY SHOWING TURBINE PIT TO RIGHT AND POWERHOUSE TO LEFT - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

452

Discovery and epidemiology of PCB poisoning in Taiwan: a four-year followup.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning from the consumption of contaminated rice oil, covering four counties in central Taiwan, was investigated. There were 1843 cases by the end of 1980. The highest frequency of incidence occurred during the period from March to July 1979. The severity of clinical manifestations varied. Most patients showed symptoms of mild or moderate severity. The major age group affected was between 11 and 20 years old. Most of the victims were students and factory workers. The amount of PCB intake in each victim was estimated to be 0.7 to 1.84 g and the latent period from the time of intake to the onset of clinical manifestations was approximately 3 to 4 months. The patients' blood PCB concentrations ranged from 3 ppb to 1156 ppb; 44.27% of 613 patients had levels of 51 to 100 ppb and 27.6% PCB blood levels over 100 ppb. In the course of 3.5 years, 2061 persons were determined to be PCB poisoning victims. Now, except for a few severe cases, their skin symptoms are very much improved. Thirty-nine babies showing hyperpigmentation were born from PCB-poisoned mothers. The fatality rate was high: eight of them died. Another 24 deaths were reported among the PCB-poisoned group, almost half of them (12) from hepatoma, liver cirrhosis or liver diseases with hepatomegaly.

Hsu, S T; Ma, C I; Hsu, S K; Wu, S S; Hsu, N H; Yeh, C C; Wu, S B

1985-01-01

453

Discovery and epidemiology of PCB poisoning in Taiwan: a four-year followup  

SciTech Connect

An outbreak of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning from the consumption of contaminated rice oil, covering four counties in central Taiwan, was investigated. There were 1843 cases by the end of 1980. The highest frequency of incidence occurred during the period from March to July 1979. The severity of clinical manifestations varied. Most patients showed symptoms of mild or moderate severity. The major age group affected was between 11 and 20 years old. Most of the victims were students and factor workers. The amount of PCB intake in each victim was estimated to be 0.7 to 1.84 g and the latent period from the time of intake to the onset of clinical manifestations was approximately 3 to 4 months. The patients blood PCB concentrations ranged from 3 ppb to 1156 ppb; 44.27% of 613 patients had levels of 51 to 100 ppb and 27.6% PCB blood levels over 100 ppb. In the course of 3.5 years, 2061 persons were determined to be PCB poisoning victims. Now, except for a few severe cases, their skin symptoms are very much improved. Thirty-nine babies showing hyperpigmentation were born from PCB-poisoned mothers. The fatality rate was high: eight of them died. Another 24 deaths were reported among the PCB-poisoned group, almost half of them (12) from hepatoma, liver cirrhosis or liver diseases with hepatomegaly.

Hsu, S.T.; Ma, C.I.; Hsu, S.K.H.; Wu, S.S.; Hsu, N.H.M.; Yeh, C.C.; Wu, S.B.

1985-02-01

454

An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization  

SciTech Connect

These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

1990-12-31

455

An Unrecognized Source of PCB Contamination in Schools and Other Buildings  

PubMed Central

An investigation of 24 buildings in the Greater Boston Area revealed that one-third (8 of 24) contained caulking materials with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content exceeding 50 ppm by weight, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) specified limit above which this material is considered to be PCB bulk product waste. These buildings included schools and other public buildings. In a university building where similar levels of PCB were found in caulking material, PCB levels in indoor air ranged from 111 to 393 ng/m3; and in dust taken from the building ventilation system, < 1 ppm to 81 ppm. In this building, the U.S. EPA mandated requirements for the removal and disposal of the PCB bulk product waste as well as for confirmatory sampling to ensure that the interior and exterior of the building were decontaminated. Although U.S. EPA regulations under the Toxic Substances Control Act stipulate procedures by which PCB-contaminated materials must be handled and disposed, the regulations apparently do not require that materials such as caulking be tested to determine its PCB content. This limited investigation strongly suggests that were this testing done, many buildings would be found to contain high levels of PCBs in the building materials and potentially in the building environment. The presence of PCBs in schools is of particular concern given evidence suggesting that PCBs are developmental toxins.

