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1

Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington  

SciTech Connect

PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

2000-12-11

2

Pitted Keratolysis  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin and may give off an unpleasant odor. Who's At Risk Pitted keratolysis can occur in ... may occasionally be itchy or painful. The foot odor often associated with pitted keratolysis may be socially ...

3

PCB storage requirements  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

4

Pitting corrosion of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the experiments performed during the last few decades which enhance knowledge of the pitting of aluminum. Specifically, metastable and stable pits, pit chemistry and the effect of intermetallics on pitting are discussed. The properties of metastable alloys and inhibition of Al are also discussed.

Z Szklarska-Smialowska

1999-01-01

5

PCB recordkeeping and reporting  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

6

To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking  

SciTech Connect

The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling. In most cases, sellers do not find legitimate buyers; however, there have been specific cases where sellers did find actual terrorist group representatives. There appears to be a connection between terrorist groups engaged in trafficking conventional arms and explosives components that are also looking for both nuclear materials and radioisotopes. Sale opportunities may create additional demand for such materials. As we can observe from Figure 1, many cases in the mid-90s involved kilogram quantities of material. There were smaller amounts of material moved in 2001, 2003 and 2006. While we have seen less trafficking cases involving PujHEU in recent years, the fact that it continues at all is troubling. The trafficking cases can be presented through their life cycle: Diversion of materials leads to Trafficker and then to Terrorist/Proliferator. Most of the information we have in trafficking cases is on the Trafficker. In 16 cases reported by the IAEA, there are 10 prosecutions of the involved trafficker. However, there are no confirmed diversions of material recorded in any of the 18 seizures. Most seizures were sting operations performed by law enforcement or security agents with no actual illicit end-user involved.

Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

7

Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N?=?10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR?=?11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may reduce illicit drug use and peer disapproval of illicit drugs. PMID:25182042

2014-01-01

8

Evaluation and Interconversion of Various Indicator PCB Schemes for ?PCB and Dioxin-Like PCB Toxic Equivalent Levels in Fish.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (?PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ?PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ?PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union. PMID:25488397

Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

2015-01-01

9

Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

10

ENANTIOSELECTIVITY IN THE BIODEGRADATION OF PCB ATROPISOMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms inoculated with sediment from two locations in a contaminated reservoir, Lake Hartwell, SC, USA, degraded certain PCB atropisomers enantioselectively while other atropisomers were degraded in racemic proportions. The microcosms were spiked with either 234-236 PCB (PCB...

11

Component modeling for PCB design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of wireless applications have created the need for useful models that promote RF circuit design on modern PCB materials for frequencies below 3 GHz. Accurate models minimize the amount of physical tuning and rework after an RF design has been fabricated. A PCB was developed that allows the full characterization of various case size (0402, 0603, 0805,

T. A. Winslow

2000-01-01

12

Consequence of Body Packing of Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: During the last decade, increased rates of drug traffic have led the smugglers to use various methods. One of these methods of illicit drug smuggling is body packing. Smuggling by intra-abdominal concealment is called \\

Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

13

CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky Allegro PCB Design  

E-print Network

CMPE 310 Layout Editor Tutorial Jordan Bisasky Allegro PCB Design Allegro PCB Design of the PCB project tutorial. Before starting with PCB Design, you must have a completed schematic PCB Editor: Start >All Programs >Cadence SPB 16.01 > PCB Editor > Allegro PCB Design XL Create a new

Patel, Chintan

14

Etch pits on caprolactam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an extension of the results on the morphology, we investigated the defect structure of solution-grown caprolactam crystals by means of slight etching in cyclohexane and subsequent microscopic observation of the resulting etch pits on the 200, 110, and faces. In case of the face (which is a cleavage plane), we confirmed that the etch pits are formed around dislocation lines by performing an "etch-and-match" experiment. Information is obtained on morphology and density of etch pits, the presence of grain boundaries, as well as qualitative information on the inclination of the dislocation lines.

van der Heijden, A. E. D. M.; Geertman, R. M.

1992-09-01

15

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07

16

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

17

Sulci Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These collapse pits are found in an area of 'sulci' ridges east of Olympus Mons. Graben cut the ridges, and one graben hosts the collapse pits. It is likely that these collapse pits are related to volatile release from material that filled the lows at some point after graben formation.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 18.6, Longitude 234.6 East (125.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

18

Ascraeus Mons Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These collapse pits are found on the flank of Ascraeus Mons. The pits and channels are all related to lava tube formation and emptying.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 8, Longitude 253.9 East (106.1 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

19

Shooting up : the impact of illicit economics on military conflict  

E-print Network

The study explores the nexus between illicit economies and military conflicts. It investigates when and how access by belligerents to the production and trafficking of illicit substances affects the strength of belligerents ...

Felbab-Brown, Vanda

2007-01-01

20

Advanced Genetics PCB 5065 Fall 2013 page 1 Syllabus Advanced Genetics PCB 5065 Fall 2013  

E-print Network

of genetics and apply genetic analysis to their own research problems. PCB 5065 is designed to establishAdvanced Genetics PCB 5065 Fall 2013 page 1 Syllabus Advanced Genetics PCB 5065 Fall 2013 Section 2191; 4 credits; 2318 Fifield Hall; MTWR 5th Period www.hos.ufl.edu/courses/PCB

Watson, Craig A.

21

Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons who use illicit drugs are stigmatized in the United States. The conferral of a deviant social status on illicit drug users may serve to discourage use. However, stigmatization may also adversely affect the health of those who use illicit drugs, through exposure to chronic stress such as discrimination and as a barrier to accessing care. We hypothesized that aspects

Jennifer Ahern; Jennifer Stuber; Sandro Galea

2007-01-01

22

Tractus Catena Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These collapse pits are found in graben located in Tractus Catena. These features are related to subsidence after magma chamber evacuation of Alba Patera.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 35.8, Longitude 241.7 East (118.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

23

Alba Patera Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

This image of the Alba Patera region has both lava tube collapse pits (running generally east/west) and subsidence related collapse within structural grabens.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 26.9, Longitude 256.5 East (103.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

24

Alba Patera Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These collapse pits are found within graben surrounding Alba Patera. Alba Patera is an old volcano that has subsided after it's magma chamber was evacuated.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.1, Longitude 259.4 East (100.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

25

Pit Chain on Olympus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

21 April 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of collapse pits on the lower northeast flank of the large martian volcano, Olympus Mons. For these to have formed, something in the subsurface must have been removed or changed volume, such as cooling lava within a subsurface lava tube or extension of the crust by faulting. These pits are located near 20.6oN, 129.4oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

26

Sulci Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

This is the Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. These collapse pits are forming along structural fractures that are allowing the release of volatiles from the subsurface. This is believed to be the way that chaos terrain forms on Mars. This area represents the early stage of chaos formation.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.6, Longitude 264 East (96 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

27

Tharsis Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These collapse pits are found within the extensive lava flows of the Tharsis region. They are related to lava tubes, likely coming from Ascraeus Mons.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 22.8, Longitude 266.8 East (93.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

28

PCB 3063, Dr. Hoffman Summer 2014  

E-print Network

PCB 3063, Dr. Hoffman Summer 2014 PCB 3063 Genetics, Summer Semester A, 2014 Course Objectives expression and recombinant DNA technology. This is an upper division class designed for students who have. _______________________________________________________________________ TIME AND PLACE: Lecture: 12:30 -2:20 Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday in CB1 104. CREDIT: PCB

29

Practical issues in high speed PCB design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current high-speed PCB (printed circuit board) designs need extra care due to the frequency of operation and reduced rise time signals. We present the main issues and parameters that a PCB designer has to consider and analyze before a board layout is created. First order approximation equations for various parameters are presented, based on the geometry of the PCB traces.

M. S. Sharawi

2004-01-01

30

Illicit drug profiling: the Australian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit drug profiling provides law enforcement agencies with physical and chemical information that may assist in identifying and disrupting drug trafficking organizations. Detailed chemical analysis provides information which when compared to historical data allows investigators to determine the geo-location of cultivated drugs such as cocaine and heroin. Similar analyses of synthetic drugs afford information on synthetic route and precursor chemicals.

Michael Collins; Juuso Huttunen; Ian Evans; James Robertson

2007-01-01

31

Law Enforcement and Illicit Drug Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

he reduction of illicit drug use in Australia will require a whole- of-government approach, and should be based on three funda- mental strategies: education, treatment for the drug dependent, and law enforcement. A wide variety of Australian institutions can and should con- tribute to each of these three. Our task here is not comprehensive. On the contrary, its scope is

Adam Graycar; Diana Nelson; Mick Palmer

32

Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

Barkhoudarian, S.

1986-01-01

33

PCB design with low EMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses both the PC board design, the cause and effect of EMI and what precautions and considerations should be taken to eliminate the effect due to EMI. Due to VLSI chips and sophisticated PCB design requirements, EMI control becomes very important for the proper functioning of circuits and electronic systems

A. K. Ghose; S. K. Mandal; G. K. Deb

1995-01-01

34

Polar Cap Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

35

Pit disassembly motion control  

SciTech Connect

A Department of Energy (DOE) Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed for the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The facility will recover plutonium from excess nuclear weapon pits defined in START II and START III treaties. The plutonium will be stored and used to produce mixed oxide reactor fuel at another new DOE facility. Because of radiation dose issues, much of the pit disassembly work and material transfer will be automated. Automated material handling systems will interface with disassembly lathes, conversion reactors that produce oxide for storage, robotic container welding stations, vault retrieval systems, and nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation. The goal is to use common motion control hardware for material transfer and possibly common motion controllers for the unique PDCF systems. The latter is complicated by the different directions manufactures are considering for distributed control, such as Firewire, SERCOS, etc., and by the unique control requirements of machines such as lathes compared to controls for an integrated NDA system. The current design approach is to standardize where possible, use network cables to replace wire bundles where possible, but to first select hardware and motion controllers that meet specific machine or process requirements.

Christensen, L. (Lowell); Pittman, P. C. (Pete C.)

2001-01-01

36

Illicit drug profiling, reflection on statistical comparisons.  

PubMed

This paper presents reflexions about statistical considerations on illicit drug profiling and more specifically about the calculation of threshold for determining of the seizure are linked or not. The specific case of heroin and cocaine profiling is presented with the necessary details on the target profiling variables (major alkaloids) selected and the analytical method used. Statistical approach to compare illicit drug seizures is also presented with the introduction of different scenarios dealing with different data pre-treatment or transformation of variables. The main aim consists to demonstrate the influence of data pre-treatment on the statistical outputs. A thorough study of the evolution of the true positive rate (TP) and the false positive rate (FP) in heroin and cocaine comparison is then proposed to investigate this specific topic and to demonstrate that there is no universal approach available and that the calculations have to be revaluate for each new specific application. PMID:20870366

Esseiva, Pierre; Gaste, Laeticia; Alvarez, Daniel; Anglada, Frederic

2011-04-15

37

Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation,\\u000a as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components,\\u000a and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated\\u000a with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy

Antonio P. Sanfilippo; Scott Butner; Andrew J. Cowell; Angela C. Dalton; Jereme N. Haack; Sean J. Kreyling; Roderick M. Riensche; Amanda M. White; Paul D. Whitney

2011-01-01

38

Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use  

PubMed Central

The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

2009-01-01

39

PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1995-04-01

40

PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) retrofill: Fact or fiction  

SciTech Connect

PCB transformers changes form the fire safety engineers friend to the environmental engineers worst nightmare, when it became apparent that PCB filled devices are a source of highly toxic chemicals when they are burned improperly. This concern, combined with new regulations, is prompting engineers worldwide to actively plan and design PCB replacements. The two most commonly used PCB mitigation methods are retrofill and retrofit. This report will address retrofill only and is directed toward environmental concerns, facility interfaces, outage requirements, and application questions. This information is offered to help engineers make informed decisions regarding the best way to replace PCB transformers. This overview also addresses whether PCB retrofill is a viable fact'' or is it fiction'' without merit. 3 figs.

Seifert, G.D.

1990-01-01

41

40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761...PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance...761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste....

2010-07-01

42

ENVIROGARD? PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Envirogard? polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

43

Illicit cigarette consumption and government revenue loss in Indonesia.  

PubMed

BackgroundIllicit cigarettes comprise more than 11% of tobacco consumption and 17% of consumption in low- and middle-income countries. Illicit cigarettes, defined as those that evade taxes, lower consumer prices, threaten national tobacco control efforts, and reduce excise tax collection.MethodsThis paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette consumption within Indonesia using two methods: the discrepancies between legal cigarette sales and domestic consumption estimated from surveys, and discrepancies between imports recorded by Indonesia and exports recorded by trade partners. Smuggling plays a minor role in the availability of illicit cigarettes because Indonesians predominantly consume kreteks, which are primarily manufactured in Indonesia.ResultsLooking at the period from 1995 to 2013, illicit cigarettes first emerged in 2004. When no respondent under-reporting is assumed, illicit consumption makes up 17% of the domestic market in 2004, 9% in 2007, 11% in 2011, and 8% in 2013. Discrepancies in the trade data indicate that Indonesia was a recipient of smuggled cigarettes for each year between 1995 and 2012. The value of this illicit trade ranges from less than $1 million to nearly $50 million annually. Singapore, China, and Vietnam together accounted for nearly two-thirds of trade discrepancies over the period. Tax losses due to illicit consumption amount to between Rp 4.1 and 9.3 trillion rupiah, 4% to 13% of tobacco excise revenue, in 2011 and 2013.ConclusionsDue to the predominance of kretek consumption in Indonesia and Indonesia¿s status as the predominant producer of kreteks, illicit domestic production is likely the most important source for illicit cigarettes, and initiatives targeted to combat this illicit production carry the promise of the greatest potential impact. PMID:25406595

Ahsan, Abdillah; Wiyono, Nur; Setyonaluri, Diahhadi; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony D

2014-11-19

44

Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

DeVolpi, A.

1997-10-01

45

Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance  

SciTech Connect

Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

2014-06-19

46

Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

2013-02-01

47

CRIMINAL FRANCHISING: ALBANIANS AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers how trafficking of marijuana from Al- bania to Italy interlocks with, other forms of illicit trafficking. While Alba- nians have tended to occupy only marginal roles in other forms of illicit drug trafficking, they are centrally involved in the production, importa- tion and distribution of marijuana. The paper identifies a number of — probably unintended — benefits

Vincenzo Ruggiero

48

Illicit Drug Use and Crime in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between illicit drug prices and use, and the relationship between illicit drug prices and crime by exploiting a large exogenous federal intervention targeted at the methamphetamine mar- ket. By using the intervention as an instrument for price, it first examines how changes in price aected both overall methamphetamine use and the use of younger\\/recreational and

Greg Rafert

2007-01-01

49

PCB with fully integrated optical interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for miniaturization and design flexibility of polymer optical waveguides integrated into electrical printed circuit boards (PCB) calls for new coupling and integration concepts. We report on a method that allows the coupling of optical waveguides to electro-optical components as well as the integration of an entire optical link into the PCB. The electro-optical devices such as lasers

Gregor Langer; Valentin Satzinger; Volker Schmidt; Gerhard Schmid; Walter R. Leeb

2011-01-01

50

DYNAMIC MASS BALANCE OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

In Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, about 3.7 metric tons of PCB remain in the active sediment and inputs from the Saginaw River and atmospheric deposition contribute about 1.4 kg PCB per day. In 1977 the U.S. E.P.A. initiated a research effort on Saginaw Bay which was chosen because of ...

51

Urological complications of illicit drug use.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction. Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, prostate cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours in case-control studies. Fournier's gangrene has been reported following injection of heroin and cocaine into the penis. Excessive use of cough medicines can lead to the development of radiolucent stones composed of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. As the current evidence is mostly limited to case reports and case series, future epidemiological studies are needed to fully address this issue. PMID:24535583

Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry

2014-03-01

52

Exploring drug-target interaction networks of illicit drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Drug addiction is a complex and chronic mental disease, which places a large burden on the American healthcare system due to its negative effects on patients and their families. Recently, network pharmacology is emerging as a promising approach to drug discovery by integrating network biology and polypharmacology, allowing for a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of drug actions at the systems level. This study seeks to apply this approach for investigation of illicit drugs and their targets in order to elucidate their interaction patterns and potential secondary drugs that can aid future research and clinical care. Results In this study, we extracted 188 illicit substances and their related information from the DrugBank database. The data process revealed 86 illicit drugs targeting a total of 73 unique human genes, which forms an illicit drug-target network. Compared to the full drug-target network from DrugBank, illicit drugs and their target genes tend to cluster together and form four subnetworks, corresponding to four major medication categories: depressants, stimulants, analgesics, and steroids. External analysis of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) second sublevel classifications confirmed that the illicit drugs have neurological functions or act via mechanisms of stimulants, opioids, and steroids. To further explore other drugs potentially having associations with illicit drugs, we constructed an illicit-extended drug-target network by adding the drugs that have the same target(s) as illicit drugs to the illicit drug-target network. After analyzing the degree and betweenness of the network, we identified hubs and bridge nodes, which might play important roles in the development and treatment of drug addiction. Among them, 49 non-illicit drugs might have potential to be used to treat addiction or have addictive effects, including some results that are supported by previous studies. Conclusions This study presents the first systematic review of the network characteristics of illicit drugs, their targets, and other drugs that share the targets of these illicit drugs. The results, though preliminary, provide some novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. The observation of illicit-related drugs, with partial verification from previous studies, demonstrated that the network-assisted approach is promising for the identification of drug repositioning. PMID:24268016

2013-01-01

53

[Applications of terahertz spectroscopy in illicit drugs detection].  

PubMed

Abstract The present paper reviewed our recent research on illicit drugs detection by using terahertz (THz) spectroscopy technique. First, we found a THz spectral database which contains 38 types of pure illicit drugs. Second, we employ the artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods as useful automatic tools to identify the illicit drugs. Third, a theoretical and experimental method has been developed to confirm the illicit drug purity and effective component content. Forth, Gaussian Software was used for spectral analysis of some individual samples, such as MA, ketamine, heroin, etc. Fifth, we built a smart portable Terahertz time domain spectroscopy system (THz-TDS). These works provide a solid scientific foundation for illicit drug identification by using THz spectroscopy technique. And also, as a complement detection approach, it will serve public security work. PMID:24369629

He, Ting; Shen, Jing-ling

2013-09-01

54

Statement of basis/proposed plan for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G). Revision 1, Final  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G (BRP6G) located at SRS, in northwestern Barnwell County, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process. Arsenic, beryllium, iron, and octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin isomers (OCDD) concentrations in the pit soil are at levels consistent with those found in the background. Therefore, the only contamination attributable to actions in BRP6G is PCB-1254. After the risk contributions of these chemicals are eliminated, the only remaining risk attributable to the pit soil is from PCB-1254 (about 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} via ingestion of vegetables grown on-site). The maximum concentration of PCB-1254 detected in the pit was 0.115 mg/kg, approximately 10% of the residential action level for PCBs of 1 mg/kg. Based on the results of the remedial investigation and the BRA, it is proposed that No Action be performed for the BRP6G. Considering the low levels of residual contamination present principally below 1.2 meters (4 feet) within the pit and the associated risks (about 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}) within the lower level of EPA`s target risk range, action is not warranted for this unit.

Palmer, E.

1996-10-24

55

BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF ADULTS RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO PCB153.  

EPA Science Inventory

Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are more neurotoxic in vitro than are non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners. We selected PCB153, a common ortho-substituted PCB congener, to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of this class of PCBs in vivo. Pregnant fema...

56

PCB126 inhibits adipogenesis of human preadipocytes.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are involved in the development of diabetes. Dysfunctional adipocytes play a significant role in initiating insulin resistance. Preadipocytes make up a large portion of adipose tissue and are necessary for the generation of functional mature adipocytes through adipogenesis. PCB126 is a dioxin-like PCB and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. We hypothesized that PCB126 may be involved in the development of diabetes through disruption of adipogenesis. Using a newly developed human preadipocyte cell line called NPAD (Normal PreADipocytes), we found that exposure of preadipocytes to PCB126 resulted in significant reduction in their subsequent ability to fully differentiate into adipocytes, more so than when the cells were exposed to PCB126 during differentiation. Reduction in differentiation by PCB126 was associated with downregulation of transcript levels of a key adipocyte transcription factor, PPAR?, and late adipocyte differentiation genes. An AhR antagonist, CH223191, blocked this effect. These studies indicate that preadipocytes are particularly sensitive to the effects of PCB126 and suggest that AhR activation inhibits PPAR? transcription and subsequent adipogenesis. Our results validate the NPAD cell line as a useful model for studying the effects of POPs on adipogenesis. PMID:25304490

Gadupudi, Gopi; Gourronc, Francoise A; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

2015-02-01

57

[Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].  

PubMed

Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359

Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

2014-03-01

58

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).  

PubMed

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics. PMID:7504612

Brieger, G; Hunter, R D

1993-10-01

59

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics.

Brieger, G.; Hunter, R.D. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States))

1993-10-01

60

News and resources for PCB industry  

E-print Network

News and resources for PCB industry professionals VIEWPOINT: 'Macroelectronics' 08-25-2006 Anyone, a professor of architecture and design, believe that the day will come when windows will come and go, walls

Rogers, John A.

61

PCB spill response and notification requirements  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

62

Contribution of earthworms to PCB bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty cm deep columns containing Aroclor 1242 contaminated soil were bioaugmented with the PCB-degrading micro-organisms, Ralstonia eutrophus H850 and Rhodococcus sp. strain ACS, each of which were grown on sorbitan trioleate, and induced for PCB degradation by salicylic acid and carvone, respectively. Treatments consisted of soils with and without earthworms. Earthworms were utilized to enhance the dispersal of the bioaugmented

A. C Singer; W Jury; E Luepromchai; C.-S Yahng; D. E Crowley

2001-01-01

63

21 CFR 1301.92 - Illicit activities by employees.  

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Employee Screening-Non-Practitioners § 1301.92 Illicit activities by...

2014-04-01

64

21 CFR 1301.92 - Illicit activities by employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Employee Screening-Non-Practitioners § 1301.92 Illicit activities by...

2012-04-01

65

21 CFR 1301.92 - Illicit activities by employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Employee Screening-Non-Practitioners § 1301.92 Illicit activities by...

2010-04-01

66

21 CFR 1301.92 - Illicit activities by employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Employee Screening-Non-Practitioners § 1301.92 Illicit activities by...

2011-04-01

67

21 CFR 1301.92 - Illicit activities by employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Employee Screening-Non-Practitioners § 1301.92 Illicit activities by...

2013-04-01

68

Safety measures for prevention of PCB accidents.  

PubMed Central

This paper attempts to clarify the most common measures available for the fire and electrical engineer in the prevention of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) hazards. It points out the risks and the potential for making large risks involved in the use of transformers and capacitors more manageable. The focus in solving the PCB problem is on priority. This should be reflected in the agenda of the workshop: it should discuss not only transformers and capacitors as such, but deal more with questions concerning waste disposal, getting correct information to people on substances containing PCBs and on the proper and nonpanicky handling of such substances. The PCB issue does not lend itself to any black and white solution. Instead, a number of different aspects have to be taken into account. Any solutions arrived at are therefore always compromises between risk evaluation and cost effectiveness. Reduction of PCB risks does not have to result, for example, in an increase in fire risks. It is preferable to move step by step and avoid making irretractable decisions. Alternatives available for replacing PCB-filled devices or the widely used method of refilling PCB-filled transformers with silicone oils are not discussed. Refilling is not dealt with because its capacity to reduce the fire risk sufficiently in locations where these transformers are usually found in northern Europe is not known with certainty. PMID:3928364

Pajari, J

1985-01-01

69

Safety measures for prevention of PCB accidents.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to clarify the most common measures available for the fire and electrical engineer in the prevention of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) hazards. It points out the risks and the potential for making large risks involved in the use of transformers and capacitors more manageable. The focus in solving the PCB problem is on priority. This should be reflected in the agenda of the workshop: it should discuss not only transformers and capacitors as such, but deal more with questions concerning waste disposal, getting correct information to people on substances containing PCBs and on the proper and nonpanicky handling of such substances. The PCB issue does not lend itself to any black and white solution. Instead, a number of different aspects have to be taken into account. Any solutions arrived at are therefore always compromises between risk evaluation and cost effectiveness. Reduction of PCB risks does not have to result, for example, in an increase in fire risks. It is preferable to move step by step and avoid making irretractable decisions. Alternatives available for replacing PCB-filled devices or the widely used method of refilling PCB-filled transformers with silicone oils are not discussed. Refilling is not dealt with because its capacity to reduce the fire risk sufficiently in locations where these transformers are usually found in northern Europe is not known with certainty. PMID:3928364

Pajari, J

1985-05-01

70

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish  

SciTech Connect

PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

Elskus, A.A.

1992-01-01

71

Collapse Pits in Bernard Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in serveral ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire ediface to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These pits occur in the floor of Bernard Crater. These collapse pits were likely formed by the release of volatiles from the materials deposited in the crater floor.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24, Longitude 205.5 East (154.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

72

Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.  

PubMed

Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

2014-03-01

73

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

Miller, R.W.

1985-05-01

74

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

PubMed Central

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m?3 to 5500 pg m?3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources. PMID:21918637

HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

2010-01-01

75

Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (?-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively.Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions.Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

2015-03-01

76

Governance in EU illicit drugs policy.  

