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1

Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington  

SciTech Connect

PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

2001-01-10

2

Pitted Keratolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pitted keratolysis is a disease characterized by asymptomatic pits of the stratum corneum. The causative agent is a filamentous organism which has been identified as corynebacterium species. The disease developed in 53% of 387 volunteers whose feet were c...

K. A. Gill L. J. Buckels

1968-01-01

3

The PCB mark  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

4

Optic Nerve Pit  

MedlinePLUS

... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

5

Impurities in illicit amphetamine: review.  

PubMed

The paper reviews the most common synthesis of amphetamines which may be found in illicit traffic. Emphasis is laid on the detection, isolation and identification of impurities in illicit amphetamines through gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. The latter method was also used for isolation purposes. Impurities were identified by mass spectral and NMR spectroscopic methods and relevant data are presented. PMID:7039749

Sinnema, A; Verweij, A M

1981-01-01

6

ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND  

PubMed Central

The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance.

Pavananunt, Pirudee

2012-01-01

7

PCB storage requirements  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

8

Pitted keratolysis.  

PubMed

Background : Pitted keratolysis is a bacterial infection that affects the plantar epidermis. Despite the condition being reported in many countries affecting both shod and unshod populations, there is little guidance for clinicians providing evidence or best practice guidelines on the management of this often stubborn infection. Methods : Using a structured search of a range of databases, papers were identified that reported treatments tested on patients with the condition. Results : Most of the literature uncovered was generally of a low level, such as case-based reporting or small case series. Studies were focused mainly on the use of topical antibiotic agents, such as clindamycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, and mupirocin, often in combination with other measures, such as hygiene advice and the use of antiperspirants. From the limited evidence available, the use of topical antibiotic agents shows some efficacy in the treatment of pitted keratolysis. However, there is currently no suggestion that oral antibiotic drug therapy alone is effective in managing the condition. Conclusions : Currently, there is no consensus on the most effective approach to managing pitted keratolysis, but a combination of antimicrobial agents and adjunctive measures, such as antiperspirants, seems to demonstrate the most effective approach from the current literature available. PMID:24725039

Bristow, Ivan R; Lee, Yong Leng H

2014-03-01

9

PCB recordkeeping and reporting  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

10

PCB biohalogenation under anaerobic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting research on the biodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) under anoxic conditions. Reductive dechlorination of PCB's has been observed in treatments inoculated with Hudson River sediments. Differences in gas chromatograms between time 0 and 4-month incubations indicate pattern shifts of the PCB homologs that constitute Aroclor 1242 from highly chlorinated to lesser chlorinated congeners. Changes in distribution patterns of PCB homologs were also evident. PCB homologs containing 4, 5, 6, and 7 chlorine atoms were shown to decrease over the incubation period, whereas PCB homologs containing 2 and 3 chlorines increased in concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Gauger, W.K.; McCue, J.J.

1990-01-01

11

PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

Not Available

1989-03-01

12

Pitting corrosion of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the experiments performed during the last few decades which enhance knowledge of the pitting of aluminum. Specifically, metastable and stable pits, pit chemistry and the effect of intermetallics on pitting are discussed. The properties of metastable alloys and inhibition of Al are also discussed.

Z Szklarska-Smialowska

1999-01-01

13

To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking  

SciTech Connect

The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling. In most cases, sellers do not find legitimate buyers; however, there have been specific cases where sellers did find actual terrorist group representatives. There appears to be a connection between terrorist groups engaged in trafficking conventional arms and explosives components that are also looking for both nuclear materials and radioisotopes. Sale opportunities may create additional demand for such materials. As we can observe from Figure 1, many cases in the mid-90s involved kilogram quantities of material. There were smaller amounts of material moved in 2001, 2003 and 2006. While we have seen less trafficking cases involving PujHEU in recent years, the fact that it continues at all is troubling. The trafficking cases can be presented through their life cycle: Diversion of materials leads to Trafficker and then to Terrorist/Proliferator. Most of the information we have in trafficking cases is on the Trafficker. In 16 cases reported by the IAEA, there are 10 prosecutions of the involved trafficker. However, there are no confirmed diversions of material recorded in any of the 18 seizures. Most seizures were sting operations performed by law enforcement or security agents with no actual illicit end-user involved.

Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

14

Martian Central Pit Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

2005-01-01

15

Different effects of PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153 alone or mixed in MCF7 breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent environmental contaminants that can be a potential health hazard. In the present study we analyzed the potential estrogenic effect in MCF-7 cells of four biologically relevant PCB congeners, alone or in mixtures, present in dairy products, vegetable oil and fish: PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153. The mixture of four PCB was tested at seven

Sonia Radice; Enzo Chiesara; Serena Fucile; Laura Marabini

2008-01-01

16

Martian Central Pit Craters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ('floor pits') as well as on top of central peaks ('summ...

E. Hillman N. G. Barlow

2005-01-01

17

Proceedings: 1991 EPRI PCB seminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1991 PCB seminar continued EPRI's series providing timely information and training on PCB regulation, research and management for utilities, regulators and contractors. The papers provided a broad mix ranging from fundamental research to capability for immediate commercial application. A new feature was the cooperation of the Gas Research Institute in planning the seminar. Subjects covered during the three and

Addis

1992-01-01

18

Proceedings: 1989 EPRI PCB seminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1989 PCB seminar continued EPRI's series providing timely information and training on PCB regulation, research and management for utilities, regulators and contractors. The papers provided a broad mix ranging from fundamental research to capability for immediate commercial application. A new feature was the session on problems of the gas utilities; Subjects covered during the three and one-half day meeting

Addis

1990-01-01

19

PCB technology used in fluxgate sensor construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, printed circuit board (PCB)-integrated inductors have been adapted for operation as fluxgate sensors. The ring core is made from electrodeposited permalloy sandwiched between the layers of the PCB. The sensor excitation winding is also integrated into the PCB design. The pick-up coil is wound around the frame with the PCB core. The sensor characteristics as a function

A. Tipek; P. Ripka; Terence O’Donnell; J. Kubik

2004-01-01

20

Teratogenic risks from exposure to illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Substance use is prevalent in the United States, especially in the reproductive age population. Even though a reduction in substance use may occur during pregnancy, some women may not alter their drug use patterns until at least pregnancy is confirmed. For these reasons, a large number of fetuses are exposed to illicit substances, including during critical stages of organogenesis. Associating illicit drug use with eventual pregnancy outcome is difficult. This article presents issues pertaining to limitations with published investigations about fetal risks and describes the most current information in humans about fetal effects from specific illicit substances. PMID:24845487

Holbrook, Bradley D; Rayburn, William F

2014-06-01

21

Current sensor in PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel DC\\/AC current sensor works on the fluxgate principle. The core in the form of a 7\\/10-mm ring made of electrodeposited permalloy is sandwiched in the middle of a printed circuit board (PCB), whereas the sensor excitation winding is also integrated in the copper layers of the PCB. To lower the sensor power consumption, the excitation winding was tuned

Pavel Ripka; Jan Kubik; Maeve Duffy; William Gerard Hurley; Stephen O'Reilly

2005-01-01

22

Disposal requirements for PCB waste  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

23

Weakly basic impurities in illicit amphetamine.  

PubMed

In this paper the isolation and identification of two pyrimidines, five pyridines, and one pyridone as impurities in illicit amphetamines prepared by the Leuckart synthesis are reported. Isolation was achieved by repeated thin-layer chromatography with various solvent mixtures, while identification was done by both high and low resolution mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Some chromatographic data are reported and a quantitative analysis of a reaction mixture and an illicit amphetamine is given. PMID:744993

van der Ark, A M; Verweij, A M; Sinnema, A

1978-10-01

24

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07

25

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s) (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

26

More PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) destruction methods developed  

SciTech Connect

New methods of eliminating PCB from electrical oils include SunOhio's PCBX procedure Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.'s process that uses sodium naphthalide to convert PCB's to sodium chloride and polyphenylene; Peerless Cement Co.'s soon-to-be-tested procedure for burning PCB-contaminated oils in cement kilns (the tests will use oil containing < 500 ppm PCB); and a procedure licensed by EOI from a Canadian firm.

Not Available

1980-09-22

27

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass

Dingfei Hu; Hans-Joachim Lehmler; Andres Martinez; Kai Wang; Keri C. Hornbuckle

2010-01-01

28

Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

With garbage and recycling as the only two disposal options, we confirm prior results that the optimal curbside fee for garbage collection equals the direct resource cost plus external environment cost. When illicit burning or dumping is a third disposal option that cannot be taxed directly, the optimal curbside tax on garbage changes sign. The optimal fee structure is a

Don Fullerton; Thomas C. Kinnaman

1995-01-01

29

Sources of prescription drugs for illicit use  

PubMed Central

Objectives This exploratory study investigated the sources of four classes of abusable prescription medications (sleeping, sedative/anxiety, stimulant, and pain medications) that were used illicitly by undergraduate students in the past year. The relationship between these sources and other substance use was examined. Methods In the spring of 2003, a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large public Midwestern research university is selected to self-administer a Web-based survey. Results The respondents identified 18 sources of prescription drugs that were classified into three broad categories: peer, family, and other sources. The majority of respondents who were illicit users obtained their prescription drugs from peer sources. Undergraduate students who obtained prescription medication from peer sources reported significantly higher rates of alcohol and other drug use than students who did not use prescription drugs illicitly or students who obtained prescription medication from family sources. Conclusions The findings of the present study offer strong evidence that undergraduate students obtain abusable prescription drugs from their peers. Greater prevention efforts are needed to reduce the illicit use and diversion of prescription medication.

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

2006-01-01

30

Lava Tube Collapse Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form.

These collapse pits are found in the southern hemisphere of Mars. They are likely lava tube collapse pits related to flows from Hadriaca Patera.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -36.8, Longitude 89.6 East (270.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

31

Snow Pit Stratigraphy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The student understands that snow leads to avalanches, but is often very inexperienced in the observation of the snow pack. This exercise provides the opportunity to learn about snow stratigraphy, observation, and measurement from a detailed observational perspective. The students work in small groups in 3-6 pits (depends on the class size). By working on a transect from the trees out into the opening, they discover (usually) that the snow depth is different and that the descriptions in the pits differ as one proceeds out from the trees into the opening. (Different stratigraphic units, different thickness, different temperature, different density, different crystals.)

Custer, Stephan

32

Swimming against the PCB tide  

SciTech Connect

Although no PCBs have been manufactured in the US and other industrialized countries for years, the chemicals are still very much with us; they are extremely long-lived. And only about 1% of the total PCBs produced have reached the oceans so far. PCBs and related organohalogens that have entered the oceans are making their way through the food chain into marine animals. As a result the animals are becoming more prone to a variety of ailments, including reproductive abnormalities and immune suppression that makes them more susceptible to disease. Unless something is done to prevent further contamination by organohalogens such as PCB, many species of ocean mammals might become extinct and some species of fish inedible. Several scientists officially launched a campaign to solicit funds for a 3-year research project aimed at determining just how serious PCB and other organohalogen problems are in the oceans.

Stone, R.

1992-02-14

33

PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1995-04-01

34

Recent PCB accidents in Finland.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accidents were recorded during a 1-year period in Finland. They comprised leaks, fires or explosions of capacitors. Some of the explosions and fires gave rise to high concentrations of PCBs in air and of PCBs and tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs), including 2,3,7,8-TCDF, on surfaces. One large explosion is described in detail, and biomedical data and findings of this case are compared with those of smaller accidents in Finland.

Elo, O; Vuojolahti, P; Janhunen, H; Rantanen, J

1985-01-01

35

Open Pit Optimization Calculating the Optimum Pit Limits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pit optimization is a tool to guide pit planning. They only give a raw model, actualy many of them give only a list of blocks, which parts can be mined profitably. The pit created by the optimizer does not contain haul roads, safety berms etc. These and m...

P. Pitkaenen

1997-01-01

36

PCB Concentrations of Lake Michigan Invertebrates: Reconstruction Based on PCB Concentrations of Alewives ( Alosa pseudoharengus) and their Bioenergetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrate PCB concentrations are a poorly quantified but crucial step in the trophic transfer of organochlorine contaminants to fishes. In fact, current attempts to quantify PCB fluxes in the Lake Michigan pelagic food web are hampered by poor knowledge of invertebrate PCB concentrations. Models exist that estimate PCB concentrations in fish based upon PCB concentrations in their food. We have

Leland J. Jackson; Stephen R. Carpenter

1995-01-01

37

PIT Coating Requirements Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

MINTEER, D.J.

2000-10-20

38

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations. Methods Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed for 57 PCB congeners. Serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns were compared between the teachers, to the 2003-4 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data, and to data from 358 Greater Boston area men. Results Teachers at one school had higher levels of lighter (PCB 6-74) congeners compared to teachers from other schools. PCB congener 47 contributed substantially to these elevated levels. Older teachers (ages 50-64) from all schools had higher total (sum of 33 congeners) serum PCB concentrations than age-comparable NHANES reference values. Comparing the teachers to the referent population of men from the Greater Boston area (all under age 51), no difference in total serum PCB levels was observed between the referents and teachers up to 50 years age. However, the teachers had significantly elevated serum concentrations of lighter congeners (PCB 6-74). This difference was confirmed by comparing the congener-specific ratios between groups, and principal component analysis showed that the relative contribution of lighter congeners differed between the teachers and the referents. Conclusions These findings suggest that the teachers in the PCB-containing buildings had higher serum levels of lighter PCB congeners (PCB 6-74) than the referent populations. Examination of the patterns, as well as concentrations of individual PCB congeners in serum is essential to investigating the contributions from potential environmental sources of PCB exposure.

2011-01-01

39

Detailed PCB congener patterns in incinerator flue gas and commercial PCB formulations (Kanechlor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we determined the detailed PCB congener patterns in flue gases from eight incinerators and four commercial PCB formulations (Kanechlors). About 160 PCB peaks were identified in samples using a DB-5 column and HRGC\\/HRMS. The concentration of incinerator stack emission gas ranged from 0.02 to 44 ngWHO-TEQ\\/Nm3. The ratios of dioxin-like PCBs in the total PCB concentration were

Kyoung Soo Kim; Yusuke Hirai; Mika Kato; Kouhei Urano; Shigeki Masunaga

2004-01-01

40

In vivo and in vitro effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on rat testicular androgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared the effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on adult rat testicular androgenesis and the status of antioxidant enzymes in the interstitial cell compartment 96h after local intratesticular application. Obtained results indicated PCB126-induced inhibition of conversion of progesterone (P) and ?4-androstenedione (A4) to testosterone (T), and stimulation of conversion of P to T induced by PCB153, while

N. Andric; T. Kostic; S. Kaisarevic; S. Fa; K. Pogrmic; R. Kovacevic

2008-01-01

41

Different effects of PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153 alone or mixed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent environmental contaminants that can be a potential health hazard. In the present study we analyzed the potential estrogenic effect in MCF-7 cells of four biologically relevant PCB congeners, alone or in mixtures, present in dairy products, vegetable oil and fish: PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153. The mixture of four PCB was tested at seven different concentrations. We investigated the ability of these PCBs, alone or mixed, to induce cell proliferation, and the level of estrogen-regulated protein pS2, in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PCB153 (35 microM) stimulated cell proliferation from 48 h up to day 6, PCB118 (40 microM) only at 48 h, but PCB101 (45 microM) and PCB138 (15 microM) applied to the cells for 6 days had no effect. In contrast, the various concentrations of mixtures significantly reduced cell proliferation at different times. No change in pS2 levels was seen after treatment with the PCBs alone or mixed. In exploring the mechanism of these events, we found that PCB153 induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 at 4, 8 and 12 h, while the antiproliferative effect seemed to be related to an apoptotic action beginning at 12 h and ending at 48 h. These findings indicate that these PCBs alone or mixed have no estrogenic effect in MCF-7 cells, although PCB153 induce an ERK1/2-mediated mitogenic effect. On the contrary the mixture of PCBs induces an antiproliferative effect, ascribable to an apoptotic action. PMID:18508174

Radice, Sonia; Chiesara, Enzo; Fucile, Serena; Marabini, Laura

2008-07-01

42

Detecting Cavitation Pitting Without Disassembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique for detecting cavitation pitting in pumps, turbines, and other machinery uses low-level nuclear irradiation. Isotopes concentrated below surface emit gamma radiation, a portion of which is attenuated by overlying material. Where there are cavitation pits, output of gamma-ray detector fluctuates as detector is scanned near pits. Important to detect cavitation pits because nozzle, turbine blade, or other pump component weakened by cavitation could fail catastrophically and cause machine to explode.

Barkhoudarian, S.

1986-01-01

43

Crime, Illicit Markets, and Money Laundering  

Microsoft Academic Search

organized crime is perhaps best understood as the continuation of com- merce by illegal means, with transnational criminal organizations as the illicit coun- terparts of multinational corporations. During the 1990s, transnational organized crime—and the related phenomena of illegal markets and money laundering—were transformed from an unrecognized problem to an issue taken seriously by govern- ments, both individually and collectively. Indeed,

Phil Williams

44

Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation,\\u000a as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components,\\u000a and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated\\u000a with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy

Antonio P. Sanfilippo; Scott Butner; Andrew J. Cowell; Angela C. Dalton; Jereme N. Haack; Sean J. Kreyling; Roderick M. Riensche; Amanda M. White; Paul D. Whitney

2011-01-01

45

Illicit Drug Use and Marital Satisfaction  

PubMed Central

With the acquisition of adult social roles such as marriage, more deviant or socially disapproved behaviors such as drug use often decrease. The objective of this work was to examine patterns of illicit drug use in a community sample of adults during the transition and early years of marriage. Additionally, this work examined if couples who were discrepant in their drug use (i.e., one individual reported past year drug use and the partner reported no use) experience sharper declines in marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Multilevel regression models explored these issues over the first four years of marriage (N= 634 couples). Although rates of illicit drug use decline over the first four years of marriage, a significant number of husbands and wives continued to use illicit drugs (21% and 16%, respectively). At the transition to marriage, both husbands and wives who had discrepant drug use behaviors experienced lower levels of marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Over the first four years of marriage, couples in each group experienced significant declines in marital satisfaction.

Leonard, Kenneth E.; Cornelius, Jack R.

2008-01-01

46

Illicit drug use and marital satisfaction.  

PubMed

With the acquisition of adult social roles such as marriage, more deviant or socially disapproved behaviors such as drug use often decrease. The objective of this work was to examine patterns of illicit drug use in a community sample of adults during the transition and early years of marriage. Additionally, this work examined if couples who were discrepant in their drug use (i.e., one individual reported past year drug use and the partner reported no use) experience sharper declines in marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Multilevel regression models explored these issues over the first four years of marriage (N=634 couples). Although rates of illicit drug use decline over the first four years of marriage, a significant number of husbands and wives continued to use illicit drugs (21% and 16%, respectively). At the transition to marriage, both husbands and wives who had discrepant drug use behaviors experienced lower levels of marital satisfaction compared to other couples. Over the first four years of marriage, couples in each group experienced significant declines in marital satisfaction. PMID:17945436

Homish, Gregory G; Leonard, Kenneth E; Cornelius, Jack R

2008-02-01

47

Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use  

PubMed Central

The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied.

Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

2009-01-01

48

ENVIROGARD? PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Envirogard? polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

49

40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761...PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance...761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste....

2013-07-01

50

Congener profiles of PCB and a proposed new set of indicator congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new method for calculating total PCB and toxic equivalents (TEQ) of coplanar PCB (Co-PCB) was proposed, called the ‘PCB dual method’. This method analysed various kinds of technical PCB, samples contaminated by technical PCB and byproduct PCB. In the PCB dual method, a data set of 15 indicator congeners was utilized for the calculations, having IUPAC

Yukari Ishikawa; Yukio Noma; Yoshihito Mori; Shin-ichi Sakai

2007-01-01

51

Illicit drug use and emergency room utilization.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide an empirical examination of the effect that chronic illicit drug use has on emergency room (ER) utilization, controlling for the potential biases introduced by correlation between unobservable determinants of chronic illicit drug use and ER utilization. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: From the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 1994 (NHSDA94). STUDY DESIGN: Chronic illicit drug use and ER utilization are analyzed for 5,384 females and 4,177 males in 1994. The study uses a two-stage estimation technique. In the first stage, sociodemographic, drug use history, and drug use risk variables are used to estimate the probability that the subject is a chronic illicit drug user (CDU). In the second stage, the first-stage estimates provide information needed to test for the possibility of bias in the estimation of ER utilization. This bias is the result of the correlation between unobservable influences on the probability that the person is a CDU and the probability that he or she uses an ER. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: The data were collected through a multistage stratified sampling design. With the use of this methodology, the resulting data set provides the most comprehensive information on household drug use. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Without a correction for the possibility of endogeneity bias, chronic illicit drug use is a positive (for both males and females) and a significant (for females only) determinant of the probability of using an ER for medical treatment. After a correction for endogeneity, the influence of chronic drug use remains positive and significant for females and becomes significant for males. The corresponding change in probability for females is from 6 percent to 30 percent, while for males the increase is from an insignificant 0.1 percent to a significant 36 percent change. CONCLUSIONS: We estimate that chronic drug-using females and males, after adjustments for bias, increase the probability that they use an ER by more than 30 percent compared to their casual or non-drug-using counterparts. Therefore, policymakers and health services providers may consider designing programs to bring primary care and prevention services to facilities where drug users are more likely to seek access to care, within an ER setting.