Herrick, Robert F.; McClean, Michael D.; Meeker, John D.; Baxter, Lisa K.; Weymouth, George A.

2004-01-01

456

A Screening-Level Laboratory Method to Estimate Pit Lake Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analog pit lake (APL) test has been developed to predict pit lake water quality following closure of an equatorial copper-gold mine. The juvenile (0-9 years after closure) pit lake (JPL) water budget will comprise 10% rainfall; 26% surface runoff; 40% wallrock runoff, and 24% deep groundwater inflow. The mature (>65 years after closure) pit lake (MPL) will consist of

Andy Davis

2003-01-01

457

Real-time methods for non-destructive detection of pits in fresh cherries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

458

One dimensional Linescan x-ray detection of pits in fresh cherries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

459

Material and velocity effects on cavitation erosion pitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavitation erosion during the incubation period was investigated via pitting tests conducted on three different materials: an Aluminum alloy, a Nickel Aluminum Bronze alloy and a Duplex Stainless Steel. Pitting tests were conducted in a cavitation tunnel in the velocity range 45–90m\\/s at a constant cavitation number. The test section was made of a straight nozzle 16mm in diameter discharged

Jean-Pierre Franc; Michel Riondet; Ayat Karimi; Georges L. Chahine

460

Pitting corrosion in the process of heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Heating of machine parts with rust or scale on the surface in salt baths induces pitting at points where the rust or scale occurs.2.Cooling of the parts in air for more than 1 min after heating in the salt bath induces pitting in steel parts with a nominal thickness of more than 15 min.3.Residues of chlorides adsorbed on the surface

V. I. Murav'ev; V. P. Kurbatov

1970-01-01

461

Compressed gas accident in a pit: sensitivity studies  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a set of sensitivity studies designed to define the potential range of dose consequences from compressed air/gas system ruptures impacting contaminated tank farm pits. These accidents could potentially result in the uncontrolled release of radioactive hazardous material from tank farms. This includes those pit locations known to be contaminated or containing tank waste and those that could become contaminated in the future.

MEYER, P.; YOUNG, J.; KRIPPS, L.

2003-03-20

462

Limitation of the Cavitron technique by conifer pit aspiration.  

PubMed

The Cavitron technique facilitates time and material saving for vulnerability analysis. The use of rotors with small diameters leads to high water pressure gradients (DeltaP) across samples, which may cause pit aspiration in conifers. In this study, the effect of pit aspiration on Cavitron measurements was analysed and a modified 'conifer method' was tested which avoids critical (i.e. pit aspiration inducing) DeltaP. Four conifer species were used (Juniperus communis, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Larix decidua) for vulnerability analysis based on the standard Cavitron technique and the conifer method. In addition, DeltaP thresholds for pit aspiration were determined and water extraction curves were constructed. Vulnerability curves obtained with the standard method showed generally a less negative P for the induction of embolism than curves of the conifer method. Differences were species-specific with the smallest effects in Juniperus. Larix showed the most pronounced shifts in P(50) (pressure at 50% loss of conductivity) between the standard (-1.5 MPa) and the conifer (-3.5 MPa) methods. Pit aspiration occurred at the lowest DeltaP in Larix and at the highest in Juniperus. Accordingly, at a spinning velocity inducing P(50), DeltaP caused only a 4% loss of conductivity induced by pit aspiration in Juniperus, but about 60% in Larix. Water extraction curves were similar to vulnerability curves indicating that spinning itself did not affect pits. Conifer pit aspiration can have major influences on Cavitron measurements and lead to an overestimation of vulnerability thresholds when a small rotor is used. Thus, the conifer method presented here enables correct vulnerability analysis by avoiding artificial conductivity losses. PMID:20551085

Beikircher, B; Ameglio, T; Cochard, H; Mayr, S

2010-06-15

463

GASIFICATION OF APRICOT PIT SHELLS IN A DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, gasification potential of apricot pit shells is investigated by a pilot scale downdraft gasifier. Apricot shells could be gasified in a downdraft gasifier to produce clean gas with a calorific value of around 5.82 MJ\\/Nm and with a combustible fraction of 39% v\\/v. Low moisture (11.74%) and ash content (0.78%) are the main advantages of apricot pit