PubMed

This commentary represents the authors' views on EU governance in illicit drug policy, a field in which they were active for more than 10 years between them. EU drug policy has a narrow legal basis in the European Treaties and is mostly non-binding. The main policy instruments are 8-year EU Drug Strategies, underpinned by 4-year Action Plans which set out specific objectives at national, EU or international level. The approach that guides EU drug policy is known as the 'balanced approach'. It is remarkably restrained and reflects the reality that very few Member States have either the socio-political culture or the resources to consistently apply the punitive sanctions foreseen by the UN conventions. An important feature of EU governance in the field of drugs is the proactive support that is provided to non-governmental organisations both within the EU as well as in accession, associated or third countries. At a global level, the EU is a major financial aid donor also in this field. This position is not however reflected in corresponding political clout for the EU within the UN system. EU governance on drugs has made it possible for many of its Member States to accommodate the problem rather than to "solve" what by all the evidence from the last 100 years may well be insoluble, at least by means of criminalisation and prohibition. The big question is where EU drug policy is headed in the next few years. The EU has been promoting measures and practices that target real problems. It has done so without indulging too much in unhelpful rhetoric. However, like all successful formulae this one also has a sell-by date. EU governance in the field of drugs cannot afford to stand still. It needs to find a second wind. PMID:25060612

Edwards, Carel; Galla, Maurice

2014-09-01

77

ENVIROGARD PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE INC.: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the demonstration and evaluation of an immunoassay field screening technology designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil. he immunoassay technology was the EnviroGard PCB Test developed by Millipore, Inc. he technology was dem...

78

Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195

Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

2014-09-01

79

40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. 761.274...Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a)...

2010-07-01

80

Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer  

E-print Network

Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer Notes for demonstrators Professor John H be able to design, populate and test a printed circuit board (PCB). You are therefore required to complete-signal system 40 9 Summary: PCB design flow 45 10 How to correct a layout if you spot an error in the circuit 46

Davies, John H.

81

Printed Circuit Board Design (PCB) with HDL Designer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: PCB design with HDL designer, design process and schematic capture - symbols and diagrams: 1. Motivation: time savings, money savings, simplicity. 2. Approach: use single tool PCB for FPGA design, more FPGA designs than PCB designers. 3. Use HDL designer for schematic capture.

Winkert, Thomas K.; LaFourcade, Teresa

2004-01-01

82

A basic introduction to Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer  

E-print Network

A basic introduction to Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer Version 16.3 Professor John H. Davies Department ­ double-sided board 35 6 Artwork and drill files 39 7 Summary: PCB design flow 46 A Where to learn more 47 drill holes 65 1 #12;Preamble This document introduces the basic features of OrCAD PCB Designer

Davies, John H.

83

Characterization of products recycling from PCB waste pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of printed circuit board (PCB) waste is an important subject not only for the protection of environment but also for the recovery of valuable materials. A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering valuable products and energy from PCB waste was presented. Pyrolysis of PCB waste was performed on a fixed-bed reactor. The properties of the pyrolytic

Cui Quan; Aimin Li; Ningbo Gao; Zhang dan

2010-01-01

84

Pcb emissions from stationary sources: a theoretical study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a theoretical assessment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formation and destruction in conventional fossil fuel fired sources. Results suggest a small but finite possibility that PCB isomers may be found in their emissions. The study was the result of concern caused by tentative identification of PCB isomers in ash and flyash from a utility steam generating

Knieriem; H. Jr

1976-01-01

85

Using EXPRESS data modeling technique for PCB assembly analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an electronic assembly consisting of many electronic parts on a circuit board. From design to assembly, a PCB has many related data that need to be recorded, retrieved and updated in a database to support its life-cycle activities. This research focuses on the data modeling of PCB assembly and its part definition, specifically to support

Amy J. C. Trappey; Thu-Hua Liu; Chii-Tong Hwang

1997-01-01

86

Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

2006-11-01

87

Herring gull eggs indicate stabilizing Great Lakes PCB concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The author evaluated the fit of 3 alternative models to herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg PCB concentration data from 1978--1992 to examine whether PCB levels were decreasing or had ceased to decline. The best fit models indicate that, following initial declines, no discernible PCB decreases are occurring in 4 of the 5 lakes. Only Lake Erie indicates a continued PCB decline, though the Erie data may be too noisy to differentiate model fits. These results are consistent with previous analyses indicating stable PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes and suggest that further improvements may be too slow to be of practical importance from a management perspective.

Stow, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Center for Limnology

1995-12-31

88

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and

G. Brieger; R. D. Hunter

1993-01-01

89

Honors Genetics: PCB 3063H Spring 2014  

E-print Network

1 Honors Genetics: PCB 3063H Spring 2014 Tuesday and Thursday 12:00 p.m.-1:15 p.m. in BA 207 expression o Recombinant DNA technology · This is an upper division class designed for students who have or in the course o Suspension or expulsion from the university o A "Z Designation" on a student's official

90

A human engineered PCB design system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of the design decisions made in the development of a new computer-aided Printer Circuit Board design and documentation system, and a description of completing a PCB on the resulting system. The system is a maximum capability tool, uses high performance refresh graphics, works with schematic diagrams as input, and provides auto-interactive placement and routing, and powerful editing capabilities.

Andrew J. Matthews

1977-01-01

91

An automatic PCB layout design system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes an automatic PCB layout design system featuring software aids for component placement and automated routing of interconnections, implemented on a minicomputer system with the necessary graphical interaction provided by a commercial interactive graphics system. The system is being used extensively to design layouts for double sided PCBs.

K. G. Kulkarni

1981-01-01

92

Optical PCB using waveguide-embedded backplane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical optical printed circuit board (PCB) was demonstrated, using a waveguide-embedded optical backplane and processing boards. The polymeric waveguide was produced by means of a hot embossing technique then embedded following a conventional lamination processes. The core size of waveguide was 100 x 60 mum2 (input section), 60 x 60 mum2 (output section), and the propagation loss of tapered

Keun Byoung Yoon; In-Kui Cho; Seung-Ho Ahn; Jin Tae Kim

2004-01-01

93

ADHD Linked to Earlier Use of Illicit Drugs in Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ADHD Linked to Earlier Use of Illicit Drugs in ... Preidt Wednesday, January 28, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drug Abuse Drugs and Young People WEDNESDAY, Jan. ...

94

Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

Hemingway, Judy

2006-01-01

95

Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

1983-01-01

96

Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1 to 10 where the value of 10 indicates a fully

Marcel Toonen; Simon Ribot; J. T. N. M. Thissen

2006-01-01

97

Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

2011-01-01

98

Illicit Vessel Identification In Inland Waters using SAR Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper first introduces the modified two-parameter CFAR algorithm used to detect ship targets in inland waters, and then uses principal curves and neural networks to extract the waterway course. Through comparing the detection results and the extracted waterway course those vessels not complying with water traffic rules and those potential illicit fishing vessels can be easily identified.

Fengli Zhang; Bingfang Wu; Lei Zhang; Huiping Huang; Yichen Tian

2006-01-01

99

Illicit Sexual Behavior: A Test of Self-Control Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) contend that all deviance is subsumed under self-control theory and that individuals who commit any one deviant act will tend to commit other deviant acts as well. This research tests the correlation of illicit sexual behaviors with crime as they relate to measures of self-control. Secondly, this research examines the Gottfredson and Hirschi argument that their

Sharon RedHawk Love

2006-01-01

100

Factors influencing alcohol and illicit drug use amongst medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, illicit drug use, and other lifestyle variables, as well as stress, anxiety and personality were evaluated in 194 first year medical students. 45% of the students reported drinking above the recommended UK limits for alcohol consumption. The age at which the first full drink of alcohol was taken was predictive of the current level of alcohol use. Cannabis was

Dorothy Newbury-Birch; Martin White; Farhad Kamali

2000-01-01

101

Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

2008-01-01

102

Childhood Victimization and Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989–1995 and again in middle

Cathy Spatz Widom; Naomi R. Marmorstein; Helene Raskin White

2006-01-01

103

INTELLIGENT ILLICIT OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED AVIATION SECURITY  

E-print Network

INTELLIGENT ILLICIT OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED AVIATION SECURITY Vallipuram.green}@griffith.edu.au ABSTRACT Although aviation security is not a new phenomenon to the world, current threats are much more we have proposed an intelligent security technology system that provides the civil aviation authority

Blumenstein, Michael

104

Law enforcement and concentration in illicit drug markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we endogenize the horizontal structure of illicit drug markets. The key assumption is that the trafficker's probability of detection depends on his\\/her market share. We show that a stricter law enforcement policy encourages traffickers to permit competitors into the market. Increasing deterrence reduces the quantities supplied by each trafficker but also induces new entry, which cancels out

Sylvaine Poret; Cyril Téjédo

2006-01-01

105

Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on K(ow) and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing K(ow), or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5-8 chlorine atoms/molecule, K(ow) and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5-8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desorcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

1999-01-01

106

PCB levels in human fluids: Sheboygan cohort study, Sheboygan maternal/infant PCB study  

SciTech Connect

The PCB problem in the United States today has been raised to national concern with the discovery of PCBs in human breast milk above the highest recommended level for any commercially sold flood. This study, done in Sheboygan, Wisconsin in 1980-81, was to determine if (1) there were high levels of PCBs in mother's serum and breast milk in the vicinity of a PCB spill, (2) if these levels could be linked to the women's consumption of local fish, and (3) if the infants born to these women in the study showed signals of impaired health, growth, and development. Seventy-three women participated in the study, 62 who were breast-feeding their children, and 11 who were bottle-feeding their children. The serum PCB levels for the study population ranged from 1.29 to 14.90 ppb with a mean of 5.76 ppb. The breast milk PCB levels for the women who were breast feeding was 0.29 to 4.04 ppm with a mean of 1.13 ppm. The infants showed signs of impaired health as a result of in utero exposure to PCBs. No negative effects from exposure to breast milk PCB could be discerned up to 4 months postpartum.

Smith, B.J.

1983-01-01

107

Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation.  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent. Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2.5 (or 3.6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation. PMID:2088745

Lépine, F; Massé, R

1990-01-01

108

Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensors for Pcb Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We realised an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using carbon-based screen-printed disposable electrodes as solid-phase for reagent immobilisation and as signal transducer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate with Ag or Ab as enzyme label was used; hydrogen peroxide and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FCA) as mediator were employed in order to evaluate the HRP activity in the range 10-8-10-10 M. Indirect and direct competitive assays for PCB were performed and a detection limit of 0.01 ?g/mL was obtained in direct competitive format. The advantage of this approach is the relatively fast analysis (30 min) in comparison with a test based on microtiter assay plates (14h); moreover, the use of disposable screen-printed electrodes eliminates the problems of fouling and surface regeneration of electrochemical device.

Laschi, S.; Mascini, M.; Fránek, M.

2000-12-01

109

PCB-Based Break-Out Box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

Lee, Jason H.

2011-01-01

110

PCB's in Suburban Watershed, Reston, Va  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Lake Anne basin increased from water (<0.05-0.2 ppb), to bed sediment (<2.5-105 ppb), to fish (140-700 ppb) in an average ratio of 1:500:3000. The highest concentrations were observed in the lake, which is 10 years old, and receives no sewage or industrial waste discharges. Evidence indicates that the polvchlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) originate from diffuse sources associated with urban development and living.

Martell, J.M.; Rickert, D.A.; Siegel, F.R.

1975-01-01

111

Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.  

PubMed Central

Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

Johnston, L E

1985-01-01

112

PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY MODELING CALIBRATION OF THE MAIN PIT, TYRONE MINE, NEW MEXICO, USA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major difficulty facing many open pit mines where sulfides are present is the pit lake water quality after closure. A reliable prediction of future water quality within an open pit mine, excavated below the water table, requires a large amount of information and predictions for maybe hundreds of years into the future. These long-term predictions can only be useful

113

Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

2009-01-01

114

Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data  

SciTech Connect

A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C. [Blasland, Bouck and Lee, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

115

Accumulation of PCB Congeners in Nestling Tree Swallows  

E-print Network

Accumulation of PCB Congeners in Nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River Sciences, Section of Ecology and Systematics, Ithaca, New York 14850 Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor

McCarty, John P.

116

[Bayonet finger and the use of illicit drugs].  

PubMed

Prevalence of "bayonet finger", a semiologic sign of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), was determined in male illicit drug users, admitted in psychiatric hospital. A control group, paired in sex, age and social status, was built from the general population. The sign was observed en 165/345 (47.8%) drug users and 13/50 (26%) controls, the difference being statistically significant. Bearers of this sign had 2.61 odds ratio, 1.84 relative risk and 92.7% probability for being drug users. The observations suggest that, for males: (1) ADHD and related syndromes should be present in approximately half of illicit drug users and should represent a vulnerability factor for becoming drug user; (2) individuals presenting "bayonet finger", mainly adolescent, should deserve special attention for prevention of drug use. PMID:11400030

Borini, P

2001-06-01

117

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). 761...IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53)....

2013-07-01

118

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). 761...IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53)....

2012-07-01

119

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

...2014-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). 761...IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53)....

2014-07-01

120

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53). 761...IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53)....

2011-07-01

121

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste from the shredding of automobiles or household appliances from which PCB small capacitors have been removed (shredder fluff). (ii) Other PCB bulk product waste, sampled in accordance with the protocols...

2011-07-01

122

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste from the shredding of automobiles or household appliances from which PCB small capacitors have been removed (shredder fluff). (ii) Other PCB bulk product waste, sampled in accordance with the protocols...

2010-07-01

123

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste from the shredding of automobiles or household appliances from which PCB small capacitors have been removed (shredder fluff). (ii) Other PCB bulk product waste, sampled in accordance with the protocols...

2013-07-01

124

40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761...PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household waste, as defined at §...

2010-07-01

125

40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With §...

2010-07-01

126

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring admission to\\u000a an intensive care unit. This chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particulars of seizures induced by illicit drugs\\u000a of abuse, environmental toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

127

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins do require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring ICU care. This\\u000a chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particularities of seizures induced by illicit drugs of abuse, environmental\\u000a toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

128

MASTER - The Pit and the Pendulum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The short story, The Pit and the Pendulum by Edgar Allan Poe, remains a masterful work of psychological narrative writing, but for the careful reader, it also is a wonderful source of some interesting computational problems. The Pit and Pendulum model allows the reader to analyze the statements made in Poe's story.

129

Observations of cavitation erosion pit formation.  

PubMed

Previous investigations showed that a single cavitation bubble collapse can cause more than one erosion pit (Philipp & Lauterborn [1]). But our preliminary study showed just the opposite - that in some cases a single cavitation pit can result from more than one cavitation event. The present study shows deeper investigation of this phenomenon. An investigation of the erosion effects of ultrasonic cavitation on a thin aluminum foil was made. In the study we observed the formation of individual pits by means of high speed cameras (>1000 fps) and quantitatively evaluated the series of images by stereoscopy and the shape from shading method. This enabled the reconstruction of the time evolution of the pit shape. Results show how the foil is deformed several times before a hole is finally punctured. It was determined that larger single pits result from several impacts of shock waves on the same area, which means that they are merely special cases of pit clusters (pit clusters where pits overlap perfectly). Finally it was shown that a thin foil, which is subjected to cavitation, behaves as a membrane. It was concluded that the physics behind erosion depends significantly on the means of generating cavitation (acoustic, hydrodynamic, laser light) and the specimen characteristics (thin foil, massive specimen), which makes comparison of results of materials resistance to cavitation from different experimental set-ups questionable. Further development of the shape from shading method in the scope of cavitation erosion testing will enable better evaluation of cavitation erosion models. PMID:23403307

Dular, Matevž; Delgosha, Olivier Coutier; Petkovšek, Martin

2013-07-01

130

COPPER PITTING AND PINHOLE LEAK RESEARCH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized copper corrosion or pitting is a significant problem at many water utilities across the United States. Copper pinhole leak problems resulting from extensive pitting are widely under reported. Given the sensitive nature of the problem, extent of damage possible, costs o...

131

Speed, acceleration, chameleons and cherry pit projectiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific reasoning and how scientific knowledge is built.

Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

2012-01-01

132

Microtubules and angiosperm bordered pit formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubules have been shown to run around the perimeter of the pit aperture of developing bordered pits of Salix fragilis, L. These microtubules are parallel to the microfibrils being produced and do not converge with them. Although microtubules may be parallel to microfibrils in differentiating vessel elements as well as in fibres, many cases have been found where microtubules are

A. W. Robards; P. G. Humpherson

1967-01-01

133

Detection of Illicit Drugs with the EURITRACK System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.

Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.

2009-03-01

134

Congenital optic nerve pit in trisomy 18.  

PubMed

The authors report the first case of trisomy 18 associated with a clinically detectable optic nerve pit. A female infant with a birth weight of 2,150 g was born by cesarean section to a healthy 40-year-old woman at 38 weeks of gestation. Trisomy 18 had been diagnosed by prenatal genetic testing. Ophthalmologic examination was remarkable for bilateral narrowed palpebral fissures with punctal agenesis, corectopic pupils without reaction to light, bilateral inferior peripapillary retinochoroidal hypopigmentation, and significant optic nerve cupping in the left eye with associated temporal optic nerve pit. It has generally been accepted that optic nerve pits are a congenital anomaly. However, the pathophysiological background of optic nerve pits remains unclear and controversial. This is the first clinical and photographic documentation of an optic nerve pit in a neonate and in Edwards syndrome. PMID:24601433

Villegas, Victor M; Chang, Jonathan S; Hess, Ditte J; Berrocal, Audina M

2013-01-01

135

Congenital optic nerve pit in trisomy 18.  

PubMed

The authors report the first case of trisomy 18 associated with a clinically detectable optic nerve pit. A female infant with a birth weight of 2,150 g was born by cesarean section to a healthy 40-year-old woman at 38 weeks of gestation. Trisomy 18 had been diagnosed by prenatal genetic testing. Ophthalmologic examination was remarkable for bilateral narrowed palpebral fissures with punctal agenesis, corectopic pupils without reaction to light, bilateral inferior peripapillary retinochoroidal hypopigmentation, and significant optic nerve cupping in the left eye with associated temporal optic nerve pit. It has generally been accepted that optic nerve pits are a congenital anomaly. However, the pathophysiological background of optic nerve pits remains unclear and controversial. This is the first clinical and photographic documentation of an optic nerve pit in a neonate and in Edwards syndrome. PMID:23739588

Villegas, Victor M; Chang, Jonathan S; Hess, Ditte J; Berrocal, Audina M

2013-01-01

136

7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.  

...2014-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

2014-01-01

137

7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

2011-01-01

138

7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

2013-01-01

139

7 CFR 987.105 - Whole equivalent of pitted dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Whole equivalent of pitted dates. 987.105...Definitions § 987.105 Whole equivalent of pitted dates. For the purposes of this part, the whole date equivalent weight of pitted dates shall be...

2012-01-01

140

Developmental exposure to purity-controlled polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB74 and PCB95) in rats: Effects on brainstem auditory evoked potentials and catalepsy.  

PubMed

Whereas the effects of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are well described, less is known about non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), including influences on the nervous system and related behavioral effects after developmental exposure. Following the examination of the highly purified NDL congeners PCB52 and PCB180, we report here the results of experiments with PCB74 and PCB95. Rat dams were orally exposed to equimolar doses of either congener (40?mol/kg bw - 11.68mg PCB74/kg bw or 13.06mg PCB95/kg bw) from gestational day (GD) 10 to postnatal day (PND) 7. Control dams were given the vehicle. Adult offspring were tested for cataleptic behavior after induction with haloperidol, a classical neuroleptic drug, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), using clicks and tone pips of different frequencies for stimulation. Results revealed slight effects on latencies to movement onset in female offspring exposed to PCB74, whereas PCB74 males and offspring exposed to PCB95 were not affected. Pronounced changes were observed in BAEPs at low frequencies in PCB74 offspring, with elevated thresholds in both sexes. PCB95 increased thresholds in males, but not females. Small effects were detected on latency of the late wave IV in both sexes after developmental exposure to PCB74 or PCB95. Compared with the other NDL-PCB congeners tested, PCB74 caused the most pronounced effects on BAEPs. PMID:25449634

Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Korkalainen, Merja; Andersson, Patrik L; Viluksela, Matti

2015-01-01

141

Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations  

SciTech Connect

PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

1987-12-01

142

PCB EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES: A THEORETICAL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a theoretical assessment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formation and destruction in conventional fossil fuel fired sources. Results suggest a small but finite possibility that PCB isomers may be found in their emissions. The study was the result of...

143

EVLA Memo # 78 EVLA Chamber Characterization confirms PCB RFI emissions  

E-print Network

measured from PCB's using the EVLA chamber. Once certified as correct, one can validate the designEVLA Memo # 78 EVLA Chamber Characterization confirms PCB RFI emissions Levels and module shielding that the telescope is designed to detect, a very high level of shielding (60-120 dB), for each RFI radiating

Groppi, Christopher

144

PCB ground fill design guidelines for radiated EMI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is to alert PCB designers about potential EMI problems caused by ground fills in outer layers of PCB. Ground fills are frequently used on top and bottom layers of PCBs for manufacturing or perceived shielding reasons. However, if not well applied they may cause EMI problem, especially if they form resonators. Several types of situations need to be

Weifeng Pan; David Pommerenke; Shuai Xu; Jun Jia

2008-01-01

145

Design and PCB Layout Considerations for Dynamic Memories  

E-print Network

Design and PCB Layout Considerations for Dynamic Memories interfaced to the Z80 CPU by Tim Olmstead to work in your prototype board can be even tougher. If you can afford to pay for a multi-layer PCB considerations for design, and layout considerations. Since information without application is only half

Wilkerson, Clarence

146

Considerations for mixed analog\\/digital PCB design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mainstream Electrical Design Automation (EDA) printed circuit board (PCB) tools primarily have focused on automating digital design. Whereas a high level of automation is available today for digital design, analog-specific tools and features have been slower in coming. The now common practice of mixing analog and digital signals on a single PCB has changed the rules for mainstream digital designers.

N. L. Eastman

1996-01-01

147

Jitter Amplification Considerations for PCB Clock Channel Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jitter Amplification is a real concern in the design of PCB clock channels if the frequency of the clock is high and the PCB trace is relatively long. In this paper, we confirm the earlier finding of clock channel jitter amplification [1], using a multiple edge response (MER) simulation method instead of jitter impulse response for the channel. However, we

C. Madden; Sam Chang; Dan Oh; Chuck Yuan

2007-01-01

148

Helminth transmission in simple pit latrines.  

PubMed

Simple pit latrines often represent the cheapest form of sanitation for poor communities. However, simple latrines lack a concrete slab and are therefore classified as an unimproved form of sanitation. This study collected soil samples in simple pit latrines and analysed them for the presence of helminth eggs; 71% of all collected samples were positive for eggs. The absence of a roof from the latrine was the only factor associated with lower egg concentrations. The findings support the classification of simple pit latrines as an unimproved form of sanitation. PMID:22939710

Baker, Sarah M; Ensink, Jeroen H J

2012-11-01

149

EMC in power electronics and PCB design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of two parts. Part I is about Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in power electronics and part II is about the Maximum Radiated Electromagnetic Emissions Calculator (MREMC), which is a software tool for EMC in printed circuit board (PCB) design. Switched-mode power converters can be significant sources of electromagnetic fields that interfere with the proper operation of nearby circuits or distant radio receivers. Part I of this dissertation provides comprehensive and organized information on the latest EMC developments in power converters. It describes and evaluates different technologies to ensure that power converters meet electromagnetic compatibility requirements. Chapters 2 and 3 describe EMC noise sources and coupling mechanisms in power converters. Chapter 4 reviews the measurements used to characterize and troubleshoot EMC problems. Chapters 5 -- 8 cover passive filter solutions, active filter solutions, noise cancellation methods and reduced-noise driving schemes. Part II describes the methods used, calculations made, and implementation details of the MREMC, which is a software tool that allows the user to calculate the maximum possible radiated emissions that could occur due to specific source geometries on a PCB. Chapters 9 -- 13 covers the I/O coupling EMI algorithm, Common-mode EMI algorithm, Power Bus EMI algorithm and Differential-Mode EMI algorithm used in the MREMC.

Zhu, Chentian

150

Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (?0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

2010-06-01

151

Investigating Processes of Sedimentation in Gravel Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a field investigation where students will explore and observe sediments within a local gravel pit and from their observation create an investigation that will help to determine the nature of the sediments.

Olson, Melissa

152

Manure pit injuries: Rare, deadly, and preventable  

PubMed Central

A male worker entered an underground manure pit and lost consciousness. His coworker tried to rescue him and also lost consciousness in the pit. Emergency service arrived in minutes and removed both of them from the pit. Both men suffered anoxic brain injury and died in the hospital. Cases from Iowa Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program Data Base program were reviewed. Occupational mortality rate was found to be 7.4 per 10,000 per year for occupational deaths related to agriculture compared to 3.1 per 10,000 per year for deaths not related to agriculture. In most of the cases associated with sewage or livestock waste handling, victims died of asphyxiation. While manure pit injury is rare, it has an extremely high fatality rate. The most effective strategy to decrease mortality is active prevention. PMID:22988406

Hallam, Daniel M; Liao, Junlin; Choi, Kent

2012-01-01

153

Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment  

SciTech Connect

The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system reliability and reduce integration difficulties. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approach. During integration, multiple areas where technology development would enhance the effectiveness of the system were identified. Most notable of these areas were the manipulator control system, tool design, and tool handling. Various issues were identified regarding the interfacing of the Pit Viper with the Tank Farm environment and the maturity of remote/ robotic systems for unstructured environments.

Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick L.

2002-08-08

154

Okay, Kids, Everyone into the Pit!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a typical food chain and the interrelationship between plants and animals. Describes the "Food Chain Pit" game which can be used to help students create food chains of different habitats. (RT)

Belle, Bob; And Others

1988-01-01

155

Illicit drugs, infectious disease and public health: A historical perspective  

PubMed Central

The present report outlines a presentation by Professor Virginia Berridge at the Second Stanier Lecture held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on November 5, 2002. The relationship among public health concepts, illicit drug use prevention and policy, and infection control strategies in England and other locations is paralleled over the course of two centuries. This historical journey analyzes changes in public health and demonstrates how history and public health have intersected at various times to result in the public health approaches used today. PMID:18159543

Berridge, Virginia; Bourne, Shawna

2005-01-01

156

Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

1994-07-01

157

POST-BETZE PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY PREDICTION, NEVADA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barrick Goldstrike Mine is located in the Carlin Trend, about 20 miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada. The majority of the ore mined at Goldstrike is from the Post-Betze open pit, the largest open pit operation in Nevada. Nevada law requires that the water quality of temporary or permanent reservoirs that may develop in open pits be periodically tested. Pit

William M. Schafer; Mark Logsdon; Guosheng Zhan; Ron Espell

158

7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

2011-01-01

159

7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

2012-01-01

160

7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.  