McGeary, K A; French, M T

2000-01-01

52

The pitting corrosion of copper  

SciTech Connect

Some current theories of copper pitting are contradicted by practical experience. Although it has been theorized that chloride initiates copper pitting attack, simple experiments show that the presence of chloride ion actually tends to decrease the likelihood that pitting will occur. In contrast, sulfate plays no role in pitting theory, yet sulfate has consistently demonstrated a propensity to initiate and propagate copper pitting. New theories are required to reconcile pitting theory and practical observation in order to allow the rational mitigation of copper pitting problems. In addition, the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) in water supplies prevents or inhibits certain copper corrosion problems. As a result, recent efforts to remove NOM as a means of controlling disinfection by-products may lead to increased copper corrosion problems.

Edwards, M. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Ferguson, J.F. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Reiber, S.H. (HDR Engineering, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1994-07-01

53

Tractus Fossae Pit Chain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

29 January 2004 This January 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a chain of pits formed in a trough of the Tractus Fossae region near 24.1oN, 103.4oW. The troughs are graben, which are formed by faults cutting rock as the crust is stretched and extended, in this case toward the east and toward the west (right and left). As the rocks broke and moved along the fault lines that create the sharp cliffs on either side of the troughs, some materials between the trough walls collapsed along the fault trend to form the chain of pits. The picture covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

54

Polar Cap Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

55

DYNAMIC MASS BALANCE OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

In Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, about 3.7 metric tons of PCB remain in the active sediment and inputs from the Saginaw River and atmospheric deposition contribute about 1.4 kg PCB per day. In 1977 the U.S. E.P.A. initiated a research effort on Saginaw Bay which was chosen because of ...

56

Role Culture Plays in China's Illicit Drug/Chemical Foreign Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chinese culture plays a major role in the formation of China's policies regarding its exportation of illicit drugs and precursor chemicals. China is a major producer of illicit drugs and precursor chemicals. The trafficking of illicit drugs is a transnati...

J. Schoeman

2008-01-01

57

Pit disassembly motion control  

SciTech Connect

A Department of Energy (DOE) Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed for the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The facility will recover plutonium from excess nuclear weapon pits defined in START II and START III treaties. The plutonium will be stored and used to produce mixed oxide reactor fuel at another new DOE facility. Because of radiation dose issues, much of the pit disassembly work and material transfer will be automated. Automated material handling systems will interface with disassembly lathes, conversion reactors that produce oxide for storage, robotic container welding stations, vault retrieval systems, and nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation. The goal is to use common motion control hardware for material transfer and possibly common motion controllers for the unique PDCF systems. The latter is complicated by the different directions manufactures are considering for distributed control, such as Firewire, SERCOS, etc., and by the unique control requirements of machines such as lathes compared to controls for an integrated NDA system. The current design approach is to standardize where possible, use network cables to replace wire bundles where possible, but to first select hardware and motion controllers that meet specific machine or process requirements.

Christensen, L. (Lowell); Pittman, P. C. (Pete C.)

2001-01-01

58

Pits in Polar Cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This full-frame image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows faults and pits in Mars' north polar residual cap that have not been previously recognized.

The faults and depressions between them are similar to features seen on Earth where the crust is being pulled apart. Such tectonic extension must have occurred very recently because the north polar residual cap is very young, as indicated by the paucity of impact craters on its surface. Alternatively, the faults and pits may be caused by collapse due to removal of material beneath the surface. The pits are aligned along the faults, either because material has drained into the subsurface along the faults or because gas has escaped from the subsurface through them.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2006-01-01

59

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

1993-11-29

60

Portable instrument for detection of illicit drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, portable instrument, model NDS-2000 for the detection of illicit drugs was developed. The instrument is based on surface ionization detection system, where ionization is carried out on a heated filament. Positive ions formed in the process are drifted to a collector and a signal is registered. The front-end of the instrument consists of an integral vacuum sampler with built-in desorber system for narcotic particles. The model NDS-2000 has an internal microprocessor and LCD display, as well as visible and audible alarm indicators. RS-232 port on the instrument provides communication to an external PC for data storage and printing.

Nacson, Sabatino; Walker, H.; Chang, Allan; Siu, Tony; McNelles, L.; Uffe, M.

1997-02-01

61

Illicit drugs policy through the lens of regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of regulatory theory to the problem of illicit drugs has generally been thought about only in terms of ‘command and control’. The international treaties governing global illicit drug control and the use of law enforcement to dissuade and punish offenders have been primary strategies. In this paper I explore the application of other aspects of regulatory theory to

Alison Ritter

2010-01-01

62

Availability of Illicit Drugs among Youths. The NSDUH Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), formerly the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), asks persons aged 12 or older to report their illicit drug use during the month prior to the interview. Illicit drugs include marijuana/...

2004-01-01

63

BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF ADULTS RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO PCB153.  

EPA Science Inventory

Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are more neurotoxic in vitro than are non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners. We selected PCB153, a common ortho-substituted PCB congener, to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of this class of PCBs in vivo. Pregnant fema...

64

Safety evaluation for remote pit refurbishment using the pit viper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to record and evaluate the hazardous conditions associated with remote pit refurbishment using the Pit Viper. These hazardous conditions were identified during a Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP). Included in the evaluation is a comparison to the hazardous conditions currently included in the Authorization Basis (AB), documented in the Hazard Analysis Database (CHG 2000c)

2001-01-01

65

13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL WEST OF TURBINE PIT SHOWING PIT DRAINED AND TURBINE EXPOSED. ORIGINAL WATER LEVEL SHOWN BY LINE JUST ABOVE ARCHED OPENING TO LEFT. WATER LINE AFTER 1982 INSTALLATION OF FLASH BOARDS REVEALED BY DARK STAIN. - Middle Creek Hydroelectric Dam, On Middle Creek, West of U.S. Route 15, 3 miles South of Selinsgrove, Selinsgrove, Snyder County, PA

66

In vivo and in vitro effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on rat testicular androgenesis.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on adult rat testicular androgenesis and the status of antioxidant enzymes in the interstitial cell compartment 96h after local intratesticular application. Obtained results indicated PCB126-induced inhibition of conversion of progesterone (P) and ?(4)-androstenedione (A(4)) to testosterone (T), and stimulation of conversion of P to T induced by PCB153, while combined application had no effect. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were unchanged, except of decreased activity of SOD in PCB126-treated group. In parallel experiments, adult purified Leydig cells challenged with PCB congeners were incubated for 2h in the presence of corresponding steroid substrates. Results demonstrated that in the presence of subsaturating substrate concentrations PCB126 induced inhibition of conversion of P and A(4) to T at nM to ?M doses, while PCB153 caused stimulation at nM concentrations. Further studies should indicate possible mechanism(s) of modulation of androgenesis by tested PCB congeners. PMID:21783861

Andric, N; Kostic, T; Kaisarevic, S; Fa, S; Pogrmic, K; Kovacevic, R

2008-03-01

67

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of\\u000a this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB\\u000a concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed

Robert F Herrick; John D Meeker; Larisa Altshul

2011-01-01

68

PCB spill response and notification requirements  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

NONE

1994-12-01

69

[Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].  

PubMed

Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359

Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

2014-03-01

70

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)-Degrading Bacteria Associated with Trees in a PCB-Contaminated Site  

PubMed Central

The abundance, identities, and degradation abilities of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with five species of mature trees growing naturally in a contaminated site were investigated to identify plants that enhance the microbial PCB degradation potential in soil. Culturable PCB degraders were associated with every plant species examined in both the rhizosphere and root zone, which was defined as the bulk soil in which the plant was rooted. Significantly higher numbers of PCB degraders (2.7- to 56.7-fold-higher means) were detected in the root zones of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) and goat willow (Salix caprea) than in the root zones of other plants or non-root-containing soil in certain seasons and at certain soil depths. The majority of culturable PCB degraders throughout the site and the majority of culturable PCB degraders associated with plants were identified as members of the genus Rhodococcus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Other taxa of PCB-degrading bacteria included members of the genera Luteibacter and Williamsia, which have not previously been shown to include PCB degraders. PCB degradation assays revealed that some isolates from the site have broad congener specificities; these isolates included one Rhodococcus strain that exhibited degradation abilities similar to those of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Isolates with broad congener specificity were widespread at the site, including in the biostimulated root zone of willow. The apparent association of certain plant species with increased abundance of indigenous PCB degraders, including organisms with outstanding degradation abilities, throughout the root zone supports the notion that biostimulation through rhizoremediation is a promising strategy for enhancing PCB degradation in situ.

Leigh, Mary Beth; Prouzova, Petra; Mackova, Martina; Macek, Tomas; Nagle, David P.; Fletcher, John S.

2006-01-01

71

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with trees in a PCB-contaminated site.  

PubMed

The abundance, identities, and degradation abilities of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with five species of mature trees growing naturally in a contaminated site were investigated to identify plants that enhance the microbial PCB degradation potential in soil. Culturable PCB degraders were associated with every plant species examined in both the rhizosphere and root zone, which was defined as the bulk soil in which the plant was rooted. Significantly higher numbers of PCB degraders (2.7- to 56.7-fold-higher means) were detected in the root zones of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) and goat willow (Salix caprea) than in the root zones of other plants or non-root-containing soil in certain seasons and at certain soil depths. The majority of culturable PCB degraders throughout the site and the majority of culturable PCB degraders associated with plants were identified as members of the genus Rhodococcus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Other taxa of PCB-degrading bacteria included members of the genera Luteibacter and Williamsia, which have not previously been shown to include PCB degraders. PCB degradation assays revealed that some isolates from the site have broad congener specificities; these isolates included one Rhodococcus strain that exhibited degradation abilities similar to those of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Isolates with broad congener specificity were widespread at the site, including in the biostimulated root zone of willow. The apparent association of certain plant species with increased abundance of indigenous PCB degraders, including organisms with outstanding degradation abilities, throughout the root zone supports the notion that biostimulation through rhizoremediation is a promising strategy for enhancing PCB degradation in situ. PMID:16597927

Leigh, Mary Beth; Prouzová, Petra; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomás; Nagle, David P; Fletcher, John S

2006-04-01

72

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

PubMed Central

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m?3 to 5500 pg m?3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.

HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

2010-01-01

73

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m -3 to 5500 pg m -3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like or neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.

Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Martinez, Andres; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

2010-04-01

74

Tuberculosis and illicit drug use: review and update.  

PubMed

Illicit drug users continue to be a group at high risk for tuberculosis (TB). Here, we present an updated review of the relationship between TB and illicit drug use, and we summarize more than a decade of new research. Drug users, and injection drug users in particular, have driven TB epidemics in a number of countries. The successful identification and treatment of TB among illicit drug users remain important components of a comprehensive TB strategy, but illicit drug users present a unique set of challenges for TB diagnosis and control. New diagnostic modalities, including interferon-gamma-release assays, offer potential for improved diagnosis and surveillance among this group, along with proven treatment strategies that incorporate the use of directly observed therapy with treatment for drug abuse. Special considerations, including coinfection with viral hepatitis and the rifampin-methadone drug interaction, warrant clinical attention and are also updated here. PMID:19046064

Deiss, Robert G; Rodwell, Timothy C; Garfein, Richard S

2009-01-01

75

Oral health sensations associated with illicit drug abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate oral health sensations (short term oral health effects) associated with illicit drug abuse. In addition, to identify variations in oral health sensations produced by different illicit drugs.Subject Young adults in a drug rehabilitation programme in Hong Kong, China.Method Self-completed questionnaire about their previous pattern of drug abuse and oral health sensations experienced (recalled).Results All (119) subjects were

B Chan; C McGrath

2005-01-01

76

Illicit Remnant Movement: An Argument for Feature-Driven Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses previously unnoticed empirical effects of the operation Attract\\/Move F. Certain illicit cases of so-called remnant movement are accounted for if the primitive operation inducing move-ment is feature movement and all category movement is feature-driven, as is claimed by the Attract\\/Move F hypothesis. Since the relevant cases of illicit remnant movement remain unaccounted for under the traditional Move

Yuji Takano

2000-01-01

77

ENVIROGARD PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE INC.: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the demonstration and evaluation of an immunoassay field screening technology designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil. he immunoassay technology was the EnviroGard PCB Test developed by Millipore, Inc. he technology was dem...

78

Characterization of products recycling from PCB waste pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of printed circuit board (PCB) waste is an important subject not only for the protection of environment but also for the recovery of valuable materials. A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering valuable products and energy from PCB waste was presented. Pyrolysis of PCB waste was performed on a fixed-bed reactor. The properties of the pyrolytic

Cui Quan; Aimin Li; Ningbo Gao; Zhang dan

2010-01-01

79

Printed Circuit Board Design (PCB) with HDL Designer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following: PCB design with HDL designer, design process and schematic capture - symbols and diagrams: 1. Motivation: time savings, money savings, simplicity. 2. Approach: use single tool PCB for FPGA design, more FPGA designs than PCB designers. 3. Use HDL designer for schematic capture.

Winkert, Thomas K.; LaFourcade, Teresa

2004-01-01

80

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD? PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The EnviroGard? polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

81

Using EXPRESS data modeling technique for PCB assembly analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an electronic assembly consisting of many electronic parts on a circuit board. From design to assembly, a PCB has many related data that need to be recorded, retrieved and updated in a database to support its life-cycle activities. This research focuses on the data modeling of PCB assembly and its part definition, specifically to support

Amy J. C. Trappey; Thu-Hua Liu; Chii-Tong Hwang

1997-01-01

82

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and

G. Brieger; R. D. Hunter

1993-01-01

83

Fluid choices in retrofilling PCB transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the production of PCB-containing fluids was discontinued, several dielectric fluid options have emerged. The author examines the most popular options and discusses their relative characteristics with respect to electrical properties, physical traits, use with switching operations, maintenance and environmental fate. The four predominant synthetic and natural materials that lend themselves to fire-resistant dielectric applications are discussed: organic polyol esters,

D. Sundin

1992-01-01

84

Hoist Scheduling For A PCB Electroplating Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model and associated algorithm for generating maximum throughput cyclic schedules for the movements of a hoist in a PCB electroplating facility. The algorithm is enumerative in nature and involves the solution of linear programming subproblems. Computational experience with schedules for real systems is presented.

GERALD W. SHAPIRO; HENRY L. W. NUTTLE

1988-01-01

85

REMEDIATION OF PCB IN CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot-scale study will be conducted to evaluate the bioremedial techniques of natural attenuation, sequenced anaerobic/aerobic treatment, and addition of a commercially available microbial amendment product for use in treating PCB contaminated soils at Air Force Base sites. Th...

86

Compact Digital Compass with PCB Fluxgate Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new compact digital compass with PCB fluxgate sensors and accelerometers will be introduced in this contribution. Competitive low-cost, low-accuracy compasses are dedicated for measurement in horizontal plane only. The main advantage of developed compass is that it is able to determine azimuth in every position. The compass module consists of a tri axial fluxgate magnetometer and tri axial MEMS

J. Vcelak; V. Petrucha; P. Kaspar

2006-01-01

87

Sampling of illicit drugs for quantitative analysis. Part I: heterogeneity study of illicit drugs in Europe.  

PubMed

Sampling of illicit drugs for qualitative and quantitative analysis would normally be considered as routine and comparable tasks in forensic drugs laboratories and previously similar statistical sampling approaches have been applied. However, we believe that two different sampling approaches, based on two different theoretical and statistical backgrounds are more appropriate. Furthermore the application of the qualitative sampling approach can be impractical for quantitative sampling as it could generate many analytical samples from a single seizure. In some countries the purity of the illicit drug in a seizure may affect the criminal sentence and therefore, reliable results for quantitative analysis are crucial. It was decided to investigate a new approach, which although incorporating some statistics also took account of our background knowledge about the composition of the drugs we were analysing. The ultimate goal was to produce recommendations for a practical sampling plan for quantitative analysis. It was found that the two key factors which had a significant effect on obtaining a representative analytical sample from a bulk seizure were the heterogeneity of the drug powder and the particle sizes of its components. This article concentrates on drug heterogeneity. Particle size effects will be addressed in part II of this study. A sampling plan was devised for a range of drug seizure types and asked ENFSI member laboratories to use it when analysing real drug seizures to provide heterogeneity data for the most common illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA and cannabis (herbal and resin)). It was found that for routine quantitative drugs analysis, the sampling problems caused by heterogeneity can be solved by using an incremental sampling protocol. Furthermore, the number of increments that need to be taken for a particular drug is dependent on the relative standard deviation (RSD) required by an individual laboratory and the analytical method that they employ. A 1g increment size was found to be suitable for powdered drugs and cannabis resin. However, 1g increments were not suitable for herbal cannabis, because of particle size issues. Sampling of herbal cannabis will be addressed in Part II of this study. Recommendations for a sampling plan, based on the heterogeneity and particle size of specific drugs seizures in casework will be discussed in Part III of this study. PMID:23890646

Dujourdy, L; Csesztregi, T; Bovens, M; Franc, A; Nagy, J

2013-09-10

88

Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2 to 2.6 THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

2006-11-01

89

Pitting of Titanium. II. One-Dimensional Pit Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted with pitting corrosion of the ends of titanium rods insulated on the sides with epoxy resin. The rods were potentiostated in the anode-facing-up position in chloride, bromide, and iodide solutions. After a small depth of corrosi...

T. R. Beck

1973-01-01

90

Illicit i.v. drugs. A public health approach.  

PubMed

This article explores, from a public health perspective, the harm done by Canadian drug laws, to both individuals and society. It challenges the perceived dichotomy of legalization and criminalization of intravenous drugs. The article then expands the discussion by exploring eight legal options for illicit drugs and examines how these options interact with the marginalization of users, the illicit drug black market, and levels of drug consumption. While the main focus of this article is intravenous drugs, it draws some lessons from cannabis research. PMID:12448865

Haden, Mark

2002-01-01

91

Particle size analysis of six illicit heroin preparations seized in the U.K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit heroin is rarely pure and may contain a number of other substances. The total particle size distribution in six illicit heroin preparations was analysed using a Malvern 2600 Particle Analyser and by sieving. The pattern of heroin distribution amongst these particles was determined by HPLC. The results show that a representative illicit heroin particle is approximately 45 ?m in

P.-J. Holt

1996-01-01

92

Illicit drug-related psychopharmacological violence: The current understanding within a causal context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reviews past research on psychopharmacological violence associated with illicit drug use within the criteria for causality. There appears to be prior evidence suggesting that illicit drug use and violent offending are related in certain circumstances; and other studies conclude that illicit drug use may be correlated with violent victimization. However, those studies that also adequately assessed temporal order

Joseph B. Kuhns; Tammatha A. Clodfelter

2009-01-01

93

Open-Pit Metal Mining Grounding Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The performance of electrical grounding systems in open pit metal mines is evaluated using techniques that are described thoroughly. The normal electrical distribution and grounding practices used in metallic open pit mines are reviewed and compared with ...

L. A. Morley A. M. Christman

1976-01-01

94

Study of corrosion pits in chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser technique was used to initiate single corrosion pits as well as geometrically ordered arrays of pit on nickel (99.99%) immersed in 0.5 M NaCl solutions under potentiostatic condition. The current was measured during pit growth and the shape of each pit was recorded upon termination of each experiment. It was found that single pits had smooth surfaces and they were slightly shallower than hemispheres and for applied potentials between 0.5 and 0.6 V SCE, and for growth time greater than 20 s. Experimental measurements of pit radius and current density as a function of time at t ? 100 s agreed with calculations based on the hypothesis that the pit growth rate was limited by the diffusion controlled dissolution rate of a salt film. A transport model, which included both migration and diffusion, was used to interpret experimental results. The model predicted that the local environment inside the pit cavity was aggressive enough that a salt film might precipitate at the early stage of pit growth. Current interruption experiments demonstrated that pit stability was determined by the extent of relaxation of the pit environment. A critical concentration adjacent to the pit surface is required for the pit to maintain active. It was found to be independent of the pit size, but dependent on the applied potential. The critical applied potential above which pits continued to grow decreased with pit size. It was observed that the growth rate of pits at an applied potential of 0.5 V SCE decreased in the presence of flow, and pits repassivated at Pe number greater than 1000. A two-dimensional trench model predicted rinsing of cavity at Pe > 1000, which was in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Controlled multiple pits experiments demonstrated that pits do interact with each other within a critical distance. It was found that the neighboring pits enhanced the growth of the central pit in the lateral direction and the total current also increased under potentiostatic condition. The critical distance was affected by the bulk concentration of chloride.

Zhu, Lei

95

Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on K(ow) and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing K(ow), or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5-8 chlorine atoms/molecule, K(ow) and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5-8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

Madenjian, C. P.; Schmidt, L. J.; Chernyak, S. M.; Elliott, R. F.; Desorcie, T. J.; Quintal, R. T.; Begnoche, L. J.; Hesselberg, R. J.