I. Gezer; M. Do?ru; G. Akay

2009-01-01

464

Limnology of Four Bauxite Open-Pit Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aquatic flora and fauna and 18 physicochemical characteristics of four bauxite open-pit lakes were studied from September 1969 to August 1970. The least acid lake (pH 3.4-4.4) supported 49 different aquatic insects, plankton, and higher aquatic plants. The mostacid lake (pH 2.7-3.2) supported only 26 different plants and animals. Bauxite open-pit lakes within the pH range studied appear to

RONALD D. HUBBARD

465

Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at

I. G Krapac; W. S Dey; W. R Roy; C. A Smyth; E Storment; S. L Sargent; J. D Steele

2002-01-01

466

Enhancing dissipation of aroclor 1248 (PCB) using substrate amendment in rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Soils contaminated in the laboratory with Aroclor 1248 (PCB) were amended with biphenyl and plant residues that are known to induce PCB degradation, and planted with crops that inherently stimulated PCB dissipation in a previous study to determine if the combination of soil amendment and planting could further enhance PCB dissipation beyond that shown by planting alone. The plants used were flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha). They were grown in laboratory microcosms at a 12h photoperiod in soil containing 50mg/kg PCB. Portions of soil were amended with biphenyl (1,000 mg/kg), ground pine needles, or orange peels (2% w/w), and a portion was left unamended to serve as control. After nearly 100d, PCB recoveries ranged from 69% of initial applications in unplanted soil to 65, 59 and 55% of initial levels in soils that were unamended but planted with flat pea, reed canarygrass and burr medic respectively. PCB recoveries in soils that were amended, but left unplanted ranged from 59% of initial applications in pine needle amended-soil to 48 and 45% in biphenyl- and orange peel-amended soils respectively. Combinations of soil amendment and planting enhanced PCB dissipation in soil compared to planting alone, except the combination of biphenyl amendment and planting with burr medic, where the soil still contained nearly 80% of the initial PCB additions after about 100 d. Estimates of bacterial populations were generally slightly to significantly higher in orange peel and biphenyl-amended soil than in unamended soil, except in biphenyl-amended soil that was planted with burr medic, where bacterial counts were significantly lower than in most of the other treatment combinations. PMID:11759901

Dzantor, E K; Woolston, J E

2001-01-01

467

Is the Relationship between Prenatal Exposure to PCB-153 and Decreased Birth Weight Attributable to Pharmacokinetics?  

PubMed

Background: A recent meta-analysis based on data from > 7,000 pregnancies reported an association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153 exposure and reduced birth weight. Gestational weight gain, which is associated negatively with PCB levels in maternal and cord blood, and positively with birth weight, could substantially confound this association.Objective: We sought to estimate the influence of gestational weight gain on the association between PCB-153 exposure and birth weight using a pharmacokinetic model.Methods: We modified a recently published pharmacokinetic model and ran Monte Carlo simulations accounting for variability in physiologic parameters and their correlations. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic model by comparing simulated plasma PCB-153 levels during pregnancy to serial measurements in 10 pregnant women from another study population. We estimated the association between simulated plasma PCB-153 levels and birth weight using linear regression models.Results: The plasma PCB-153 level profiles generated with the pharmacokinetic model were comparable to measured levels in 10 pregnant women. We estimated a 118-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -129, -106 g) for each 1-?g/L increase in simulated cord plasma PCB-153, compared with the 150-g decrease estimated based on the previous meta-analysis. The estimated decrease in birth weight was reduced to -6 g (95% CI: -18, 6 g) when adjusted for simulated gestational weight gain.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that associations previously noted between PCB levels and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by maternal weight gain during pregnancy.Citation: Verner MA, McDougall R, Glynn A, Andersen ME, Clewell HJ III, Longnecker MP. 2013. Is the relationship between prenatal exposure to PCB-153 and decreased birth weight attributable to pharmacokinetics? Environ Health Perspect 121:1219-1224;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206457. PMID:23934733