...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

2014-01-01

161

7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

2013-01-01

162

7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.779 ...allowances in this section, is a whole cherry pit or portions of pits computed as follows...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit...

2010-01-01

163

ENHANCING DISSIPATION OF AROCLOR 1248 (PCB) USING SUBSTRATE AMENDMENT IN RHIZOSPHERE SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated in the laboratory with Aroclor 1248 (PCB) were amended with biphenyl and plant residues that are known to induce PCB degradation, and planted with crops that inherently stimulated PCB dissipation in a previous study to determine if the combination of soil amendment and planting could further enhance PCB dissipation beyond that shown by planting alone. The plants used

E. Kudjo Dzantor; Joelle E. Woolston

2001-01-01

164

Thermal design guideline of PCB traces under DC and AC current  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand on high power density tends to limit the area of printed circuit boards (PCB) and increase current density in PCB traces. A thermal design guideline which is able to reliably predict the current carrying capacity (CCC) of PCB traces will be valuable to PCB designers. This paper describes several design guidelines for trace CCC. They cannot be properly

Yi Wang; S. W. H. de Haan; J. A. Ferreira

2009-01-01

165

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

2010-01-01

166

Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

2014-01-01

167

Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

2010-01-01

168

Contracting for Treatment Termination to Reduce Illicit Drug Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Failures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)

Dolan, Michael P.; And Others

1985-01-01

169

Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem®): differences in characteristics and misuse  

PubMed Central

There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate. PMID:19493637

Carter, Lawrence P.; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R.

2009-01-01

170

POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS -2012 1 Introduction and Background  

E-print Network

POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS - 2012 1 Introduction and Background had a formal policy statement or code of practice relating to use of illicit drugs, procedures have, or selling a drug covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) is against the law. Whilst there is at present

Bearhop, Stuart

171

Illicit drug use research in Latin America: Epidemiology, service use, and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use, services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that

Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola; María Elena Medina-Mora; Cristina G. Magaña; William A. Vega; Christina Alejo-Garcia; Tania Real Quintanar; Luc ´ õa Vazquez; Patricia D. Ballesteros; Juan Ibarra; Heidi Rosales

2006-01-01

172

INVESTIGATION OF A CLASSIFICATION-BASED TECHNIQUE TO DETECT ILLICIT OBJECTS FOR AVIATION SECURITY  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION OF A CLASSIFICATION-BASED TECHNIQUE TO DETECT ILLICIT OBJECTS FOR AVIATION SECURITY of a classification-based technique for illicit object detection in aviation security. Current threats in aviation aviation authority with maximum security whilst minimising adverse impacts on airlines and airport

Blumenstein, Michael

173

Recidivism among male subjects incarcerated for illicit drug use in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit drug users are generally considered both patients and criminals in Taiwan. This study pre- sents drug use behaviors and criminal recidivism of male subjects incarcerated for illicit drug use in Taiwan after detoxification at a detention center. This study also examined the relationship between drug use behaviors and subsequent recidivism. Charts and crime records of 794 male patients from

SHU-CHUAN CHIANG; HUNG-YU CHAN; CHIUNG-HSU CHEN; HSIAO-JU SUN; HUNG-JUNG CHANG; WEI J. CHEN; SHIH-KU LIN; CHIH-KEN CHEN

2006-01-01

174

Looking at forensic intelligence from the metaphysical perspective: citing illicit heroin profiling as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as illicit drugs are concerned, drug profiling utilizing various analytical methods to trace the origin, manufacturing process and distribution chain is a key element in forensic intelligence. Setting aside the practical use of drug profiles, forensic laboratory findings with close reference to that of illicit heroin could also provide metaphyiscal insights about the nature of such intelligence work.

Kar-Weng Chan; Guan-Huat Tan; Richard C. S. Wong

2012-01-01

175

International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation

J Herbillon; L Koch; G Mason; S Niemeyer; N Nikiforov

1999-01-01

176

Specific Surface Area and Volume Fraction of the Cherry-Pit Model with Packed Pits A. Elsner,*,  

E-print Network

Specific Surface Area and Volume Fraction of the Cherry-Pit Model with Packed Pits A. Elsner,*, A s for statistically homogeneous systems of partially penetrating spheres, i.e. so-called `cherry-pit models. Surprisingly, the existing formulas for and s in the equilibrium cherry-pit model lead to values which deviate

Aste, Tomaso

177

International illicit drug traffic: the United States response.  

PubMed

The Government of the United States of America recognizes the serious threat of illicit drug abuse and trafficking and the associated economic costs and social destruction. The United States Government is waging a major battle to fight drug abuse and is working to lower demand at home through education and prevention, detoxification and treatment, and research as well as to lower supply through bilateral and multilateral crop eradication programmes. The Government is also working to lower supply within the United States through a campaign of illicit drug traffic interdiction of unprecedented size and scope. Among the actions taken to counter the illegal trade were: the creation of the South Florida Task Force headed by the Vice President; the establishment of 12 Organized Crime/Drug Enforcement task forces around the country; the setting up of the National Narcotics Border Interdiction System; the increased use of military resources to assist law enforcement agencies; and the initiation of a widespread cannabis eradication programme involving aerial spraying of paraquat. PMID:6563924

Williamson, R S

1983-01-01

178

Pesticide and PCB levels in fish from Alberta (Canada)  

SciTech Connect

Pesticide and PCB analyses were completed on fat and muscle samples of 750 fish collected from 11 major lakes and rivers in Alberta. Although phenoxy and organophosphate residues were always below detectable limits, traces of chlorinated pesticides and their derivatives, particularly DDE, DDD and chlordane, were detected in most fat samples. PCB levels exceeded 25 mg/kg in the fat of several species from the North Saskatchewan River but were generally lower in the other systems. Analysis of 160 sediment samples from the North Saskatchewan River revealed no point source of PCB contamination.

Chovelon, A.; George, L.; Gulayets, C.; Hoyano, Y.; McGuinness, E.; Moore, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singer, P.; Smiley, K.

1984-01-01

179

Supporting Information Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: Evolvement of distributions 1950-  

E-print Network

;1.2 Physico-chemical properties Table S1. Physico-chemical properties of PCBs. Data given for 298 K unless, 2596 and 1037 t, respectively (high emission estimate; Breivik et al., 2002). The emissions of PCB153 otherwise stated. Property PCB28 (C12H7Cl3) PCB101 (C12H5Cl5) PCB153 (C12H4Cl6) PCB180 (C12H3Cl7) Saturation

Meskhidze, Nicholas

180

Factors Associated with High-Frequency Illicit Methadone Use among Rural Appalachian Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of illicit methadone as well as methadone-related overdose deaths. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe factors associated low- and high-frequency methadone use in a cohort of rural Appalachian drug users. Methods Interviews assessing sociodemographics, illicit drug use and drug treatment, psychiatric disorders, health, and sociometric drug network characteristics were conducted with 503 rural drug users between 2008 and 2010. A two-level mixed effects regression model was utilized to differentiate low- (one use per month or less in the past 6 months) versus high-frequency (daily or weekly use in the past 6 months) illicit methadone users. Results The lifetime prevalence of illicit methadone use in this population was 94.7% (n=476) and slightly less than half (46.3%) were high-frequency users. In the mixed effects regression model, initiating illicit methadone use at a younger age was associated with high-frequency illicit methadone use. Whereas taking a prescribed medication for a physical problem, undergoing additional weeks of outpatient drug free treatment, daily OxyContin® use in the past month, and having fewer ties and second order connections in the drug network reduced the odds of high-frequency illicit methadone use. Conclusions Rates of illicit methadone use and high-frequency illicit methadone use among this sample of rural drug users were considerably higher than those previously reported in the literature. Health practitioners in rural areas should routinely screen for illicit opioid use, including methadone. PMID:23841864

Hall, Martin T.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

2013-01-01

181

LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

182

NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-06-08

183

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

184

ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS OF CHIRAL PCB ATROPISOMERS IN RADIODATED SEDIMENT CORES  

EPA Science Inventory

Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...

185

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

... (A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials...procedures, and instrumental/chemical analysis procedures used to assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are...using alternate methods for chemical extraction and...

2014-07-01

186

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials...procedures, and instrumental/chemical analysis procedures used to assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are...using alternate methods for chemical extraction and...

2012-07-01

187

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials...procedures, and instrumental/chemical analysis procedures used to assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are...using alternate methods for chemical extraction and...

2013-07-01

188

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (A) The nature of the contamination, including kinds of materials...procedures, and instrumental/chemical analysis procedures used to assess or characterize the PCB contamination at the cleanup site, are...using alternate methods for chemical extraction and...

2011-07-01

189

Neurobehavioral and somatic effects of perinatal PCB exposure in rats  

SciTech Connect

Developing rats were exposed to TCBs via provision of diets containing 0.02 (no PCB added), 2.4, 26, or 269 ppm Aroclor 1254 to sperm-positive female rats from mating to weaning of their pups. Provision of the 269 ppm diet decreased the number of impregnated rats that delivered a litter and lowered pup birth weight, and most pups died within 7 days of birth. Preweaning pup growth was reduced in the 26 ppm condition and slightly reduced in the 2.5 ppm condition. The ontogeny of negative geotaxis, auditory startle, and air righting was delayed in pups from the 26 ppm condition. Pups in the 2.5 ppm condition had slightly delayed development of auditory startle. Maximal electroshock seizure tests on postweaning rats showed that perinatal PCB exposure decreased seizure severity of both the 2.5 and 26 ppm groups. PCB exposure increased pup liver weights at birth and dam and pup liver weights at weaning. Spleen and thymus weights were lower in PCB-exposed pups, while brain weights were unaffected. Analytical determination of PCB levels in brain showed greater maternal transfer of PCBs during lactation than during gestation. Elevated PCB levels were detectable in brains of perinatally exposed adult rats.

Overmann, S.R.; Kostas, J.; Wilson, L.R.; Shain, W.; Bush, B.

1987-10-01

190

PCB-resistant diatoms in the Hudson River estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatom cells that are resistant, as well as sensitive, to the toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are widespread throughout the highly polluted Hudson River estuary. A study of the distribution of PCB resistance among populations of the diatoms, Thalassiosira nordenskioldii and Asterionella glacialis, revealed few spatial or temporal patterns for the trait during spring and summer. The number of estuarine clones of A. glacialis tolerant of more than 25 ppb of PCB was greater than twice the number of clones isolated from nearshore waters at Sandy Hook, NJ. This suggests that selection pressure for PCB resistance is greater in the estuary than in the New York Bight apex. If specific sites of selection exist, the mixing of cells within the estuary may be rapid enough to distribute resistant clones throughout the estuary, or the selection process may involve a generalized response to a multitude of pollutants. Several clones of both species tested were not only tolerant of PCB, but were actually enhanced in their growth in the presence of PCB. Such clones were distributed throughout the estuary during both seasons. Selection in the estuary favours not only resistant strains of diatoms, but forms that may utilize organic pollutants.

Cosper, Elizabeth M.; Wurster, Charles F.; Bautista, Mark F.

1988-02-01

191

When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.  

PubMed

The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the ?(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. PMID:23770638

Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2013-09-01

192

Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment  

E-print Network

Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the enabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However, as an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to pernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system is corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer sales and restocking trends for products. In this paper, we first present plausible aftermaths of corporate espionage using real data from online sources. Second, to mitigate corporate espionage in a retail store environment, we present a simple lowcost system called Mirage. Mirage uses additional programmable low cost passive RFID tags called honeytokens to inject noise in retail store inven-torying. Using a simple history based algorithm that controls activation and de-activation of honeytokens, Mirage randomizes sales and restocking trends. We evaluate Mirage in a real warehouse environment using a commercial off-the-shelf Motoro...

White, Jonathan

2010-01-01

193

Respiratory Disease following Illicit Injection of Silicone: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Unregulated, pseudomedical procedures risk serious sequelae even when otherwise safe compounds are used. Silicone is commonly used legally in cosmetic procedures owing to its durability, resistance to heat and aging, and low immunogenicity. However, inappropriate or illegal silicone injection can pose severe local and systemic complications including serious pulmonary compromise. We describe the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis and progressive shortness of breath following illicit silicone injections to the gluteal fat and was found to have new, diffuse, bilateral, ground-glass opacities on contrast-enhanced pulmonary computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy elucidated that this was a lipoid pneumonia-type injury secondary to silicone infiltration. PMID:23956752

Essenmacher, Alex Charles; Astani, Seyed Amin

2013-01-01

194

Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

195

Microtubules and angiosperm bordered pit formation.  

PubMed

Microtubules have been shown to run around the perimeter of the pit aperture of developing bordered pits of Salix fragilis, L. These microtubules are parallel to the microfibrils being produced and do not converge with them. Although microtubules may be parallel to microfibrils in differentiating vessel elements as well as in fibres, many cases have been found where microtubules are not so orientated. There is no direct evidence for the involvement of microtubules in the orientation of microfibrils in the secondary wall, although their position during wall synthesis suggests some ancillary role. PMID:24522541

Robards, A W; Humpherson, P G

1967-09-01

196

Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Woller, Michael J. [Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States); Gore, Andrea C. [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail: andrea.gore@mail.utexas.edu

2009-06-01

197

The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010  

PubMed Central

Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve measurement approaches and estimates. PMID:24489886

Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

2014-01-01

198

The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.  

PubMed

Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve measurement approaches and estimates. PMID:24489886

Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

2014-01-01

199

Illicit Use of Specific Prescription Stimulants Among College Students: Prevalence, Motives, and Routes of Administration  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the illicit use of specific prescription stimulants among college students and add to our understanding of reasons (motives) and routes of administration associated with illicit use of these drugs. Methods A random sample of 4580 college students self-administered a Web-based survey. The survey contained a variety of items pertaining to the illicit use of prescription stimulants. An extensive list of prescription stimulants was provided, and students were asked to select all the specific prescription stimulants that they had used illicitly. Items were also included to assess the motives and routes of administration associated with illicit use of prescription stimulants. Results Lifetime and past-year prevalence rates for illicit use of prescription stimulants were 8.3% (382 students) and 5.9% (269 students), respectively. Approximately three fourths (75.8%) of the 269 past-year illicit users of prescription stimulants reported using an amphetamine-dextroamphetamine combination agent (e.g., Adderall) in the past year, and approximately one fourth (24.5%) reported using methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate, Methylin). Past-year illicit use of prescription stimulants was more than 3 times more likely among Caucasians (odds ratio [OR] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–6.6) and Hispanics (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6–9.3) compared with African-Americans, and more than twice as likely among Caucasians (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4) and Hispanics (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–5.1) compared with Asians. The most commonly reported motives for illicit use were to help with concentration (65.2%), help study (59.8%), and increase alertness (47.5%). Other motives included getting high (31.0%) and experimentation (29.9%). Nearly every illicit user (95.3%) reported oral administration, and 38.1% reported snorting prescription stimulants. Conclusion Illicit use of amphetamine-dextroamphetamine is more prevalent than illicit use of methylphenidate formulations among college students. PMID:16999660

Teter, Christian J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; LaGrange, Kristy; Cranford, James A.; Boyd, Carol J.

2006-01-01

200

The greening of PCB analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

Green chemistry incorporates waste minimization, pollution prevention and solvent substitution. The primary focus of green chemistry over the past decade has been within the chemical industry; adoption by routine environmental laboratories has been slow because regulatory standard methods must be followed. A related paradigm, microscale chemistry has gained acceptance in undergraduate teaching laboratories, but has not been broadly applied to routine environmental analytical chemistry. We are developing green and microscale techniques for routine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses as an example of the overall potential within the environmental analytical community. Initial work has focused on adaptation of commonly used routine EPA methods for soils and oils. Results of our method development and validation demonstrate that: (1) Solvent substitution can achieve comparable results and eliminate environmentally less-desirable solvents, (2) Microscale extractions can cut the scale of the analysis by at least a factor of ten, (3) We can better match the amount of sample used with the amount needed for the GC determination step, (4) The volume of waste generated can be cut by at least a factor of ten, and (5) Costs are reduced significantly in apparatus, reagent consumption, and labor.

Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Aldstadt, J.H. [and others

1995-12-01

201

Herpetological PIT Tag Migration in Seaturtle Flippers  

E-print Network

is common and decreases the rate at which previously tagged indi- viduals are identified (Balazs 1982 Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, also termed Radio Frequency Identification tags, has increased (Balazs and increase the reliability of re-identifying tagged animals (Balazs 1999; Braun-McNeill et al. 2003; Dutton

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

202

COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

203

Global methane emissions from pit latrines.  

PubMed

Pit latrines are an important form of decentralized wastewater management, providing hygienic and low-cost sanitation for approximately one-quarter of the global population. Latrines are also major sources of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) from the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in pits. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit approach to account for local hydrological control over the anaerobic condition of latrines and use this analysis to derive a set of country-specific emissions factors and to estimate global pit latrine CH4 emissions. Between 2000 and 2015 we project global emissions to fall from 5.2 to 3.8 Tg y(-1), or from ? 2% to ? 1% of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions, due largely to urbanization in China. Two and a half billion people still lack improved sanitation services, however, and progress toward universal access to improved sanitation will likely drive future growth in pit latrine emissions. We discuss modeling results in the context of sustainable water, sanitation, and hygiene development and consider appropriate technologies to ensure hygienic sanitation while limiting CH4 emissions. We show that low-CH4 on-site alternatives like composting toilets may be price competitive with other CH4 mitigation measures in organic waste sectors, with marginal abatement costs ranging from 57 to 944 $/ton carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in Africa and 46 to 97 $/ton CO2e in Asia. PMID:24999745

Reid, Matthew C; Guan, Kaiyu; Wagner, Fabian; Mauzerall, Denise L

2014-08-01

204

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

205

Detection of pits in fresh cherries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are a number of x-ray imaging techniques that could be implemented for the detection of pits in cherries, including linescan and real-time imaging using an image intensifier and CCD camera. However, x-ray imaging equipment is both expensive and bulky, and implementation on the processing line ...

206

OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN EXPLOSIVE CHARGE TO REMOVE OVERBURDEN AND ACCESS COAL SEAMS LOCATED 200 FEET BELOW FOR STRIPPING. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

207

LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE SOAKING PIT BUILDING INTERIOR WITH OPEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LONGITUDINAL VIEW OF THE SOAKING PIT BUILDING INTERIOR WITH OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND AND FURNACE PIT/ STACK AREA TO THE LEFT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

208

Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

Roeder-Smith, Lynne

2002-06-30

209

Pitting corrosion of stainless steels: Microanalytical studies of pitting corrosion and analysis of corrosion transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical compositions of the highly concentrated solutions developed during pitting corrosion of a commercial stainless steel foil in a 0.5 M NaCl + 0.5 M HCl solution were investigated. The application of in situ x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRM) to investigate the chemical compositions of the solutions within a one-dimensional artificial pit was discussed. The saturated concentration at the metal

1992-01-01

210

Plant uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under varying cropping conditions.  

PubMed

A 60-d greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under single cropping and intercropping conditions involving three crop plant species: pumpkin, soybean and corn. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil surface was also tested. The results show that while uptake of PCB-5 by the test plant species is possible and the root concentration of PCB-5 had a control on the upward transport of PCB-5 to the above-ground portion of the plants, the PCB-5 extracted by the plants mainly accumulated in the root materials. Phytoextraction contributed insignificantly toward the loss of the soil-borne PCB-5. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil was recorded but it appeared that this did not result in a marked loss of PCB-5 in the bulk soil though it might cause remarkable removal of PCB-5 in a thin layer of the topsoil (1 mm). It is likely that the in-soil biodegradation contributed markedly to the observed reduction in soil-borne PCB-5. The in-soil biodegradation of PCB-5 was significantly enhanced under intercropping conditions, which appeared to be related to increased microbial activities, particularly bacterial activities. The soil residual PCB-5 was correlated with the activity of the following enzymes: catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:21724228

Li, Huashou; Liu, Longyuan; Lin, Chuxia; Wang, Shaorui

2011-08-01

211

The neurocircuitry of illicit psychostimulant addiction: acute and chronic effects in humans.  

PubMed

Illicit psychostimulant addiction remains a significant problem worldwide, despite decades of research into the neural underpinnings and various treatment approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct overview of the neurocircuitry involved in drug addiction, as well as the acute and chronic effects of cocaine and amphetamines within this circuitry in humans. Investigational pharmacological treatments for illicit psychostimulant addiction are also reviewed. Our current knowledge base clearly demonstrates that illicit psychostimulants produce lasting adaptive neural and behavioral changes that contribute to the progression and maintenance of addiction. However, attempts at generating pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction have historically focused on intervening at the level of the acute effects of these drugs. The lack of approved pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction highlights the need for new treatment strategies, especially those that prevent or ameliorate the adaptive neural, cognitive, and behavioral changes caused by chronic use of this class of illicit drugs. PMID:24648786

Taylor, Sara B; Lewis, Candace R; Olive, M Foster

2013-01-01

212

Hospital nurses' attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use.  

PubMed

Negative attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use can adversely affect the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship, resulting in suboptimal patient care. We examined registered nurses' attitudes toward patients with illicit drug use (e.g., non-prescription use of opioids and narcotics, use of illicit drugs) admitted to the general internal medicine unit of an urban hospital and attempted to identify nurse-specific and environmental factors influencing these attitudes. The results indicated that nurses had a neutral attitude toward working with patients with a history of illicit drug use, but respondents also had low motivation and role support (i.e., perception of receiving support to fulfil one's professional role) related to caring for this high-risk population. The authors suggest greater use of organizational tools, such as protocols, consult services and in-services, to address nurses' clinical concerns and support therapeutic nurse-patient relationships and thereby enhance care delivery. PMID:23862324

Chu, Charlene; Galang, Ashley

2013-06-01

213

Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology  

EPA Science Inventory

The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

214

Prescribing Some Criminological Theory: An Examination of the Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants Among College Students.  

PubMed

Recent evidence indicates that the illicit use of prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin is common across college campuses and in professions (e.g., trucking) where staying awake and focused is valued. Existing research has established use patterns and explored respondents' reasons for using these stimulants. Less is known, however, about whether or how well mainstream criminological theory explains this type of illegal activity. This article reports results from a survey (N = 484) of college students from a Midwestern university, examining whether measures of strain, self-control, and social learning predict the illicit use of prescription stimulants. Measures from social learning and social control theories were significant predictors of illicit use of prescription stimulants, whereas the measure of academic strain was not; the strongest predictor of illicit use of prescription stimulants was general deviance. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25156423

Maahs, Jeffrey R; Weidner, Robert R; Smith, Ryan

2014-08-25

215

Initial pits for electrochemical etching in hydrofluoric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a characterization of structures fabricated by electrochemical etching in hydrofluoric acid (HF) using different types of initial pits. An initial pit has been thought to require a sharp tip in order to collect electronic holes generated by illumination. Therefore, the initial pits have been formed by etching in a KOH solution, which suffers from crystal orientation

H Ohji; P. J French; S Izuo; K Tsutsumi

2000-01-01

216

Plasmodesmata and pit development in secondary xylem elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing pit membranes of secondary xylem elements in Drimys winteri, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Sorbus aucuparia, Tilia vulgaris and Trochodendron aralioides have been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Absence of plasmodesmata from the membranes of vessel elements and tracheids indicates that their pits develop independently of these structures. On the other hand, plasmodesmata are abundant in pit membranes between fibres,

J. R. Barnett

1982-01-01

217

30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section... Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where...least 10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near...

2010-07-01

218

Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders  

PubMed Central

Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide risk in illicit drug users. PMID:24648739

Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

2014-01-01

219

Gender differences in panic disorder symptoms and illicit drug use among young people in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have investigated the frequency of illicit drug use, and spontaneous and drug-provoked panic disorder symptoms in Hungarian youths. A semi-structured self-reporting questionnaire (with questions about drug usage and the persistence of some DSM-IV panic disorder symptoms) was filled out in discos\\/nightclubs, secondary schools and universities. Almost 17% of the total sample (n = 1298) reported on illicit drug-use at least

I Kecskés; Z Rihmer; K Kiss; T Sárai; A Szabó; G. H Kiss

2002-01-01

220

HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

2013-01-01

221

Risk assessment of technologies for detecting illicit drugs in containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national facility for testing and evaluating existing and emerging prototype systems in an operational environment. The results of initial tests using the advanced x-ray subsystem installed at the testbed are given in this paper. A description of typical cargo contents and those characteristics applicable to nuclear interrogation techniques are provided in the appendix.

Brandenstein, Albert E.

1995-03-01

222

Random drug tests at work: the probability of identifying frequent and infrequent users of illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Random drug testing in the workplace has become more common since federal guidelines were issued in 1988, despite the criticism that most positive tests are the result of occasional use of illicit drugs. In order to determine the relative probabilities of detecting frequent versus infrequent users of illicit drugs, a survey of 15 experts in the drug abuse field was conducted. Based on the responses, it was estimated that 55% of employed people who used any illicit drugs in the prior year were annual drug users, 37% were monthly users, and 8% were daily users. Analysis using probability theory indicated that among workplace drug users who test positive, 52% will be daily users, 41% will be monthly users, and only 7% will be annual users. At a 50% testing rate, random drug tests identify 40% of daily users, 8% of monthly users and only 1% of annual users during the course of a year. The estimated rate of illicit drug use among employees is approximately eight times the average random testing positive rate. Random drug tests in the workplace are effective in identifying near daily users of illicit drugs, but they are less effective at identifying infrequent drug users. Employers have found that random drug testing is a deterrent to both frequent and occasional use of illicit drugs. PMID:8555274

DuPont, R L; Griffin, D W; Siskin, B R; Shiraki, S; Katze, E

1995-01-01

223

Illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids among young polydrug users in Ohio.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in Columbus, Ohio, identified the predictors of current (past 30 day) illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids among young individuals (n=402) with a history of MDMA/ecstasy use who were recruited in 2002-2003 using respondent-driven sampling. To be eligible, participants had to be 18-30 years old, not involved in a drug abuse treatment, and report MDMA/ecstasy use at least once in the past 6 months. About 81% reported lifetime, and more than 31% reported current illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids. Logistic regression analysis revealed that illicit use of pharmaceutical tranquilizers and pharmaceutical stimulants were the strongest predictors of illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids. Risk of pharmaceutical opioid use was also greater among those who had higher levels of depressive symptoms and reported current use of hallucinogens and inhalants. Our findings suggest that the non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids is a part of polydrug use practices that often incorporate illicit use of other prescription drugs. The observed relationship between depressive symptoms and illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids may have important implications for prevention programming and should be examined in future research. PMID:19398164

Daniulaityte, R; Falck, R S; Wang, J; Carlson, R G

2009-08-01

224

A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. PMID:25062553

Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

2015-01-23

225

Partial pressures of PCB-11 in air from several Great Lakes sites.  