1999-01-01

96

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB-153) and (PCB-77) absorption in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HK2) cells in vitro: PCB levels and cell death  

PubMed Central

An understanding of congener specific cellular absorption of PCBs is important to the study of the organ specific body burden of an individual and to their toxic effects. We have previously demonstrated that single PCB congeners induce cytotoxicity, as evidenced by decreased cellular viability and accelerated apoptotic death. There is very little, if any, information available on the differences in toxicity due to the nature of absorption of PCBs in different cells. To obtain such information human liver (HepG2) cells (in medium with 10% FBS) were exposed to 70?M of both PCB-153 (non-coplanar hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB-77 (coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl), and human kidney (HK2) cells in serum free medium were exposed to 80 and 40 ?M of PCB-153 and PCB-77 respectively, according to their LC50 values in these cells. Medium and cells were collected separately at each time interval from 30 minutes to 48 hours, and PCB concentrations were analyzed in both by GC-MS using biphenyl as an internal standard following hexane: acetone (50:50) extraction. We also performed trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and fluorescence microscopic studies in assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death. About 40% of PCB-153 (35 ?M, 50% of the maximum value) was detected in HepG2 cells within 30 minutes, and it reached its highest concentration at 6 hours (60 ?M), concomitant with the PCB depletion in the medium (5?M). For PCB-77, the highest concentrations within the cells were reached at 3 hours. However, the absorption levels of PCB-153 and PCB-77 in HK2 cells reached their peaks at 3 and 6 hours respectively. Exposure of human liver and kidney cells to PCB-153 and PCB-77 caused accelerated apoptotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. The studies demonstrated that (1) liver cells initiate the absorption of PCBs much faster than kidney cells; however, the concentration reaches its maximum level much earlier in kidney cells; (2) both PCB-153 and PCB-77 induced enhanced apoptotic death in liver and kidney cells; (3) kidney cells are more vulnerable to PCBs based on the results of apoptosis and cellular viability, even with almost similar absorption or tissue burden of PCBs.

Ghosh, Somiranjan; De, Supriyo; Chen, Yongqing; Sutton, Darryl C.; Ayorinde, Folahan O.; Dutta, Sisir K.

2010-01-01

97

The Comprehensive Realistic Yearly Pit Transient Infilling Code (CRYPTIC): A Novel Pit Lake Analytical Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permitting of open pit mines that intersect the groundwater table necessitates the use of sophisticated numerical models to determine the temporal impact of pit lake hydraulics. However, while mine feasibility and the potential environmental influences of open-pit dewatering can be estimated using conventional screening-level methods, to date there have been few published transient analytical solutions to estimate the pit lake

R. C. Fontaine; Andy Davis; G. G. Fennemore

2003-01-01

98

Pits and uplifts on Europa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of depression and uplift features on Europa, based on Galileo regional mapping images, shows that these features come in a wide range of sizes, with numbers increasing greatly with decreasing size, down to the limits of resolution. Size distributions are similar in the northern leading and southern trailing hemispheres, where they are distinctly different from the southern leading and northern trailing hemispheres, suggesting an oblique, antipodal symmetry pattern, similar to that of chaotic and tectonic terrain. This pattern is suggestive of polar wander. Uplifts are usually polygonal or irregular in shape and rarely are cracked. Patches of chaotic terrain, which we had surveyed earlier, are not included in the current study because their topography is generally unclear, and because there is no a priori known genetic linkage with the pits and uplifts. These results contradict generalizations based on the earlier "pits, spots, and domes" (PSD) taxonomy. Most of the type examples for PSDs were simply patches of chaotic terrain selected from a limited portion of their full size range. The use of the term lenticula to collectively describe PSDs is inconsistent with the IAU definition of lenticula: a small dark spot seen at low resolution. Pits and uplifts do not correlate with lenticulae, although chaos often does. Properties of PSDs that have been widely cited as primary evidence for convective upwelling in thick ice (e.g., that uplifts are generally dome-shaped and often cracked; that pits and domes are regularly spaced; that there is a typical diameter of ˜10 km) were premature and not supported by subsequent data. Most pits and uplifts are less than 10 km across so, if they formed by diapirism or convective upwelling, the sources must have been very shallow, less than 5 km deep. How they actually formed remains unknown.

Greenberg, Richard; Leake, Martha A.; Hoppa, Gregory V.; Tufts, B. R.

2003-01-01

99

Modeling pitting degradation of corrosion resistant alloys  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological, stochastic model of pit initiation and growth was developed in support of waste package container design and performance assessment. This model can simulate the time evolution of the distribution in pit depths on a metal surface exposed to an aggressive environment. It can simulate pit initiation and growth under variable-environment histories such as those anticipated in the repository.

Henshall, G.A.

1996-11-01

100

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

101

Development of toxic equivalency factors for PCB congeners and the assessment of TCDD and PCB mixtures in rainbow trout  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between mammalian and piscine 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, based on induction of CYP1A enzyme activity, catalytic protein, and mRNA. Rainbow trout administered a single i.p. injection of TCDD had an average ({+-}SD) ED50 of 0.91 {+-} 0.14 {mu}g TCDD/kg for induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Ortho-substituted PCB congeners 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 156), and 2,2{prime}3,4,4{prime},5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 138) did not induce CYP1A activity in rainbow trout. Only three non-ortho-substituted PCBs, i.e., 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) induced CYP1A enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA. The ED50s for induction of EROD activity were calculated as 134, 5.82, and 93.7 {mu}g/kg for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. The TCDD-TEFs based on EROD activity were 0.0006, 0.0014, and 0.0003 for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. Binary mixtures of TCDD and three PCBs were also evaluated. Based on EROD activity and CYP1A protein, mixtures of TCDD and PCB 77 were slightly greater than additive. Mixtures of TCDD-PCB 156 and TCDD-PCB 126 were slightly less than additive. Results from these studies indicate that mammal-derived TEFs will underestimate the potency of planar chlorinated hydrocarbon mixtures to induce the CYP1A catalytic activity in rainbow trout. Also, while interactions among PCB congeners and TCDD were somewhat equivocal, they did not greatly differ from predicted additive responses.

Newsted, J.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Crawford, R.A.; Jones, P.D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ankley, G.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States); Tillitt, D.E. [National Biological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Gooch, J.W. [Univ. of Maryland System, Solomons, MD (United States). Chesapeake Biological Lab.; Denison, M.S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology

1995-05-01

102

PCB — Approaches to Removal From the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of the most recalcitrant compounds with proved negative effect on the\\u000a human health. They may be removed from the environment by chemical, physical and biological methods, while the latter ones\\u000a through microorganisms or plants represent more economical way of removal. This study describes use of bacteria isolated in\\u000a the Czech Republic from PCB

K. Demnerová; M. Macková; J. Pazlarová; M. Vosahlíková; H. Nováková; E. Jindrová; E. Ryslavá; T. Macek; N. Vrchotova; V. Brenner; L. Pavl?; S. Totevová; T. Kristoffer; D. D. Focht; F. Fava; D. Gioia; L. Marchetti; J. S. Fletcher; M. B. Leigh; P. Kucerová; H. Stiborová; V. Mateju; M. Sobotka; F. Kastanek; P. Kastanek; L. Kasák

103

PCB-Based Break-Out Box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

Lee, Jason H.

2011-01-01

104

Evaluation of PCB fluxes in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early seventies a variety of stringent measures have been taken\\u000aby (international) governments to reduce the risks posed by the presence\\u000aof polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. A crucial\\u000aquestion is whether these measures have achieved the desired result. The\\u000apresent report reviews, for the Netherlands, the major PCB flows in the\\u000a(abiotic) environment during the period

Annema JA; Beurskens JEM; Bodar CWM; Baart AC; Bakker DJ; Berdowski JJM; Duijvenbooden W van; Klein AE; Liem AKD; Linden AMA van der; Noordijk H; Poel P van der

2007-01-01

105

PCB's in Suburban Watershed, Reston, Va  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Lake Anne basin increased from water (<0.05-0.2 ppb), to bed sediment (<2.5-105 ppb), to fish (140-700 ppb) in an average ratio of 1:500:3000. The highest concentrations were observed in the lake, which is 10 years old, and receives no sewage or industrial waste discharges. Evidence indicates that the polvchlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) originate from diffuse sources associated with urban development and living.

Martell, J. M.; Rickert, D. A.; Siegel, F. R.

1975-01-01

106

Fluxgate magnetic sensor in PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a single axis fluxgate magnetic sensor developed using printed circuit board (PCB) technology is presented. The behavior of the fluxgate device was analyzed with software tools based on the finite element method. The results of the simulations were validated experimentally on fabricated prototypes. The magnetic sensitivity of proposed planar sensing element is about 0.46 mV\\/?T at 10

Andrea Baschirotto; Enrico Dallago; Piero Malcovati; M. Marchesi; Giuseppe Venchi

2004-01-01

107

Research advances in chemical disposal of PCB's  

SciTech Connect

Promising research in low-cost detoxification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in electric transformers and transfer fluids is reported by the Franklin Research Center, which uses a dispersion of molten sodium metal in polyethylene glycols, and by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., which uses sodium napthalide to change PCBs to common table salt. Chemical disposal is preferred over high-temperature incineration because it produces relatively harmless by-products and it eliminates hazardous PCB transportation and expensive incineration. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-11-01

108

Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.  

PubMed Central

Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

Johnston, L E

1985-01-01

109

Illicit Drugs: Price Elasticity of Demand and Supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1998 National Drug Control Strategy established an ambitious national agenda for reducing illicit drug use by 25 percent as of 2002 and by 50 percent as of 2007. When it established those targets, the Office of National Drug Control Policy recognized ...

L. Hozik P. Johnston Q. McMullen S. Han W. Rhodes

2002-01-01

110

Illicit vessel identification in inland waters using SAR image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing has been effectively used in water compliance and enforcement, especially in ship detection, but it is still very difficult to classify or identify vessels in inland water only using existing SAR image. Nevertheless some experience knowledge can help, for example waterway channel is of great significance for water traffic management and illegal activity monitoring. It can be used for judging a vessel complying with traffic rules or not, and also can be used to indicate illicit fishing vessels which are usually far away from navigable waterway channel. For illicit vessel identification speed and efficiency are very important, so it will be significant if we can extract waterway channel directly from SAR images and use it to identify illicit vessels. The paper first introduces the modified two-parameter CFAR algorithm used to detect ship targets in inland waters, and then uses principal curves and neural networks to extract waterway channel. Through comparing the detection results and the extracted waterway channel those vessels not complying with water traffic rules or potential illicit fishing vessels can be easily identified.

Zhang, Fengli; Wu, Bingfang; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Huiping; Tian, Yichen

2006-10-01

111

Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

2008-01-01

112

Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

Hemingway, Judy

2006-01-01

113

Childhood Victimization and Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989–1995 and again in middle

Cathy Spatz Widom; Naomi R. Marmorstein; Helene Raskin White

2006-01-01

114

Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

1983-01-01

115

Safety evaluation for remote pit refurbishment using the pit viper  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to record and evaluate the hazardous conditions associated with remote pit refurbishment using the Pit Viper. These hazardous conditions were identified during a Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP). Included in the evaluation is a comparison to the hazardous conditions currently included in the Authorization Basis (AB), documented in the Hazard Analysis Database (CHG 2000c) The hazardous conditions related to the Pit Viper are correlated to similar hazardous conditions as mapped to the analyzed accidents. Finally, the controls necessary to prevent a resulting accident or to mitigate the consequences were determined during the control decision/allocation process. The results of the control allocation are listed in this document. This document is not intended to authorize the activity. It documents the results of the hazard identification process and subsequent control decision process as defined in the AB. The hazard identification/evaluation process is used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

GRAMS, W.H.

2001-09-21

116

Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations.  

PubMed

Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n?=?24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n?=?410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker's measured serum PCB levels and the same worker's cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14-24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22-39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A

2014-05-01

117

PCB update: the dragon has grown another head  

SciTech Connect

An update on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is presented. The electric utility industry's efforts to comply with EPA's PCB rules continue unabated. But just when the industry seemed to have the PCB problem under control, another problem developed: toxic emissions from PCB transformer fires. Currently the nations firefighters, health officials, and building authorities are asking the utilities to resolve this new problem. Efforts to solve the problem are described.

McGraw, M.G.

1984-11-01

118

40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces...Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with Ã...a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...

2009-07-01

119

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

2009-07-01

120

40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces...Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with Ã...a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...

2010-07-01

121

40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form...

2010-07-01

122

40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With ç...

2009-07-01

123

40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household...

2013-07-01

124

40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB...761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site Disposal, in...

2013-07-01

125

40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ...Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization...and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for Off-Site...

2013-07-01

126

Congener profiles of occupational PCB exposure versus PCB exposure from fish consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in serum samples is compared between a cohort previously exposed to PCBs from working at a capacitor plant (n=180) and a cohort of Great Lakes sport-caught fish eaters (n=217). Fourteen congeners were measured in both samples. A multiple logistic regression model differentiating the two groups as a function of relative proportions amongst congeners

Sally Freels; Lin Kaatz Chary; Mary Turyk; Julie Piorkowski; Katherine Mallin; John Dimos; Henry Anderson; Ken McCann; Virlyn Burse; Victoria Persky

2007-01-01

127

EPA, utilities grapple with PCB problems  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 transformers contain toxic PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). While data on effects of low-dose PCBs are not clearcut, a recent study indicates firefighters, for example, could be more at risk than currently believed because furans are formed when PCBs in transformers are intensely hot. California and Florida utility companies have spent millions of dollars to replace transformers. The Environmental Protection Agency appears ready to accede to demands to replace PCB-containing electrical equipment more quickly than just as equipment wears out.

Sun, M.

1983-10-07

128

The public and the war on illicit drugs.  

PubMed

This article presents what Americans think about the policies subsumed under the label of the "War on Drugs." It is based on an analysis of 47 national surveys conducted between 1978 and 1997. The major results are that most Americans rely on the mass media for information about the scope of the drug abuse problem; Americans do not think that the Wars on Drugs have succeeded, but they do not want to quit on these efforts; weak support exists for increasing funding for drug treatment; support for preventive education has increased during the 1990s; criminal justice responses remain very popular; for many, illicit drug use is a moral rather than a public health issue; the public supports allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana for severe illness, but opposes the general legalization of marijuana and other illicit drugs; and needle exchange programs are supported by a bare majority, but only when they are told that the American Medical Association supports these programs. PMID:9515986

Blendon, R J; Young, J T

1998-03-18

129

Computer Tool For Evaluation of Anaerobic Microbial PCB Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several researchers have demonstrated the transformation of polychiorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. This transformation, or conversion, is characteristic and often dependent on PCB congener structure and, in addition, dictates the products or extent of degradation. Because transformation is linked to microbial activities, bioremediation has been hailed as a possible solution for PCB-contaminated soils and sediments, and

K. Thomas Kiasson; Eric M. Just

2002-01-01

130

PCB EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES: A THEORETICAL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a theoretical assessment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formation and destruction in conventional fossil fuel fired sources. Results suggest a small but finite possibility that PCB isomers may be found in their emissions. The study was the result of...

131

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have

Robert F Herrick; John D Meeker; Russ Hauser; Larisa Altshul; George A Weymouth

2007-01-01

132

PCB congener dynamics in a heavily industrialized river catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCB congener concentrations in the water column of a highly industrialized river catchment, the Aire\\/Calder, in N.E. England were determined weekly on a routine basis, and 2 hourly through selected high flow (flood) events. Bed, suspended and floodplain sediment PCB congener concentrations were also determined along transects of the rivers investigated. Weekly monitoring revealed that the sum of 11 quantified

Andrew A. Meharg; Julian Wright; Graham J. L. Leeks; Paul D. Wass; Philip N. Owens; Des E. Walling; Daniel Osborn

2003-01-01

133

Mechanical response of PCB assemblies during infrared reflow soldering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element structural model is developed to predict the thermomechanical behavior of printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies during infrared reflow soldering. Specifically, the model predicts the amount of board warpage, the effects of increased PCB assembly stiffness resulting from the solder joint formation, and the size of gaps generated at the module lead solder pad interface. In this paper,

Sandeep Mittal; Glenn Y. Masada; Theodore L. Bergman

1996-01-01

134

PCB's in fish from selected waters of New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent concern over the impact of PCB's on human health and on natural resources precipitated a shift from low level monitoring to the statewide monitoring in New York. The objectives of this program were to determine the level and extent of PCB contamination in fish inhabiting or migrating through major waterways in New York and to isolate contaminated portions,

J. J. Spagnoli; L. C. Skinner

1977-01-01

135

The Systemic Role of Illicit Drugs and Their Toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Illicit drug use is commonly associated with sudden death attributed to excited delirium syndrome. Many of these deaths occur\\u000a during or shortly after a physical struggle. Excited delirium syndrome sequentially passes through four stages including hyperthermia\\u000a (typically), delirium with agitation, respiratory arrest, and death. Illegal street drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine\\u000a and phencyclidine (PCP) have long been known to cause

Joshua Gunn; Michael A. Evans; M. Scott Kriger

136

Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron interrogation systems  

SciTech Connect

Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of these materials. Two particular techniques, Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis, are discussed. Examples of modeling studies are provided which illustrate the applications of these two techniques.

Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

1994-06-01

137

Organized criminal involvement in the illicit antiquities trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the ”glocal” perspective of a large sample of archaeologists conducting fieldwork throughout the world and working on\\u000a the very sites of interest to looters, this paper explores the question whether and to what extent organized crime is involved\\u000a in the theft and illicit export of archaeological resources. Two major findings are presented: first, archaeologists tend\\u000a almost unanimously to consider

Blythe Bowman Proulx

2011-01-01

138

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring admission to\\u000a an intensive care unit. This chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particulars of seizures induced by illicit drugs\\u000a of abuse, environmental toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

139

Critical Care Seizures Related to Illicit Drugs and Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Seizures caused by ingestion of drugs and toxins do require specific treatment aiming to terminate epileptiform activity and\\u000a to eliminate the toxin. Withdrawal from regularly ingested drugs can also be accompanied by seizures requiring ICU care. This\\u000a chapter discusses diagnostic and therapeutic particularities of seizures induced by illicit drugs of abuse, environmental\\u000a toxins, and heavy metals.

Andreas R. Luft

140

NELIS — a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with

Alexander P. Barzilov; Phillip C. Womble; George Vourvopoulos

2003-01-01

141

NELIS - a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with

Alexander P. Barzilov; Phillip C. Womble; George Vourvopoulos

2003-01-01

142

Detection of Illicit Drugs with the EURITRACK System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.

Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.

2009-03-01

143

Predicting and controlling downwind concentrations of PCB from surface impoundments  

SciTech Connect

Over 227,000 kv of PCB were discharged into the Hudson River from two capacitor manufacturing plants at Fort Edward and Hudson Falls, New York. Much of the discharged PCB was absorbed by the bottom sediments of the river and accumulated behind the Fort Edward Dam. A large amount of the contaminated sediments migrated dowstream when the dam was removed. An effort has been made to dredge PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River and to deposit those sediments in a secure containment site. Part of this project was an air quality impact analysis which addressed the effect of PCB volatilization from the proposed containment site on ambient 24-hour concentrations of PCB downwind of the site. An estimate of the volatilization rate was made and a dispersion modeling analysis was performed in order to calculate the potential impact on residences. 4 references, 1 table.

Angiola, A.J.; Soden, J.M.

1982-01-01

144

SunOhio zeros in on PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) disposal  

SciTech Connect

SunOhio, a Sun Co. Inc. subsidiary, has developed the PCBX process to eliminate PCB's from insulating fluids without destroying the fluids. The process uses ''reasonably priced'' reagents that strip the chlorine from the PCB to generate harmless residues, and follows this step with selective filtration, dehydration, and degassing. According to SunOhio, approx. 15 gpm of fluid can be processed, permitting the rapid removal and return of fluids to electrical equipment, possibly during continuous operation of the equipment. The PCBX process has reduced the concentration of PCB's in intentionally contaminated transformer oil from 178 ppm to zero. EPA is optimistic that PCBX will satisfy the requirement of being at least as good as incineration in eliminating PCB's, without imposing unreasonable risk to health or the environment. SunOhio feels that the PCBX process is less complex and works faster and more completely than a PCB removal method recently developed by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.

Not Available

1980-09-17

145

The pit organs of elasmobranchs: a review.  

PubMed Central

Elasmobranchs have hundreds of tiny sensory organs, called pit organs, scattered over the skin surface. The pit organs were noted in many early studies of the lateral line, but their exact nature has long remained a mystery. Although pit organs were known to be innervated by the lateral line nerves, and light micrographs suggested that they were free neuromasts, speculation that they may be external taste buds or chemoreceptors has persisted until recently. Electron micrographs have now revealed that the pit organs are indeed free neuromasts. Their functional and behavioural role(s), however, are yet to be investigated.

Peach, M B; Marshall, N J

2000-01-01

146

Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

BANNING, D.L.

2001-01-18

147

Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QA/G4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

BANNING, D.L.