Verner, Marc-André; McDougall, Robin; Glynn, Anders; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Longnecker, Matthew P

2013-08-07

468

The relative influence of distant and local (DEW-line) PCB sources in the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Soil PCB contamination has been delineated at 18 of 21 Distant Early Warning Line (DEW-line) stations being cleaned up by the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND). As a result, detailed surface soil delineation data has been reported for contamination exceeding 1 microg/g (dw total Aroclor), which is the remedial criteria for PCB contaminated soil under the DEW-line cleanup project. The results of this delineation work has allowed us to estimate the mass of PCB contained in surface soil at these sites and to quantify the DEW-line as a source of PCBs to both local and Arctic wide contamination. Our analysis of DEW-line cleanup delineation reports suggests that pre-cleanup surface soils (top 10 cm) with over 1 microg/g PCB constituted a source of PCBs that ranged from 0.8 to 43 kg with a mean of 18 kg. The total mass of PCB at all 18 sites was 119 kg. Previous studies have described a "halo-effect" that surrounds DEW-line sites, whereby PCB signatures in soil and plants up to 10 km from source areas were attributed to the local source. At Cambridge Bay (CAM-M), Nunavut, our inventory of PCB sources and redistribution suggests that up to 3.4 kg of PCB were exported from the site to the surrounding tundra prior to cleanup. The primary mechanism of transportation appears to be wind borne particulate. Potential vapour phase emissions of PCB from contaminated soil at DEW-line sites appears to have been negligible. PMID:15866270

Stow, J P; Sova, J; Reimer, K J

2005-04-15

469

Is the Relationship between Prenatal Exposure to PCB-153 and Decreased Birth Weight Attributable to Pharmacokinetics?  

PubMed Central

Background: A recent meta-analysis based on data from > 7,000 pregnancies reported an association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)–153 exposure and reduced birth weight. Gestational weight gain, which is associated negatively with PCB levels in maternal and cord blood, and positively with birth weight, could substantially confound this association. Objective: We sought to estimate the influence of gestational weight gain on the association between PCB-153 exposure and birth weight using a pharmacokinetic model. Methods: We modified a recently published pharmacokinetic model and ran Monte Carlo simulations accounting for variability in physiologic parameters and their correlations. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic model by comparing simulated plasma PCB-153 levels during pregnancy to serial measurements in 10 pregnant women from another study population. We estimated the association between simulated plasma PCB-153 levels and birth weight using linear regression models. Results: The plasma PCB-153 level profiles generated with the pharmacokinetic model were comparable to measured levels in 10 pregnant women. We estimated a 118-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: –129, –106 g) for each 1-?g/L increase in simulated cord plasma PCB-153, compared with the 150-g decrease estimated based on the previous meta-analysis. The estimated decrease in birth weight was reduced to –6 g (95% CI: –18, 6 g) when adjusted for simulated gestational weight gain. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that associations previously noted between PCB levels and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Citation: Verner MA, McDougall R, Glynn A, Andersen ME, Clewell HJ III, Longnecker MP. 2013. Is the relationship between prenatal exposure to PCB-153 and decreased birth weight attributable to pharmacokinetics? Environ Health Perspect 121:1219–1224;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206457

McDougall, Robin; Glynn, Anders; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

470

Treat PCB-laden soils with acetone and polystyrene beads  

SciTech Connect

In a typical solvent-extraction process, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other nonvolatile organic compounds are transferred from a solid medium (i.e., soil) to a liquid medium. The solvent is then distilled, and the contaminant-free sludge is disposed. However, capital and operating costs can be steep because solvent-extraction systems require several processing steps, and the solvent must ultimately be distilled or reclaimed for reuse in the system. To overcome these drawbacks, Envirogen, Inc. (Lawrenceville, N.J.) has recently developed a two-step, solvent-extraction process, which uses a small amounts of solvent to extract organic contaminants from soil, and then adsorbs these contaminants onto a solid, polystyrene substrate, for cheaper recovery. To date, the technology, dubbed Solid Organic Phase Extraction (SOPE) has been field tested on PCB-laden soils, and has achieved a removal efficiency of 99%, says the firm, adding that it is suitable for any hydrophobic contaminants.