PubMed

Relatively high concentrations of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) have been reported in water and air, and it has been suggested that this compound did not come from commercial PCB products. We report here data on atmospheric partial pressures of PCB-11 and of total PCBs at five sites around the Great Lakes and demonstrate that both total PCBs and PCB-11 track human population density. In addition, we show that with the exception of Chicago, the PCB congener pattern at our sampling sites is best represented by Aroclor 1242; in Chicago, the pattern is best represented by a 1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1242 and 1254. With the possible exception of Sturgeon Point New York, the levels of PCB-11 in air have not changed between January 2004 and December 2007. The source of PCB-11 may be related to yellow pigments, to the degradation of more highly chlorinated PCB congeners, or to both. PMID:19764206

Basu, Ilora; Arnold, Karen A; Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A

2009-09-01

226

PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.  

PubMed

Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

2014-01-01

227

Cleaning Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contaminated Garden Soil by Phytoremediation  

PubMed Central

A poplar planted system resulted in the complete removal of at least 19 of the 29 potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners detected in trace amounts (37.9 ng g-1 in total) in a commercial garden soil, while the unplanted soil only had 2 congeners completely removed after 96 days. In addition, the most recalcitrant congener, PCB 52, only decreased by 0.1% in the unplanted reactors while declining by 22.3% in the planted system. There was also greater removal of a PCB 77 spike in the planted system when compared to the unplanted system, 17.2% in the planted system versus 2.8% in the unplanted system. The results suggest that phytoremediation may be an effective tool in cleaning commercially available garden soils that are lightly contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24409084

Schnoor, Jerald L.

2013-01-01

228

PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

2014-01-01

229

Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate  

SciTech Connect

A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

Coverdell, B.L.

1994-11-14

230

Preliminary report on fractured igneous-rock environment test pits  

SciTech Connect

Three large calibration models or test pits were completed on May 1, 1981, at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Denver Federal Center Calibration Facility. Each calibration model was constructed of large stone blocks that have a cored borehole and wire-sawn simulated fractures. Details of the test pit sizes, simulated fracture locations, rock type of each test pit, and location and access of these pits are discussed. Geophysical well logs were obtained from these test pits and these data are shown and discussed.

Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.; LaDelfe, C.M.

1983-01-01

231

Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil

D. Mauro; B. B. Taylor

1992-01-01

232

Clinical review: Major consequences of illicit drug consumption  

PubMed Central

Because illicit drugs are now widely consumed, every doctor needs to know their acute medical consequences and complications. Here, we review the problems associated with the different drugs from a systems-based viewpoint. Apart from the respiratory depressant effect of opioids, crack cocaine is the most common cause of respiratory complications, mainly linked with its mode of use, with airway burns, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and lung syndromes being well-recognised sequelae. Because of its marked cardiovascular effects, cocaine is also a major cause of coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction. Amphetamines may produce similar effects less commonly. Hyperthermia may occur with cocaine toxicity or with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) due to exertion or from serotonin syndrome. Cerebral haemorrhage may result from the use of amphetamines or cocaine. Hallucinations may follow consumption of LSD, amphetamines, or cocaine. MDMA is a major cause of acute severe hyponatraemia and also has been linked with hepatic syndromes. Collapse, convulsions, or coma may be caused in different circumstances by opioids, MDMA, or gamma hydroxybutyrate and may be aggravated by other sedatives, especially alcohol and benzodiazepines. Recognition of these acute complications is urgent, and treatment must be based on an understanding of the likely underlying problem as well as on basic principles of supportive care. PMID:18279535

Devlin, Robert J; Henry, John A

2008-01-01

233

Drug intelligence based on organic impurities in illicit MA samples.  

PubMed

One major objective of the European project "Collaborative Harmonisation of Methods for Profiling of Amphetamine Type Stimulants" (CHAMP), funded by the sixth framework programme of the European Commission, consisted of the harmonisation of a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the analysis of organic impurities found in illicit methamphetamine (MA) samples in a drug intelligence perspective. Statistical analysis provided a selection of pertinent variables among the 43 organic impurities identified in the chromatograms. As for the 3,4-MethyleneDioxyMethAmphetamine (MDMA) study, correlation coefficients were used as a discrimination tool between populations of linked samples (from the same seizure) and unlinked samples (from different seizures). It was also shown that correlation measurements based on Pearson and cosine functions applied to the data pre-treated by normalisation to the sum of peak responses followed by the square root provided excellent discrimination between the two populations. The organic impurities profiling method was proved to be relevant for the characterization of samples from different seizures and their synthesis route patterns. PMID:18182261

Dujourdy, L; Dufey, V; Besacier, F; Miano, N; Marquis, R; Lock, E; Aalberg, L; Dieckmann, S; Zrcek, F; Bozenko, J S

2008-05-20

234

Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

1997-02-01

235

Reduced lung function and bullae resulting from illicit drug use.  

PubMed

Emphysema is a progressive, disabling disease. Emphysematous bullae form as a result of local areas of alveolar weakness and parenchymal remodeling. They grow as a result of preferential inflation during inspiration and elastic recoil of the surrounding lung tissue. Isolated apical bullae can be a consequence of illicit drug use, as was suspected in this patient. In the case of cocaine and marijuana smoking, direct drug toxicity or drug-induced vasoconstriction presumably contributes to bullae development. LVRS is often used to treat patients with bullae and severe underlying emphysema, although these patients are difficult to assess and their disease course is hard to predict. LVRS is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. The best candidates for surgery have enlarged, well-localized bullae and minimal underlying lung disease. Early postoperative results include relief of shortness of breath, improved lung function, increased energy level and physical mobility, and improved ability to function during daily activities. LVRS may decrease the need for supplemental oxygen as soon as a few weeks after surgery, and benefits may be sustained for years. The best results are seen in patients with large bullae that cause the greatest compression of almost normal underlying lung. However, clinical and symptomatic improvement may be greater than actual spirometric measurements. PMID:21748955

Jay, Amy L

2011-07-01

236

ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

2007-05-01

237

MIC myths -- Does pitting cause MIC?  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that sulfate reducers, acid producers, metal oxidizers and certain other bacteria can contribute to corrosion. However, it is far from clear how biological activity influences corrosion processes, how much metal loss is caused by bacteria and most importantly, how microbial attack can be differentiated from other corrosion mechanisms. Confusion between Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) and other corrosion mechanisms is common . Criteria such as pit ``tunneling``, ``tiger striping``, pit terracing, ``high`` biological counts, tuberculation and preferential weld attack have frequently been used as diagnostic Rosetta stones solely identifying MIC. Unfortunately, many commonly accepted diagnostic criteria are not unique to MIC, but can also result from numerous corrosion processes unrelated to biological activity. Diagnosis of corrosion mechanisms, whether involving MIC or not, requires critical evaluation of all data thorough understanding of fundamental corrosion processes and consistency of both phenomenological observations and theoretical information.

Herro, H.M. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

238

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes ( Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB

Charles P. Madenjian; Patrick A. Hanchin; Sergei M. Chernyak; Linda J. Begnoche

2009-01-01

239

40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.295...Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in...295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a)...

2010-07-01

240

77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CERCLA-04-2012-3763; FRL 9637-7] Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County...past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston, Calhoun...Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

2012-02-27

241

40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.359 ...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With §...

2010-07-01

242

77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9644-2; CERCLA-04-2012-3763] Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County...Amended Settlement concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The...Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

2012-03-07

243

PCB Origami: A Material-Based Design Approach to Computer-Aided Foldable Electronic Devices  

E-print Network

PCB Origami: A Material-Based Design Approach to Computer-Aided Foldable Electronic Devices Yoav of material with embedded electronics such as PCB (Printed Circuit Boards) as the medium for origami folding functionalities. PCBs are produced as 2D shapes. By folding PCB arrays it is possible to create 3D objects

Demaine, Erik

244

Novel Automatic PCB Inspection Technique Based on Connectivity MAURO HIROMU TATIBANA  

E-print Network

. Fatal defects are those in which the PCB does not attend the objective they are designed forNovel Automatic PCB Inspection Technique Based on Connectivity MAURO HIROMU TATIBANA ROBERTO DE. This paper presents a novel technique for PCB inspection based on the comparison of the Connected Table

245

An overview of digital circuit design and PCB design guidelines - An EMC perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a revolution in modern digital ICs &PCB designs and their usage triggers the need for better understanding of PCB design [ apart from digital circuit design ] in detail. Design of digital circuits need special cares with respect to EMC and hence the associated mounting of components besides PCB design layout. These aspects are addressed in this paper

S. Muralikrishna; S. Sathyamurthy

2008-01-01

246

PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension A column experiment  

E-print Network

, have been specially designed to study PCB behavior during sediment resuspension, settlingPCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension ­ A column experiment was systematically due to significant levels of PCB-DL and PCDD/F in fish tissue. New campaigns of characterization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer 16.3  

E-print Network

Electronic Design Project 2 Cadence OrCAD PCB Designer 16.3 Professor John H. Davies 2011 October 4 should be able to design, populate and test a printed circuit board (PCB). You must therefore complete a layout if you spot an error in the circuit 47 B Summary: PCB design flow 48 1 Introduction

Davies, John H.

248

PCB: Physically Changeable Bit for Preserving Privacy in Low-End RFID Tags  

E-print Network

PCB: Physically Changeable Bit for Preserving Privacy in Low-End RFID Tags Cliff C. Zou School-frequency identification (RFID) tags in consumer market. To tackle this privacy issue, a simple and ef- fective approach is proposed in this paper via adding one bit called "physically changeable bit" (PCB) in RFID tags. The PCB

Zou, Cliff C.

249

BUILDING 96 PCB SOIL (AOC 26B)EXCAVATION CLOSEOUT REPORT  

E-print Network

OU III BUILDING 96 PCB SOIL (AOC 26B)EXCAVATION CLOSEOUT REPORT Prepared by: Brookhaven National Executive Summary This Closeout Report presents the PCB soil sampling, excavation, and disposal activities Area Fieldwork Report. March 2001 ­ Anomaly & PCB Sampling and Excavation Plan (for Area 3). June 2003

250

40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance...761.61(a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and...

2010-07-01

251

Contamination of PCB congeners in bear lake fish tissues, livers, and brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB congeners and DDE in Bear Lake fish tissues, livers, and brains were determined in this study. Three different species of fish — Northern Pike, Walleye, and Bullhead — were examined and 59 congeners were detected. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180. The levels of PCB congeners in fish from Pickeral Lake,

Min Qi; M. Anderson; S. Meyer; J. Carson

1997-01-01

252

Mars: South polar pits and etched terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Martian south polar pits and etched terrain attest to alternating episodes of eolian deposition and erosion. Sometimes the south polar area has served as a sump for the accumulation of airborne debris and associated particles of frozen volatiles. At other times, the wind patterns or wind effectiveness change, and the atmosphere begins to remove the blanket of material it has earlier spread over the south polar region.

Sharp, R. P.

1973-01-01

253

A mountain or a molehill: is the illicit trade in cigarettes undermining tobacco control policy in South Africa?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the size of the market for illicit cigarettes in South Africa between 1997 and 2007 in order to consider\\u000a the impact of the illicit trade in cigarettes on the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. Estimates of the illicit market\\u000a are made using data on smoking prevalence and simulations of smoking intensity. The paper shows that the size

Evan Blecher

2010-01-01

254

Short term effects of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures and individual PCB congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats  

E-print Network

) and this was consistent with a mixed-type pattern of P450 induction. 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'-HexaCB at a dose of 100 mg/kg/week was the most potent inducer of hepatic PROD activity (1S-fold increase); whereas, 2, 2', 5, 5'-tetraCB (50 and 100 mg/kg/week) was inactive... as an inducer. A small but significant increase in hepatic PROD activity was also observed in animals treated with other PCB congeners. In contrast, the hepatic EROD activity was significantly induced in rats treated with either the coplanar PCB congeners...

Chen, Yu-Chyu

1992-01-01

255

Subchronic Exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126, and PCB153: Effect on Hepatic Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

We employed DNA microarray to identify unique hepatic gene expression patterns associated with subchronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 13 weeks to toxicologically equivalent doses of four different HAHs based on the toxic equivalency factor of each chemical: TCDD (100 ng/kg/day), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF; 200 ng/kg/day), 3,3?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126; 1,000 ng/kg/day), or 2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; 1,000 ?g/kg/day). Global gene expression profiles for each exposure, which account for 8,799 gene probe sets contained on Affymetrix RGU34A GeneChips, were compared by principal components analysis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands TCDD, PeCDF, and PCB126 produced very similar global gene expression profiles that were unique from the nonAhR ligand PCB153, underscoring the extensive impact of AhR activation and/or the resulting hepatic injury on global gene expression in female rat liver. Many genes were co-expressed during the 13-week TCDD, PeCDF, or PCB126 exposures, including classical AhR-regulated genes and some genes not previously characterized as being AhR regulated, such as carcinoembryonic-cell adhesion molecule 4 (C-CAM4) and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2). Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed the increased expression of these genes in TCDD-, PeCDF-, and PCB126-exposed rats as well as the up- or down-regulation of several other novel dioxin-responsive genes. In summary, DNA microarray successfully identified dioxin-responsive genes expressed after exposure to AhR ligands (TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126) but not after exposure to the non-AhR ligand PCB153. Together, these findings may help to elucidate some of the fundamental features of dioxin toxicity and may further clarify the biologic role of the AhR signaling pathway. PMID:15598615

Vezina, Chad M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Olson, James R.

2004-01-01

256

Subchronic exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126, and PCB153: effect on hepatic gene expression.  

PubMed

We employed DNA microarray to identify unique hepatic gene expression patterns associated with subchronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 13 weeks to toxicologically equivalent doses of four different HAHs based on the toxic equivalency factor of each chemical: TCDD (100 ng/kg/day), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF; 200 ng/kg/day), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126; 1,000 ng/kg/day), or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; 1,000 microg/kg/day). Global gene expression profiles for each exposure, which account for 8,799 gene probe sets contained on Affymetrix RGU34A GeneChips, were compared by principal components analysis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands TCDD, PeCDF, and PCB126 produced very similar global gene expression profiles that were unique from the nonAhR ligand PCB153, underscoring the extensive impact of AhR activation and/or the resulting hepatic injury on global gene expression in female rat liver. Many genes were co-expressed during the 13-week TCDD, PeCDF, or PCB126 exposures, including classical AhR-regulated genes and some genes not previously characterized as being AhR regulated, such as carcinoembryonic-cell adhesion molecule 4 (C-CAM4) and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2). Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed the increased expression of these genes in TCDD-, PeCDF-, and PCB126-exposed rats as well as the up- or down-regulation of several other novel dioxin-responsive genes. In summary, DNA microarray successfully identified dioxin-responsive genes expressed after exposure to AhR ligands (TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126) but not after exposure to the non-AhR ligand PCB153. Together, these findings may help to elucidate some of the fundamental features of dioxin toxicity and may further clarify the biologic role of the AhR signaling pathway. PMID:15598615

Vezina, Chad M; Walker, Nigel J; Olson, James R

2004-11-01

257

PCB congener profile in the serum of humans consuming Great Lakes fish.  

PubMed Central

The State of Michigan has a long history of research into human exposure to environmental contaminants through consumption of recreationally caught fish. A large cohort of Lake Michigan residents who eat fish (fish-eaters) and those who do not eat fish (nonfish-eaters) established in 1980 served as the basis for the congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure evaluation reported here. In this paper we present the serum PCB congener profile for a subset of this cohort who were over 50 years of age. Serum samples were collected in 1993-1995 and were evaluated by a dual column capillary column gas chromatography procedure capable of detecting over 90 PCB congeners. This evaluation demonstrated significant PCB exposure in the fish-eaters (mean serum PCB of 14.26 ppb; n = 101). This elevated exposure allowed the establishment of a detailed profile of the PCB congeners found in humans exposed by this route. Twenty-two congeners of varying concentrations were the most prevalent and constituted over 95% of the total PCB present in most subjects. Four congeners, 138/163 (2,2',3,4,4',5-PCB/2,3,3',4', 5,6-PCB), 180 (2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-PCB), and 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-PCB), accounted for 55-64% of the total PCB load. Other congeners, some of toxicologic significance, were also detected by this analytical protocol. Nonfish-eaters had lower total serum PCB levels (mean = 4. 56; n = 78), but the same general pattern of PCB congeners was present. It was demonstrated that careful selection of a subset of prevalent PCB congeners could provide a cost-effective assessment of exposure without losing critical scientific information. Images Figure 1 PMID:10656858

Humphrey, H E; Gardiner, J C; Pandya, J R; Sweeney, A M; Gasior, D M; McCaffrey, R J; Schantz, S L

2000-01-01

258

Drainage pits in cohesionless materials: implications for surface of Phobos.  

PubMed

Viking orbiter images show grooves and chains of pits crossing the surface of Phobos, many of which converge toward the large crater Stickney or its antipode. Although it has been proposed that the pits and grooves are chains of secondary craters, their morphology and geometric relations suggest that they are the surface traces of fractures in the underlying solid body of Phobos. Several models have been proposed to explain the pits, of which the most plausible are gas venting and drainage of regolith into open fractures. the latter mechanism is best supported by the image data and is the mechanism studied in this investigation. Drainage pits and fissures are modeled experimentally by using two rigid substrate plates placed edge to edge and covered by uniform thicknesses of dry fragmental debris (simulated regolith). Fracture extension is simulated by drawing the plates apart, allowing drainage of regolith into the newly created void. A typical drainage experiment begins with a shallow depression on the surface of the regolith, above the open fissure. Increased drainage causes local drainage pits to form; continued drainage causes the pits to coalesce, forming a cuspate groove. The resulting experimental patterns of pits and grooves have pronounced similarities to those observed on Phobos. Characteristics such as lack of raised rims, linearity of grooves and chains of pits, uniform spacing of pits, and progression from discrete pits to cuspate grooves are the same in the experiments and on Phobos. In contrast, gas-venting pits occur in irregular chains and have raised rims. These experiments thus indicate that the Phobos grooves and pits formed as drainage structures. The pit spacing in an experiment is measured at the time that the maximum number of pits forms, prior to groove development. The average pit spacing is compared to the regolith thickness for each material. Regression line fits indicate that the average spacing of drainage pits in unconsolidated, noncohesive regolith is nearly equal to the thickness of regolith and appears to gbe independent of the angle of repose, within the resolution of our experiments. This provides a simple means of estimating regolith thickness where drainage pits are present. On Phobos, two locations differing by 90 degrees in longitude have average pit spacings that suggest regolith thicknesses of 290 and 300 m, suggesting that large areas of Phobos have a nearly uniform regolith thickness of approximately 300 m. PMID:11539795

Horstman, K C; Melosh, H J

1989-09-10

259

Sustained expression of CYPs and DNA adduct accumulation with continuous exposure to PCB126 and PCB153 through a new delivery method: Polymeric implants  

PubMed Central

A new delivery method via polymeric implants was used for continuous exposure to PCBs. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous polymeric implants containing PCB126 (0.15% load), PCB153 (5% load), or both, for up to 45 days and release kinetics and tissue distribution were measured. PCB153 tissue levels on day 15 were readily detected in lung, liver, mammary and serum, with highest levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 was detected only in liver and mammary tissues. However, a completely different pharmacokinetics was observed on co-exposure of PCB153 and PCB126, with a 1.8-fold higher levels of PCB153 in the liver whereas a 1.7-fold lower levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 and PCB153 caused an increase in expression of key PCB-inducible enzymes, CYP 1A1/2 and 2B1/2, respectively. Serum and liver activities of the antioxidant enzymes, PON1 and PON3, and AhR transcription were also significantly increased by PCB126. 32P-Postlabeling for polar and lipophilic DNA-adducts showed significant quantitative differences: PCB126 increased 8-oxodG, an oxidative DNA lesion, in liver and lung tissues. Adduct levels in the liver remained upregulated up to 45 days, while some lung DNA adducts declined. This is the first demonstration that continuous low-dose exposure to PCBs via implants can produce sustained tissue levels leading to the accumulation of DNA-adducts in target tissue and induction of indicator enzymes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that this exposure model is a promising tool for long-term exposure studies. PMID:25530946

Aqil, Farrukh; Xin, Xing; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2014-01-01

260

[Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].  

PubMed

In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare, especially with atypical antidepressants. However, the risk of acting out exists and the responsibility of antidepressant agents in the genesis of suicidal tendencies is now established. The disinhibiting effects of benzodiazepines are well-known and proven by clinical trials. It's a "model" of acting out, and the causal relationship is undeniable. That cocaïne is related to violent behaviour is demonstrated by its pharmacological actions on CNS. The chronic use of cocaïne induces "a limbic dyscontrol syndrome" based on the altered activity of limbic structures. On the contrary, we could not demonstrate a causal relationship between aggression and either cannabis, ecstasy or phencyclidine. Cannabis abusers look particularly for euphoria and relaxing effects. Aggression as an adverse cannabis reaction is very rare and occurs in most cases in association with other drugs and in predisposed individuals. Ecstasy use may lead to long-term alterations of neuronal function in the human CNS and cause psychiatric disorders. However, there is insufficient information about long-term use of ecstasy to estimate its role in the occurrence of behavioural disorders. Clinical and forensic assumptions about phencyclidine and violence were not warranted. However, the substance-effect relationships can be criticized in the case of alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne. In fact, individual, social and psychiatric factors exert an influence on behaviour that is superior to the pharmacological effect of psychotropic agents. The most important parameter in drug-induced behavioural disinhibition is dosage, but mode of administration is also important. In addition, polysubstance abuse is very common. Substances may be taken simultaneously and alcohol is frequently combined with drugs. The combinations of substances result in multiple interactions, and very little is known about the effects of these interactions on violence in humans. Co-occurrence of substance abuse and other mental disorders is also very frequent. Multiple substanc

Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

2001-01-01

261

Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

2004-11-01

262

FACILITIES EVALUATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY BOILER DESTRUCTION PCB WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of destruction in two different high-efficiency boilers (as an alternative to landfill disposal) of waste (a rendering plant byproduct, yellow grease) found to be contaminated by PCBs from a transformer leak. (The PCB content--under 500 p...

263

ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) LOADING TRENDS IN LAKE MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

PCB concentrations in coregonid fishes (bloater chubs) collected from Lake Michigan between 1972 and 1980 are used to infer a historical loading trend for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A mass balance model was developed to describe the dynamics of PCBs by assuming that histor...

264

IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

265

Electromagnetic characterization of PCB cards for mobile phones  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic characterization of PCB cards for mobile phones Ali Jazzar(*), Edith Clavel state, more the price linked to the EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) requirements is important .Thus the electromagnetic perturbations inside and outside the structure. The required CAD tool to achieve this modeling

Boyer, Edmond

266

Crosstalk Analysis and Simulation in High-Speed PCB Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the necessary of crosstalk analysis in the process of high-speed PCB design and introduce the theory and characteristics of crosstalk. Several methods are concluded to weaken or eliminate the crosstalk, and these methods are proved to be effective through crosstalk simulation using Hyperlynx software.

Jing Xiaosong; Zhou Runjing

2007-01-01

267

Impact of PCB layout design on final product's EMI compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most design engineers still believe that with a good shielded enclosure, well-shielded cables and high-performance ferrite sleeves, EMI compliance will be a straight forward task. This paper demonstrates experimentally that a poor PCB layout can cause electronic product to fail EMI specification badly even with all these fixes

Kye Yak See; Manish Oswal; Werachet Khan-ngern; Flavio Canavero; Christos Christopoulos; Hartmut Grabinski

2006-01-01

268

PCB 3063 GENETICS Section 0001 FALL SEMESTER 2014  

E-print Network

PCB 3063 GENETICS Section 0001 FALL SEMESTER 2014 T R: 10:30 AM-11:45 AM ROOM: CSB101 Instructor, suspension or expulsion from the university, and/or a "Z Designation" on a student's official transcript. For more information about the Z Designation, see http://z.ucf.edu/. USE OF INTERNET AND SCIENTIFIC

269

PCB layout design for EMI\\/EMC compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on the background studies and experiences in identification and implementation of the fundamental design techniques for making a PCB layout that needs a high degree of compliance for EMI\\/EMC. It suggests the use of techniques for considering PCBs configuration, Interplane coupling, Grounding methods, use of Bypassing and Decoupling capacitor and many other techniques required for making

Prakash Chand; B. N. Gangopadhyay; Meenakshi Kumar

2006-01-01

270

Application of fuzzy logic in EMC constraint PCB design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of fuzzy logic structures in the EMC constraint PCB design substantially improves quality of design solutions by providing designers with flexibility in layout. Fuzzy logic structures are applied successfully for selection of EMC constraint design solutions in conjunction with the constructive algorithms

Ang Tek Lin; Yuji Tarui; Takashi Sakusabe; Takehiro Takahashi; Noboru Schibuya

1999-01-01

271

RF passives modeling for a multilayer PCB design library  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a RF component design library has been developed for high performance 6-layered PCBs using a new plating technology. The design library consists of scalable models that are fitted on measurements. It is shown that the high performance PCB exhibits a better transmission line RF performance and also higher Q values for integrated inductors.