2001-03-20

148

Oxygen pitting failure of a bagasse boiler tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of a failed roof tube from a bagasse boiler showed transverse through-cracks and extensive pitting. The pitting was typically an oxygen induced pitting and numerous fatigue cracks had started within these pits. It is highly probable that the pitting occurred during an idle period (a drought) due to oxygen ingress and failure to maintain a sufficient excess of the

A. M. Heyes

2001-01-01

149

PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY MODELING CALIBRATION OF THE MAIN PIT, TYRONE MINE, NEW MEXICO, USA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major difficulty facing many open pit mines where sulfides are present is the pit lake water quality after closure. A reliable prediction of future water quality within an open pit mine, excavated below the water table, requires a large amount of information and predictions for maybe hundreds of years into the future. These long-term predictions can only be useful

150

Sierra Leone’s illicit diamonds: the challenges and the way forward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Kimberley Process Certificate Scheme has considerably reduced the flow of conflict diamonds from 4% to less than\\u000a 1%, other forms of illicit diamonds are estimated at 20% of global production. While scholars and policy makers have given\\u000a considerable attention to illicit mining and smuggling (with some success), illicit exploitation still hinders revenue generation\\u000a that is needed for economic

Sigismond A. Wilson

2011-01-01

151

Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

2008-03-01

152

Thermal analysis of simulated Pantex pit storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report investigates potential pit storage configurations that could be used at the Mason and Hanger Pantex Plant. The study utilizes data from a thermal test series performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that simulated these storage configurations. The heat output values used in the LLNL test series do not represent actual pits but are rounded numbers that were

Aceves; Kornblum

1996-01-01

153

R & D on mercury target pitting issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical issue in mercury spallation target development is pitting, which appears on the target vessel in conjunction with the pressure wave. Pitting has been found in off-beam line test by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test as well as in the on-beam test of mercury target at WNR of LANSCE. In SHPB tests pressure in mercury was reduced from

K. Kikuchi; H. Kogawa; M. Futakawa; S. Ishikura; M. Kaminaga; R. Hino

2003-01-01

154

Competitive Equilibrium and Classroom Pit Markets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pit-market experiment using the work of Charles A. Holt to illustrate to students the real world relevance of the competitive equilibrium concept. Explains how to set up and conduct a pit-market experiment, discusses features of the data, and provides accompanying materials. (JEH)

Ruffle, Bradley J.

2003-01-01

155

Burning/Rubble Pits: Environmental Information Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Burning/Rubble Pits, located near each of the major operating areas at the Savannah River Plant (SRP), began collecting burnable waste in 1951. The waste was incinerated monthly. All Burning/Rubble Pits are currently closed except for Burning/Rubble P...

I. W. Marine L. A. Huber W. F. Johnson

1987-01-01

156

MASTER - The Pit and the Pendulum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The short story, The Pit and the Pendulum by Edgar Allan Poe, remains a masterful work of psychological narrative writing, but for the careful reader, it also is a wonderful source of some interesting computational problems. The Pit and Pendulum model allows the reader to analyze the statements made in Poe's story.

157

Geotechnical applications in open pit mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed geotechnical data is often a major unknown factor in open pit design and mining, the lack of which constitutes a significant risk in any mining venture. As geotechnical data is accumulated so the risk of unforeseen conditions reduces, and so safety and productivity can be increased. Previously, most geotechnical work undertaken at open pit mines has focused on the

A. R. Bye; F. G. Bell

2001-01-01

158

Modelling open pit dynamics using discrete simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective in any mining operation is to exploit ore at the lowest possible cost with the prospect of maximizing profits. The planning of an open pit mine is an economic exercise, constrained by certain geological, operating, technological and local field factors. Heuristic methods, economic parametric analysis, operations research and genetic algorithms have been used to formulate periodic open pit

H. Askari-Nasab; S. Frimpong; J. Szymanski

2007-01-01

159

Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

2012-01-01

160

Observations of cavitation erosion pit formation.  

PubMed

Previous investigations showed that a single cavitation bubble collapse can cause more than one erosion pit (Philipp & Lauterborn [1]). But our preliminary study showed just the opposite - that in some cases a single cavitation pit can result from more than one cavitation event. The present study shows deeper investigation of this phenomenon. An investigation of the erosion effects of ultrasonic cavitation on a thin aluminum foil was made. In the study we observed the formation of individual pits by means of high speed cameras (>1000 fps) and quantitatively evaluated the series of images by stereoscopy and the shape from shading method. This enabled the reconstruction of the time evolution of the pit shape. Results show how the foil is deformed several times before a hole is finally punctured. It was determined that larger single pits result from several impacts of shock waves on the same area, which means that they are merely special cases of pit clusters (pit clusters where pits overlap perfectly). Finally it was shown that a thin foil, which is subjected to cavitation, behaves as a membrane. It was concluded that the physics behind erosion depends significantly on the means of generating cavitation (acoustic, hydrodynamic, laser light) and the specimen characteristics (thin foil, massive specimen), which makes comparison of results of materials resistance to cavitation from different experimental set-ups questionable. Further development of the shape from shading method in the scope of cavitation erosion testing will enable better evaluation of cavitation erosion models. PMID:23403307

Dular, Matevž; Delgosha, Olivier Coutier; Petkovšek, Martin

2013-07-01

161

Retinoschisis associated with optic nerve pits. 1988.  

PubMed

Stereoscopic transparencies studied with magnification and projection suggest that the retinal elevation that communicates with optic pits is frequently a schisislike separation of the internal layers of retina. Thirteen of 15 eyes with optic pits and maculopathy fit the schisis pattern. Separation of the outer layers of the retina is a secondary phenomenon that starts in the macula. PMID:22451950

Lincoff, Harvey; Lopez, Robert; Kreissig, Ingrid; Yannuzzi, Lawrence; Cox, Morton; Burton, Thomas

2012-02-01

162

Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994-1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs that Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

1999-01-01

163

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

2010-01-01

164

Development of a synthetic PCB mixture resembling the average polychlorinated biphenyl profile in Chicago air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of environmental and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ideally performed with PCB mixtures reflecting the composition of environmental PCB profiles to mimic actual effects and to account for complex interactions among individual PCB congeners. Unfortunately, only a few laboratory studies employing synthetic PCB mixtures have been reported, in part because of the challenges associated with the preparation

H. X. Zhao; A. Adamcakova-Dodd; D. Hu; K. C. Hornbuckle; C. L. Just; L. W. Robertson; P. S. Thorne; H.-J. Lehmler

2010-01-01

165

KINETICS OF PITTING CORROSION IN GELS.  

SciTech Connect

An investigation has been carried out on stainless steel to determine the important parameters that related the changes in pH around pits to the current coming from the pits. Potentiodynamic measurements at 1 mV/s were made on Type 302 stainless steel in agar containing 1M NaCl and a wide range pH indicator. Many pits suddenly appeared at the pitting potential, as indicated by the red, low pH region around the pits. Simulations of the changes in pH were based on diffusion from a point current source. The results also were considered in terms of the effects of a minimum detectable thickness of pH change within the gel.

ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.

2000-10-22

166

Congenital optic nerve pit in trisomy 18.  

PubMed

The authors report the first case of trisomy 18 associated with a clinically detectable optic nerve pit. A female infant with a birth weight of 2,150 g was born by cesarean section to a healthy 40-year-old woman at 38 weeks of gestation. Trisomy 18 had been diagnosed by prenatal genetic testing. Ophthalmologic examination was remarkable for bilateral narrowed palpebral fissures with punctal agenesis, corectopic pupils without reaction to light, bilateral inferior peripapillary retinochoroidal hypopigmentation, and significant optic nerve cupping in the left eye with associated temporal optic nerve pit. It has generally been accepted that optic nerve pits are a congenital anomaly. However, the pathophysiological background of optic nerve pits remains unclear and controversial. This is the first clinical and photographic documentation of an optic nerve pit in a neonate and in Edwards syndrome. PMID:24601433

Villegas, Victor M; Chang, Jonathan S; Hess, Ditte J; Berrocal, Audina M

2013-01-01

167

Congenital optic nerve pit in trisomy 18.  

PubMed

The authors report the first case of trisomy 18 associated with a clinically detectable optic nerve pit. A female infant with a birth weight of 2,150 g was born by cesarean section to a healthy 40-year-old woman at 38 weeks of gestation. Trisomy 18 had been diagnosed by prenatal genetic testing. Ophthalmologic examination was remarkable for bilateral narrowed palpebral fissures with punctal agenesis, corectopic pupils without reaction to light, bilateral inferior peripapillary retinochoroidal hypopigmentation, and significant optic nerve cupping in the left eye with associated temporal optic nerve pit. It has generally been accepted that optic nerve pits are a congenital anomaly. However, the pathophysiological background of optic nerve pits remains unclear and controversial. This is the first clinical and photographic documentation of an optic nerve pit in a neonate and in Edwards syndrome. PMID:23739588

Villegas, Victor M; Chang, Jonathan S; Hess, Ditte J; Berrocal, Audina M

2013-01-01

168

Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (?0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

2010-06-01

169

Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

1994-07-01

170

Health Consultation: (Updated Assessment of PCB Exposures in Anniston, AL) Anniston PCB Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama. EPA Facility ID: ALD004019048.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2001, an Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Exposure Investigation (EI) evaluated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the blood of certain persons living near a former PCB production facility in Anniston, Alabama. In response...

2006-01-01

171

LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

172

Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

2014-01-01

173

Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem): differences in characteristics and misuse.  

PubMed

There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate. PMID:19493637

Carter, Lawrence P; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R

2009-09-01

174

Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem®): differences in characteristics and misuse  

PubMed Central

There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate.

Carter, Lawrence P.; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R.

2009-01-01

175

Illicit Drug and Injecting Equipment Markets inside English Prisons: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, disrupting the supply of illicit drugs and injecting equipment inside Her Majesty's (HM) prisons has become an important focus for prison drug policy. This paper presents findings from qualitative research, which invited 24 drug injectors with prison experience to discuss the role and operation of illicit drug and injecting…

Hughes, Rhidian

2003-01-01

176

Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

2010-01-01

177

Contracting for Treatment Termination to Reduce Illicit Drug Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Failures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)

Dolan, Michael P.; And Others

1985-01-01

178

Looking at forensic intelligence from the metaphysical perspective: citing illicit heroin profiling as an example  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as illicit drugs are concerned, drug profiling utilizing various analytical methods to trace the origin, manufacturing process and distribution chain is a key element in forensic intelligence. Setting aside the practical use of drug profiles, forensic laboratory findings with close reference to that of illicit heroin could also provide metaphyiscal insights about the nature of such intelligence work.

Kar-Weng Chan; Guan-Huat Tan; Richard C. S. Wong

2012-01-01

179

Predictors of methadone maintenance treatment utilization in a multisite cohort of illicit opioid users (OPICAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been a primary treatment response to illicit opioid use in Canada for decades, analytical treatment data are scarce. Using data from the multisite OPICAN cohort of illicit opioid and other drug users repeatedly assessed between 2002 (baseline) and 2005 (last follow-up [FU]), we (1) longitudinally examined characteristics associated with MMT uptake between baseline and

Benedikt Fischer; Michelle Firestone Cruz; Jayadeep Patra; Jürgen Rehm

2008-01-01

180

Application of chemometric methods in searching for illicit Leuckart amphetamine sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chromatogram of contaminants of illicit amphetamine is referred to as contamination profile. The profile depends on the method and conditions of the drug synthesis. Therefore, it allows to link a drug sample sized by the police to the source of illicit production as well as enables to find out the links between dealers and users. In our study, statistical

Waldemar Krawczyk; Andrzej Parczewski

2001-01-01

181

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

182

FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM PCB METHOD: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

183

PCB's in fish from selected waters of New York State.  

PubMed

PCB residues in fish from 41 stations throughout New York State were monitored in 1975. Nearly all fish contained PCB's in detectable amounts although the levels of contamination and specific Aroclor varied. The Hudson River contained the highest known PCB concentrations within the United States; levels often exceeded 100 ppm. Other waters and fish which were significantly contaminated include Lake Ontario salmonids and Cayuga Lake lake trout. Onondaga Lake, previously closed to fishing because of mercury contamination, also appears to have abnormally high levels of PCB's approaching in some instances the action level of the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Samples from marine waters generally have contaminant levels substantially below 5.0 ppm. PMID:414199

Spagnoli, J J; Skinner, L C

1977-09-01

184

40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with ç 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274...

2013-07-01

185

PCB Rogowski coils for high di\\/dt current measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to measure di\\/dt in the range of 10 to 20 kA\\/?s, air cored coils can be used. The coil's natural frequency limits the bandwidth of this probe. PCB coils have a natural frequency of 10 MHz or more. Theoretical analysis and measurements with di\\/dt of 5 kA\\/?s and 500 A are presented, employing the PCB coil in a

Nicolas Karrer; Patrick Hofer-Noser

2000-01-01

186

PCB racetrack fluxgate sensor with improved temperature stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost flat fluxgate magnetic field sensor with amorphous racetrack core embedded in the printed circuit board (PCB) is presented. The excitation and pick-up coils are formed of copper routes and vias on the PCB. Sensor versions with single and double layer of the core material are compared. The improved core-embedding technique reduced internal temperature-induced stresses and thus significantly increased

J. Kubik; L. Pavel; P. Ripka

2006-01-01

187

PCB decomposition and formation in thermal treatment plant equipment.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated both the decomposition and unintentional formation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners during combustion experiments of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and automobile shredder residue (ASR) at several stages in thermal treatment plant equipment composed of a primary combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber, and other equipments for flue gas treatment. In both experiments, the unintentional formation of PCB occurred in the primary combustion chamber at the same time as the decomposition of PCB in input samples. By combusting RDF, non-ortho-PCB predominantly formed, whereas ortho-PCB and symmetric chlorinated biphenyls (e.g., #52/69, #87/108, and #151) tended to be decomposed. ASR formed the higher chlorinated biphenyls more than RDF. These by-products from ASR had no structural relation with ortho-chlorine. Lower chlorinated biphenyls appeared as predominant homologues at the final exit site, while all congeners from lower to higher chlorinated PCB were unintentionally formed as by-products in the primary combustion chamber. This result showed that the flue gas treatment equipments effectively removed higher chlorinated PCB. Input marker congeners of RDF were #11, #39, and #68, while those for ASR were #11, #101, #110/120, and #118. Otherwise, combustion marker congeners of RDF were #13/12, #35, #77, and #126, while those for ASR were #170, #194, #206, and #209. While the concentration of PCB increased significantly in the primary combustion chamber, the value of toxicity equivalency quantity for dioxin-like PCB decreased in the secondary combustion chamber and the flue gas treatment equipments. PMID:17134732

Ishikawa, Yukari; Noma, Yukio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Yoshihito; Sakai, Shin-ichi

2007-04-01

188

Helminth transmission in simple pit latrines.  

PubMed

Simple pit latrines often represent the cheapest form of sanitation for poor communities. However, simple latrines lack a concrete slab and are therefore classified as an unimproved form of sanitation. This study collected soil samples in simple pit latrines and analysed them for the presence of helminth eggs; 71% of all collected samples were positive for eggs. The absence of a roof from the latrine was the only factor associated with lower egg concentrations. The findings support the classification of simple pit latrines as an unimproved form of sanitation. PMID:22939710

Baker, Sarah M; Ensink, Jeroen H J

2012-11-01

189

Prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants in an undergraduate student sample.  

PubMed

To assess the prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants and alcohol and other drugs (AODs), associated with these motives, the authors distributed a self-administered Web survey TO a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate college students. Of the study participants, 8.1% reported lifetime and 5.4% reported past-year illicit use of prescription stimulants. The most prevalent motives given for illicit use of prescription stimulants were to (1) help with concentration, (2) increase alertness, and (3) provide a high. Although men were more likely than women were to report illicit use of prescription stimulants, the authors found no gender differences in motives. Regardless of motive, illicit use of prescription stimulants was associated with elevated rates of AOD use, and number of motives endorsed and AOD use were positively related. Students appear to be using these prescription drugs non-medically, mainly to enhance performance or get high. PMID:15900989

Teter, Christian J; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A; Boyd, Carol J; Guthrie, Sally K

2005-01-01

190

Optical interconnection technology on electro/optical PCB (EOPCB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chip-to-chip optical interconnection solution on PCB is presented in this paper. Both electrical and optical interconnections are used in common printed circuit board (PCB) to construct electro/optical PCB (EOPCB). An additional optical layer with waveguide structure is used in the PCB. So the EOPCB integrates the information medium "light" into the board. Optical transmitter is vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) array. Optical receiver is PIN array. VCSEL array with its driver IC chip and PIN with its receiver IC chip are bonded with LSI chip by ball-grid array (BGA) technology. Then the LSI chips with VCSEL and PIN arrays are bonded on PCB by surface-mount technology (SMT). Multimode waveguides are used as optical layer in PCB. In order to couple light beam between optical transmitter/receiver with waveguide layer, a direct coupling method by the waveguide with 45° end face is presented. VCSEL chip is placed close to the 45° end face of the waveguide. The light beams from VCSEL array are emitted into the 45° end face directly and reflected by 90°, then coupled into the waveguide layer. No microlens arrays are needed for collimating light beam array in this configuration. A proof-of-principle experiment is made to verify the feasibility of this approach.

Luo, Fengguang; Cao, Mingcui; Zhou, Xinjun; Xu, Jun; Luo, Zhixiang; Yuan, Jin; Fu, Kai

2005-01-01

191

A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

2004-01-01

192

Selective retention of hydroxylated PCB metabolites in blood  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are important environmental contaminants, and their toxicity to wildlife and humans are of major concern. PCBs form persistent and abundant metabolites, PCB methyl sulfones, that accumulate in biota. We now report that certain hydroxylated PCB metabolites show a strong and selective accumulation in mammalian blood. Plasma from experimentally PCB-dosed rats and blood from environmentally exposed grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and humans are analyzed. Among all possible hydroxylated metabolites of PCB that may be formed, only a few, dominated by 4-OH-2,3,5,3[prime],4[prime]-pentachlorobiphenyl and 4-OH-2,3,5,6,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-heptachlorobiphenyl, were found in the blood samples. All identified compounds have a structure with the hydroxy group in a para or meta position, with chlorine atoms on vicinal carbon atoms. The concentrations of hydroxylated PCB in the blood were almost in the same range as the most persistent PCB congeners both for seals and humans. 42 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Bergman, A.; Klassom-Wehler, E.; Kuroki, Hiroaki (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))

1994-05-01

193

Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa  

PubMed Central

This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2008-01-01

194

Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.  

PubMed

This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2010-11-01

195

Factors Associated with High-Frequency Illicit Methadone Use among Rural Appalachian Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of illicit methadone as well as methadone-related overdose deaths. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe factors associated low- and high-frequency methadone use in a cohort of rural Appalachian drug users. Methods Interviews assessing sociodemographics, illicit drug use and drug treatment, psychiatric disorders, health, and sociometric drug network characteristics were conducted with 503 rural drug users between 2008 and 2010. A two-level mixed effects regression model was utilized to differentiate low- (one use per month or less in the past 6 months) versus high-frequency (daily or weekly use in the past 6 months) illicit methadone users. Results The lifetime prevalence of illicit methadone use in this population was 94.7% (n=476) and slightly less than half (46.3%) were high-frequency users. In the mixed effects regression model, initiating illicit methadone use at a younger age was associated with high-frequency illicit methadone use. Whereas taking a prescribed medication for a physical problem, undergoing additional weeks of outpatient drug free treatment, daily OxyContin® use in the past month, and having fewer ties and second order connections in the drug network reduced the odds of high-frequency illicit methadone use. Conclusions Rates of illicit methadone use and high-frequency illicit methadone use among this sample of rural drug users were considerably higher than those previously reported in the literature. Health practitioners in rural areas should routinely screen for illicit opioid use, including methadone.

Hall, Martin T.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

2013-01-01

196

Perinatal exposure to low doses of PCB 153 and PCB 126 affects maternal and neonatal immunityin goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant does (10 goats\\/group) were dosed orally either with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 (98 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d) or PCB 126 (ng\\/kg body weight\\/d) dissolved in corn oil or with corn oil only (control group) from gestation day (GD) 60 until delivery. An additional group (n = 5) of pregnant does received the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.4 µg\\/kg body weight\\/d)

Jan L. Lyche; Erik Ropstad; Hans J. S. Larsen; Janneche Utne Skaare; Aage Tverdal; Grethe M. Johansen

2006-01-01

197

Changes in pit membrane porosity due to deflection and stretching: the role of vestured pits.  

PubMed

The effect of increasing pressure difference (DeltaP) on intervessel pit membrane porosity was studied in two angiosperm tree species with differing pit architecture. Fraxinus americana L. possesses typical angiosperm bordered pit structure while Sophora japonica L. exhibits well-developed vestures in intervessel pit chambers. It was hypothesized (a) that large DeltaP across intervessel pits would cause the deflection of pit membranes in the stems of F. americana resulting in significant increases in porosity and thus lower cavitation thresholds, and (b) that the presence of vestures would prevent the deflection of pit membranes in S. japonica. To determine if the porosity of pit membranes increased under mechanical stress, suspensions of colloidal gold, 5 nm and 20 nm in diameter, were perfused across intervessel pit membranes at DeltaP ranging from 0.25 MPa to 6.0 MPa. The effect of increasing DeltaP on membrane porosity was also tested by comparing air seeding thresholds (Pa) in stems perfused with water or a solution with lower surface tension. Air seeding and colloidal gold experiments indicated that pit membrane porosity increased significantly with DeltaP in F. americana. In S. japonica, increases in permeability to colloidal gold with DeltaP were small and maximum pore diameters predicted from Pa were independent of DeltaP, suggesting that vestures limited the degree to which the membrane can be deflected from the centre of the pit cavity. This provides the first experimental evidence that vestures reduce the probability of air seeding through pit membranes. PMID:15181107

Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Smets, Erik; Holbrook, N Michele

2004-07-01

198

The pit-craters and pit-crater-filling lavas of Masaya volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lava flowing into a pit crater will become entrapped to form an inactive lava lake. At Masaya volcano (Nicaragua) pit filling lavas are exposed in the walls of Nindiri, Santiago and San Pedro pits. Mapping of these lavas shows that fill can involve emplacement of both ’a’a and pahoehoe, with single fill units ranging in thickness from 2 to 22 m. Thick units with columnar joints were emplaced as simple inactive lava lakes during high effusion rate episodes. Sequences of thinner units, which can form pit floor shields or compound lakes, were emplaced at lower effusion rates. Lava withdrawal caused unsupported sections of three 20-m-thick units to subside, resulting in unit flexure and faulting, and viscous peeling features reveal that subsidence occurred while at least one unit was still partially molten. Where withdrawal has not occurred, fill sequences are flat lying and symmetrically distributed around the feeder structures (cinder cones and dykes). The filled Nindiri pit holds 5 × 107 m3 of lava in a 215-m-thick sequence. Partial fill of Santiago pit with 1 × 107 m3 of lava has filled the pit with a 110-m-thick lava sequence, of which ˜50% has been consumed by formation of a secondary pit. Altogether, 6.4 × 107 m3 of lava was erupted into Nindiri and Santiago during 1525-1965, with 94% of this volume remaining pit-contained; the remainder forms a north flank lava flow field. Pit development and filling is a dynamic and ephemeral process, having short-lived effects on volcano morphology, where pits develop and fill over hours-to-centuries. However, pits play an important role in shaping an edifice, representing lava sinks and controlling whether lavas are trapped or able to spread onto the flanks.