NONE

1995-11-01

471

High PCB residues in birds from the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organochlorine residues were measured in the carcasses and, in some cases, brains and stomach contents of four species of birds collected along the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin during the years 1976 to 1980. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were high in all samples and were the contaminants of greatest concern. Carcass residues ranged from 23 to 218 ppm PCBs on a wet weight basis; these are levels associated with reproductive impairment in laboratory studies with some birds. Food items in the stomachs of collected birds contained from 12 to 58 ppm PCBs, indicating a heavy contamination of food sources. The brain of one bird contained 220 ppm PCBs, a level that is not in the lethal range but is very high. Birds feeding in the contaminated portions of the Sheboygan River may have been harmed by high PCB levels.

Heinz, G.H.; Swineford, D.M.; Katsma, D.E.

1984-01-01

472

Histopathology of optic nerve pit-associated maculopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the histopathologic findings of an eye bank specimen containing an optic nerve pit with associated serous elevation of the macula and cavernous atrophy of the optic nerve. Methods An eye bank specimen found to have an optic nerve pit with serous elevation of the macula was grossly examined and photographed. The globe was processed for both light and scanning electron microscopy. Results The scanning electron microscopic study of this eye with an optic nerve pit revealed holes in the diaphanous membrane overlying the nerve at the edge of the optic pit. Serial histopathology sections revealed a connection between the holes overlying the optic pit and the subretinal space via a schisis-like cavity in the retina. Conclusion The discovery of an optic nerve pit with coexisting serous detachment of the macula in an eye bank eye and subsequent pathological evaluation provides support for current theories into the mechanism of the visual loss in this condition. Our finding supports syneretic vitreous to be the source of the subretinal fluid.

Christoforidis, John B; Terrell, William; Davidorf, Frederick H

2012-01-01

473

Endocrine Disruption of Brain Sexual Differentiation by Developmental PCB Exposure  

PubMed Central

In mammals, sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus occurs during prenatal and early postnatal development due in large part to sex differences in hormones. These early organizational processes are critically important for the attainment and maintenance of adult reproductive functions. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that disrupt hormonal pathways would perturb reproductive maturation and the sexually dimorphic development of neuroendocrine systems in the preoptic area (POA). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected on gestational d 16 and 18 with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), Aroclor 1221 (A1221, an estrogenic PCB mix), a reconstituted PCB mixture representing those highest in human body burden (PCBs 138, 153, 180), or estradiol benzoate, an estrogenic control. Male and female pups were monitored for somatic and reproductive development. In adulthood, some rats were perfused and used for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor ?, kisspeptin, and coexpression of Fos in GnRH neurons. Other rats were used to obtain fresh-frozen POA dissections for use in a PCR-based 48-gene expression array. Pubertal onset was advanced and estrous cyclicity irregular in endocrine-disrupted females. Furthermore, sexual differentiation of female neuroendocrine systems was masculinized/defeminized. Specifically, in the adult female anteroventral periventricular nucleus, estrogen receptor ?-cell numbers and kisspeptin fiber density were significantly decreased, as was GnRH-Fos coexpression. PCR analysis identified androgen receptor, IGF-I, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR2b, and TGF?1 mRNAs as significantly down-regulated in endocrine-disrupted female POAs. These data suggest that developmental PCBs profoundly impair the sexual differentiation of the female hypothalamus.

Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Patisaul, Heather B.; Woller, Michael J.

2011-01-01

474

Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents.  

PubMed

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson-Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long-term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-Knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D

2009-05-22

475

ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work.

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

2011-01-01

476

Influence of cadmium on PCB congener accumulation in quail  

SciTech Connect

Technological development this century has led to an environmental input of synthetic chemical compounds totally extraneous to natural ecosystems such as Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), extensively used in agriculture and industry. These xenobiotics have a high fat/water reparti