Kristof Vaesen; Roelof Jansen; Walter De Raedt; Hiroshi Kuwabara; Takahiko Kishi; Kazunari Nawa; Takeshi Bessho

2010-01-01

272

PCB Rogowski coil designs and performances for novel protective relaying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents PCB Rogowski coil designs and characteristics for advanced protection, control, and metering systems with new multifunction relays and fiber optic communication, providing fast response times to faults and easily adjusting to load and\\/or power system configuration changes. Since the new Rogowski coils are very accurate, protection levels can be set to lower thresholds reducing stress on the

Ljuhomir A. Kojovic

2003-01-01

273

Optimization of PCB via design considering its physical length parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation in the design of signal vias in multilayered printed circuit boards (PCB) technology, from a signal integrity point of view, for high-speed applications such as processors' validation platforms. Vias have been designed according with technological design capabilities. Different physical aspect ratios have been considered in the analysis, and then numerical results are compared with S-parameter.

Antonio Zenteno; David Reina; Gabriel Regalado

2010-01-01

274

Signal integrity face to face with EMC in PCB design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a review of the most important phenomena that determine the signal integrity and EMC on the signal traces for the PCB equipped with digital circuits. The aim of this paper is to highlight the effects of variation of design parameters, signal integrity and EMC field. For all of the mentioned phenomena the mathematical models are specified. These

Dan Pitica; S. Lungu; Ovidiu Pop

2003-01-01

275

EVALUATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR PESTICIDES AND PCB'S IN RAW WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The general EPA protocol for screening industrial effluents for priority pollutants (Federal Register 38, No. 75, Part II), has been tested for its applicability to the analysis of the priority pollutant pesticides and PCB's in raw wastewater. Raw wastewater from the municipal se...

276

Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among young drug users is not a widespread problem in Sweden. Harm-reduction measures should target drug users with more severe problems, among whom illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common and pose a medical risk. Illicit use of other prescription drugs, which are less controlled and more widely used by young people, is an important issue for further research. PMID:24139199

2013-01-01

277

Study of penetration behavior of PCB-DNAPL in a sand layer by a column experiment.  

PubMed

To better understand the infiltration performances of high concentration PCB oils (KC-300 and KC-1000 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures), representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), under both saturated and unsaturated conditions, we conducted experiments on a sand column filled with Toyoura Standard Sand. When PCB oil with the volume comparable to the total porosity in the column was supplied, the residual PCB concentrations under PCB-water conditions were 4.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-300 and 3.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-1000. Under PCB-air conditions, residual PCB concentrations were 6.0×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 2.4×10(5)mgkg(-1) in the upper and lower parts for KC-300 and 3.6×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 1.5×10(5)mgkg(-1) in those for KC-1000, respectively, while the rest of the PCBs were infiltrated. On the other hand, when a small amount of PCB oil with the volume far smaller than the total porosity in the column was supplied, the original PCBs were not transported via water permeation. However, lower-chlorinated PCB congeners-e.g., di- or tri-chlorinated biphenyls-preferentially dissolved and were infiltrated from the bottom of the column. These propensities on PCB oil infiltration can be explained in conjunction with the degree of PCB saturation in the sand column. PMID:25113184

Okuda, Nobuyasu; Shimizu, Takaaki; Muratani, Masaru; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

2014-11-01

278

Metabolic consequences of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were discovered in sewage sludge used for fertilizer in Bloomington, Indiana. The PCB had been discharged into the municipal sewage system by an electrical capacitor manufacturing plant. To study the epidemiology and metabolic consequences of PCB exposure an epidemiologic and clinical survey was conducted. Mean serum PCB levels were 17.4 ppB in 89 sludge users, 75.1 ppB in 18 workers with occupational exposure to PCB, 33.6 ppB in 19 members of those workers' families, and 24.4 ppB in 22 community residents without unusual exposure to PCB. In sludge users PCB levels were associated positively with per cent performance of garden care (p = 0.035) and negatively with wearing gloves while gardening (p = 0.021), but were not significantly associated with the amount of sludge used or the duration of exposure. In no groups were chloracne or systemic symptoms of PCB toxicity noted, nor were significant correlations found between PCB levels and tests of hematologic, hepatic, or renal function. Plasma triglyceride levels increased significantly with serum PCB concentrations in both alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers (r = 0.541, n = 36, p < 0.001 for nondrinkers). These data indicate that PCB may alter lipid metabolism at levels of exposure and bioaccumulation insufficient to produce overt symptoms.

Baker, E.L. Jr. (Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA); Landrigan, P.J.; Glueck, C.J.; Zack, M.M. Jr.; Liddle, J.A.; Burse, V.W.; Housworth, W.J.; Needham, L.L.

1980-10-01

279

Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Patnode, K.P. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

280

Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

2014-01-01

281

Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.  

PubMed

The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation. PMID:25213805

Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

2014-12-01

282

The potential of PCB photochemistry at Moccasin Bend  

SciTech Connect

The TVA/EPRI Tailored Collaborative Project {open_quotes}Biotransformation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Contaminated Soils{close_quotes}, has as its objective biotransformation of PCB contaminated soils at utility sites (Phase I Report March 1992). However, there is recognition of the existence of other types of nonmetabolic alterations of PCBs in the contaminated soils. Of these nonmetabolic alterations, photoalteration is of special interest to the project. Photoalteration has the potential for enhancing PCB transformation with little intervention and little harm to the microbial community. PCBs have pervaded the environment, and the paucity of knowledge about their chemistry is becoming readily apparent. Although PCBs are quite resistant to degradation, photolysis, which is a chemical decomposition process that is induced by radiant energy, may be important in the environmental chemistry of PCBS. The photochemical degradation of PCBs may affect atmospheric levels of contaminants and photolabile chemicals that reside in water bodies or on surfaces, as for example, on leaves and vegetation. Chemicals present in the environment can undergo direct or indirect phototransformation which includes photosensitized degradation and oxygenation as well as photoinduced degradation. Photoalteration is produced by either artificial light or by light from the sun. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to induce chemical reactions in many chlorinated hydrocarbons under laboratory conditions. To determine whether PCB alterations are the result of light-catalyzed reactions, it is necessary to verify PCB photolysis, to define the products of photolysis, and to explain the conditions and mechanisms necessary to produce such reactions. It is the purpose of this report to review the literature concerning photoalteration of PCBs and the potential role of this mechanism to facilitate PCB remediation at the research site.

Hinton, M.M.; Beck, M.J.

1993-03-30

283

Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/ degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5 to 3.0V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40–60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O2 was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O2. Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this study suggests that this approach could be a cost-effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to remediate PCBs in situ. PMID:23123087

Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

2012-01-01

284

Extreme value statistics and long-term marine pitting corrosion of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To derive the extreme value statistics for maximum depth of pits in pitting corrosion, it is conventional to use the Gumbel distribution. However, this has been shown recently to be not entirely appropriate. Modern pitting theory considers that the pit population consists of two major sub-populations, ‘stable pitting’ that can produce extreme depth pits in longer-term exposures, and ‘meta-stable’ pitting.

Robert E. Melchers

2008-01-01

285

Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Methods Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Results Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2?months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Conclusions Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme caution. PMID:24614041

Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

2014-01-01

286

Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.  

PubMed

Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were below or close to 10 micrograms m-3. The pattern of the PCB in the workplace air was different from that of the sealant and contained higher levels of lighter components. The PCB concentrations in the indoor air were measured before and during the remedial process. The levels were around 600 ng m-3 and there was no significant increase during the removal of the sealant. The PCB level after the remedial action will be measured later. The pattern of the PCB in the indoor air was different from that of the sealant as well as from that of the workplace air. Higher levels of the lighter PCB were present indoors compared to the composition in both workplace air and in sealant. Extracts of PCB were analysed by GC-MS with a SIM method (selected ion monitoring). Standard procedures were used for extraction of solid materials. For the air samples an OVS tube was used with XAD-2 as adsorbent. The filter and adsorbent were extracted with toluene. This work shows that it is important to perform remedial action of PCB-containing elastic sealant as: (1) there is a spread of PCB to the indoor air giving high enough concentrations to make this the main PCB load on humans living in the apartments studied in this project; (2) large amounts are spread to the soil from these sealants; and (3) many of the PCB-containing elastic sealants used need to be changed from a functional perspective. PMID:11529141

Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

1999-08-01

287

The Pit and the Safety Pendulum  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

2000-11-01

288

Pitted terrains on Vesta: Thermophysical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launched in 2007, the Dawn spacecraft, after one year spent orbiting Vesta, is now on its way to Ceres. In the science payload, the Visible and Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) is devoted to the study of the mineralogical composition and thermophysical properties of Vesta's surface [1]. Disk-resolved surface temperatures of Vesta have been determined from the infrared spectra measured by VIR [2]. The observed temperatures, together with a thermophysical model, have been used to constrain the thermal properties of a large part of the surface of the asteroid [3]. The average thermal inertia of the surface is quite low, consistent with a widespread presence of a dust layer. While the global thermal inertia is low, the characterization of its surface in terms of regions showing peculiar thermophysical properties gives us the possibility to identify specific areas with different thermal and structural characteristics. These variations can be linked to strong albedo variations that have been observed, or to other physical and structural characteristics of the first few centimeters of the soil. The highest values of thermal inertia have been determined on areas coinciding with locations where pitted terrains have been found [4]. Pitted terrains, first identified on Mars, have been found in association with 4 craters on Vesta: Marcia, Cornelia, Licinia, and Numisia. The Marcia area is characterized by high hydrogen and OH content [5]. By analogy with Mars, the formation of these terrains is thought to be due to the rapid release of volatiles, triggered by heating from an impact event. A question arises on the origin of volatiles: hydrated minerals, or ground, buried ice? In order to discuss the second hypothesis, we have to assume that a comet impact delivers ice that gets buried under a layer of regolith. Successively, another impact on the same area would give origin to the pitted terrain. The buried ice has obviously to survive for the time between the two impacts (ice is stable against sublimation till 120 K, and can survive for million of years if kept under 150--160 K). A thermophysical model, solving both the heat conduction and the diffusion equations, can give a contribution to the discussion related to this hypothesis. From our analysis, we demonstrate that, on Vesta, water ice could probably survive for millions of years if buried under tens of meters of an insulating layer of regolith [6]. Our conclusion is that the hypothesis of an origin related to ice buried in the Vestan soil cannot be ruled out. A definitive answer on the origin of pitted terrains on Vesta must be found, anyway, taking into account also the results of the geomorphological and compositional analysis.

Capria, M.; Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M.; Turrini, D.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Fonte, S.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Zambon, F.; Schroeder, S.; Denevi, B.; Williams, D.; Scully, J.; Russell, C.; Raymond, C.

2014-07-01

289

Pitting of Space Shuttle's Inconel Honeycomb Conical Seal Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the approach, findings, conclusions and recommendations associated with the investigation of the conical seal pitting. It documents the cause and contributing factors of the pitting, the means used to isolate each contributor, and the supporting evidence for the primary cause of the pitting. Finally, the selection, development and verification of the repair procedure used to restore the conical seal panel is described with supporting process and metallurgical rationale for selection.

Zimmerman, Frank; Gentz, Steven J.; Miller, James B.

2006-01-01

290

Searching for illicit materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence stimulated by narrow-band photon sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of an experimental study of the sensitivity of two distinct classes of systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to search for illicit materials in containers. One class of systems is based on the direct detection of NRF photons emitted from isotopes of interest. The other class infers the presence of a particular isotope by observing the preferential attenuation of resonant photons in the incident beam. We developed a detailed analytical model for both approaches. We performed experiments to test the model using depleted uranium as a surrogate for illicit material and used tungsten as a random choice for shielding. We performed the experiments at Duke University's High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS). Using the methodology we detail in this paper one can use this model to estimate the performance of potential inspection systems in certifying containers as free of illicit materials and for detecting the presence of those same materials.

Johnson, M. S.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hall, J. M.; McNabb, D. P.; Kelley, J. H.; Huibregtse, C.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.

2012-08-01

291

Who is Ready to Change Illicit Drug Use Behavior: An Emergency Department Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify emergency department patients who are ready to change their illicit drug use behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study of 198 Emergency Department patients at least 18 years old, seeking emergency department services, using at least one illicit drug, and scoring positive for alcohol problem based on CAGE score ? 1. Results Of the patients, 46% were “not ready” to change their drug behavior, 21% and 33% were “unsure” and “ready”, respectively. Our results identified that “Readiness to change alcohol behavior” [t (197) = 3.37, p ? 0.001], health insurance [t (197) = ?3.011, p ? 0.003], number of drug use [t (197) = 2.88, p ? 0.004], and drug-related injury [t (197) = 1.98, p ? 0.049] were related to readiness to change illicit drug behavior. Conclusion Our results re-iterate the need for intervention programs that focus on screening and treatment for both drugs and alcohol. PMID:24357930

Frausto, Kenneth A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2009-01-01

292

Pit distribution in the equatorial region of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini radar images of Titan's surface reveal numerous dark circular features in the equatorial region. These may be related to methane sublimation and have been interpreted as pits. In the T8 equatorial swath, we identify 199 individual pits and estimate their diameters. We analyze the observed spatial distribution and size to characterize these features and understand their formation. Chi-square analysis confirms a significant deviation from a random distribution and shows clustering over the entire swath. However, analysis of the densest cluster of pits, a group of 50, shows a more random distribution. Fractal analysis and comparison with a same-sized random set find only a hint of linearity. A Poisson distribution fits the observed pit-sizes, although resolution limits size determination for the smallest pits, those less than 1 km in diameter. Models for random pit generation and evolution simulate the observed Poisson distribution of pit sizes, with larger pits forming by the coalescing of smaller, overlapping ones. Pits, estimated to cover 0.5% of the equatorial T8 swath, could be an erosion mechanism that significantly contributes to the negative skew that has been observed in Titan's hypsography.

Adams, Kimberly A.; Jurdy, Donna M.

2012-05-01

293

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

294

The Growing Problem of Illicit Substance Abuse in the Elderly: A Review  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore and integrate the extant data on the subject of illicit substance use and abuse in the elderly and to determine shortcomings in the current understanding of the problem and potential topics of future research. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE was searched (1960–2011) using the keywords substance use disorders and geriatrics; PsycINFO was searched (1967–2011) using the keywords drug abuse and geriatrics. Data Extraction: The searches of Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO returned 35 and 85 results, respectively. Other relevant articles were identified by checking reference lists of the identified studies. A total of 26 articles with a focus on use of illicit substances, excluding alcohol, over-the-counter drugs, and prescription drugs, in the elderly were determined to be applicable to the review. Data Synthesis: Limited data were available to combine between studies, but certain conclusions could be generalized among separate sources. Results: Geriatric substance abuse is a topic of growing interest, importance, and research; however, most of the existing literature has focused on licit substances. Illicit substance abuse has been incorrectly assumed to end as patients age, whereas in reality, elderly drug users are increasingly common and have a unique profile quite different from that of their younger counterparts. Conclusions: Geriatric substance abuse is a common problem and includes both licit and illicit substances. There are not yet reliable screening instruments or treatment methods for identification and treatment of illicit substance abuse in the elderly. A high index of suspicion and consideration of illicit substance use as a real possibility are vital for early recognition and diagnosis of such abuse in the elderly. PMID:23251860

Grossberg, George T.

2012-01-01

295

Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

Liang, Bryan A

2013-01-01

296

Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

297

The drugs that dare not speak their name: Injecting and other illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C infection.  

PubMed

Exploration of patients' illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is largely absent from the clinical literature. This paper explores injecting and other illicit drug use among people receiving interferon-based treatment for HCV infection, from the perspective of one group of health professionals. Data are presented from a qualitative study of six health professionals responsible for managing HCV treatment regimens at three major metropolitan hospitals across Sydney, Australia. During semi-structured in-depth interviews, participants discussed patients' use of injected and non-injected illicit drugs while coping with a demanding therapeutic regimen. Health professionals highlighted the socially conservative environment of healthcare and its negative perceptions of illicit drug users. Also discussed are the management of people who inject during treatment and the efficacy of cannabis to reduce side effects. The findings of this study indicate that while the health professionals adopted a harm reduction approach to patients' illicit drug use during HCV treatment, information regarding the risks and benefits of illicit drug use is silenced in this context. While ever prohibition remains Australia's illicit drug policy this situation appears unlikely to change. Research which investigates the extent of illicit drug use during HCV treatment, the risks and benefits associated with their use in this context, and the harms of perpetuating a duplicitous healthcare system is required. PMID:17854725

Hopwood, Max; Treloar, Carla

2007-10-01

298

Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…

van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

2011-01-01

299

The drugs that dare not speak their name: Injecting and other illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of patients’ illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is largely absent from the clinical literature. This paper explores injecting and other illicit drug use among people receiving interferon-based treatment for HCV infection, from the perspective of one group of health professionals. Data are presented from a qualitative study of six health professionals responsible for

Max Hopwood; Carla Treloar

2007-01-01

300

Residual neuropsychological effects of illicit 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in individuals with minimal exposure to other drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A substantial literature suggests that users of illicit 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) display residual cognitive deficits. Most MDMA users, however, use other illicit drugs as well, so it is difficult to be certain that these deficits are due to MDMA, as opposed to other drug use or additional confounding factors. Methods: We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to

John H Halpern; Harrison G Pope; Andrea R Sherwood; Steven Barry; James I Hudson; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd

2004-01-01

301

Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Tele-operated and robotic systems operated in unstructured field environments pose unique challenges for tool design. Since field tasks are not always well defined and the robot work area usually cannot be designed for ease of operation, the tools must be versatile. It's important to carefully consider the orientation of the grip the robot takes on the tool, as it's not easily changed in the field. The stiffness of the robot and the possibility of robot positioning errors encourages the use of non-contact or minimal-contact tooling. While normal hand tools can usually be modified for use by the robot, this is not always the most effective approach. It's desirable to have tooling that is relatively independent of the robot; in this case, the robot places the tool near the desired work location and the tool performs its task relatively independently. Here we consider the adaptation of a number of tools for cleanup of a radioactively contaminated piping junction and valve pit. The tasks to be considered are debris removal (small nuts and bolts and pipe up to 100 mm in diameter), size reduction, surface cleaning, and support of past practice crane-based methods for working in the pits.

Catalan, Michael A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.

2002-04-11

302

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

303

Comparison of the performance of different silicon-based SALDI substrates for illicit drug detection.  

PubMed

Surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) is an emerging technique used for the detection of small molecules (<700Da) such as illicit drugs. In recent times, this technique has been employed for the detection of illicit drugs in various body fluids including saliva. Three common SALDI techniques, desorption ionization on porous silicon (DIOS), nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) and nanostructured laser desorption ionization (NALDI(™)) are compared for the detection of four drug classes, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, opiates and tropane alkaloids. We focus in our comparison on structural and chemical characteristics, as well as analytical performance and longevity. PMID:25476336

Guinan, T; Ronci, M; Vasani, R; Kobus, H; Voelcker, N H

2015-01-15

304

Preliminary Analysis of Lunar Pit Crater Morphometry, Morphology, and Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents preliminary results of an investigation of pit craters on the lunar surface and their relationship to volatile concentrations. Pit craters are a special type of crater that contains a circular pit (negative relief feature) within the central region of the crater, which may be related to the presence and possible release of volatiles during crater formation. Most studies connecting volatiles to pit crater formation have been conducted on Mars and Ganymede (which are considered relatively volatile rich), but few have been conducted concerning pit craters on comparatively volatile-depleted bodies such as the Moon. The working hypothesis of this study is that volatiles play a role in pit crater formation on solid bodies throughout the solar system. A subset of the lunar complex crater population (20 - 60 km in diameter) was examined and pit craters from this population were identified and characterized using Lunar Orbital Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data as well as visual data sets from the Apollo and LRO/LROC. The smaller diameter was chosen because this is above the transition from simple to complex craters, while the upper limit was chosen to avoid the transition to peak-ring craters and multi-ring basins. The percentage of pit craters to the total 20-60 km complex crater population is being determined independently for highland and maria terrains to identify proposed increases in the percentages of pit craters in the highlands as opposed to the maria, as the former has a higher percentage of volatiles in the lunar regolith. The ratio of pit craters to the total crater population 20-60 km in diameter will be compared to the populations on both Mars and Ganymede, which are celestial bodies that are considered to have sizable pit crater populations. It is expected that the lunar pit crater population will be much less than that of Ganymede or Mars. Lastly, morphometric and morphologic analyses will be performed on each pit crater to better understand the physical characteristics of pit craters on a celestial body that has a very low volatile percentage. Ultimately, the multivariate techniques used here will aid in defining pit craters versus other structures across the solar system, with special emphasis focusing on the drier bodies.

Malinski, P. T.; Milam, K.

2013-12-01

305

PCB congeners in tissues of European otter (Lutra lutra)  

SciTech Connect

Otters (Lutra lutra) have declined over much of their European range during the past forty years and are now absent from large areas of the lowlands of Western Europe. The most likely cause of the decline is the effects of bioaccumulating contaminants, organochlorine pesticides and PCBs having been implicated. There have been several recent studies of organochlorine residues (pesticides and PCBs) in otter tissues and scats have been used to monitor residues in otter populations. However, only from The Netherlands have data on individual PCB congeners in otter tissues and scats been reported; this Dutch otter population is now extirpated. We report a survey of PCB congeners in samples of tissues and scats from several populations of otters. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Mason, C.F.; Ratford, J.R. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom))

1994-10-01

306

Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.  

PubMed

The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5?×?10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

2014-12-01

307

Secrets of the Noachian Highlands: Pit Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] A) Context Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] B) Gullies in M12-00595 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] C) Layers and gullies in M09-00539, M15-00964

Among the most exciting places that the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has photographed during its three and a half years in orbit has been this crater in central Noachis Terra. Located at 47oS, 355oW, the crater appears to have been almost completely filled, and subsequently eroded in localized pits, by unknown processes. In this one place we see elements of the two most important results of the MOC investigation--the discovery of young gullies formed by fluid erosion and the occurrence of thick sequences of layered rock attesting to a martian past of substantial geologic activity.

Picture A shows the location of the other two figures, which are sections of three of about a dozen images acquired of this crater. Picture B (M12-00595) shows examples of gullies on the pit walls. Their contributary pattern (including the angles at which they join) argues for fluid behavior during their creation; the dark floors suggest that they have been active recently (or else they, like the slopes around them and most of Mars, would be lighter-toned owing to the accumulation of dust). These gullies are formed well down on the pit wall, where a distinctive, boulder-rich layer is found. Figure C, a mosaic of two high resolution images (M09-00539 and M15-00964), shows an area somewhat higher in the sequence of layered material that fills the crater. This sequence clearly alternates between layers that either contain or erode to form boulders and layers that do not have boulders. Note in particular the overhanging layers near the top center--such overhangs are evidence of the strength of the material. Here, too, gullies appear to start at specific layers; these, however, may not be as young as those seen in (B), as they appear to have at least a thin covering of dust. How it is that this crater came to be filled with layers of material containing (or eroding to create) boulders is a mystery.

2001-01-01

308

Feathers as bioindicators of PCB exposure in clapper rails  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we used feathers to biomonitor exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1268 congener mixture\\u000a in clapper rails (Rallus longirostris). This species has been used as an indicator species of environmental damage for the LCP superfund site located in Brunswick,\\u000a GA, USA which is contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a congener mixture that has been used in limited

Jay W. Summers; Karen F. Gaines; N. Garvin; W. L. Stephens; J. C. Cumbee; Gary L. Mills

2010-01-01

309

PCB design of balanced log-periodic antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Log periodic antennas are widely used in EMI\\/Antenna measurement because of their ultra wideband properties. When designing a planar log-periodic antenna, the feeding method is a main issue. In this paper, a planar log-periodic antenna is fed by a planar Marchand balun. The whole design is illustrated on a PCB without any supporting device. The bandwidth ranges from 1.2 GHz

Tzu-Hsuan Weng; Yi-Cheng Lin

2009-01-01

310

Low-cost PCB antenna for UWB applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter presents a low-cost knight's helm shape double-sided printed circuit board (PCB) antenna of size 3 cm×3 cm for ultra-wideband (UWB) application. The antenna has a return loss of more than 10 dB, constant group delay and gain flatness over the frequency range set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for UWB application. Satisfactory performance was obtained using FR4

Z. N. Low; J. H. Cheong; C. L. Law

2005-01-01

311

Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by glass capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Zusammensetzung sieben technischer Gemische polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB) mit unterschiedlichem Chlorierungsgrad (Aroclor- [Monsanto, USA] und Clophen A- [Bayer, Bundesrepublik Deutschland]-Typen) wurde mit hochauflösender Gas-Chromatographie mit Elektroneneinfang-Detektion in Dünnfilm-Glascapillaren mit Methylpolysiloxan (SE 30) und gereinigtem Apiezon L als flüssiger Phase untersucht. Die Identifizierung der Einzelkomponenten erfolgte durch chromatographischen Vergleich mit definierten Referenzsubstanzen oder Vergleich der aus Inkrementen berechneten Retentionsindices. Für die

K. Ballschmiter; M. Zell

1980-01-01

312

Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally

Danielle Wyrick; David A. Ferrill; Alan P. Morris; Shannon L. Colton; Darrell W. Sims

2004-01-01

313

241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting (United States)

2014-01-20

314

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION OF SINGLE PHASE ALUMINIUM AS A PITTING PHENOMENON  

E-print Network

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION OF SINGLE PHASE ALUMINIUM AS A PITTING PHENOMENON M. METZGER Department of pitting corrosion in sulfuric acid containing sodium chloride were described. Intergranular fissuring in producing this type of attack. The intergranular corrosion phenomena which are exhibited by high purity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

Plasmodesmata and pit development in secondary xylem elements.  