Harris, Andrew J. L.

2009-07-01

199

Project Development Specification for Valve Pit Manifold  

SciTech Connect

Establishes the performance, design development, and test requirements for the valve pit manifolds. The system engineering approach was used to develop this document in accordance with the guidelines laid out in the Systems Engineering Management Plan for Project W-314.

MCGREW, D.L.

2000-09-28

200

Thermal analysis of simulated Pantex pit storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates potential pit storage configurations that could be used at the Mason and Hanger Pantex Plant. The study utilizes data from a thermal test series performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that simulated these stora...

S. M. Aceves

1996-01-01

201

Investigating Processes of Sedimentation in Gravel Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a field investigation where students will explore and observe sediments within a local gravel pit and from their observation create an investigation that will help to determine the nature of the sediments.

Olson, Melissa

202

Defect induced asymmetric pit formation on hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

Defect sites on bone minerals play a critical role in bone remodeling processes. We investigated single crystal hydroxyapatite (100) surfaces bearing crystal defects under acidic dissolution conditions using real-time in situ atomic force microscopy. At defect sites, surface structure-dependent asymmetric hexagonal etch pits were formed, which dominated the overall dissolution rate. Meanwhile, dissolution from the flat terraces proceeded by stochastic formation of flat bottom etch pits. The resulting pit shapes were intrinsically dictated by the HAP crystal structure. Computational modeling also predicted different step energies associated with different facets of the asymmetric etch pits. Our microscopic observations of HAP dissolution are significant for understanding the effects of local surface structure on the bone mineral remodeling process and provide useful insights for the design of novel therapies for treating osteoporosis and dental caries. PMID:18720964

Kwon, Ki-Young; Wang, Eddie; Chung, Alice; Chang, Neil; Saiz, Eduardo; Choe, Uh-Joo; Koobatian, Maxwell; Lee, Seung-Wuk

2008-10-01

203

Manure pit injuries: Rare, deadly, and preventable  

PubMed Central

A male worker entered an underground manure pit and lost consciousness. His coworker tried to rescue him and also lost consciousness in the pit. Emergency service arrived in minutes and removed both of them from the pit. Both men suffered anoxic brain injury and died in the hospital. Cases from Iowa Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program Data Base program were reviewed. Occupational mortality rate was found to be 7.4 per 10,000 per year for occupational deaths related to agriculture compared to 3.1 per 10,000 per year for deaths not related to agriculture. In most of the cases associated with sewage or livestock waste handling, victims died of asphyxiation. While manure pit injury is rare, it has an extremely high fatality rate. The most effective strategy to decrease mortality is active prevention.

Hallam, Daniel M; Liao, Junlin; Choi, Kent

2012-01-01

204

Unique temperature-activated neurons from pit viper thermosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Rattlesnakes, copperheads, and other pit vipers have highly sensitive heat detectors known as pit organs, which are used to sense and strike at prey. However, it is not currently known how temperature change triggers cellular and molecular events that activate neurons supplying the pit organ. We dissociated and cultured neurons from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) in nervating the pit

Todd C. Pappas; Massoud Motamedi; Burgess N. Christensen

2004-01-01

205

POST-BETZE PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY PREDICTION, NEVADA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barrick Goldstrike Mine is located in the Carlin Trend, about 20 miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada. The majority of the ore mined at Goldstrike is from the Post-Betze open pit, the largest open pit operation in Nevada. Nevada law requires that the water quality of temporary or permanent reservoirs that may develop in open pits be periodically tested. Pit

William M. Schafer; Mark Logsdon; Guosheng Zhan; Ron Espell

206

Clearing rain from open-pit mine  

SciTech Connect

Because of the large yearly rainfall in Panguna, Bougainveille Island, North Solomons Province, Papua New Guinea, unique problems have developed for the open-pit copper mine operated there by Bougainville Copper Limited. The large size of ths pit intercepts numerous streams and drainways which enter the area. The article discusses various methods to reduce and eliminate this water. Methods discussed are channels, pumping and tunneling.

Not Available

1984-05-01

207

Concentration cells and pitting corrosion of copper  

SciTech Connect

Certain aspects of copper tube failure in drinking water systems are inconsistent with the membrane cell theory of copper pit propagation, which postulates that cathodic reactions occur immediately above the pit tubercle. To examine the basis for this theory, classic experiments of Lucey were revisited and alternative interpretations were apparent that are consistent with concentration cell effects. In fact, under chemical conditions thought to support Type 1 copper pitting, more than 90% of electron loss at the anode was accounted for by concentration cell effects rather than cathodic reactions occurring above the pit. In addition, the qualitative trends in currents arising from concentration cells are consistent with practical observations regarding the role of bulk solution pH in Type 1 pitting; that is, waters between pH 6.5 and pH 7.8 sustain currents that support pitting, but at pH {lt} 6.5 or pH {gt} 7.8, currents become self-limiting.

Sosa, M.; Patel, S.; Edwards, M.

1999-11-01

208

Mass Loading and Removal of Select Illicit Drugs in Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in New York State and Estimation of Illicit Drug Usage in Communities through Wastewater Analysis.  

PubMed

Sewage epidemiology is a rapidly expanding field that can provide information on illicit drug usage in communities, based on the measured concentrations in samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, select illicit drugs (six drugs and eight metabolites) were determined on a daily basis for a week in wastewater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge from two WWTPs in the Albany area in New York State. The WWTP that served a larger population (?100?000, with a flow rate of 83?300 m(3)/d) showed 3.2 (methadone) to 51 (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; MDA) times higher mass flows of illicit drugs than did the WWTP that served a smaller population (?15?000, with a flow rate of 6850 m(3)/d). The consumption rate of target illicit drugs in the communities served by the two WWTPs was estimated to range from 1.67 to 3510 mg/d/1000 people. Between the dissolved and particulate phases, the fraction of methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), amphetamine, and MDA sorbed to SPM ranged from 34.3% to 41.1% of the total mass in the waste stream. The removal efficiencies of illicit drugs from the two WWTPs ranged from 4% (norcocaine) to 99% (cocaine); however, methamphetamine, methadone, and EDDP showed a negative removal in WWTPs. The environmental emission of illicit drugs from WWTP discharges was calculated to range from 0.38 (MDEA) to 67.5 (EDDP) mg/d/1000 people. Other markers such as caffeine, paraxanthine, nicotine, and cotinine were found to predict the concentrations of select illicit drugs in raw wastewater (r(2) = 0.20-0.79; p ? 0.029). PMID:24865581

Subedi, Bikram; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2014-06-17

209

Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. Objectives (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. Methods For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Results Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000–2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Conclusions Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15?years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported.

van Walbeek, Corne

2014-01-01

210

Biotransformation of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) by liver microsomes from four species of sea turtles.  

PubMed

The rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners were determined in hepatic microsomes from four species of sea turtles, green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Hydroxylation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), an ortho-meta unsubstituted rodent cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A substrate PCB, was not observed in sea turtle microsomes. Sea turtle microsomes hydroxylated 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), a meta-para unsubstituted rodent P450 family 2 substrate PCB, at rates ranging from less than 0.5 to 53 pmol/min/mg protein. The P450 inhibitor ketoconazole inhibited hydroxylation of PCB 52, supporting the role of P450 catalysis. Sea turtle PCB 52 hydroxlyation rates strongly correlated with immunodetected P450 family 2-like and less so with P450 family 3-like hepatic proteins. Testosterone 6?-, 16?-, 16?-hydroxylase activities were also significantly correlated with the expression of these enzymes, indicating that P450 family 2 or P450 family 3 proteins are responsible for PCB hydroxylation in sea turtles. This study indicated species-specific PCB biotransformation in sea turtles and preferential elimination of meta-para unsubstituted PCB congeners over ortho-meta unsubstituted PCB congeners consistent with PCB accumulation patterns observed in tissues of sea turtles. PMID:21480586

Richardson, Kristine L; Schlenk, Daniel

2011-05-16

211

Illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries: a cross-sectional survey.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. DESIGN: Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. SETTING: 18 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A comprehensive measure called an Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: (1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, (2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, (3) it had an inappropriate health warning or (4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. RESULTS: Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. PMID:23233420

Joossens, Luk; Lugo, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gilmore, Anna B; Clancy, Luke; Gallus, Silvano

2012-12-10

212

The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.  

PubMed

Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve measurement approaches and estimates. PMID:24489886

Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

2014-01-01

213

Plant uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under varying cropping conditions.  

PubMed

A 60-d greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under single cropping and intercropping conditions involving three crop plant species: pumpkin, soybean and corn. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil surface was also tested. The results show that while uptake of PCB-5 by the test plant species is possible and the root concentration of PCB-5 had a control on the upward transport of PCB-5 to the above-ground portion of the plants, the PCB-5 extracted by the plants mainly accumulated in the root materials. Phytoextraction contributed insignificantly toward the loss of the soil-borne PCB-5. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil was recorded but it appeared that this did not result in a marked loss of PCB-5 in the bulk soil though it might cause remarkable removal of PCB-5 in a thin layer of the topsoil (1 mm). It is likely that the in-soil biodegradation contributed markedly to the observed reduction in soil-borne PCB-5. The in-soil biodegradation of PCB-5 was significantly enhanced under intercropping conditions, which appeared to be related to increased microbial activities, particularly bacterial activities. The soil residual PCB-5 was correlated with the activity of the following enzymes: catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:21724228

Li, Huashou; Liu, Longyuan; Lin, Chuxia; Wang, Shaorui

2011-08-01

214

Modeling trapping mechanism for PCB adsorption on activated carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) in fishmeal and fish oil produced for use in feed for salmon is above present European legislation levels in some regions of the world and different decontamination approaches have been proposed [1]. One of these is adsorption on activated carbon. This approach appears to be efficient for adsorption of PCDD/F but less efficient for DL-PCB [2]. Activated carbon consists of slit pores with average sizes of 20 - 50 A?ngstroms. One hypothesis [2] for the mechanism of trapping DL-PCB is reduced ability for intramolecular movements of the PCB molecules inside the slit pores. In order to investigate this hypothesis we have used quantum mechanics [3] to characterize two DL-PCB congeners, respectively congener 77 (3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) and Triolein (18:1) [4] as a major constituent of the solvent fish oil. A model for activated carbon was constructed using a crystal structure of graphite from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database [5]. The crystal structure used was originally from Wyckoff [6]. A small program had to be written to generate the desired graphite structure as it contains no less than 31232 Carbon atoms. Partial atomic charges were estimated using QM with DFT/B3LYP/6-311+g** and SM6 [7].

Jensen, Bjørnar; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Oterhals, A.?ge

2012-12-01

215

Remediation of PCB contaminated soils using iron nano-particles.  

PubMed

In this study, iron nano-particles were used to remediate PCB contaminated soil and an attempt was made to maximize PCB destruction in each treatment step. The results show that nano-particles do aid in the dechlorination process and high PCB destruction efficiencies can be achieved. The destruction efficiency during the preliminary treatment (mixing of soil and iron nano-particles in water) can be increased by increasing the water temperature. The maximum thermal destruction (pyrolysis/combustion of soil after preliminary treatment) of soil-bound PCBs occurs at 300 degrees C in air. A minimum total PCB destruction efficiency of 95% can be achieved by this process. The effect of changing treatment parameters such as type of mixing, time of mixing and mixing conditions and application of other catalysts like iron oxide and V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) was also investigated. It was found that at 300 degrees C in air, iron oxide and V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) are also good catalysts for remediating PCB contaminated soils. PMID:16962632

Varanasi, Patanjali; Fullana, Andres; Sidhu, Sukh

2007-01-01

216

NELL-1 increases pre-osteoblast mineralization using both phosphate transporter Pit1 and Pit2  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 accelerates extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 significantly increases intracellular inorganic phosphate levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 positively regulates osteogenesis but not proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NELL-1 regulates inorganic phosphate transporter activity. -- Abstract: NELL-1 is a potent osteoinductive molecule that enhances bone formation in multiple animal models through currently unidentified pathways. In the present manuscript, we hypothesized that NELL-1 may regulate osteogenic differentiation accompanied by alteration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) entry into the osteoblast via sodium dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporters. To determine this, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured in the presence of recombinant human (rh)NELL-1 or rhBMP-2. Analysis was performed for intracellular Pi levels through malachite green staining, Pit-1 and Pit-2 expression, and forced upregulation of Pit-1 and Pit-2. Results showed rhNELL-1 to increase MC3T3-E1 matrix mineralization and Pi influx associated with activation of both Pit-1 and Pit-2 channels, with significantly increased Pit-2 production. In contrast, Pi transport elicited by rhBMP-2 showed to be associated with increased Pit-1 production only. Next, neutralizing antibodies against Pit-1 and Pit-2 completely abrogated the Pi influx effect of rhNELL-1, suggesting rhNELL-1 is dependent on both transporters. These results identify one potential mechanism of action for rhNELL-1 induced osteogenesis and highlight a fundamental difference between NELL-1 and BMP-2 signaling.

Cowan, Catherine M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zhang, Xinli; James, Aaron W.; Mari Kim, T.; Sun, Nichole [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wu, Benjamin [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Plaza,7523 Boelter Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ting, Kang [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Dental and Craniofacial Research Institute and Section of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, 40833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Soo, Chia, E-mail: bsoo@ucla.edu [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [UCLA and Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Orthopaedic, Hospital Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 2641 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-06-08

217

Current Intelligence Bulletin 45, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB's): Potential Health Hazards form Electrical Equipment Fires or Failures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous fire-related incidents involving electrical equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have resulted in widespread contamination of buildings with PCB's and, in some cases, with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF's) and polychlorinat...

1986-01-01

218

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appliances from which PCB small capacitors have been removed (shredder fluff). (ii) Other PCB bulk product waste, sampled...conditions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, (e.g., paper or felt gaskets contaminated by liquid PCBs in a...

2010-07-01

219

40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appliances from which PCB small capacitors have been removed (shredder fluff). (ii) Other PCB bulk product waste, sampled...conditions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, (e.g., paper or felt gaskets contaminated by liquid PCBs in a...

2009-07-01

220

40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act....

2010-07-01

221

40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED...On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With Ã...concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight...

2013-07-01

222

40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8...IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act....

2009-07-01

223

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: IMMUNOASSAY KIT, ENVIROLOGIX, INC., PCB IN SOIL TUBE ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCB's in soi...

224

Cleaning Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contaminated Garden Soil by Phytoremediation  

PubMed Central

A poplar planted system resulted in the complete removal of at least 19 of the 29 potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners detected in trace amounts (37.9 ng g-1 in total) in a commercial garden soil, while the unplanted soil only had 2 congeners completely removed after 96 days. In addition, the most recalcitrant congener, PCB 52, only decreased by 0.1% in the unplanted reactors while declining by 22.3% in the planted system. There was also greater removal of a PCB 77 spike in the planted system when compared to the unplanted system, 17.2% in the planted system versus 2.8% in the unplanted system. The results suggest that phytoremediation may be an effective tool in cleaning commercially available garden soils that are lightly contaminated with PCBs.

Schnoor, Jerald L.

2013-01-01

225

PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm.  

PubMed

Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

2014-01-01

226

PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.

Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

2014-01-01

227

Temporal trends toward stability of Hudson River PCB contamination  

SciTech Connect

PCB was used in the manufacture of electrical equipment at two General Electric Company (GE) facilities located on the upper Hudson River about 1 km apart in Fort Edward and Hudson Falls (Washington Co.) New York. Discharges of PCB from these plants resulted in concentrations in bottom sediments of the Hudson River which now exceed those of other major rivers by about two orders of magnitude and those of small remote streams by more than three orders of magnitude. Intensive monitoring was initiated in 1977 by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to ascertain the magnitude of and trends in contaminant conditions of biotic and physical strata. The paper summarizes PCB trends from 1977 to 1981 in three major monitoring components - water, multiplate residues and fish.

Sloan, R.J. (New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany); Simpson, K.W.; Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

1983-10-01

228

Electrical properties of dielectric foil for embedded PCB capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the methods of achieving high packaging density of passive elements on the PCB is using the capacitors embedded in multilayer PCB. Test structures consisting of embedded capacitors were fabricated using the FaradFlex® capacitive internal layers. Impedance spectroscopy and equivalent circuit modelling was used to determine their electrical properties such as the capacitance, parasitic resistance and inductance. The use of several stages of accelerated ageing allowed us to test the durability of the structures. The results showed good quality stability of the embedded elements. The spatial distribution of the capacitance of the test structures on the surface of the PCB form was tested. The influence of the process parameters during lamination on the values of embedded capacitors was revealed.

Piasecki, T.; Nitsch, K.; Dziedzic, A.; Chabowski, K.; St?plewski, W.; Kozio?, G.

2012-12-01

229

PCB Congeners and Dechlorination in Sediments of Upper Sheboygan River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine hand-collected sediment cores were obtained for PCB concentration analysis and dating from the Upper Sheboygan River, Wisconsin, USA. The primary PCB Aroclors in the Upper Sheboygan River were 1248 (50%) and 1254 (50%). The total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.1–104 ppm (based on dry weight). The PCB data obtained from the sampling were analyzed using a

Juan Li; Msengi K. Mgonella; Philip A. Bzdusek; Erik R. Christensen

2005-01-01

230

Illicit Drug Abuse Among Military 18-25 Year Olds: Policy, Principles, Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents the patterns of illicit drug use (substance abuse) among military personnel 18 - 25 years of age. The extant data, current literature, and present policy are reviewed and analyzed. Previous investigations into the subject matter are di...

P. A. Young

1997-01-01

231

Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Illicit Drug and Nonmedical Pharmaceutical Use in Children and ...  

MedlinePLUS

... Task Force FINAL | 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Illicit Drug and Nonmedical ... among children and teens. The Final Recommendation on Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Drug Use Among Children ...

232

Multi-level governance: The way forward for European illicit drug policy?  

PubMed

Illicit drug policy has long been an area that has attracted international policy intervention, however, the European Union has declared it an area of subsidiarity, leaving ultimate control to national governments. Nevertheless, European Union preoccupation with the illicit drug issue and international drug trafficking and organised crime concerns have ensured that continued and increased cooperation in illicit drug policy is never off the agenda. This article examines the history of European integration in contrasting areas of policy and considers both the desirability and the viability of an increasingly harmonised drug policy for Europe. Finally, it proposes a model of integrated illicit drug policy that is strongly connected to developing patterns of European social policy, calling on multi-level governance and close involvement at the level of the citizen. PMID:18061875

Chatwin, Caroline

2007-12-01

233

Illicit Tobacco: Various Schemes Are Used to Evade Taxes and Fees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal and state governments have raised excise taxes on tobacco products to discourage tobacco use and increase revenues. Cross-border and illicit trade in tobacco products can undermine these policy objectives by avoiding excise taxes and increasing th...

2011-01-01

234

Illicit Drug Use among Older Adults. The NSDUH Report. September 1, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Illicit drug use generally declines as individuals move through young adulthood into middle adulthood and maturity, but research has shown that the baby-boom generation (persons born between 1946 and 1964) has relatively higher drug use rates than previou...

2011-01-01

235

3 CFR - Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for Fiscal Year 2009  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on Ecuadorian-flagged vessels. The countries of West Africa have emerged as key transit hubs for Andean cocaine...of sovereign nation-states in these two countries. West Africa has long been a hub for illicit criminal networks....

2009-01-01

236

GENERATING THE RIGHT PCB DATA DETERMINATION OF AROCLORS VERSUS PCB CONGENERS  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate. as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors'. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs. has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7.8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2.3.7.8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy. a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented.

NARQUIS CT; PRIGNANO AL

2007-11-21

237

Study on the plasma treatment of waste oil containing PCB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of treatment of transformer oil containing less than 2 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in a plant of high-temperature plasma melting of ash residues after the municipal waste incineration. The content of undecomposed PCBs, dioxins, and other hazardous waste in all secondary products of treatment (off gases; slag; secondary fly ash; process water used for slag granulation) was analyzed by different methods. Performed analytical investigations showed high ecological degree of PCB decomposition in the plant of plasma-thermal treatment of ashes after incinerators.