PubMed

Developing pit membranes of secondary xylem elements in Drimys winteri, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Sorbus aucuparia, Tilia vulgaris and Trochodendron aralioides have been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Absence of plasmodesmata from the membranes of vessel elements and tracheids indicates that their pits develop independently of these structures. On the other hand, plasmodesmata are abundant in pit membranes between fibres, parenchyma cells, and combinations of these cell types in Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. In each case the plasmodesmata pass right through the developing pit membrane. In the case of Sorbus fibres, however, plasmodesmata were absent from the majority of pit membrane profiles seen in sections. Occasionally they were observed in large numbers associated with a swollen region on one side of the pit membrane between fibres and between fibres and parenchyma, radiating from a small area of the middle lamella. In the case of fibre to parenchyma pitting, this swelling was always found on the fibre side of the membrane, while on the other side a small number of plasmodesmata were present completing communication with the parenchyma cytoplasm. These observations are discussed with regard to the role of plasmodesmata in pit formation, and in the differentiation of the various cell types in secondary xylem. The significance their distribution may have for our understanding of xylem evolution is also discussed. PMID:24271775

Barnett, J R

1982-08-01

316

Geomechanical Measurements and Computations at an Open Pit Marble Quarry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a geomechanical monitoring and computation experience at an open pit quarry. The quarry site belongs to a white marble basin (Carrara marble) in the Apuane Alps, where intensive quarry exploitations (both open pit and underground) have been developed, and a high rock spur has been left in place. In consideration of the particular geometry of the

G. Iabichino; M. Cravero

317

103. ARAIII. Looking down into GCRE reactor pit as it ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

103. ARA-III. Looking down into GCRE reactor pit as it was being modified for further ML-1 testing. Shows bellows assembly, men working in pit, spiral staircase. May 20, 1965. Ineel photo no. 65-2762. Photographer: Farmer. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

318

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than...

2011-01-01

319

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than one-half...

2014-01-01

320

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than...

2010-01-01

321

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than one-half...

2013-01-01

322

7 CFR 52.807 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.807 Freedom...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is larger than one-half pit shell...whether or not within or attached to a whole cherry, that is not larger than...

2012-01-01

323

Torus-Margo Pits Help Conifers Compete with Angiosperms  

E-print Network

Torus-Margo Pits Help Conifers Compete with Angiosperms Jarmila Pittermann, John S. Sperry,* Uwe G (Pinus longaeva). Just how handicapped is conifer xylem trans- port relative to that of angiosperms? We lower than the angiosperm average (Fig. 1C) (2). This compensates for short tracheid length and low pit

Hacke, Uwe

324

Mapping sand and gravel pits in the Patuxent River watershed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LANDSAT data from July 1973 and June 1978 for the Patuxent River Watershed of Maryland were processed in an effort to devise an economical method of monitoring the reclamation of sand and gravel pits. ASTEP-II and IDIMS software were utilized to derive signatures for sand and gravel pits and other land use/land cover types. Both unsupervised and supervised classifications of the two data sets were produced. Resultant statistics and color output products were compared in order to determine the extent of reclamation and expansion of sand and gravel pits over the five-year time span and to check the locations of more recent sand and gravel pits. Preliminary results indicate that, for a selected northern sub-acre, signatures derived for sand and gravel pits were nearly 90 percent accurate.

Schmidt, T. J.; Witt, R. G.

1981-01-01

325

College Student Interests in Drug Education Go Further than Illicit Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was constructed which allowed students to formulate questions they felt college students had about drugs. Most questions about effects concerned herbal drugs. Most questions about hazards concerned tobacco. Questions about drug regulation concerned illicit drugs. Student surveys should precede planning of drug education programs.…

Gold, Robert S.; And Others

1980-01-01

326

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure Ionization Mass · Performance of Mass Spectrometers and MS/MS (chemical speciation and identification) ­ No need surfaces Typical enhancement of 10x but have seen up to 2000x enhancement Liquid: Nebulizer Assisted DESI

Perkins, Richard A.

327

DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

328

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10?3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

2014-01-01

329

Price and purity analysis for illicit drug: data and conceptual issues.  

PubMed

Data on illicit drug purity and prices are invaluable but challenging. Academic purists argue they are unsuitable for economic analysis [Manski, C.F., Pepper, J.V., Petrie, C.V., 2001. Informing America's Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don't Know Keeps Hurting Us. National Academy Press, Washington, DC], but in practice they are used frequently [ONDCP, 2001a. What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs. Office of National Drug Control Policy, The White House, Washington, DC; ONDCP, 2001b. The Price of Illicit Drugs: 1981 Through the Second Quarter of 2000. Office of National Drug Control Policy, The White House, Washington, DC; ONDCP, 2004. The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981 Through the Second Quarter of 2003. Office of National Drug Control Policy, The White House, Washington, DC; Grossman, M., 2004. Individual behaviors and substance use: the role of price. Plenary Address for the 24th Arne Ryde Symposium on Economics of Substance Abuse at Lund University, Lund, Sweden, August 13-14, 2004]. This paper reviews data and conceptual issues that people producing, analyzing, and consuming drug price and purity series should understand in order to reduce the likelihood of misinterpretation. It also identifies aspects of drug markets that are both poorly understood and relevant to some of these issues. They constitute a useful research agenda for health and law enforcement communities who would benefit from better data on the supply, availability, and use of illicit drugs. PMID:16971056

Caulkins, Jonathan P

2007-09-01

330

A Resource-Constrained Optimal Control Model for Crackdown on Illicit Drug Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a budget-constrained optimal control model aimed at finding the optimal enforcement profile for a street-level, illicit drug crackdown operation. The objective is defined as minimizing the number of dealers dealing at the end of the crackdown operation, using this as a surrogate measure of residual criminal activity. Analytical results show that optimal enforcement policy will

A. Baveja; G. Feichtinger; R. F. Hartl; J. L. Haunschmied; P. M. Kort

2000-01-01

331

A sequential model for cracking down on street markets for illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a sequential decision-making model for assisting law enforcement officials in allocating resources during a crackdown operation on illicit drug markets. The sequential crackdown model (SCM) considers a probabilistic framework, where the probability of incarceration of a dealer and the probability of dealing are modeled as a function of the size of a drug market, crackdown enforcement level,

Alok Baveja; Mamnoon Jamil; Debashis Kushary

2004-01-01

332

A Resource-Constrained Optimal Control Model for Crackdown on Illicit Drug Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a budget-constrained optimal control model aimed at finding the optimal enforcement profile for a street-level, illicit drug crackdown operation. The objective is defined as minimizing the number of dealers dealing at the end of the crackdown operation, using this as a surrogate measure of residual criminal activity. Analytical results show that optimal enforcement policy will

A. Baveja; G. Feichtinger; R. F. Hartl; J. L. Haunschmied; P. M. Kort

1999-01-01

333

Illicit Drugs and Alcohol in Breast Milk: Assessing Risk to Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no question that breast-feeding is beneficial to both mother and infant. Manifold advantages ensue from the process; protection against infection and reduced risk of exposure to external sources of food contamination are only two of the many. Yet, the degree and risk involved from in vivo contamination of this precious fluid through maternal use of illicit drugs, tobacco

Henry C. Nipper

334

Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

Page, Richard C.; And Others

1987-01-01

335

Self-Efficacy and Illicit Opioid Use in a 180-Day Methadone Detoxification Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in a sample of opioid addicts. Results show self-efficacy influenced subsequent drug use in parallel with previous behavior. Suggests that psychological constructs like self-efficacy may hold promise for understanding and decreasing illicit opioid use during long-term methadone detoxification treatment.…

Reilly, Patrick M.; And Others

1995-01-01

336

Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

Choo, Hyekyung

2012-01-01

337

Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from

Kodo Kawase; Yuichi Ogawa; Yuuki Watanabe; Hiroyuki Inoue

2003-01-01

338

International Policy on Illicit Drug Trafficking: The Formal and Informal Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 10 years the world's leading economic powers have driven important changes in international policy on illicit drug trafficking. They have set up and financed semi-formal or informal transnational groups to proactively implement policy on the ground. This is a reaction to the bureaucratic, formal mechanisms of the United Nations and its agencies, where policy is diluted by

Cindy Fazey

2007-01-01

339

Illicit drug use, alcohol use and problem drinking among infrequent and frequent road ragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between illicit drug and alcohol use, problem drinking, and road rage. Particular attention is devoted to the association between these behaviors and frequent involvement in road rage activities. The data are taken from the 2002 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative telephone survey with a sample

Jennifer E. Butters; Reginald G. Smart; Robert E. Mann; Mark Asbridge

2005-01-01

340

Licit and Illicit Use of Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Undergraduate College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the relationship between a diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), grade point average (GPA), and licit and illicit drug use. Participants and Methods: They obtained survey data from a convenience sample of undergraduates in a large southern public university. Results: Among 1,550 respondents,…

Advokat, Claire D.; Guidry, Devan; Martino, Leslie

2008-01-01

341

A Mixture-Model Approach to Linking ADHD to Adolescent Onset of Illicit Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research findings have been mixed as to whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to illicit drug use independent of conduct problems (CP). With the current study, the authors add to this literature by investigating the association between trajectories of ADHD symptoms across childhood and adolescence and onset of…

Malone, Patrick S.; Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Lamis, Dorian A.

2010-01-01

342

Development of a fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug--GBL.  

PubMed

The first fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug, GBL, was developed and named Green Date. It shows high fluorescence enhancement to GBL and allows its detection in different drinks. The mechanism between GBL and Green Date was explored. This discovery may help to prevent the drug-facilitated sexual assault problems. PMID:23728479

Zhai, Duanting; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Eng, Pei Sze Fronia; Lee, Sung-Chan; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae

2013-07-14

343

Organized Crime and Illicit Activities in Spain: Causes and Facilitating Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain is not a country that we traditionally associate with organized crime, yet this article will show that there are a myriad of organized crime groups active there, engaging in a whole range of illicit activities. Therefore, after having demonstrated the scale and severity of the problem, the article will consider, assess and analyze the factors that facilitate it. Fundamentally,

Jennifer Sands

2007-01-01

344

Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

2013-01-01

345

College Students' Use of Compliance-Gaining Strategies to Obtain Prescription Stimulant Medications for Illicit Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine college students' illicit use of prescription stimulant medications and compliance-gaining strategies that they would use to obtain a stimulant medication. Design: A questionnaire-based study. Setting: Seven hundred and twenty undergraduate college students at a large, northeastern university in the United States were…

Checton, Maria G.; Greene, Kathryn

2011-01-01

346

Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

2007-01-01

347

Social Capital Influence in Illicit Drug Use Among Racial\\/Ethnic Groups in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was utilized to elucidate the relationship between individual-level social capital and illicit drug use among racial\\/ethnic groups. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites had different perceptions of social capital compared to other groups, in measures of social participation, neighborhood cohesion, trust, and norms of reciprocity. Logistic regression analysis showed

Humberto Reynoso-Vallejo

2011-01-01

348

Illicit Drug Markets among New Orleans Evacuees before and Soon after Hurricane Katrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes illicit drug markets in New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina and access to drug markets following evacuation at many locations and in Houston. Among New Orleans arrestees pre-Katrina, rates of crack and heroin use and market participation was comparable to New York and higher than in other southern cities. Both cities have vigorous outdoor drug markets.

Eloise Dunlap; Bruce D. Johnson; Edward Morse

2007-01-01

349

Investigation of a Classification-based Technique to Detect Illicit Objects for Aviation Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an initial investigation i nto the use of a classification-based technique for illicit object detection in aviation security. Current threats in aviation security are becoming more sophisticated in that it is extremely difficult to detect possible threats of t errorism without severely hindering passenger life style. In order to provide adequate security, previous work by

Steve Green; Michael Blumenstein; Vallipuram Muthukkumarasamy; Jun Jo

2005-01-01

350

Journal of Chromatography A, 1159 (2007) 185189 Hair analysis for illicit drugs by using capillary zone  

E-print Network

Journal of Chromatography A, 1159 (2007) 185­189 Hair analysis for illicit drugs by using capillary to investigate retrospectively drug abuse histories. In this field, gas chromatography­mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography­mass spectrometry are currently used, often after pre- liminary screening

Miksik, Ivan

351

Paradoxical effects of law enforcement policies: the case of the illicit drug market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of a vertically organized distribution network of illicit drugs. The key assumptions are costs imposed by law enforcement on drug sellers and the vertical relationship between trackers and retailers. We study the effects of a tougher drug law enforcement policy on wholesale and retail prices of drugs according to the identity of the pursued member

Sylvaine Poret

2002-01-01

352

21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.  

...2014-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

2014-04-01

353

21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

2011-04-01

354

21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

2010-04-01

355

21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

2012-04-01

356

21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section...Devices § 872.3765 Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. (a) Identification. A pit and fissure sealant and conditioner is a device...

2013-04-01

357

2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) Atropisomers Interact Enantioselectively with Hepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is a chiral and highly neurotoxic PCB congener of environmental relevance. (+)-PCB 136 was previously shown to be enriched in tissues from mice treated with racemic PCB 136. We investigated the spectral interactions of (+)-, (-)- and (±)-PCB 136 with mouse and rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to test the hypothesis that enantioselective binding to specific P450 enzymes causes the enrichment of (+)-PCB 136 in vivo. Hepatic microsomes prepared from C57BL/6 mice or Long Evans rats treated with ?-naphthoflavone or 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone (prototypical inducers of CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A, respectively) were used to determine first, if the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer binds to hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater extent than does the (-)-PCB 136 atropisomer; and second, if P450 enzymes of one subfamily bind the two PCB 136 atropisomers more efficiently than do P450 enzymes of other subfamilies. Increasing concentrations of (+)-, (-)- or (±)-PCB 136 were added to hepatic microsomes and the difference spectrum and maximal absorbance change, a measure of PCB binding to P450 enzymes, were measured. A significantly larger absorbance change was observed with (+)-PCB 136 than with (-)-PCB 136 with all four hepatic microsomal preparations in mice and rats, indicating that (+)-PCB 136 interacted with microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater degree than did (-)-PCB 136. In addition, binding of the PCB 136 atropisomers was greatest in microsomes from PB-treated mice and rats, and was inhibited by CYP2B antibodies, indicating the involvement of CYP2B enzymes. Together these results suggest preferential binding of (+)-PCB 136 to P450 enzymes (such as CYP2B and CYP3A) in hepatic microsomes, an observation that may explain the enantioselective enrichment of the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer in tissues of mice. PMID:18494506

Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2008-01-01

358

Model of PCB in the Lake Michigan lake trout food chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An age-dependent food chain model that considers species bioenergetics and toxicant exposure through water and food is developed. The model is successfully calibrated to 1971 PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan alewife and lake trout by using a dissolved PCB concentration in the water of 5-10 ng\\/L. The model indicates that for the top predator lake trout, PCB exposure through the

Robert V. Thomann; John P. Connolly

1984-01-01

359

Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

1992-01-01

360

Challenges of Implementing A High-Speed PCB Design Flow at CERN Conference  

E-print Network

The latest generation data acquisition systems for the CERN large particle physics detectors have set new demands on PCB production volume, performance, reliability and cost. The Cadence integrated high-speed PCB development products such as SPECCTRAquest, SigXplorer, Constraint Manager and SPECCTRA have been developed with the aim to help fulfil these requirements. This presentation highlights the challenges of introducing these tools into the traditional â? ?trial and errorâ? PCB design flow.

Evans, John

2004-01-01

361

Genetic and cell-free studies of PCB biodegradation in pseudomonas putida LB400. Book chapter. [PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)  

SciTech Connect

An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBs, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. The genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. The ability of cell-free extracts of P. putida LB400 to degrade PCBs has been examined. Results indicate that the enzymes for PCB metabolism are present in the soluble portion of the extract.

Mondello, F.J.; Bopp, L.H.

1987-01-01

362

Lunar Pit Craters Presumed to be the Entrances of Lava Caves by Analogy to the Earth Lava Tube Pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lava caves could be useful as outposts for the human exploration of the Moon. Lava caves or lava tubes are formed when the external surface of the lava flows cools more quickly to make a hardened crust over subsurface lava flows. The lava flow eventually ceases and drains out of the tube, leaving an empty space. The frail part of the ceiling of lava tube could collapse to expose the entrance to the lava tubes which is called a pit crater. Several pit craters with the diameter of around 100 meters have been found by analyzing the data of SELENE and LRO lunar missions. It is hard to use these pit craters for outposts since these are too large in scale. In this study, small scale pit craters which are fit for outposts have been investigated using the NAC image data of LROC. Several topographic patterns which are believed to be lunar caves have been found and the similar pit craters of the Earth were compared and analyzed to identify caves. For this analysis, the image data of satellites and aerial photographs are collected and classified to construct a database. Several pit craters analogous to lunar pit craters were derived and a morphological pit crater model was generated using the 3D printer based on this database.

Hong, Ik-Seon; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

2014-06-01

363

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

2010-01-01

364

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario.  

PubMed

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout. PMID:20067852

Madenjian, Charles P; Keir, Michael J; Whittle, D Michael; Noguchi, George E

2010-03-01

365

PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility.

Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

1982-06-01

366

PCB congener profiles in nestling tree swallows and their insect prey.  

PubMed

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are widely used as indicators of local polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in North America. Although determining total PCB residues in tissues is useful in environmental monitoring, analysis of PCB congener profiles may reveal sources of contamination and thus prove to be a more refined tool to track contaminants through the food web. To show how differences in PCB congener patterns in birds can be linked to the PCB patterns in their prey, we evaluated PCB congeners in tissues of tree swallow nestlings and their insect prey using principal component analysis and Euclidean similarities. The PC1 scores for PCB residues in nestlings fell between those of the Hexagenia (Ephemeroptera, mayflies) and Chironomidae (Diptera, midges), the two major prey groups of the nestlings. The congener pattern was not related to the location of nest boxes within the study area. However, Hexagenia insects and the nestlings that consumed them were richer in less chlorinated congeners and had higher PC1 scores than Chironomidae insect. In concordance, congener pattern of nestlings that hatched earlier and consumed more mayflies was more similar than that of other nestling to the pattern of nestings texagenia as calculated by Euclidean similarities. We point to the importance of understanding the seasonal availability of specific types of insect prey and their PCB congener pattern before these data are applied in models of trophic transfer of individual PCB congeners within a food web. PMID:17165104

Papp, Zsuzsanna; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sebastian, Mary; Smits, Judit E G

2007-02-01

367

Unhealthy Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use are Associated with Decreased Quality of HIV Care  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ?4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted ? ?2.74; 95% CI ?4.23, ?1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted ? ?3.51 95% CI ?4.99, ?2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received. PMID:22820808

Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

2012-01-01

368

Hand Function is Altered in Individuals with a History of Illicit Stimulant Use  

PubMed Central

Use of illicit stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy are a significant worldwide problem. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate hand function in adults with a history of illicit stimulant use. We hypothesized that prior use of illicit stimulant drugs is associated with abnormal manipulation of objects. The study involved 22 subjects with a history of illicit stimulant use (aged 29±8 yrs; time since last use: 1.8±4.0 yrs) and two control groups comprising 27 non-drug users (aged 25±8 yrs) and 17 cannabis users with no history of stimulant use (aged 22±5 yrs). Each subject completed screening tests (neuropsychological assessment, medical history questionnaire, lifetime drug history questionnaire, and urine drug screen) prior to gripping and lifting a light-weight object with the dominant right hand. Horizontal grip force, vertical lift force, acceleration, and first dorsal interosseus electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded during three trials. In trial one, peak grip force was significantly greater in the stimulant group (12.8±3.9 N) than in the control groups (non-drug: 10.3±4.6 N; cannabis: 9.4±2.9 N, P<0.022). However, peak grip force did not differ between groups in trials two and three. The results suggest that individuals with a history of stimulant use overestimate the grip force required to manipulate a novel object but, are able to adapt grip force in subsequent lifts. The results suggest that movement dysfunction may be an unrecognized consequence of illicit stimulant use. PMID:25545892

Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Flavel, Stanley C.; Wilcox, Robert A.; Thewlis, Dominic; Vogel, Adam P.; White, Jason M.; Todd, Gabrielle

2014-01-01

369

What Users Think about the Differences between Caffeine and Illicit/Prescription Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE. PMID:22768218

Franke, Andreas G.

2012-01-01

370

Enhanced ID Pit Sizing Using Multivariate Regression Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPRI is funding a program to enhance and improve the reliability of inside diameter (ID) pit sizing for balance-of plant heat exchangers, such as condensers and component cooling water heat exchangers. More traditional approaches to ID pit sizing involve the use of frequency-specific amplitude or phase angles. The enhanced multivariate regression algorithm for ID pit depth sizing incorporates three simultaneous input parameters of frequency, amplitude, and phase angle. A set of calibration data sets consisting of machined pits of various rounded and elongated shapes and depths was acquired in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz for stainless steel tubing having nominal wall thickness of 0.028 inch. To add noise to the acquired data set, each test sample was rotated and test data acquired at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o'clock positions. The ID pit depths were estimated using a second order and fourth order regression functions by relying on normalized amplitude and phase angle information from multiple frequencies. Due to unique damage morphology associated with the microbiologically-influenced ID pits, it was necessary to modify the elongated calibration standard-based algorithms by relying on the algorithm developed solely from the destructive sectioning results. This paper presents the use of transformed multivariate regression algorithm to estimate ID pit depths and compare the results with the traditional univariate phase angle analysis. Both estimates were then compared with the destructive sectioning results.

Krzywosz, Kenji

2007-03-01

371

Perforated Pit Membranes in Imperforate Tracheary Elements of Some Angiosperms  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The structure of pit membranes in angiosperms has not been fully examined and our understanding about the structure is incomplete. Therefore, this study aims to illustrate the micromorphology of pit membranes in fibres and tracheids of woody species from various families. • Methods Specimens from ten species from ten genera and eight families were prepared using two techniques and examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. • Key Results Interfibre pit membranes with an average diameter of <4 µm were frequently perforated or appeared to be very porous. In contrast, pit membranes in imperforate tracheary elements with distinctly bordered pits and an average diameter of ?4 µm were homogeneous and densely packed with microfibrils. These differences were observed consistently not only among species but also within a single species in which different types of imperforate tracheary elements were present. • Conclusions This study demonstrates that the structure of interfibre pit membranes differs among cell types and the differences are closely associated with the specialization of the fibre cells. It is suggested that perforated pit membranes between specialized fibres contribute to the dehydration of the fibre cells at or soon after maturation. PMID:16520339

SANO, YUZOU; JANSEN, STEVEN

2006-01-01

372

Extrapituitary TSH in early chick embryos: Pit-1 dependence?  

PubMed

The expression of the thyrotropin (TSH) gene in the pituitary gland is thought to be dependent upon the pituitary-specific transcription factor, Pit-1. TSH immunoreactivity is, however, widespread in extrapituitary tissues, and the possibility that this may reflect a widespread distribution of Pit-1 was therefore investigated in embryonic chicks, prior to the ontogenic differentiation of the pituitary gland. TSH immunoreactivity in chick embryos at the end of the first trimester of the 21d incubation period was present in discrete cells in the developing brain (particularly in ependymal cells lining the diocoele and mesocoele and in cells lining the otic vesicle), spinal cord (ependymal cells), liver (hepatocytes), lungs (in the linings of the bronchi), gut (in the linings of the proventriculus) and limb bud (in skin, muscle, bone and nerve fibers). In some of these tissues (particularly in brain and spinal cord ependymal cells, cells in the otic vesicle and in liver hepatocytes), the distribution of TSH immunoreactivity was overlapped by the distribution of immunoreactive Pit-1, suggesting Pit-1 involvement in TSH expression in these sites. However, in other tissues (e.g., the trigeminal nerve in the head and the marginal mantle layer of the spinal cord), Pit-1 immunoreactivity was intense but TSH immunoreactivity was marginal. Conversely, other tissues (e.g., cells in the skin, blood vessels, limb bud, bronchus, proventriculus, and cardiopleural cavities) had intense TSH staining but little, if any, Pit-1 immunoreactivity. The expression of the TSH gene in these tissues would thus appear to be Pit-1 independent. These results demonstrate the presence of Pit-1 in pituitary and extrapituitary tissues of the domes tic fowl and suggest the involvement of Pit-1 in the extrapituitary expression of TSH in chick embryos may be tissue-specific. PMID:11931353

Murphy, Amy E; Harvey, Steve

2002-01-01

373

Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

1977-01-01

374

Patterns in stream fish assemblage structure and function associated with a PCB gradient.  

PubMed

Stream fish assemblage structure and function were examined for significant response along a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gradient from two PCB-contaminated streams (Clear Creek and Richland Creek watershed) at three locations and a control stream (Little Indian Creek), Indiana, USA. Fish were sampled in the summer months of 1995 and from 1999 to 2002. 51 fish assemblage attributes-including structure (i.e., fish composition) and function (i.e., trophic, reproductive, condition guilds), biomass, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) metric scores-were evaluated for significance according to an increasing PCB gradient. Eight biomass attributes of fish assemblages decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species biomass, number of sunfish biomass, percent sunfish biomass, number of sucker biomass, percent sucker biomass, biomass of sensitive species, percent sensitive species biomass, and percent carnivore biomass. Three biomass attributes increased with PCB concentration: percent minnow biomass, percent pioneer species biomass, and percent tolerant species biomass. Seven species composition and relative abundance characters decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species; number of darter, madtom, and sculpin; number of darter; number of sunfish; number of sucker; number of sensitive species; and percent individuals as carnivores. Percent individuals as pioneer species increased with increasing PCB concentration. Two IBI metrics, percent individuals as headwater species and number of minnow species, increased as PCB concentrations increased, whereas number of sucker species and percent individuals as pioneer species decreased with increasing PCB concentration class. We observed a direct response between decreased relative abundance and biomass of carnivores and increased relative abundance minnows as the PCB gradient increased. Total IBI score did not detect subtle changes to the fish community that were observed along a PCB gradient, whereas diagnostic analysis of the individual metrics did. PMID:23604193

Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Sparks, Daniel W

2013-08-01

375

41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ON THE CEILING BEAMS AND COLUMNS OF PARK WILDLIFE ARE ORIGINAL TO THE OLD SIDE DINING ROOM. THE SIDE DINING ROOM WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT BY ROBERT REAMER IN 1927. IN 1962 WHEN IT WAS CONVERTED INTO THE BEAR PIT A WALL WAS ADDED BETWEEN THE THREE COLUMNS THAT SEPARATE THIS ROOM FROM THE MAIN DINING ROOM. THE ORIGINAL BEAR PIT ETCHINGS DEPICTING BEARS TENDING BAR AND PLAYING THE PIANO WERE MOUNTED ON THE WALL BETWEEN THE COLUMNS. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

376

Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters and phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells: Redundant roles for PiT-1 and PiT-2  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated serum phosphate has emerged as a major risk factor for vascular calcification. The sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, was previously shown to be required for phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation and calcification of cultured human VSMCs, but its importance in vascular calcification in vivo, as well as the potential role of its homologue, PiT-2, have not been determined. We investigated the in vivo requirement for PiT-1 in vascular calcification using a mouse model of chronic kidney disease, and the potential compensatory role of PiT-2 using in vitro knockdown and over-expression strategies. Approach and Results Mice with targeted deletion of PiT-1 in VSMCs were generated (PiT-1?sm). PiT-1 mRNA levels were undetectable whereas PiT-2 mRNA levels were increased 2 fold in the vascular aortic media of PiT-1?sm compared to PiT-1flox/flox control. When arterial medial calcification was induced in PiT-1?sm and PiT-1flox/flox by chronic kidney disease followed by dietary phosphate loading, the degree of aortic calcification was not different between genotypes, suggesting compensation by PiT-2. Consistent with this possibility, VSMCs isolated from PiT-1?sm mice had no PiT-1 mRNA expression, increased PiT-2 mRNA levels, and no difference in sodium-dependent phosphate uptake or phosphate-induced matrix calcification compared to PiT-1flox/flox VSMCs. Knockdown of PiT-2 decreased phosphate uptake and phosphate-induced calcification of PiT-1?sm VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of PiT-2 restored these parameters in human PiT-1-deficient VSMCs. Conclusions PiT-2 can mediate phosphate uptake and calcification of VSMCs in the absence of PiT-1. Mechanistically, PiT-1 and PiT-2 appear to serve redundant roles in phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23968976

Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Lau, Wei Ling; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; Chavkin, Nick; Wallingford, Mary C.; Peterson, Danielle F.; Li, Xianwu; Liu, Yonggang; Chin, Michael T.; Levi, Moshe; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

2014-01-01

377

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...unique physical and chemical properties and...environment, causing the contamination of certain foods...resulted in the contamination of silage which...PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB contamination of food as a...

2012-04-01

378

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...unique physical and chemical properties and...environment, causing the contamination of certain foods...resulted in the contamination of silage which...PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB contamination of food as a...

2010-04-01

379

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...unique physical and chemical properties and...environment, causing the contamination of certain foods...resulted in the contamination of silage which...PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB contamination of food as a...

2013-04-01

380

21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.  

...unique physical and chemical properties and...environment, causing the contamination of certain foods...resulted in the contamination of silage which...PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB contamination of food as a...

2014-04-01

381

Retaining latch for a water pit gate  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to retaining devices which are used to latch two elements or parts together and, more particularly, to gate latches for use in locking a gate to a wall bracket in a water pit utilized to store or handle hazardous materials. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame.

Beale, A.R.

1996-12-31

382

Craters, Pit Chains, and Graben, Oh My!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 6 May 2003

Craters, pit chains, graben, and lava flows south of Alba Patera, a volcano located within the Tharsis volcanic complex.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 27.1, Longitude 245 East (115 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

383

Retaining latch for a water pit gate  

DOEpatents

A retaining latch is described for use in a hazardous materials storage or handling facility to adjustably retain a water pit gate in a gate frame. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame. 4 figs.

Beale, A.R.

1997-11-18

384

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

385

76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, as a List I Chemical...manufacture the schedule I controlled substance lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). This rule...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a...

2011-03-31

386

Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant  

EPA Science Inventory

Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

387

75 FR 37295 - Control of Immediate Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Fentanyl as a Schedule II...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...produces a euphoric effect also induces respiratory depression. Furthermore, due to fentanyl's greater potency...lethal because the resulting level of respiratory depression is sufficient to cause the user to stop breathing. Illicit...

2010-06-29

388

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PCB DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, HYBRIZYME DELFIA TM ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The DELFIA PCB Assay is a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay based on the sequential addition of sample extract and europium-labeled PCB tracer to a monoclonal antibody reagent specific for PCBs. In this assay, the antibody reagent and sample extract are added to a strip...

389

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

2009-01-01

390

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake.  

PubMed

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE. PMID:19446308

Madenjian, Charles P; Hanchin, Patrick A; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J

2009-07-15

391

CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

392

RESIDUES OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) IN A 'CLADOPHORA' COMMUNITY ALONG THE LAKE HURON SHORELINE  

EPA Science Inventory

PCB residues were measured in samples of Cladophora, Ulothrix, net plankton, water, and fish collected in the Harbor Beach area of Lake Huron. The PCB patterns in the samples were found to match a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and 1254. Aroclor 1242 represented about 60% of the mixture...

393

Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

2004-01-01

394

Relationship of Perinatal PCB Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Reply to Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) examine various technical issues related to six studies of perinatal PCB exposure and neurodevelopment and one study of adult PCB exposure and motor function. They raise questions about possible imperfections of the studies, but many of their assertions are unsupported or frankly…

Gladen, Beth C.; Rogan, Walter J.

2004-01-01

395

Crosstalk study in splitter PCB design of CAT5 cabling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of crosstalk in splitter PCB design of CAT-5 cabling system for local area network (LAN) application is carried out Results have shown that design parameters such as separations, lengths and angles of trace pair are the critical parameters on the crosstalk reduction of PCB design, and that a 9 dB reduction of the crosstalk is observed by simply

K H Chan K M Chow; K. M. Chow; L. C. Fung; S. W. Leung; Y. M. Siu

2005-01-01

396

The EMC analyzing and optimizing with highfrequency interference in PCB design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we make use of the software Ansoft Designer to analyze the high-frequency interference in the PCB, and get the current plots & EM(electric & magnetic) near field plots to see the effect on the PCB's EMC by the high-frequency interference. According to the current plots & EM near field plots, we can analyze the EMC of the

Jie Liu; Lanfen Qi

2006-01-01

397

A knowledge-based system for the automatic generation of PCB alternative designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motivation for this research is the need to enhance the performance of the PCB environment with a system that will provide the designers with the opportunity to take manufacturing into consideration in the early design stages. The model proposed here will consist of a knowledge based system for the automatic generation of PCB alternative designs. This system will decompose

C. Castillo; C. O. Malavé

1996-01-01

398

EMC constraint PCB design support tool-assistance for power and ground trace wiring  

Microsoft Academic Search

For printed circuit board (PCB) design using computer aided design (CAD), a design assistance system for reduction of electromagnetic interference is developed. In the present system, a manual design of PCB power-ground interconnection is assisted visually based on the EMI reduction rule. In this paper, the system configuration of the support tool and its application for power-ground trace wiring is

Yuji Tarui; Kiichi Watanabe; Takashi Sakusabe; Takehiro Takahashi; Noboru Schibuya

1999-01-01

399

Formulation and Characterization of an Experimental PCB Mixture Designed to Mimic Human Exposure from Contaminated Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each environmental exposure matrix contains a unique mixture of PCB congeners. Since several congener types have multiple and distinct biological actions, it is important to characterize congener profiles in exposure sources. The Fox River Environment and Diet Study (FRIENDS) is assessing the human health effects of consumption of PCB-contaminated fish from the Fox River in northeastern Wisconsin. Concurrent laboratory studies

Paul J. Kostyniak; Larry G. Hansen; John J. Widholm; Rich D. Fitzpatrick; James R. Olson; Jennifer L. Helferich; Kyung Ho Kim; Helen J. K. Sable; Rich F. Seegal; Isaac N. Pessah; Susan L. Schantz

2005-01-01

400

An Overview of Placement and Routing Algorithms for PCB, VLSI, and MCM Designs  

E-print Network

An Overview of Placement and Routing Algorithms for PCB, VLSI, and MCM Designs with a Proposal design. ................ 27 #12; 5.2 Definition of the MCM routing problem. .................. 28 5 demands on these placement and routing algorithms than on VLSI or PCB layouts. However, many

Thornton, Mitchell

401

Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open buring of biomass  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment. Development and implementation of policies ...

402

SIMPLE PCB BASED S-PARAMETER EXTRACTION METHOD FOR RF AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS  

E-print Network

-step layout and fabrication of a single reference PCB and the complicated extra calibration kit is not needed of complex equations and the extra calibration kit such as TRL or SOLT. These calibration kits are accurate-parameters of an unknown transistor amplifier. A simple PCB layout for the transistor is made. Two PCBs with the same

Hwang, Sung Woo

403

AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB NEAR THREE LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nomi...

404

EFFECTS OF PCB (AROCLORR 1254) ON NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN RHESUS (MACACA MULATA) MONKEYS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of low level chronic polychlorinated biphenyl - Aroclor 1254 - (PCB) exposure were investigated on nonspecific immune parameters in female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Five groups of monkeys were orally administered PCB at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 40, or 80 ug/...

405

DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C56BL/6 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

At room temperature, nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of each of these PCB atropisomers is present in technical mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective dis...

406

The importance of runoff to DDT and PCB inputs to the Sado estuary and Ria Formosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites were determined in suspended sediments and in the oysterCrassostrea angulata from the upper Sado estuary over two years (1987\\/88 and 1990) and from Ria Formosa during 1990. Levels of DDT concentrations in suspended sediments collected in both estuarine areas, either in 1988 or 1990, increased in winter. Otherwise, PCB concentrations varied in an erratic way.

A. M. Ferreira; C. Vale

1995-01-01

407

105-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit sludge volume calculation  

SciTech Connect

The volume of sludge contained in the 100-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit (SFBWP) was calculated from depth measurements of the sludge, pit dimension measurements and analysis of video tape recordings taken by an underwater camera. The term sludge as used in this report is any combination of sand, sediment, or corrosion products visible in the SFBWP area. This work was performed to determine baseline volume for use in determination of quantities of uranium and plutonium deposited in the pit from sandfilter backwashes. The SFBWP has three areas where sludge is deposited: (1) the main pit floor, (2) the transfer channel floor, and (3) the surfaces and structures in the SFBWP. The depths of sludge and the uniformity of deposition varies significantly between these three areas. As a result, each of the areas was evaluated separately. The total volume of sludge determined was 3.75 M{sup 3} (132.2 ft{sup 3}).

Dodd, E.N. Jr.

1995-02-10

408

Molten salt corrosion of SiC: Pitting mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin films of Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 at 1000 C lead to severe pitting of sintered alpha-SiC. These pits are important as they cause a strength reduction in this material. The growth of product layers is related to pit formation for the Na2CO3 case. The early reaction stages involve repeated oxidation and dissolution to form sodium silicate. This results in severe grain boundary attack. After this a porous silica layer forms between the sodium silicate melt and the SiC. The pores in this layer appear to act as paths for the melt to reach the SiC and create larger pits.

Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

1985-01-01

409

BOILER SHOP, NORTH END, WITH DROP PIT IN FOREGROUND AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BOILER SHOP, NORTH END, WITH DROP PIT IN FOREGROUND AND SP 2902 PASSENGER CAR UNDER RESTORATION, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Boiler Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

410

1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

411

94. Detail view of ground level at platform, pit "C", ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

94. Detail view of ground level at platform, pit "C", elevator doors in closed position, exhaust vent on left, and elevator platform controls on right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

412

CLOSEUP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CLOSE-UP VIEW OF OPEN HEARTH COMPLEX (INCLUDING PIT FURNACE BUILDING, BLOOMING & BAR MILL, & HOT BEDS) & RAIL MILL. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

413

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

414

14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

415

15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

416

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BARBEQUE PIT AND PLAYHOUSE IN (REAR) YARD, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

417

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CHICKEN COOP BEHIND FENCED YARD AND (REAR) OF BARBEQUE PIT, LOOKING NORTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

418

23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit is located under the center first-floor window. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

419

Interior of wheel pit looking northwest; detail of pelton wheel ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of wheel pit looking northwest; detail of pelton wheel with backshot nozzle and deflectors (above), and undershot nozzle and deflectors (below). - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

420

16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Detail of drainage pits inside east half (1892 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

421

VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE POISED OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) JUST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE POISED OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) JUST SOUTH OF TURNTABLE - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

422

VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE NO. 17 OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF LOCOMOTIVE NO. 17 OVER ASH PIT (NOT VISIBLE) JUST SOUTH OF TURNTABLE - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

423

GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH TURNTABLE & ROUNDHOUSE, ASH PIT IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH TURNTABLE & ROUNDHOUSE, ASH PIT IN FOREGROUND - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, Roundhouse, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

424

The Influence of Atmospheric Transport Regimes on Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Concentrations Measured at Zeppelin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of exclusively anthropogenic origin. PCBs are toxic, bioaccumulative and have a great potential of long-range transport. PCBs have been banned globally under the Stockholm convention on POPs since 2004. We analysed times series of 21 PCB congeners ranging from PCB 18 to PCB 187 that have been measured at Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) since 1993. Although primary PCB emissions have been steadily reduced, a strong decreasing trend is not observed in the PCB concentrations in the Arctic. In order to investigate the influence of atmospheric transport on the PCB concentrations and to identify the potential source regions of the PCBs, we calculated footprints for the Zeppelin measurement site using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. Footprints can be interpreted as potential source regions where PCBs may have been picked up. Based on various statistical analyses of the footprints (cluster analysis, k-medoid, silhouette), we identified the prevailing transport regimes for Zeppelin which were represented by 5 different clusters. Cluster 1 and 3 belong to transport regimes with highest residence times over Europe (cluster 1) and North-America (cluster 3); both transport regimes dominantly occur from late fall to early spring. Clusters 2 and 4 represent air masses with surface contact predominantly over the Atlantic Ocean (cluster 2), only occurring during the summer months, and the Arctic Ocean (cluster 4) mainly observed in spring and autumn, but also in summer. Cluster 5 is representative of air originating from the Pacific ocean and eastern Asia; this transport regime occurs mainly in spring and fall. We grouped the PCB concentrations measured at Zeppelin according to the 5 different clusters and calculated the median for each cluster and PCB congener. The median for medium to heavier PCBs is highest for cluster 1 and 3, which represent transport regimes over the continent, suggesting that emissions of the respective PCBs dominantly occur over land. However, for the lighter congeners (PCB-18-PCB-47) the highest median concentration corresponds to cluster 2 and the lowest to cluster 3 and 5. The high concentration of the lighter congeners resulting from the transport over the ocean, represented by clusters 2 and to some extent 4, cannot be explained by primary PCB emissions. Also the use of a temperature-dependent primary PCB emission inventory did not resolve this apparent contradiction between high PCB concentrations and a transport regime under which Zeppelin does not receive air from the continents. Our data therefore suggest that in addition to atmospheric transport regimes and primary PCB emissions, also other factors such as secondary emissions from the ocean and/or from soils strongly influence the concentrations of lighter PCBs measured at Zeppelin.

Ubl, S.; Scheringer, M.; Hungerbuehler, K.

2013-12-01

425

Altered Stress-Induced Cortisol Levels in Goats Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) During Fetal and Postnatal Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in

Karin E. Zimmer; Arno C. Gutleb; Jan L. Lyche; Ellen Dahl; Irma C. Oskam; Anette Krogenæs; Janneche Utne Skaare; Erik Ropstad

2009-01-01

426

Effects of long-term maternal exposure to low doses of PCB126 and PCB153 on the reproductive system and related hormones of young male goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, female goats were orally exposed to PCB126 or PCB153, at 49 ng\\/kg body weight per day and 98mg\\/kg body weight per day respectively, from gestational day 60 until delivery at approximately day 150. Exposure of the offspring contin- ued via lactation until postnatal day 40. Reproductive toxicity in the male offspring was studied by the evaluation of

Irma C Oskam; Jan L Lyche; Anette Krogenæs; Ragnar Thomassen; Janneche U Skaare; Richard Wiger; Ellen Dahl; Torres Sweeney; Audun Stien; Erik Ropstad

2005-01-01

427

Bacteriological investigations of mine water from lignite pits in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present paper is a general survey of some bacterial processes associated with the transformation of iron and sulphur compounds\\u000a in water issuing from lignite pits situated in Jutland (Denmark), special stress having been laid on an investigation of the\\u000a lignite pit at Skraastrup on Spaabæk. The rivulet Spaabæk is confluent with the rivulet Pølbæk, and after the confluence the

E. Fjerdingstad

1956-01-01

428

Ambient monitoring for PCB near three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Final report, August 1982July 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nominally upwind and downwind locations. Vertical PCB concentration profiles were also obtained at five elevations (2

D. L. Sgontz; J. E. Howes

1985-01-01

429

SOLDERBALL PIN™ TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES SMT REFLOW SOLUTION TO COPLANARITY INTERCONNECTION ISSUES FOR PCB-BASED SUBASSEMBLIES AND POWER MODULES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosplice will detail the theory and qualification of a new interconnect with integrated Solderball Pin™ 1 technology that enables efficient automated manufacture of surface mount PCB subassemblies, such as board-mounted point of load power modules. Power modules manufactured as a printed circuit board (PCB) subassembly are parallel stacked to a customer's host PCB. These modules are representative of many other

Carlos Juvera

430

Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states-1978–81  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens

W. L. Reichel; S. K. Schmeling; E. Cromartie; T. E. Kaiser; A. J. Krynitsky; T. G. Lamont; B. M. Mulhern; R. M. Prouty; C. J. Stafford; D. M. Swineford

1984-01-01

431

PCB and DDE residues in milk supplies of Ontario, Canada 1985-1986  

SciTech Connect

Concerns on the presence of PCB's in milk have arisen because of spills of these industrial chemicals on roads, around storage sites, and because of their presence in waste oils used to treat gravel roads with up to 25 ppm being allowed up to 1970 and 5 ppm up to 1984. The possibility of the spread of PCB into water supplies of rural areas of the province has been a constant concern and the presence of PCB in bovine milk serves as a reliable indicator of the degree of contamination. Milk supplies in Southern Ontario have been monitored for PCB and DDE since 1970-71. In 1985-86 the monitoring program was extended to include all regions of the province where milk is produced in order to further assess the incidence, levels, and trends of PCB in the provincial milk supply.

Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1989-05-01

432

Sulfate conjugates are urinary markers of inhalation exposure to 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3)  

PubMed Central

PCBs are contaminants in the air of older buildings and cities, which raises the concern of inhalation exposure. No reliable biomarker of such exposure is available. We exposed rats to air containing 2 mg/m3 PCB3 via nose-only inhalation for 2 h, collected urine, and analyzed it by LC/MS. Each rat inhaled an estimated dose of 35 ?g PCB3, and excreted 27±2 % of it as sulfates within 24 h. Peak excretion occurred within 6 h. PCB sulfates were stable in urine for at least three days at room temperature without chemical preservatives. These data support the use of PCB sulfate conjugates as suitable urinary biomarkers of PCB3 and other airborne PCBs. PMID:23713983

Dhakal, Kiran; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.

2013-01-01

433

Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013  

SciTech Connect

The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

no name on report

2014-06-01

434

Automated shape annotation for illicit tablet preparations: a contour angle based classification from digital images.  

PubMed

In order to facilitate forensic intelligence efforts in managing large collections of physical feature data pertaining to illicit tablets, we have developed an automated shape classification method. This approach performs categorical shape annotation for the domain of illicit tablets. It is invariant to scale, rotation and translation and operates on digital images of seized tablets. The approach employs two processing levels. The first (coarse) level is being based on comparing the contour curvature space of tablet pairs. The second (fine) level is a rule based approach, implemented as a classification tree, that exploits characteristic similarities of shape categories. Annotation is demonstrated over a collection of 169 tablets selected for their diverse shapes with an accuracy of 97.6% when 19 shape categories are defined. PMID:23380064

Lopatka, Martin; van Houten, Wiger

2013-03-01

435

Treatment for hepatitis C virus and cannabis use in illicit drug user patients: implications and questions.  

PubMed

Illicit drug users are the primary risk group for HCV transmission, and will form the largest HCV treatment population for years to come. Sylvestre et al.'s study suggests that cannabis use may benefit treatment retention and outcomes in illicit drug users undergoing HCV treatment. In fact, there is substantial evidence that cannabis use may help address key challenges faced by drug users in HCV treatment (e.g., nausea, depression), especially when such treatment occurs in the context of methadone maintenance treatment which may amplify these consequences. While further research is required on the biological and clinical aspects of the benefits of cannabis use for HCV treatment, and the effectiveness of cannabis use for HCV treatment needs to be explored in larger study populations, we advocate that in the interim existing barriers to cannabis use are removed for drug users undergoing HCV treatment until the conclusive empirical basis for evidence-based guidance is available. PMID:16957507

Fischer, Benedikt; Reimer, Jens; Firestone, Michelle; Kalousek, Kate; Rehm, Juergen; Heathcote, Jenny

2006-10-01

436

Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.  

PubMed

Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

2011-10-10

437

Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638

Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

2014-04-21

438

The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

2010-04-01

439

Mastering the art of plutonium pit production to ensure national security  

E-print Network

- 1 - Mastering the art of plutonium pit production to ensure national security April 24, 2012 #12 Flats Plant near Denver, Colo. where pits were manufactured from 1952 to 1989. Plutonium Facility 4, the Laboratory delivered its first production pit, sometimes called "War Reserve," it was the first pit

440

Real-time methods for non-destructive detection of pits in fresh cherries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

441

Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth.  

PubMed

In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

Turnbull, Alan

2014-09-01

442

Prescription drug misuse, illicit drug use, and their potential risk and protective correlates in a Hispanic college student sample.  

PubMed

Illicit substance use has increased in Hispanics. Recent trends also warrant focus on prescription drug misuse, given its increased prevalence among college students. The aims of this study were to assess prescription drug misuse and illicit drug use in Hispanic students, as well as potential theoretically and empirically based risk and protective factors. Hispanic students (n = 435; 59% female) from a U.S. university located on the border with México completed a sociodemographic survey, licit, illicit, and prescription drug use frequency questionnaires, an attitudes and beliefs about prescription drugs survey, the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales, the Collectivist Coping Styles Measure, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. A hierarchical logistic regression assessed prescription drug misuse predictors including demographics, licit/illicit substance use, attitudes toward prescription drug use, acculturation, distress symptoms, coping style, perceived social support, and the interaction between distress symptoms and acculturation. A negative binomial regression assessed predictors of past 30-day illegal drug use (the same predictors as the previous model except illicit drug use). Results indicated that positive attitudes toward prescription drugs, higher anxiety, and lower depressive symptomatology increased the odds of prescription drug misuse. Past 30-day alcohol use, positive attitudes toward prescription drugs, and higher acculturation predicted past 30-day illicit drug use. Prescription drug misuse was differentially associated with distress symptoms, whereas the convergence model of acculturation was supported regarding illegal drug use. Inconsistent with hypotheses, protective factors were not significantly associated with substance use. PMID:23750694

Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V; Taylor, Thom

2013-06-01

443

Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the ‘North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health’ Programme  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. Methods ‘Mixed methods’ research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1?year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Results Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. Conclusions A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. PMID:23958644

McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

2014-01-01

444

Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs: state of the art, potential and research needs.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary conference on this topic was recently organized to present the epidemiological knowledge of patterns in drug use and the information obtained from wastewater analysis. This paper gives an overview of the main issues that emerged during the conference, focusing on the identified research gaps and requirements and on the future challenges and opportunities from bringing together wastewater analysis and drug epidemiology. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) uses an established multi-indicator system to monitor illicit drug use and to identify the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The methodological challenges of monitoring a hidden and stigmatized behavior like drug use include the limitations of self-report data and reporting delays. An increasing evidence base suggests that wastewater analysis can address some of these problems. Specifically this technique can: monitor temporal and spatial trends in drug use at different scales, provide updated estimates of drug use, and identify changing habits and the use of new substances. A best practice protocol developed by a Europe-wide network of experts is available to produce homogeneous and comparable data at different sites. The systematic evaluation of uncertainties related to wastewater analysis has highlighted which areas require careful control and those that need further investigation to generally improve the approach. Wastewater analysis has considerable potential to complement existing approaches for monitoring drug use due to its ability to produce objective, real-time estimates of drug use and to give timely information of any change in the patterns of use. PMID:24963530

Castiglioni, Sara; Thomas, Kevin V; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Vandam, Liesbeth; Griffiths, Paul

2014-07-15

445

Alcohol, illicit drugs and medicinal drugs in fatally injured drivers in Spain between 1991and 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the presence of alcohol, illicit drugs and medicinal drugs among Spanish drivers involved in fatal road accidents between 1991 and 2000. Samples were obtained for 5745 drivers killed in road accidents from January 1991 to December 2000. Of the samples, 91.7% represented males and 8.3% females; 40.7% were under 30 years of

M Carmen del R??o; Josefina Gómez; Manuel Sancho; F. Javier Alvarez

2002-01-01

446

Use of illicit stimulant drugs in Finland: a wastewater study in ten major cities.  