Park, H. S.; Lukashov, V. P.; Vashchenko, S. P.; Morozov, S. V.

2009-12-01

238

Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

Kushner, L.

1987-01-01

239

Energy saving ideas for open pit mining  

SciTech Connect

The increasing cost of diesel fuel is making truck haulage in open pit mines less economic. Belt conveyor systems have much lower operating costs but are not as flexible in their application and require more detailed pit planning. The possibility of combining the flexibility of trucks with the low cost of conveyors is offered by the application of semi-mobile crushing plants followed by belt conveyors for the main haul out of the pit. In the first part of this article. Dr.-Ing W. Rixen describes some of the semi-mobile plants already in operation, while in the second section. Dr.-Ing K.J. Benecke discusses a theoretical case study involving trucks, crushers, and conveyors. Since a belt conveyor cannot transport rocks of a size often produced when blasting hard strata, a crusher must be installed before the belt conveyor to reduce the material to a transportable size. This also serves as a primary crusher. The crushing plant is positioned centrally in the mine and trucks haul overburden and ore from the individual faces to the crusher without having to climb long gradients. Therefore, truck haul distances and operating costs are significantly reduced. The resulting savings in operating costs greatly exceeds the additional capital costs for the crushing plant. The use of fully mobile crushers directly fed by the face shovel is well established. Whereas the partial elimination of truck haulage by semi-mobile in-pit crushers is a more recent development. This latter method restricts truck haulage to in-pit operation only, saving costly haulage of material up-grade out of the pit to the crusher or overburden dump. It is particularly applicable to operations where blending is required. In such cases, the flexibility and adaptability of trucks to frequently changing faces is essential, while the semi-mobile crusher reduces haul distances to a minimum.

Rixen, W. (Krupp Industrie-Und Stahlbau, Duisberg, Germany); Benecke, K.J.

1981-05-01

240

Illicit methylphenidate use: a review of prevalence, availability, pharmacology, and consequences.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) is one of the most widely available prescription stimulants. In response to an increase in stimulant treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, the prescription and production rates of MPH have increased dramatically in the past two decades. Given that college students and adolescents might be attracted to MPH for its attention-focusing, weight loss, or euphoric effects, there is concern that the rise in therapeutic use of MPH might also coincide with a rise in illicit (non-medical) use. After a dramatic increase in the 1990s, recent large-scale surveys of high-school students suggest that rates of illicit MPH use are either holding steady, or even decreasing in this population. Across studies, annual usage rates for secondary school students are below 5%, and lifetime usage rates remain below 7%. Among college students, self-reported rates range from 1.5% to 31% among the various surveys, with the most nationally representative study estimating annual illicit MPH usage at about 4%. Although more research is needed to corroborate findings, this review was able to begin developing a profile of individuals who might be more likely to illicitly use MPH. Among college students, available evidence suggests illicit MPH users were more likely to be white, male, affiliated with a formally organized fraternity, and more likely to use other illicit and illegal substances. The majority of college students reported that the primary reason for use was to improve academic performance. Future studies should provide more information on the motivations and subtypes of illicit MPH, especially repeated users and those diagnosed with ADHD. Research on prevention of illicit MPH or other stimulants used to treat ADHD would make major contributions to the literature. PMID:19630746

Bogle, Kristin E; Smith, Bradley H

2009-05-01

241

Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem ®): Differences in characteristics and misuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes.

Lawrence P. Carter; Daniel Pardi; Jane Gorsline; Roland R. Griffiths

2009-01-01

242

HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks.

Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

2013-01-01

243

Illicit drug use, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in the US adult population.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in select populations, but it is unknown whether the same association exists in the general population. By using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5861 adults who were questioned about illicit drug use, including cocaine, methamphetamines, and heroin, during their lifetime. The primary outcome was CKD as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate ?60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation or by microalbuminuria. We also examined the association between illicit drug use and blood pressure (BP) ?120/80, ?130/85, and ?140/90 mm Hg. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between illicit drug use and CKD and BP. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was similar between illicit drug users and nonusers (100.7 vs 101.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.4), as was albuminuria (5.7 vs 6.0 mg/g creatinine, P = 0.5). Accordingly, illicit drug use was not significantly associated with CKD in logistic regression models (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.27) after adjusting for other important factors. However, illicit drug users had higher systolic (120 vs 118 mm Hg, P = 0.04) and diastolic BP (73 vs 71 mm Hg, P = 0.0003) compared with nonusers. Cocaine use was independently associated with BP ?130/85 mm Hg (OR, 1.24; CI, 1.00-1.54), especially when used more during a lifetime (6-49 times; OR, 1.42; CI, 1.06-1.91). In a representative sample of the US population, illicit drug use was not associated with CKD, but cocaine users were more likely to have elevated BP. PMID:22735028

Akkina, Sanjeev K; Ricardo, Ana C; Patel, Amishi; Das, Arjun; Bazzano, Lydia A; Brecklin, Carolyn; Fischer, Michael J; Lash, James P

2012-12-01

244

40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.359 ...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With ç...

2010-07-01

245

40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from...Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in...6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting...

2010-07-01

246

77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9644-2; CERCLA-04-2012-3763] Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County...Amended Settlement concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The...Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

2012-03-07

247

40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from...Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in...6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting...

2009-07-01

248

40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. 761.359 ...PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With ç...

2009-07-01

249

77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CERCLA-04-2012-3763; FRL 9637-7] Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County...past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston, Calhoun...Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

2012-02-27

250

Epidemiologic Studies of PCB Congener Profiles in North American Fish Consuming Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long range atmospheric and stream transport and oceanic currents drive the ecologic process of PCB deposition in the abiotic environment. In contrast short range transport via bioaccumulation–biomagnification up the food chain determines PCB congener profiles and concentrations and their adverse effects in biological organisms. Two research approaches to congeners, with potential to associate specific adverse human health effects with PCB

Arthur Chiu; Jefferson Beaubier; Jessica Chiu; Laurie Chan; Shawn Gerstenberger

2004-01-01

251

Contamination of PCB congeners in bear lake fish tissues, livers, and brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB congeners and DDE in Bear Lake fish tissues, livers, and brains were determined in this study. Three different species of fish — Northern Pike, Walleye, and Bullhead — were examined and 59 congeners were detected. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180. The levels of PCB congeners in fish from Pickeral Lake,

Min Qi; M. Anderson; S. Meyer; J. Carson

1997-01-01

252

Statistical analysis of PCB data from natural gas pipelines. Topical report, December 1989August 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes data analysis performed on existing pipeline PCB contamination data provided by two different natural gas pipeline companies. The PCB data were evaluated in the context of current regulations and EPA guidance on statistical sampling for characterization of natural gas pipelines. Previous research evaluating PCB contamination in natural gas pipelines identified several areas in which additional statistical analysis

D. L. Lewis; M. K. Bishop

1991-01-01

253

40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance...761.61(a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and...

2013-07-01

254

Illicit Drug Use Among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Treatment for Cigarette Smoking Cessation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States. In population studies and nationwide surveys, pregnant smokers report more illicit drug use than pregnant nonsmokers. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of illicit drug use among pregnant women enrolled in clinical trials for smoking cessation. Methods: Urine specimens from 115 pregnant women were tested for illicit drug use during a study intake visit (~10th week of pregnancy) and during the final antepartum (FAP) smoking-status assessment (~28th week of pregnancy). Participants smoked about 18 cigarettes/day prepregnancy, were generally young (<25 years), Caucasian, with a high school education and without private insurance. Results: About 34% of specimens from the intake visit and 25% of those from the FAP assessment tested positive for an illicit drug. The most common drug detected was marijuana (90% of positive specimens), followed by opioids (18%), cocaine (5%), benzodiazepines (3%), and methadone (3%). None tested positive for amphetamines. The majority of women (53%) who tested positive for an illicit substance at intake also tested positive at the FAP assessment. Conclusions: Approximately a quarter to a third of pregnant women enrolled in these smoking-cessation trials were determined to be using illicit drugs, with marijuana use being the most prevalent. Those providing smoking-cessation services to pregnant women may want to be prepared to assist with obtaining services for other drug use as well.

2013-01-01

255

Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street) methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use.

Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M; Chan, Christina A; Frye, Victoria; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

2008-01-01

256

Does living near a Superfund site contribute to higher polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure?  

PubMed

We assessed determinants of cord serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels among 720 infants born between 1993 and 1998 to mothers living near a PCB-contaminated Superfund site in Massachusetts, measuring the sum of 51 PCB congeners (capital sigmaPCB) and ascertaining maternal address, diet, sociodemographics, and exposure risk factors. Addresses were geocoded to obtain distance to the Superfund site and neighborhood characteristics. We modeled log10(capital sigmaPCB) as a function of potential individual and neighborhood risk factors, mapping model residuals to assess spatial correlates of PCB exposure. Similar analyses were performed for light (mono-tetra) and heavy (penta-deca) PCBs to assess potential differences in exposure pathways as a function of relative volatility. PCB-118 (relatively prevalent in site sediments and cord serum) was assessed separately. The geometric mean of capital sigmaPCB levels was 0.40 (range, 0.068-18.14) ng/g serum. Maternal age and birthplace were the strongest predictors of capital sigmaPCB levels. Maternal consumption of organ meat and local dairy products was associated with higher and smoking and previous lactation with lower capital sigmaPCB levels. Infants born later in the study had lower capital sigmaPCB levels, likely due to temporal declines in exposure and site remediation in 1994-1995. No association was found between capital sigmaPCB levels and residential distance from the Superfund site. Similar results were found with light and heavy PCBs and PCB-118. Previously reported demographic (age) and other (lactation, smoking, diet) correlates of PCB exposure, as well as local factors (consumption of local dairy products and Superfund site dredging) but not residential proximity to the site, were important determinants of cord serum PCB levels in the study community. PMID:16835064

Choi, Anna L; Levy, Jonathan I; Dockery, Douglas W; Ryan, Louise M; Tolbert, Paige E; Altshul, Larisa M; Korrick, Susan A

2006-07-01

257

Reference standards for quantitative trace analysis of PCB's by GC. Technical PCB formulations for the calibration of ECD and MSD responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of any technical PCB formulation can be determined directly by analyzing the PCB sample by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID), provided the relative molecular masses of the components are known. The responses of electron capture and selected-ion monitoring, mass-spectra detectors can then be calibrated for individual PCB congeners by correlation of the chromatographic patterns with

J. Krupcík; A. Kocan; J. Petrík; P. A. Leclercq; K. Ballschmiter

1993-01-01

258

A new technology for fluidic microsystems based on PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology for fluidic microsystems has been developed at Rostock University. This new technology is based on the manufacturing principles of printed circuit boards (PCB). The same manufacturing steps closely connect fluidic and electric components. Unlike the requirements for other technologies, e.g., silicon technology, only moderately complex equipment is necessary. The microsystems fabricated by this new technology can handle

Tobias Merkel; Michael Graeber; Lienhard Pagel

1999-01-01

259

FeSOâ amendments stimulate extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs is important because it removes the chlorine substituents that block aerobic metabolism and it reduces PCB toxicity. Although this process occurs widely in nature, its extent is often limited to dechlorination of some of the chlorines in the meta positions of biphenyl. In this report the authors demonstrate the ability to achieve nearly complete

Matthew J. Zwiernik; John F. Quensen; Stephen A. Boyd

1998-01-01

260

Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and

Abramowicz

1995-01-01

261

Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Dechlorination and Biodegradation Endpoints  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation served as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation, thus allowing evaluation of several of the most common transformation patterns. Correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0).

Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

1999-04-19

262

PCB Rogowski coil designs and performances for novel protective relaying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents PCB Rogowski coil designs and characteristics for advanced protection, control, and metering systems with new multifunction relays and fiber optic communication, providing fast response times to faults and easily adjusting to load and\\/or power system configuration changes. Since the new Rogowski coils are very accurate, protection levels can be set to lower thresholds reducing stress on the

Ljuhomir A. Kojovic

2003-01-01

263

ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5 1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

264

Characterization of coreless printed circuit board (PCB) transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, coreless printed-circuit-board transformers are characterized. A range of coreless printed circuit board (PCB) transformers with different geometric parameters have been fabricated and tested. Based on a recently reported analytic method, the self inductance of these transformers is calculated. This analytical method is also extended to cover the prediction of the transformers' mutual inductance. All calculated parameters have

S. C. Tang; S. Y. Hui; H. S.-H. Chung

2000-01-01

265

Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

266

PCB integrated inductors for low power DC\\/DC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of PCB integrated inductors for low power DC\\/DC buck converters. Coreless, magnetic plates and closed core structures are compared in terms of achievable inductance, power handling and efficiency in a footprint of 10 × 10 mm2. Analytic and FEM methods are applied and typical current waveforms encountered in a buck converter are included. The magnetic

Matthias Ludwig; Maeve Duffy; Terence Ó Donnell; Cian Ó Mathuna

2002-01-01

267

PCB integrated inductors for low power DC\\/DC converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of printed circuit board (PCB) integrated inductors for low power DC\\/DC buck converters. Coreless, magnetic plates and closed core structures are compared in terms of achievable inductance, power handling and efficiency in a footprint of 10 × 10 mm2. The magnetic layers consist of electroplated NiFe, so that the process is fully compatible with standard

Matthias Ludwig; Maeve Duffy; T. O'Donnell; P. McCloskey; S. C. O. Mathuna

2003-01-01

268

ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) LOADING TRENDS IN LAKE MICHIGAN  

EPA Science Inventory

PCB concentrations in coregonid fishes (bloater chubs) collected from Lake Michigan between 1972 and 1980 are used to infer a historical loading trend for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A mass balance model was developed to describe the dynamics of PCBs by assuming that histor...

269

SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PCB DESTRUCTION FACILITY CIRCULATING BED COMBUSTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This treatability study reports on an evaluation of a pilot-scale, transportable, circulating bed combustor (CBC) for the incineration of PCB contaminated soils. This May 1985 test was for a demonstration to support a permit application for operation in California....

270

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...bulk PCB remediation waste, non-porous surfaces, porous surfaces, and liquids. Cleanup...ppm if the site is secured by a fence and marked with a sign including...of this section. (ii) Non-porous surfaces. In high occupancy...

2013-07-01

271

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bulk PCB remediation waste, non-porous surfaces, porous surfaces, and liquids. Cleanup...ppm if the site is secured by a fence and marked with a sign including...of this section. (ii) Non-porous surfaces. In high occupancy...

2010-07-01

272

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bulk PCB remediation waste, non-porous surfaces, porous surfaces, and liquids. Cleanup...ppm if the site is secured by a fence and marked with a sign including...of this section. (ii) Non-porous surfaces. In high occupancy...

2009-07-01

273

Polymer multimode waveguide optical and electronic PCB manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the research in the £1.3 million IeMRC Integrated Optical and Electronic Interconnect PCB Manufacturing (OPCB) Flagship Project in which 8 companies and 3 universities carry out collaborative research and which was formed and is technically led by the author. The consortium's research is aimed at investigating a range of fabrication techniques, some established and some novel, for fabricating polymer multimode waveguides from several polymers, some formulations of which are being developed within the project. The challenge is to develop low cost waveguide manufacturing techniques compatible with commercial PCB manufacturing and to reduce their alignment cost. The project aims to take the first steps in making this hybrid optical waveguide and electrical copper track printed circuit board disruptive technology widely available by establishing and incorporating waveguide design rules into commercial PCB layout software and transferring the technology for fabricating such boards to a commercial PCB manufacturer. To focus the research the project is designing an optical waveguide backplane to tight realistic constraints, using commercial layout software with the new optical design rules, for a demonstrator into which 4 daughter cards are plugged, each carrying an aggregate of 80 Gb/s data so that each waveguide carries 10 Gb/s.

Selviah, David R.

2009-02-01

274

Microbiology and biochemistry of Fossa (pit) cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbiological and biochemical characterization of the Fossa (pit) cheese is reported. The cheeses analysed showed differences for the protocol of production and type of cheese-milk used (bovine or ovine). The total number of mesophilic bacteria and the number of specific microbial groups differed among the cheeses. Lactococci used as starters were found at very low numbers. Non-starter lactic acid

M. Gobbetti; B. Folkertsma; P. F. Fox; A. Corsetti; E. Smacchi; M. De Angelis; J. Rossi; K. Kilcawley; M. Cortini

1999-01-01

275

Effect of Capacity in Open Pit Optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Capacity affects the economy of a mine. The effect on the life time of the mine is evident, but capacity also influences ore reserves, costs, equipment and mining schedule. The effect of capacity on the total value (NPV) and size of an open pit mine has b...

P. Pitkaenen

2000-01-01

276

Thallium toxicosis in a Pit Bull Terrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thallotoxicosis is described in an adult Pit Bull Terrier. The dog exhibited anorexia, emesis, weakness, conscious proprioceptive deficits, and a hemorrhagic diarrhea before death. A severe, acute necro- tizing enterocolitis was evident upon histological examination, as was a multifocal to coalescing pulmonary edema. Liver and kidney thallium concentrations were 18 and 26 ppm, respectively. The source of the thallium was

Petra A. Volmer; Valentina Merola; Tanasa Osborne; Keith L. Bailey; Gavin Meerdink

277

Cutter head for pit-boring machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotatable cutter head for a pit boring machine used in reverse circulation drilling. The cutter head has cutter arrays including rotary cutters and drag cutters and disposed radially and circumferentially spaced positions on the cutter head, the drag cutters having the cutting ends lying generally in a conical plane having the axis coaxial with the axis of rotation of

Y. Ishikawa; S. Ajiro; M. Wada

1984-01-01

278

Etch Pits on Calcite Cleavage Faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS communication describes some of the effects observed on calcite cleavage faces after etching with dilute acid. Puchegger1 has reported etch pits which formed a rib-like pattern on either side of scratch marks made on calcite. More striking features are described here.

H. Watts

1959-01-01

279

Bitter pit in Cox's Orange apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium nitrate and calcium chloride tree sprays. at different concentrations are compared. Calcium chloride, with about twice the calcium content of the nitrate, gave as good control of bitter pit at half the concentration of the nitrate, which relates the effectiveness of these materials to their calcium content. Colour development on apples was better with calcium chloride than with the

E. T. Chittenden; D. J. Stanton; J. Watson

1969-01-01

280

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

281

Magma Pathways, Calderas, and Pit Craters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students trace the path that magma takes from the mantle to the surface and learn how calderas and pit craters form. The site contains seven activities from kindergarten level to twelfth grade and includes the required materials and worksheets. There is also a virtual field trip including both Crater Rim Drive and Chain of Craters Road.

282

COPPER PITTING CORROSION: A CASE STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized or pitting corrosion of copper pipes used in household drinking-water plumbing is a problem for many water utilities and their customers. Extreme attack can lead to pinhole water leaks that may result in water damage, mold growth, and costly repairs. Water quality has b...

283

Extracting Valuable Data from Classroom Trading Pits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How well does competitive theory explain the outcome in experimental markets? The authors examined the results of a large number of classroom trading experiments that used a pit-trading design found in Experiments with Economic Principles, an introductory economics textbook by Bergstrom and Miller. They compared experimental outcomes with…

Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Kwok, Eugene

2005-01-01

284

Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products.  

PubMed

The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of 304 seizures of illicit Cannabis products was determined using gas chromatography. This procedure results in the conversion of THC acid to THC itself and thus gives the total THC content of the material, which reflects its potency as experienced by the smokers. The study was carried out over three years, thus enabling comparisons to be made between THC levels from a given country of origin over this time span in addition to any variations between the countries. In the early part of the study, herbal cannabis from South East Asia was consistently the best quality and that from the Caribbean the poorest quality. In the third year of the study, the material from South East Asia was in general no richer in THC than material from other areas of the world. Cannabis resins normally had higher THC contents than most herbal material, but the highest levels were found in "hash oil" from the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. PMID:6268233

Baker, P B; Bagon, K R; Gough, T A

1980-01-01

285

ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

2007-05-01

286

Clinical review: Major consequences of illicit drug consumption  

PubMed Central

Because illicit drugs are now widely consumed, every doctor needs to know their acute medical consequences and complications. Here, we review the problems associated with the different drugs from a systems-based viewpoint. Apart from the respiratory depressant effect of opioids, crack cocaine is the most common cause of respiratory complications, mainly linked with its mode of use, with airway burns, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and lung syndromes being well-recognised sequelae. Because of its marked cardiovascular effects, cocaine is also a major cause of coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction. Amphetamines may produce similar effects less commonly. Hyperthermia may occur with cocaine toxicity or with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) due to exertion or from serotonin syndrome. Cerebral haemorrhage may result from the use of amphetamines or cocaine. Hallucinations may follow consumption of LSD, amphetamines, or cocaine. MDMA is a major cause of acute severe hyponatraemia and also has been linked with hepatic syndromes. Collapse, convulsions, or coma may be caused in different circumstances by opioids, MDMA, or gamma hydroxybutyrate and may be aggravated by other sedatives, especially alcohol and benzodiazepines. Recognition of these acute complications is urgent, and treatment must be based on an understanding of the likely underlying problem as well as on basic principles of supportive care.