PubMed

Estimations of drug use at the national level are generally based on various sources of information, such as drug seizures, socio-scientific studies, toxicological data and hospital records. Nevertheless, all of these approaches have limitations that cannot be overcome, even if conclusions are drawn from combined data retrieved from different sources. Drug epidemiology through wastewater analysis has the potential to provide unique perspectives, internationally comparable data, and up-to-date information on the use of both traditional illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPSs). In Finland, no large-scale studies on regional illicit drug consumption, based on a wastewater approach, have been reported. In this study, 24-h influent composite samples were collected during two 1-week study periods from ten different wastewater treatment plants in May and November-December 2012. The cities included in the study represent the geographical areas throughout Finland and cover 40% of the Finnish population. The samples were analyzed with an in-house validated, ultra high-performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for various common illicit drugs and some NPS type stimulant drugs. The results were also compared with available statistics, information on drug seizures and laboratory-confirmed toxicological data, as well as other studies available based on wastewater analysis. The data show that illicit stimulant drug use is more common in the larger cities of Southern Finland. Amphetamine was the most commonly used drug in all 10 cities during both collection periods (excluding the collection period in May in Lappeenranta). Cocaine consumption remains very low in Finland in comparison to other European countries; it was concentrated in the biggest cities in Southern Finland. This study shows interesting temporal and spatial differences in drug use in Finland, as well as the possibilities of using wastewater analytics to reveal local hotspots of NPS consumption. PMID:24331163

Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

2014-07-15

447

Predominance of Illicit Drugs and Poly-Drug Use Among Drug-Impaired Drivers in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. After Sweden's zero-tolerance law came into force (1 July 1999), the number of cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) submitted by the police for toxicological analysis increased more than 10-fold. This prompted an in-depth investigation into the kinds of drugs used by DUID offenders, whether licit or illicit, and the frequency of their occurrence.Methods. All blood

Anita Holmgren; Per Holmgren; Fredrik C. Kugelberg; A. Wayne Jones; Johan Ahlner

2007-01-01

448

Association Between Contraband Tobacco and Illicit Drug Use Among High School Students in Canada.  

PubMed

A particularly challenging issue to tobacco cessation efforts is the availability of contraband cigarettes. While studies have linked contraband tobacco to smoking initiation and poor cessation outcomes, little is known about its association with illicit drug use among adolescents. We examine the association between contraband tobacco and illicit drug use among adolescent students using a national representative sample of 2,136 current smoker students in grades 9-12 from the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 31 % of adolescent current smokers in grades 9-12 use contraband cigarettes. Prevalence in the use of illicit drugs ranged from 9 to 37 %, with MDMA being the most commonly used drug. Adjusted logistic regression revealed that smokers of contraband cigarettes, when compared with non-contraband cigarette smokers, were more likely to use cocaine (OR 2.14; CI 1.29-3.56), heroin (OR 7.92; CI 3.00-20.91), amphetamines (OR 4.25; CI 2.07-8.74), MDMA (OR 2.00; CI 1.25-3.19), hallucinogens (OR 2.18; CI 1.34-3.55), and ketamine (OR 3.48; CI 1.61-7.54). This paper adds to the existing evidence of the negative effects of contraband tobacco by showing that adolescent contraband smokers are more likely to use illicit drugs. Given the addictive nature of these drugs and the potential for such behavior to spill over into adulthood, more efforts should be invested in addressing this problem. PMID:25367805

Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F; Hammond, David

2014-11-01

449

Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health  

PubMed Central

Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

2013-01-01

450

The Role of Illicit Drug Use in Sudden In-Custody Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial portion of all the deaths reviewed by medical examiners and coroners relates to the use of cocaine and other\\u000a illicit drugs (1). Not surprisingly, because of the illegality of these substances, many of these individuals die while in the custody of\\u000a law enforcement. In fact, forensic pathologists have often divided these drug-related custody deaths into four different categories:

Aaron B. Schneir; Richard F. Clark

451

Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

2014-01-01

452

Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.  

PubMed

We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior. PMID:24954559

Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

2014-09-15

453

The Fate of Inhaled 14C-labelled PCB11 and its Metabolites In Vivo1  

PubMed Central

Background The production ban of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) technical mixtures has left the erroneous impression that PCBs exist only as legacy pollutants. Some lower-chlorinated PCBs are still being produced and contaminate both indoor and ambient air. Objectives To inform PCB risk assessment, we characterized lung uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PCB11 as a signature compound for these airborne non-legacy PCBs. Methods After delivering [14C]PCB11 to the lungs of male rats, radioactivity in 34 major tissues and 5 digestive matter compartments was measured at 12, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 720 min postexposure, during which time the excreta and exhaled air were also collected. [14C]PCB11 and metabolites in liver, blood, digestive matter, urine and adipose tissues were extracted separately to establish the metabolic profile of the disposition. Results [14C]PCB11 was distributed rapidly to all tissues after 99.8% pulmonary uptake and quickly underwent extensive metabolism. The major tissue deposition of [14C]PCB11 and metabolites translocated from liver, blood and muscle to skin and adipose tissue 200 min postexposure, while over 50% of administered dose was discharged via urine and feces within 12 h. Elimination of the [14C]PCB11 and metabolites consisted of an initial fast phase (t½ = 9-33 min) and a slower clearance phase to low concentrations. Phase II metabolites dominated in liver, blood and excreta after 25 min postexposure. Conclusions This study shows that PCB11 is completely absorbed after inhalation exposure and is rapidly eliminated from most tissues. Phase II metabolites dominated with a slower elimination rate than the PCB11 or phase I metabolites and thus can best serve as urine biomarkers of exposure. PMID:24275706

Hu, Xin; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S.

2014-01-01

454

Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses. PMID:24024972

Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

2013-10-15

455

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

2011-01-01

456

Natural attenuation of pharmaceuticals and an illicit drug in a laboratory column experiment.  

PubMed

Trace amounts of pharmaceutical compounds have been detected in waters across the United States. Many compounds are released as the result of human ingestion and subsequent excretion of over-the-counter and prescription medications, and illicit drugs. This research utilized columns (30×30cm) of sand and undisturbed fine-grained sediments to simulate injection of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals and an illicit drug, such as would be found in a septic system, leaky sewer, or landfill. The columns were placed in a temperature-controlled laboratory and each was injected with natural groundwater containing known concentrations of caffeine, methamphetamine, and acetaminophen. Natural attenuation of each chemical was observed in all columns. The highest amount removed (approximately 90%) occurred in the undisturbed column injected with methamphetamine, compared with little reduction in the sand column. When the suite of drugs was injected, loss of methamphetamine was less than when methamphetamine was injected alone. The subsurface sediments exhibit the ability to remove a substantial amount of the injected pharmaceuticals and illicit drug; however, complete removal was not achieved. There was little attenuation of injected pharmaceuticals in the sand column which demonstrates a concern for water quality in the environment if pharmaceuticals were to contaminate a sandy aquifer. Understanding the transport of pharmaceuticals in the subsurface environment is an important component of protecting drinking water supplies from contamination. PMID:24594486

Greenhagen, Andrew M; Lenczewski, Melissa E; Carroll, Monica

2014-11-01

457

Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Illicit Drug Use and Health Services Utilization  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the relationships between illicit drug use and three types of health services utilization: emergency room utilization, hospitalization, and medical attention required due to injury(s). Data Waves 1 and 2 (11,253 males and 13,059 females) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Study Design We derive benchmark estimates by employing standard cross-sectional data models to pooled waves of NESARC data. To control for potential bias due to time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity, we reestimate the relationships with fixed-effects models. Principal Findings The cross-sectional data models suggest that illicit drug use is positively and significantly related to health services utilization in almost all specifications. Conversely, the only significant (p<.05) relationships in the fixed-effects models are the odds of receiving medical attention for an injury and the number of injuries requiring medical attention for men, and the number of times hospitalized for men and women. Conclusions Failing to control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity could lead to biased coefficients when estimating the effects of illicit drug use on health services utilization. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between types of drug user (casual versus heavy) and estimate gender-specific models. PMID:21143479

French, Michael T; Fang, Hai; Balsa, Ana I

2011-01-01

458

Effects of sewer conditions on the degradation of selected illicit drug residues in wastewater.  

PubMed

The stability of five illicit drug markers in wastewater was tested under different sewer conditions using laboratory-scale sewer reactors. Wastewater was spiked with deuterium labelled isotopes of cocaine, benzoyl ecgonine, methamphetamine, MDMA and 6-acetyl morphine to avoid interference from the native isotopes already present in the wastewater matrix. The sewer reactors were operated at 20 °C and pH 7.5, and wastewater was sampled at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h to measure the transformation/degradation of these marker compounds. The results showed that while methamphetamine, MDMA and benzoyl ecgonine were stable in the sewer reactors, cocaine and 6-acetyl morphine degraded quickly. Their degradation rates are significantly higher than the values reportedly measured in wastewater alone (without biofilms). All the degradation processes followed first order kinetics. Benzoyl ecgonine and morphine were also formed from the degradation of cocaine and 6-acetyl morphine, respectively, with stable formation rates throughout the test. These findings suggest that, in sewage epidemiology, it is essential to have relevant information of the sewer system (i.e. type of sewer, hydraulic retention time) in order to accurately back-estimate the consumption of illicit drugs. More research is required to look into detailed sewer conditions (e.g. temperature, pH and ratio of biofilm area to wastewater volume among others) to identify their effects on the fate of illicit drug markers in sewer systems. PMID:24169511

Thai, Phong K; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lai, Foon Yin; Mueller, Jochen F

2014-01-01

459

Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

2014-01-01

460

Stigmatization of Illicit Drug Use among Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training1  

PubMed Central

Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525

Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Negrón, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintrón; Rivera, Souhail Malavé

2010-01-01

461

A New Player in Environmentally Induced Oxidative Stress: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener, 3,3?-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11)  

PubMed Central

Recent analysis of air samples from Chicago and Lake Michigan areas observed a ubiquitous airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3?-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Our analysis of serum samples also revealed the existence of hydroxylated metabolites of PCB11 in human blood. Because PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to induce oxidative stress, this study sought to determine whether environmental exposure to PCB11 and its 4-hydroxyl metabolite could induce alterations in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). This study also examines if antioxidants could protect the cells from PCB11-induced cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing RWPE-1 cells were exposed to PCB11 and its metabolite, 3,3?-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB11), as well as an airborne PCB mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile, every day for 5 days. Results showed that 4-OH-PCB11 could significantly induce cell growth suppression and decrease the viability and plating efficiency of RWPE-1 cells. 4-OH-PCB11 also significantly increased steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide, O2 •?, as well as hydroperoxides. Finally, treatment with the combination of polyethylene glycol–conjugated CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase added 1h after 4-OH-PCB11 exposures, significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from PCB toxicity. The results strongly support the hypothesis that exposure to a hydroxylated metabolite of PCB11 can inhibit cell proliferation and cause cytotoxicity by increasing steady-state levels of ROS. Furthermore, antioxidant treatments following PCBs exposure could significantly mitigate the PCB-induced cytotoxicity in exponentially growing human prostate epithelial cells. PMID:23997111

Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

2013-01-01

462

Annotated Bibliography of Selected References on PCB and the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site, Michigan, 1982-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty six publications pertaining to the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site Publications stored in the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Environmental Response Division site files are summarized. Publications are presented chronologically within four categories: PCB releases, PCB remediation, PCB safety, and PCB testing and cleanup. The text consists of bibliographical information and brief summaries of various published documents pertaining to PCB contamination of the Kalamazoo River. Numerous investigators such as the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Pacific, and various contractors have demonstrated that multiple and at times continuous releases and re-releases of PCBs have occurred as a result of operations at papermill facilities owned and operated by the 'Potential Responsible Parties'.

Simard, Andreanne

2003-01-01

463

2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes  

PubMed Central

Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of PCBs and their metabolites in wildlife and humans are due to metabolism by P450 enzymes, but also suggest that the enantioselective formation of neurotoxic PCB 136 metabolites, such as 4-OH-PCB 136, may play a role in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs. PMID:22026639

Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

2011-01-01

464

The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls in yellow pigment products in China with emphasis on 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).  

PubMed

A non-Aroclor PCB congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has recently attracted wide concerns because of its environmental ubiquity and specific sources potentially associated with yellow pigment production. In order to investigate PCB 11 and other PCBs in the yellow pigment products, 24 yellow pigment samples were collected from three different manufacturing plants in China. ?20PCBs and PCB 11 were in the range of 50.7-9.19×10(5) ng g(-1) and 41.7-9.18×10(5) ng g(-1), respectively, which was much higher than those reported in previous study. The corresponding TEQ values ranged between 0.16 and 4.21×10(3) ng WHO2005-TEQ kg(-1). The contribution of PCB 11 to ?20PCBs reached up to 85.5% (median value) followed by PCB 28, PCB 77, and PCB 52 with contributions of 10.5%, 6.70%, and 5.40%, respectively. Significant differences were observed for PCB 11 concentrations among the different types of yellow pigment from the same plant and among the same sample types from different plants. The PCB 11 concentrations in diarylide yellow pigments produced from 3,3'-dichlorbenzidine were the highest in all the samples. It demonstrates that yellow pigment is a significant source not only for the widespread pollution of PCB 11 but also for other PCBs, especially for the lower chlorinated congeners. PMID:24231041

Shang, Hongtao; Li, Yingming; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

2014-03-01

465

Discovery and epidemiology of PCB poisoning in Taiwan: a four-year followup  

SciTech Connect

An outbreak of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning from the consumption of contaminated rice oil, covering four counties in central Taiwan, was investigated. There were 1843 cases by the end of 1980. The highest frequency of incidence occurred during the period from March to July 1979. The severity of clinical manifestations varied. Most patients showed symptoms of mild or moderate severity. The major age group affected was between 11 and 20 years old. Most of the victims were students and factor workers. The amount of PCB intake in each victim was estimated to be 0.7 to 1.84 g and the latent period from the time of intake to the onset of clinical manifestations was approximately 3 to 4 months. The patients blood PCB concentrations ranged from 3 ppb to 1156 ppb; 44.27% of 613 patients had levels of 51 to 100 ppb and 27.6% PCB blood levels over 100 ppb. In the course of 3.5 years, 2061 persons were determined to be PCB poisoning victims. Now, except for a few severe cases, their skin symptoms are very much improved. Thirty-nine babies showing hyperpigmentation were born from PCB-poisoned mothers. The fatality rate was high: eight of them died. Another 24 deaths were reported among the PCB-poisoned group, almost half of them (12) from hepatoma, liver cirrhosis or liver diseases with hepatomegaly.

Hsu, S.T.; Ma, C.I.; Hsu, S.K.H.; Wu, S.S.; Hsu, N.H.M.; Yeh, C.C.; Wu, S.B.

1985-02-01

466

Locating and quantifying PCB sources in Chicago: receptor modeling and field sampling.  

PubMed

Potential source contribution function (PSCF) modeling using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations measured in the Chicago area resolved three PCB source sectors. They were (i) the direction northwest of Chicago, (ii) the direction southwest of Chicago, and (iii) the south side of Chicago in the neighborhood of Lake Calumet. The area south of Chicago was further examined by taking upwind/ downwind samples near a landfill and sludge drying beds. Results identified the sludge drying beds and a large landfill as PCB sources to the atmosphere. Another PCB source identified in Chicago was a transformer storage yard. This site had the highest upwind/downwind concentration increments in this study (downwind PCB concentrations were more than 5 times those in the upwind air). These PCB sources were characterized in terms of inventories, emission rates, contributions, and PCB congener profiles (fingerprints). Preliminarily results indicate that the sludge may emit up to 90 kg/yr of PCBs to the air. This amount is probably not a significant contribution of PCBs to the Chicago atmosphere on the basis of dispersion modeling results and a simple box model. PMID:12636265

Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Holsen, Thomas M; Hopke, Philip K

2003-02-15

467

An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization  

SciTech Connect

These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

1990-12-31

468

Infant Birth Outcomes Among Substance Using Women: Why Quitting Smoking During Pregnancy is Just as Important as Quitting Illicit Drug Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor birth outcomes are associated with illicit drug use during pregnancy. While prenatal cigarette exposure has similar effects,\\u000a cessation of illicit drug use during pregnancy is often prioritized over cessation of smoking. The study goal was to examine\\u000a the impact of pregnancy tobacco use, relative to use of illicit drugs, on birth outcomes. Women were recruited at entry to\\u000a prenatal

Beth A. Bailey; Judy G. McCook; Alexis Hodge; Lana McGrady

469

Levels and gas chromatographic patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in the blood of patients after PCB poisoning in Taiwan  

SciTech Connect

In March 1979, an epidemic of a peculiar skin disease was reported in Taichung and Changhwa of the central Taiwan. In October, the cause of the disease was identified to be the ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). At the end of April 1980, the victims numbered 1900. The magnitude of this PCB poisoning is likely to surpass a similar mass outbreak of Yusho in Japan in 1968. Since December 1979, we have been engaged in the analysis of PCB levels in the blood of these PCB-intoxicated patients. We have been using both GC/MS and ECD-Gas Chromatograpy for the quantification of PCB levels in the blood of patients. We report here the blood PCB levels of sixty-six patients determined by ECD-Gas Chromatography. Quantification of PCB residues by GC/MS method will be published elsewhere.

Chen, P.H. (National Yang Ming Medical Coll., Taipei, Taiwan); Gaw, J.M.; Wong, C.K.; Chen, C.J.

1980-08-01

470

Enhancing dissipation of aroclor 1248 (PCB) using substrate amendment in rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Soils contaminated in the laboratory with Aroclor 1248 (PCB) were amended with biphenyl and plant residues that are known to induce PCB degradation, and planted with crops that inherently stimulated PCB dissipation in a previous study to determine if the combination of soil amendment and planting could further enhance PCB dissipation beyond that shown by planting alone. The plants used were flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha). They were grown in laboratory microcosms at a 12h photoperiod in soil containing 50mg/kg PCB. Portions of soil were amended with biphenyl (1,000 mg/kg), ground pine needles, or orange peels (2% w/w), and a portion was left unamended to serve as control. After nearly 100d, PCB recoveries ranged from 69% of initial applications in unplanted soil to 65, 59 and 55% of initial levels in soils that were unamended but planted with flat pea, reed canarygrass and burr medic respectively. PCB recoveries in soils that were amended, but left unplanted ranged from 59% of initial applications in pine needle amended-soil to 48 and 45% in biphenyl- and orange peel-amended soils respectively. Combinations of soil amendment and planting enhanced PCB dissipation in soil compared to planting alone, except the combination of biphenyl amendment and planting with burr medic, where the soil still contained nearly 80% of the initial PCB additions after about 100 d. Estimates of bacterial populations were generally slightly to significantly higher in orange peel and biphenyl-amended soil than in unamended soil, except in biphenyl-amended soil that was planted with burr medic, where bacterial counts were significantly lower than in most of the other treatment combinations. PMID:11759901

Dzantor, E K; Woolston, J E

2001-01-01

471

Remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments, in Lake Jaernsjoen, River Emaan, Sweden -- Method and Results  

SciTech Connect

Lake Jaernsjoen is a small lake in the Emaan river system which is considered to be one of the most valuable watercourses in Sweden. The content of PCB in the sediments of Jaernsjoen was estimated at about 400 kg and was the most important source for spreading of PCB in River Emaan. Remediation of the contaminated sediments took place during 1993 and 1994. It was carried out using a horizontal auger suction dredger. During dredging, the area with the most contaminated sediments was closed off by a silt curtain in order to protect River Emaan from release of suspended solids and PCB. Of the contracted amount PCB (399.2 kg) 98.6% (393.8 kg) was dredged and disposed on a landfill close to the lake. From the mechanical dewatering plant 0.05% (0.2 kg) PCB was discharged to the lake. The total amount PCB spread from the lake during the remediation period, including leakage from the sediment, was 0.7% (2.8 kg). The major transport of PCB occurred during springflood. Highest concentrations of PCB in water were found inside the enclosed part of the lake, 134 ng/l, and in discharge from the dewatering plant, 1,380 ng/l. In River Emaan downstream Lake Jaernsjoen the highest recorded concentration was 30.2 ng/l during remediation, but generally concentrations were considerably lower. Turbidity, suspended solids and PCB were measured to certify that the claims that were laid in the contract for the work and from authorities were fulfilled. Comparisons between monitoring stations upstream and downstream Lake Jaernsjoen show that the remediation have not influenced the River Emaan negatively. In parallel with the environmental monitoring, effect studies on fauna have been carried out.

Helgee, A. [Municipality of Hultsfred (Sweden); Troedsson, B. [Municipality of Vetlanda (Sweden); Bremle, G.; Larsson, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Hammar, T.

1995-12-31

472

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) diminishes the severity of PCB 126 – induced fatty liver in male rodents  

PubMed Central

Potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists like PCB 126 (3,3?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) cause oxidative stress and liver pathology, including fatty liver. Our question was whether dietary supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, can prevent these adverse changes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard AIN-93G diet (sufficient in cysteine) or a modified diet supplemented with 1.0% NAC. After one week, rats on each diet were exposed to 0, 1, or 5 ?mol/kg body weight PCB 126 by ip injection (6 rats per group) and euthanized two weeks later. PCB-treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in growth, feed consumption, relative thymus weight, total glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), while relative liver weight, glutathione transferase activity and hepatic lipid content were dose-dependently increased with PCB dose. Histologic examination of liver tissue showed PCB 126-induced hepatocellular steatosis with dose dependent increase in lipid deposition and distribution. Dietary NAC resulted in a reduction in hepatocellular lipid in both PCB groups. This effect was confirmed by gravimetric analysis of extracted lipids. Expression of CD36, a scavenger receptor involved in regulating hepatic fatty acid uptake, was reduced with high dose PCB treatment but unaltered in PCB-treated rats on NAC-supplemented diet. These results demonstrate that NAC has a protective effect against hepatic lipid accumulation in rats exposed to PCB 126. The mechanism of this protective effect appears to be independent of NAC as a source of cysteine/precursor of glutathione. PMID:22824115

Lai, Ian K.; Dhakal, Kiran; Gadupudi, Gopi S; Li, Miao; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Olivier, Alicia K.

2012-01-01

473

Is the Relationship between Prenatal Exposure to PCB-153 and Decreased Birth Weight Attributable to Pharmacokinetics?  

PubMed Central

Background: A recent meta-analysis based on data from > 7,000 pregnancies reported an association between prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)–153 exposure and reduced birth weight. Gestational weight gain, which is associated negatively with PCB levels in maternal and cord blood, and positively with birth weight, could substantially confound this association. Objective: We sought to estimate the influence of gestational weight gain on the association between PCB-153 exposure and birth weight using a pharmacokinetic model. Methods: We modified a recently published pharmacokinetic model and ran Monte Carlo simulations accounting for variability in physiologic parameters and their correlations. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic model by comparing simulated plasma PCB-153 levels during pregnancy to serial measurements in 10 pregnant women from another study population. We estimated the association between simulated plasma PCB-153 levels and birth weight using linear regression models. Results: The plasma PCB-153 level profiles generated with the pharmacokinetic model were comparable to measured levels in 10 pregnant women. We estimated a 118-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: –129, –106 g) for each 1-?g/L increase in simulated cord plasma PCB-153, compared with the 150-g decrease estimated based on the previous meta-analysis. The estimated decrease in birth weight was reduced to –6 g (95% CI: –18, 6 g) when adjusted for simulated gestational weight gain. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that associations previously noted between PCB levels and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by maternal weight gain during pregnancy. Citation: Verner MA, McDougall R, Glynn A, Andersen ME, Clewell HJ III, Longnecker MP. 2013. Is the relationship between prenatal exposure to PCB-153 and decreased birth weight attributable to pharmacokinetics? Environ Health Perspect 121:1219–1224;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206457 PMID:23934733

McDougall, Robin; Glynn, Anders; Andersen, Melvin E.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2013-01-01

474

Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis--part II. Study of particle size and its influence on mass reduction.  

PubMed

The basic goal in sampling for the quantitative analysis of illicit drugs is to maintain the average concentration of the drug in the material from its original seized state (the primary sample) all the way through to the analytical sample, where the effect of particle size is most critical. The size of the largest particles of different authentic illicit drug materials, in their original state and after homogenisation, using manual or mechanical procedures, was measured using a microscope with a camera attachment. The comminution methods employed included pestle and mortar (manual) and various ball and knife mills (mechanical). The drugs investigated were amphetamine, heroin, cocaine and herbal cannabis. It was shown that comminution of illicit drug materials using these techniques reduces the nominal particle size from approximately 600 ?m down to between 200 and 300 ?m. It was demonstrated that the choice of 1 g increments for the primary samples of powdered drugs and cannabis resin, which were used in the heterogeneity part of our study (Part I) was correct for the routine quantitative analysis of illicit seized drugs. For herbal cannabis we found that the appropriate increment size was larger. Based on the results of this study we can generally state that: An analytical sample weight of between 20 and 35 mg of an illicit powdered drug, with an assumed purity of 5% or higher, would be considered appropriate and would generate an RSDsampling in the same region as the RSDanalysis for a typical quantitative method of analysis for the most common, powdered, illicit drugs. For herbal cannabis, with an assumed purity of 1% THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) or higher, an analytical sample weight of approximately 200 mg would be appropriate. In Part III we will pull together our homogeneity studies and particle size investigations and use them to devise sampling plans and sample preparations suitable for the quantitative instrumental analysis of the most common illicit drugs. PMID:24100198

Bovens, M; Csesztregi, T; Franc, A; Nagy, J; Dujourdy, L

2014-01-01

475

Prenatal PCB exposure, the corpus callosum, and response inhibition.  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the corpus callosum, and response inhibition in children who are 4.5 years old. Children (n = 189) enrolled in the Oswego study were tested using a continuous performance test. We measured (square millimeters) the splenium of the corpus callosum, a pathway implicated in the regulation of response inhibition, using magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicated a dose-dependent association between cord blood PCBs and errors of commission. Splenium size but not other brain areas predicted errors of commission (r(2) = 0.20), with smaller size associated with more errors of commission. There was an interaction between splenium size and PCB exposure. The smaller the splenium, the larger the association between PCBs and errors of commission. If the association between PCBs and response inhibition is indeed causal, then children with suboptimal development of the splenium are particularly vulnerable to these effects. These data await replication. PMID:14527849

Stewart, Paul; Fitzgerald, Susan; Reihman, Jacqueline; Gump, Brooks; Lonky, Edward; Darvill, Thomas; Pagano, Jim; Hauser, Peter

2003-01-01

476

ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

2011-01-01

477

Endocrine Disruption of Brain Sexual Differentiation by Developmental PCB Exposure  

PubMed Central

In mammals, sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus occurs during prenatal and early postnatal development due in large part to sex differences in hormones. These early organizational processes are critically important for the attainment and maintenance of adult reproductive functions. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that disrupt hormonal pathways would perturb reproductive maturation and the sexually dimorphic de