Devlin, Robert J; Henry, John A

2008-01-01

287

Ready Access to Illicit Drugs among Youth and Adult Users  

PubMed Central

Background Current drug-control strategies in Canada focus funding and resources predominantly on drug law enforcement, often at the expense of preventive, treatment, and harm reduction efforts. This study aimed to examine the availability of the most commonly used substances in Vancouver, Canada after the implementation of such strategies. Methods Using data from two large cohorts of drug-using youth and adults in Vancouver from the calendar year 2007, we assessed perceived availability of heroin, crack, cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and marijuana. Results Compared to youth (n = 330), a greater proportion of adults (n = 1160) reported immediate access (i.e., within ten minutes) to heroin (81.0% vs. 55.9%, p < 0.001), crack (90.4% vs. 69.3%, p < 0.001) and cocaine (83.7% vs. 61.1%, p < 0.001). Conversely, larger proportions of youth reported immediate access to crystal methamphetamine (62.8% vs. 39.4%, p < 0.001) and marijuana (88.4% vs. 73.2%, p < 0.001) compared to adult users. Conclusions Regardless of differences in illicit drug availability by age, all drugs are readily accessed in Vancouver despite drug law enforcement efforts. This includes drugs that are frequently injected and place users at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and transmission of other blood-borne disease.

Hadland, Scott E.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Montaner, Julio S.; Wood, Evan

2012-01-01

288

An illicit economy: scavenging and recycling of medical waste.  

PubMed

This paper discusses a significant illicit economy, including black and grey aspects, associated with medical waste scavenging and recycling in a megacity, considering hazards to the specific group involved in scavenging as well as hazards to the general population of city dwellers. Data were collected in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using a variety of techniques based on formal representative sampling for fixed populations (such as recycling operatives) and adaptive sampling for roaming populations (such as scavengers). Extremely hazardous items (including date expired medicines, used syringes, knives, blades and saline bags) were scavenged, repackaged and resold to the community. Some HCE employees were also observed to sell hazardous items directly to scavengers, and both employees and scavengers were observed to supply contaminated items to an informal plastics recycling industry. This trade was made possible by the absence of segregation, secure storage and proper disposal of medical waste. Corruption, a lack of accountability and individual responsibility were also found to be contributors. In most cases the individuals involved with these activities did not understand the risks. Although motivation was often for personal gain or in support of substance abuse, participants sometimes felt that they were providing a useful service to the community. PMID:21820235

Patwary, Masum A; O'Hare, William Thomas; Sarker, M H

2011-11-01

289

Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

Roeder-Smith, Lynne

2002-06-30

290

Toxicity of PCB 77 (3,3?,4,4?-Tetracholorobiphenyl) and PCB 118 (2,3?,4,4?,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) in the Rat Following Subchronic Dietary Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of PCB 77 (3, 3?,4,4?-Tetrachlorobiphenyl) and PCB 118 (2,3?4,4?,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) in the Rat Following Subchronic Dietary Exposure. Chu, i., Villeneuve, D. C., Yagminas, A., Lecavalier, P., Hakansson, H., Ahlborg, U. G., Valli, V. E., Kennedy, S. W., Bergman, A., Seegal, R. F. and Feeley, M. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 26, 282-292.The toxicity of 3,3?,4,4?-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 2,3?,4,4?,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118)

I. Chu; D. C. Villeneuve; A. Yagminas; P. Lecavalier; H. Hakansson; U. G. Ahlborg; V. E. Valli; S. W. Kennedy; A. Bergman; R. F. Seegal; M. Feeley

1995-01-01

291

Thermal analysis of simulated Pantex pit storage  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates potential pit storage configurations that could be used at the Mason and Hanger Pantex Plant. The study utilizes data from a thermal test series performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that simulated these storage configurations. The heat output values used in the LLNL test series do not represent actual pits but are rounded numbers that were chosen for convenience to allow parameter excursions. Specifically in this project, we are modeling the heat transfer and air flow around cylindrical storage containers in Pantex magazines in order to predict container temperatures. This difficult problem in thermal- fluid mechanics involves transient, three-dimensional (3-D) natural convection and thermal radiation around interacting containers with various heat generation rates. Our approach is to link together two computational methods in order to synthesize a modeling procedure for a large array of pit storage containers. The approach employs a finite element analysis of a few containers, followed by a lumped- parameter model of an array of containers. The modeling procedure we developed was applied in the simulation of a recent experiment where temperatures of pit storage containers were monitored in a steady- state, controlled environment. Our calculated pit container temperatures are comparable with data from that experiment. We found it absolutely necessary to include thermal radiation between containers in order to predict temperatures accurately, although the assumption of black-body radiation appears to be sufficient. When radiation is neglected the calculated temperatures are 4 to 6 {degrees}C higher than temperature data from the experiment. We also investigated our model`s sensitivity to variations in the natural convection heat transfer coefficient and found that with a 50% drop in the coefficient, calculated temperatures are approximately I {degree}C higher. Finally, with a modified lumped-parameter model, we demonstrate how an entire Pantex magazine can be simulated.

Aceves, S.M., Kornblum, B.T.

1996-10-01

292

The potential of PCB photochemistry at Moccasin Bend  

SciTech Connect

The TVA/EPRI Tailored Collaborative Project {open_quotes}Biotransformation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Contaminated Soils{close_quotes}, has as its objective biotransformation of PCB contaminated soils at utility sites (Phase I Report March 1992). However, there is recognition of the existence of other types of nonmetabolic alterations of PCBs in the contaminated soils. Of these nonmetabolic alterations, photoalteration is of special interest to the project. Photoalteration has the potential for enhancing PCB transformation with little intervention and little harm to the microbial community. PCBs have pervaded the environment, and the paucity of knowledge about their chemistry is becoming readily apparent. Although PCBs are quite resistant to degradation, photolysis, which is a chemical decomposition process that is induced by radiant energy, may be important in the environmental chemistry of PCBS. The photochemical degradation of PCBs may affect atmospheric levels of contaminants and photolabile chemicals that reside in water bodies or on surfaces, as for example, on leaves and vegetation. Chemicals present in the environment can undergo direct or indirect phototransformation which includes photosensitized degradation and oxygenation as well as photoinduced degradation. Photoalteration is produced by either artificial light or by light from the sun. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to induce chemical reactions in many chlorinated hydrocarbons under laboratory conditions. To determine whether PCB alterations are the result of light-catalyzed reactions, it is necessary to verify PCB photolysis, to define the products of photolysis, and to explain the conditions and mechanisms necessary to produce such reactions. It is the purpose of this report to review the literature concerning photoalteration of PCBs and the potential role of this mechanism to facilitate PCB remediation at the research site.

Hinton, M.M.; Beck, M.J.

1993-03-30

293

Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/ degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5 to 3.0V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40–60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O2 was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O2. Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this study suggests that this approach could be a cost-effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to remediate PCBs in situ.

Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

2012-01-01

294

Electrical stimulation of microbial PCB degradation in sediment.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5-3.0 V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40-60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O(2) was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O(2). Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this study suggests that this approach could be a cost-effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to remediate PCBs in situ. PMID:23123087

Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B; Sowers, Kevin R; May, Harold D

2013-01-01

295

Metabolic consequences of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were discovered in sewage sludge used for fertilizer in Bloomington, Indiana. The PCB had been discharged into the municipal sewage system by an electrical capacitor manufacturing plant. To study the epidemiology and metabolic consequences of PCB exposure an epidemiologic and clinical survey was conducted. Mean serum PCB levels were 17.4 ppB in 89 sludge users, 75.1 ppB in 18 workers with occupational exposure to PCB, 33.6 ppB in 19 members of those workers' families, and 24.4 ppB in 22 community residents without unusual exposure to PCB. In sludge users PCB levels were associated positively with per cent performance of garden care (p = 0.035) and negatively with wearing gloves while gardening (p = 0.021), but were not significantly associated with the amount of sludge used or the duration of exposure. In no groups were chloracne or systemic symptoms of PCB toxicity noted, nor were significant correlations found between PCB levels and tests of hematologic, hepatic, or renal function. Plasma triglyceride levels increased significantly with serum PCB concentrations in both alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers (r = 0.541, n = 36, p < 0.001 for nondrinkers). These data indicate that PCB may alter lipid metabolism at levels of exposure and bioaccumulation insufficient to produce overt symptoms.

Baker, E.L. Jr. (Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA); Landrigan, P.J.; Glueck, C.J.; Zack, M.M. Jr.; Liddle, J.A.; Burse, V.W.; Housworth, W.J.; Needham, L.L.

1980-10-01

296

Function of bubble pit in super-RENS storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, functions of bubble pit that is formed in a recording process of a super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) disk are discussed. The result shows that the recorded bubble pit has a greatly influence on both writing and reading for super-RENS disk. The relationship between the bubble pit and readout signal is also investigated.

Liu, Qian; Guo, Chuanfei; Cao, Sihai; Zhang, Zhuwei; Fukaya, Toshio

2007-09-01

297

Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers ...

B. L. Coverdell

1994-01-01

298

Analysis and cleaning of dirty W48 pits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation will summarize the results of an investigation of a dirty W48 pit and the subsequent development of a process for cleaning this class of pits in preparation for long-term storage. The residues of the dirty pit were analyzed for chemical ...

J. D. LeMay

1996-01-01

299

Light scatter from pyramidal pits in silicon wafers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pit standard was fabricated containing sub-micron pits whose size, shape, and position were well controlled. The defect field includes 64 pyramidal pits arranged in a matrix of 8 rows and 8 columns with 16 different sizes represented in each of 4 row pairs. The fabrication process flow involved oxide growth, electron beam lithography, and anisotropic etching using potassium hydroxide

Michael Jordan Jr.

2000-01-01

300

Mechanism of Pit Initiation on Aluminum Alloy Type 7075.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The influence of anions on the initiation of pitting and the kinetics of pit growth on aluminum alloy Type 7075 has been investigated. The order of reaction (i.e., the number of anions per Al surface reaction site) and the energy of activation for pitting...

S. Dallek R. T. Foley

1976-01-01

301

Preliminary analysis and potential uses of date pits in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Date pits were examined for extractable high value-added components for including in functional foods. The objectives of this research were to conduct preliminary analysis of the pits from three leading varieties in UAE and to identify potential uses in foods. Date pits were odourless and had light to dark brown colour and a bland taste with slight bitterness. They contained

J. S Hamada; I. B Hashim; F. A Sharif

2002-01-01

302

10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Turbine Pit of Unit 5, view to the north. Note the difference in configuration within this turbine pit as compared to one of the original pits illustrated in photograph number MT-105-A-11. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

303

2,2?,3,5?,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 95) AND ITS HYDROXYLATED METABOLITES ARE ENANTIOMERICALLY ENRICHED IN FEMALE MICE  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and laboratory studies link polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several neurotoxic PCB congeners are chiral and undergo enantiomeric enrichment in mammalian species, which may modulate PCB developmental neurotoxicity. This study measures levels and enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 and its hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in adult female C57Bl/6 mice following subchronic exposure to racemic PCB 95. Tissue levels of PCB 95 and OH-PCBs increased with increasing dose. Dose-dependent enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 was observed in brain and other tissues. OH-PCBs also displayed enantiomeric enrichment in blood and liver, but were not detected in adipose and brain. In light of data suggesting enantioselective effects of chiral PCBs on molecular targets linked to PCB developmental neurotoxicity, our observations highlight the importance of accounting for PCB and OH-PCB enantiomeric enrichment in the assessment of PCB developmental neurotoxicity.

Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Stamou, Marianna; Truong, Kim M.; El-Komy, Mohammed H.M.E.; Lein, Pamela J.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2012-01-01

304

PitPro 1.1 User's Manual; Pit-tag to SURPH Data Translation Utility, Technical Manual 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual describes the use of Program PitPro to convert PIT-tag data files in PTAGIS (PIT Tag Information System, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission) to input files ready for survival analysis in Program SURPH 2.1. This utility converts the var...

J. Skalski P. Westhagen

2003-01-01

305

PCB congener distributions in muscle, liver and gonad of Fundulus heteroclitus from the lower Hudson River Estuary and Newark Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gradients in sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and PCB congener profiles exist along the Hudson River (NY, USA). We evaluated site and tissue differences in PCB concentration and congener profiles in resident mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) collected from PCB-contaminated sites in the lower Hudson River and the New York\\/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Fish were collected from three PCB-contaminated sites Piermont Marsh

E. Monosson; J. T. F. Ashley; A. E. McElroy; D. Woltering; A. A. Elskus

2003-01-01

306

Preliminary report on fractured igneous-rock environment test pits  

SciTech Connect

Three large calibration models or test pits were completed on May 1, 1981, at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Denver Federal Center Calibration Facility. Each calibration model was constructed of large stone blocks that have a cored borehole and wire-sawn simulated fractures. Details of the test pit sizes, simulated fracture locations, rock type of each test pit, and location and access of these pits are discussed. Geophysical well logs were obtained from these test pits and these data are shown and discussed.

Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.; LaDelfe, C.M.

1983-01-01

307

Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among young drug users is not a widespread problem in Sweden. Harm-reduction measures should target drug users with more severe problems, among whom illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common and pose a medical risk. Illicit use of other prescription drugs, which are less controlled and more widely used by young people, is an important issue for further research.

2013-01-01

308

The Task of Detecting Illicit Nuclear Material: Status and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 1994, police at the Munich airport intercepted a suitcase from Moscow with half a kilogram of nuclear-reactor fuel, of which 363 grams was weapons- grade plutonium. A few months later police seized 2.7 kilograms of highly enriched uranium from a former worker at a Russian nuclear institute and his accomplices in Prague. These are just two of 18 incidents involving the smuggling of weapons grade nuclear materials between 1993 and 2004 reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consequences of a stolen or improvised nuclear device being exploded in a U.S. city would be world changing. The concern over the possibility of a nuclear weapon, or the material for a weapon or a radiological dispersion device, being smuggled across U.S. borders has led to the deployment of radiation detection equipment at the borders. Related efforts are occurring around the world. Radiation portal monitors are used as the main screening tool, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. Passive detection techniques combined with imaging, and possibly active techniques, are the current available tools for screening cargo for items of concern. There are a number of physics limitations to what is possible with each technology given the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials, commercial sources, and medical radionuclides in the stream of commerce. There have been a number of lessons learned to date from the various efforts in the U.S. and internationally about the capability for interdicting illicit nuclear material.

Kouzes, Richard

2006-04-01

309

Gonadotropins in doping: pharmacological basis and detection of illicit use  

PubMed Central

Parenteral administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone in males and these gonadotropins can therefore be used by athletes to enhance muscle strength. However, they are more expensive and less efficient than testosterone and anabolic steroids. Therefore their main use is probably to stimulate gonadal testosterone production during and after self-administration of testosterone or anabolic steroids. A positive effect of hCG on muscle strength has not been demonstrated in women and elevated concentrations of hCG in females are often caused by pregnancy. The use of gonadotropins is therefore prohibited only in males but not in females. HCG occurs at low but measurable concentrations in plasma and urine of healthy males and can be measured by sensitive methods. However, the characteristics of the method to be used for doping control have not been defined. Virtually all commercially available hCG assays have been designed for determination of hCG in serum rather than urine, which is used for doping control. Methods based on mass spectrometric detection of fragments derived from hCG extracted from urine by immunoadsorption have been developed but their suitability for doping control remains to be determined. The concentrations of LH in serum and urine are variable and more then 10-fold higher than those hCG. It is therefore difficult to detect illicit use of LH. The characteristics and reference values for hCG and LH assays used in doping control and the cutoff values need to be defined.

Stenman, U-H; Hotakainen, K; Alfthan, H

2008-01-01

310

Chemiluminescence detection of heroin in illicit drug samples.  

PubMed

Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453

Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

2013-11-15

311

A further component analysis for illicit drugs mixtures with THz-TDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.

Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui

2009-07-01

312

Distribution, formation mechanisms, and significance of lunar pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images reveal the presence of steep-walled pits in mare basalt (n = 8), impact melt deposits (n = 221), and highland terrain (n = 2). Pits represent evidence of subsurface voids of unknown extents. By analogy with terrestrial counterparts, the voids associated with mare pits may extend for hundreds of meters to kilometers in length, thereby providing extensive potential habitats and access to subsurface geology. Because of their small sizes relative to the local equilibrium crater diameters, the mare pits are likely to be post-flow features rather than volcanic skylights. The impact melt pits are indirect evidence both of extensive subsurface movement of impact melt and of exploitable sublunarean voids. Due to the small sizes of pits (mare, highland, and impact melt) and the absolute ages of their host materials, it is likely that most pits formed as secondary features.

Wagner, Robert V.; Robinson, Mark S.

2014-07-01

313

Development of a Synthetic PCB Mixture Resembling the Average Polychlorinated Biphenyl Profile in Chicago Air  

PubMed Central

Studies of environmental and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ideally performed with PCB mixtures reflecting the composition of environmental PCB profiles to mimic actual effects and to account for complex interactions among individual PCB congeners. Unfortunately, only a few laboratory studies employing synthetic PCB mixtures have been reported, in part because of the challenges associated with the preparation of complex PCB mixtures containing many individual PCB congeners. The objective of this study was to develop a PCB mixture that resembles the average PCB profile recorded from 1996 to 2002 at a satellite station of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network located at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, Illinois, using commercial PCB mixtures. Initial simulations, using published Aroclor profiles, showed that a mixture containing 65% Aroclor 1242 and 35% Aroclor 1254 was a good approximation of the target profile. A synthetic Chicago air mixture (CAM) was prepared by mixing the respective Aroclor's in this ratio, followed by GC/MS/MS analysis. Comparison of the PCB profile of the synthetic mixture with the target profile suggests that the synthetic PCB mixture is a good approximation of the average IIT Chicago air profiles (similarity coefficient cos ? = 0.82; average relative percent difference = 84%). The synthetic CAM was also a reasonable approximation of the average of 184 PCB profiles analyzed in 2007 at 37 sites throughout Chicago as part of the University of Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program (isbrp), with a cos ? of 0.70 and an average relative percent difference of 118%. While the CAM and the two Chicago air profiles contained primarily di- to pentachlorobiphenyls, higher chlorinated congeners, including congeners with seven or eight chlorine atoms, were underrepresented in the synthetic CAM. The calculated TCDD toxic equivalency quotients of the synthetic CAM (2.7 ng/mg PCB) and the IIT Chicago air profile (1.6 ng/mg PCB) were comparable, but lower by two orders of magnitude than the isbrp Chicago air profile (865 ng/mg PCB) due to surprisingly high PCB 126 levels in Chicago air. In contrast, the calculated neurotoxic equivalency quotients of the CAM (0.33 mg/mg PCB) and the two Chicago air profiles (0.44 and 0.30 mg/mg PCB, respectively) were similar. This study demonstrates the challenges and methods of creating and characterizing synthetic, environmental mixtures of PCBs.

Zhao, H.; Adamcakova-Dodd, A.; Hu, D.; Hornbuckle, K.C.; Just, C.L.; Robertson, L.W.; Thorne, P.S.; Lehmler, H.-J.

2009-01-01

314

Development of a synthetic PCB mixture resembling the average polychlorinated biphenyl profile in Chicago air.  

PubMed

Studies of environmental and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ideally performed with PCB mixtures reflecting the composition of environmental PCB profiles to mimic actual effects and to account for complex interactions among individual PCB congeners. Unfortunately, only a few laboratory studies employing synthetic PCB mixtures have been reported, in part because of the challenges associated with the preparation of complex PCB mixtures containing many individual PCB congeners. The objective of this study was to develop a PCB mixture that resembles the average PCB profile recorded from 1996 to 2002 at a satellite station of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network located at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, Illinois, using commercial PCB mixtures. Initial simulations, using published Aroclor profiles, showed that a mixture containing 65% Aroclor 1242 and 35% Aroclor 1254 was a good approximation of the target profile. A synthetic Chicago air mixture (CAM) was prepared by mixing the respective Aroclors in this ratio, followed by GC/MS/MS analysis. Comparison of the PCB profile of the synthetic mixture with the target profile suggests that the synthetic PCB mixture is a good approximation of the average IIT Chicago air profiles (similarity coefficient cos ? = 0.82; average relative percent difference = 84%). The synthetic CAM was also a reasonable approximation of the average of 184 PCB profiles analyzed in 2007 at 37 sites throughout Chicago as part of the University of Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program (isbrp), with a cos ? of 0.70 and an average relative percent difference of 118%. While the CAM and the two Chicago air profiles contained primarily di- to pentachlorobiphenyls, higher chlorinated congeners, including congeners with seven or eight chlorine atoms, were underrepresented in the synthetic CAM. The calculated TCDD toxic equivalency quotients of the synthetic CAM (2.7 ng/mg PCB) and the IIT Chicago air profile (1.6 ng/mg PCB) were comparable, but lower by two orders of magnitude than the isbrp Chicago air profile (865 ng/mg PCB) due to surprisingly high PCB 126 levels in Chicago air. In contrast, the calculated neurotoxic equivalency quotients of the CAM (0.33 mg/mg PCB) and the two Chicago air profiles (0.44 and 0.30 mg/mg PCB, respectively) were similar. This study demonstrates the challenges and methods of creating and characterizing synthetic, environmental mixtures of PCBs. PMID:19375801

Zhao, H X; Adamcakova-Dodd, A; Hu, D; Hornbuckle, K C; Just, C L; Robertson, L W; Thorne, P S; Lehmler, H-J

2010-11-01

315

Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Methods Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Results Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2?months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Conclusions Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme caution.

Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

2014-01-01

316

Chain of Pits on Pavonis Mons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pavonis Mons is the middle of the three large Tharsis Montes volcanoes in the martian western hemisphere. Located on the equator at about 113oW longitude, Pavonis Mons stands as much as 7 kilometers (4 miles) above the surrounding plain. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) recently spied the above chain of elliptical pits on the lower east flank of Pavonis Mons. The picture covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 3.4 kilometers (2.1 miles) in length. The pits are aligned down the center of a 485 meters-(530 yards)-wide, shallow trough. The straight trough and the pits were both formed by collapse associated with faulting. The scarp on each side of the trough is a fault line--troughs of this type are known to geologists as graben. Such features are typically formed when the ground is being moved apart by tectonic forces, or when the ground is uplifted by molten rock injected into the near sub-surface from deeper underground. Both processes may be contributing to the features seen on Pavonis Mons. The pits follow the trend of these faults, and indicate the locus of collapse. Illumination is from the upper left in this image.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

317

Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

Harlow, D. Gary

2012-08-01

318

Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs  

SciTech Connect

The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. (Institute of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain))

1989-11-01

319

Who is Ready to Change Illicit Drug Use Behavior: An Emergency Department Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify emergency department patients who are ready to change their illicit drug use behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study of 198 Emergency Department patients at least 18 years old, seeking emergency department services, using at least one illicit drug, and scoring positive for alcohol problem based on CAGE score ? 1. Results Of the patients, 46% were “not ready” to change their drug behavior, 21% and 33% were “unsure” and “ready”, respectively. Our results identified that “Readiness to change alcohol behavior” [t (197) = 3.37, p ? 0.001], health insurance [t (197) = ?3.011, p ? 0.003], number of drug use [t (197) = 2.88, p ? 0.004], and drug-related injury [t (197) = 1.98, p ? 0.049] were related to readiness to change illicit drug behavior. Conclusion Our results re-iterate the need for intervention programs that focus on screening and treatment for both drugs and alcohol.

Frausto, Kenneth A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2009-01-01

320

Analysis of illicit ecstasy tablets: implications for clinical management in the accident and emergency department.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the composition of illicitly manufactured "ecstasy" tablets sold on the UK drugs market. METHODS: Analysis by gas chromatography of 25 illicit ecstasy tablets handed in under amnesty to Leeds Addiction Unit. RESULTS: Illicitly manufactured ecstasy tablets contain a range of ingredients, of widely differing concentrations, and even tablets with the same brand name have variable concentrations of active ingredients. Concentrations of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) more popularly known as ecstasy, varied 70-fold between tablets. Nine tablets contained neither MDMA nor related analogues. CONCLUSIONS: These results have implications for emergency workers attending to those who have become casualties of the drug ecstasy. Those claiming to have ingested ecstasy may actually have taken other agents that require different clinical management.

Sherlock, K; Wolff, K; Hay, A W; Conner, M

1999-01-01

321

Searching for illicit materials using nuclear resonance fluorescence stimulated by narrow-band photon sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of an experimental study of the sensitivity of two distinct classes of systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) to search for illicit materials in containers. One class of systems is based on the direct detection of NRF photons emitted from isotopes of interest. The other class infers the presence of a particular isotope by observing the preferential attenuation of resonant photons in the incident beam. We developed a detailed analytical model for both approaches. We performed experiments to test the model using depleted uranium as a surrogate for illicit material and used tungsten as a random choice for shielding. We performed the experiments at Duke University's High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS). Using the methodology we detail in this paper one can use this model to estimate the performance of potential inspection systems in certifying containers as free of illicit materials and for detecting the presence of those same materials.

Johnson, M. S.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hall, J. M.; McNabb, D. P.; Kelley, J. H.; Huibregtse, C.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.

2012-08-01

322

Seasonal influences on PCB retention and biotransformation in fish.  

PubMed

There is extensive evidence that fish from waters with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated sediments accumulate PCBs and related chemicals and that people who eat fish from contaminated waters have higher body burdens of PCBs and PCB metabolites than those who do not. PCBs and their metabolites are potentially toxic; thus, it is important to human health to understand the uptake, biotransformation, and elimination of PCBs in fish since these processes determine the extent of accumulation. The intestinal uptake of PCBs present in the diet of fish into fish tissues is a process that is influenced by the lipid composition of the diet. Biotransformation of PCBs in fish, as in mammals, facilitates elimination, although many PCB congeners are recalcitrant to biotransformation in fish and mammals. Sequential biotransformation of PCBs by cytochrome P450 and conjugation pathways is even less efficient in fish than in mammalian species, thus contributing to the retention of PCBs in fish tissues. A very important factor influencing overall PCB disposition in fish is water temperature. Seasonal changes in water temperature produce adaptive physiological and biochemical changes in fish. While uptake of PCBs from the diet is similar in fish acclimated to winter or summer temperatures, there is evidence that elimination of PCBs occurs much more slowly when the fish is acclimated at low temperatures than at warmer temperatures. Research to date suggests that the processes of elimination of PCBs are modulated by several factors in fish including seasonal changes in water temperature. Thus, the body burden of PCBs in fish from a contaminated location is likely to vary with season. PMID:23494683

James, Margaret O; Kleinow, Kevin M

2014-05-01

323

PCB Congener Accumulation by Periphyton, Herbivores, and Omnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The concentrations of 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in periphyton, herbivorous fish (stoneroller\\u000a minnows, Campostoma anomalum), and omnivorous fish (striped shiners, Luxilus chrysocephalus) in an industrially contaminated stream and a reference stream in eastern Tennessee. The sum of the concentrations of the\\u000a 20 congeners, normalized by dry mass, was one to two orders of magnitude higher in

W. R. Hill; G. E. Napolitano

1997-01-01

324

3-D visual inspector of PCB using laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel automated inspecting system has been developed that uses a multifunction sensor which moves on a printed circuit board (PCB) at high speed and measures 3-D information and the brightness of the object. Due to the capability of the 3-D shape-scanning method, this 3-D visual inspector can inspect solder-joint quality as well as solder volume and shape, regardless of

J. Yano; O. Yamada; E. Hiraoka; K. Kaida

1990-01-01

325

Reversible and resistant components of PCB adsorption-desorption: isotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from laboratory equilibration studies indicate that sediment-adsorbed 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) fractions may be comprised of both reversibly and strongly bound or resistant components. This evidence suggests that for many environmental modeling efforts it may be inappropriate to treat this and other PCB isomer adsorption reactions as either completely reversible or completely irreversible. The initial refinement of such models requires a

Dominic M. Di Toro; Lewis M. Horzempa

1982-01-01

326

Development of the RF SAW filters based on PCB substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently produced RF SAW (surface acoustic wave) filters are made using HTCC (high temperature cofired ceramic) with CSP (chip scale package) technology. This paper describes the development of a new 1.4 times 1.1 and 2.0 times 1.4 mm RF SAW filter based on PCB (printed circuit board) substrate instead of HTCC package, which reduces the cost of materials by 40%.

Youngjin Lee; Jongin Im; Seunghee Lee

2006-01-01

327

Printed L-probe antenna on multi-layered PCB  

Microsoft Academic Search

A printed L-probe antenna fabricated on a multi-layered printed-circuit-board (PCB) with a very wide operating band is proposed. This antenna is a four-layered structure, consisting of a circuitry layer, ground layer, probe layer, and patch layer. The printed part of the L-probe provides extra degrees of freedom for tuning the antenna, achieving a wide operating frequency. A printed L-probe antenna

Quan Xue; Yanfan Liu; Kam Man Shum

2004-01-01

328

The drugs that dare not speak their name: Injecting and other illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C infection.  

PubMed

Exploration of patients' illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is largely absent from the clinical literature. This paper explores injecting and other illicit drug use among people receiving interferon-based treatment for HCV infection, from the perspective of one group of health professionals. Data are presented from a qualitative study of six health professionals responsible for managing HCV treatment regimens at three major metropolitan hospitals across Sydney, Australia. During semi-structured in-depth interviews, participants discussed patients' use of injected and non-injected illicit drugs while coping with a demanding therapeutic regimen. Health professionals highlighted the socially conservative environment of healthcare and its negative perceptions of illicit drug users. Also discussed are the management of people who inject during treatment and the efficacy of cannabis to reduce side effects. The findings of this study indicate that while the health professionals adopted a harm reduction approach to patients' illicit drug use during HCV treatment, information regarding the risks and benefits of illicit drug use is silenced in this context. While ever prohibition remains Australia's illicit drug policy this situation appears unlikely to change. Research which investigates the extent of illicit drug use during HCV treatment, the risks and benefits associated with their use in this context, and the harms of perpetuating a duplicitous healthcare system is required. PMID:17854725

Hopwood, Max; Treloar, Carla

2007-10-01

329

Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline and evaluate competing explanations of three relationships that have consistently been found between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs, namely, (1) that cannabis use typically precedes the use of other illicit drugs; and that (2) the earlier cannabis is used, and (3) the more regularly it is used, the more likely a young person is

WAYNE D. HALL; MICHAEL LYNSKEY

2005-01-01

330

Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

331

Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit

van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

2011-01-01

332

Influence of nutrition in PCB-induced vascular inflammation.  

PubMed

The nutritional profile of an individual can influence the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), prevalent environmental pollutants, are highly lipid-soluble toxic compounds that biomagnify through trophic levels and pose cancer, neurocognitive, and atherosclerotic risk to human populations. There is a growing body of knowledge that PCBs can initiate inflammatory responses in vivo, and this inflammation can be either exacerbated or ameliorated by nutrition. Data indicate that diets high in certain dietary lipids such as omega-6 fatty acids can worsen PCB-induced vascular toxicity while diets enriched with bioactive food components such as polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can improve the toxicant-induced inflammation. There is evidence that bioactive nutrients protect through multiple cell signaling pathways, but we have shown that lipid raft caveolae and the antioxidant defense controller nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) both play a predominant role in nutritional modulation of PCB-induced vascular toxicity. Interestingly, there appears to be an intimate cross-talk between caveolae-related proteins and cellular Nrf2, and focusing on the use of specific bioactive food components that simultaneously alter both pathways may produce a more effective and efficient cytoprotective response to toxicant exposure. The use of nutrition as a protective tool is an economically beneficial means to address the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants and may become a sensible means to protect human populations from PCB-induced vascular inflammation and associated chronic diseases. PMID:23417440

Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

2014-05-01

333

Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing.

Liang, Bryan A

2013-01-01

334

Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

2004-11-01

335

Illicit Drug Use, Hypertension, and Chronic Kidney Disease in the U.S. Adult Population  

PubMed Central

Illicit drug use has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in select populations but it is unknown if the same association exists in the general population. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,861 adults who were questioned about illicit drug use including cocaine, methamphetamines, or heroin during their lifetime. The primary outcome was CKD as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ?60mL/min/1.73m2 using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or by microalbuminuria. We also examined the association between illicit drug use and blood pressure (BP) ?120/80, ?130/85, and ?140/90. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between illicit drug use and CKD and BP. Mean eGFR was similar between illicit drug users and non-users (100.7 vs. 101.4mL/min/1.73m2, p=0.4) as was albuminuria (5.7 vs. 6.0mg/g creatinine, p=0.5). Accordingly, illicit drug use was not significantly associated with CKD in logistic regression models (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.27) after adjusting for other important factors. However, illicit drug users had higher systolic (120 vs. 118mmHg, p=0.04) and diastolic BP (73 vs. 71mmHg, p=0.0003) compared to non-users. Also, cocaine use was independently associated with BP?130/85 (OR 1.24, CI 1.00-1.54), especially when used more during a lifetime (6-49 times, OR 1.42, CI 1.06-1.91). In a representative sample of the U.S. population, illicit drug use was not associated with CKD but cocaine users were more likely to have elevated blood pressures.

Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Patel, Amishi; Das, Arjun; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Brecklin, Carolyn; Fischer, Michael J.; Lash, James P.

2012-01-01

336

The role of law enforcement in minimizing the harm resulting from illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Illicit drugs have become a major global problem in recent decades following considerable recent political change, including the collapse of communism and the formation of international super-states to increase trade. Despite increasing collaboration between law enforcement authorities in different countries, illicit drug problems appear likely to increase in the future because of the vast profits available, continuing (and increasing) demand and more permissive attitudes concerning drugs among young people. While rejecting legalization or decriminalization, the search for more effective responses by law enforcement authorities and the community generally must be stepped up. Police services continue to play an important role restricting the availability of illicit drugs but increasing emphasis needs to be given to reducing demand, including more available and more effective preventive drug education in schools. Police also need to work with harm reduction approaches devised to reduce the negative consequences of drug use for those who continue to use illicit drugs. New measures proposed in Britain are outlined. These stress the importance of a multi-sectoral approach operating at both national and local levels with the objective of reducing drug-related crime, reducing the acceptability and availability of illicit drugs and reducing the harmful consequences of illicit drug use. Harm reduction requires a commitment for close collaboration between police and drug treatment services to maximize the effectiveness of needle-exchange schemes and other harm reduction approaches. Cautioning, now commonly used in Britain for selected minor drug offences, has a number of benefits including reducing criminal justice costs. Greater emphasis must be placed on diversion schemes involving close links between police and drug treatment services. Future progress requires firm commitments to providing adequate and effective drug treatment services, conducting research to develop and evaluate more effective diversion schemes, improving collaboration between sectors and effective leadership. In addition to the major costs of illicit drug use to the community, the huge cost to individuals must remain a major focus driving the search for more effective responses to the problems resulting from illicit drugs. PMID:16203327

Hellawell, K

1995-01-01

337

Olive tree, Olea europaea L., leaves as a bioindicator of atmospheric PCB contamination.  

PubMed

Olive tree leaf samples were collected to investigate their possible use for biomonitoring of lipophilic toxic substances. The samples were analyzed for 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners. Twelve congeners were detected in the samples. PCB-60, 77, 81, 89, 105, 114, and 153 were the most frequently detected congeners ranging from 32 % for PCB-52 to 97 % for PCB-81. ?12PCBs concentration varied from below detection limit to 248 ng/g wet weight in the sampling area, while the mean congener concentrations ranged from 0.06 ng/g (PCB-128?+?167) to 64.2 ng/g wet weight (PCB-60). Constructed concentration maps showed that olive tree leaves can be employed for the estimation of spatial distrubution of these congeners. PMID:23589241

Sofuoglu, Sait C; Yayla, Burak; Kavcar, P?nar; Ates, Duygu; Turgut, Cafer; Sofuoglu, Aysun

2013-09-01

338

Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

1992-01-01

339

Effect of sediment pH and oxidation-reduction potential on PCB mineralization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial mineralization rates of a 14C-labelled PCB mixture were determined in PCB-contaminated Capitol Lake, LA, sediment under controlled pH and redox conditions. Mineralization rates were inferred from the activity of 14CO2 evolved from the sediment suspensions. Sediment pH and redox potential significantly affected PCB mineralization. Mineralization rates were higher under moderately aerobic conditions (microaerophilic) ( + 250 mV) than under

John H. Pardue; Ronald D. Delaune; William H. Patrick

1988-01-01

340

Alterations in DRH and DRL performance in rats developmentally exposed to an environmental PCB mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schedule-controlled responding was examined in offspring of rats exposed to a PCB mixture formulated to mimic the PCB congener profile in fish from the Fox River in Green Bay, WI. Female rats were administered 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg\\/kg\\/day of the PCB mixture beginning four weeks prior to breeding until weaning on postnatal day 21. When offspring were approximately 235 days

Helen J. K. Sable; Brian E. Powers; Victor C. Wang; John J. Widholm; Susan L. Schantz

2006-01-01

341

PCB Congener Profiles in Nestling Tree Swallows and Their Insect Prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are widely used as indicators of local polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in North America. Although determining\\u000a total PCB residues in tissues is useful in environmental monitoring, analysis of PCB congener profiles may reveal sources\\u000a of contamination and thus prove to be a more refined tool to track contaminants through the food web. To show how differences

Zsuzsanna Papp; Gary R. Bortolotti; Mary Sebastian; Judit E. G. Smits

2007-01-01

342

Coreless printed circuit board (PCB) transformers with multiple secondary windings for complementary gate drive circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the modeling and implementation of a coreless printed circuit board (PCB)-based transformer with “multiple” secondary outputs. This new PCB transformer has been successfully applied in complementary gate drive circuits in a novel low-profile power converter with high-power density and a converter bridge. The PCB-based transformers do not require the manual winding procedure and thus simplify the manufacturing

S. C. Tang; S. Y. Hui; Henry Shu-Hung Chung

1999-01-01

343

Outdoor Air PCB Concentrations in Three Communities Along the Upper Hudson River, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outdoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in upstate New York as part of a nonoccupational exposure\\u000a investigation. The adjacent study communities of Hudson Falls and Fort Edward contain numerous sites of current and former\\u000a PCB contamination, including two capacitor-manufacturing facilities. Outdoor air PCB concentrations in the study municipalities\\u000a were significantly higher than in the comparison municipality of Glens

Patrick M. Palmer; Erin E. Belanger; Lloyd R. Wilson; Syni-An A. Hwang; Rajinder S. Narang; Marta I. Gomez; Michael R. Cayo; Lorie A. Durocher; Edward F. Fitzgerald

2008-01-01

344

Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 ?g·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 ?g·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

345

Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).  

PubMed

The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants. PMID:23098163

Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

2012-11-20

346

In situ stimulation of aerobic PCB biodegradation in Hudson River sediments  

SciTech Connect

A 73-day field study of in situ aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River shows that indigenous aerobic microorganisms can degrade the lightly chlorinated PCBs present in these sediments. Addition of inorganic nutrients, biphenyl, and oxygen enhanced PCB biodegradation, as indicated both by a 37 to 55 percent loss of PCBs and by the production of chlorobenzoates, intermediates in the PCB biodegradation pathway. Repeated inoculation with a purified PCB-degrading bacterium failed to improve biodegradative activity. Biodegradation was also observed under mixed but unamended conditions, which suggests that this process may occur commonly in river sediments, with implications for PCB fate models and risk assessments.

Harkness, M.R.; McDermott, J.B.; Abramowicz, D.A.; Salvo, J.J.; Flanagan, W.P.; Stephens, M.L.; Mondello, F.J.; May, R.J.; Lobos, J.H.; Carroll, K.M.; Brennan, M.J.; Bracco, A.A.; Fish, K.M.; Warner, G.L.; Wilson, P.R.; Dietrich, D.K.; Lin, D.T.; Morgan, C.B.; Gately, W.L. (GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States))

1993-01-22

347

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

2010-01-01

348

Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.  

PubMed

A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25?gL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5?gL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25?gL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for ?6 PCB). PMID:24507133

Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

2014-03-01

349

Orientation dependence and bonding during pitting corrosion of HCP metals.  

SciTech Connect

The orientation dependence of pitting in single crystal beryllium (Be) is compared to the observations for single crystal zinc (Zn) reported by other investigators. The pit walls in stable propagating pits for prism planes were always square; in the (ioio) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}2{bar 1}0] directions while in the (110) surface the walls were normal to the [0001] and [{bar 1}100] directions. In addition, for the (ioio) and (11{bar 2}0) surfaces the pit interiors were characterized by crystallographically oriented parallel plates of unattacked Be. The orientation of these lamella was quite different than those observed in Zn. To explain this difference, the electron density distributions in the metal lattices are analyzed. A conceptual model for crystallographic pitting is introduced. In this model it is proposed that the crystallographic pits observed in single crystal hcp metals reflects the bond energy in the lattice.

Lillard, Robert Scott

2002-01-01

350

EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.  

EPA Science Inventory

There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

351

Analysis and cleaning of dirty W48 pits  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will summarize the results of an investigation of a dirty W48 pit and the subsequent development of a process for cleaning this class of pits in preparation for long-term storage. The residues of the dirty pit were analyzed for chemical identification and evidence of species known to promote corrosion of the metal cladding. The cleaning process was developed to reduce the potential for future corrosion during long-term storage.

LeMay, J.D.

1996-04-01

352

Sustainable Environmental Protection Using Modified Pit-Latrines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pit-latrines are on-site excreta disposal facilities widely used as anaerobic accumulation system for stabilizing human wastes like excreta, both in rural and urban settlements of developing countries. Flooding of pit-latrines is often a common phenomenon, especially in situations of high water table (HWT) conditions and during the rainy season, causinga health<\\/span>jeopardy to residents. The pits are not water-tight, the

Esnati James Chaggu

2004-01-01

353

Coordinate Measuring Machine Pit Artifact Inspection Procedure  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this document is to outline a procedure for dimensional measurement of Los Alamos National Laboratory's CMM Pit Artifact. This procedure will be used by the Manufacturing Practice's Inspection Technology Subgroup of the Interagency Manufacturing Operations Group and Joint Operations Weapon Operations Group (IMOG/JOWOG 39) round robin participants. The intent is to assess the state of industry within the Nuclear Weapons Complex for measurements made on this type of part and find which current measurement strategies and techniques produce the best results.

Montano, Joshua D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

354

[Human biomonitoring investigations of organochlorine compounds -- PCB, DDE, HCB, beta- and gamma-HCH, PCDD/PCDF, Dioxin-like PCB's and polybrominated biphenyl ethers].  

PubMed

Although PCB and PCB-containing materials are not processed for a long time, PCB is under discussion again and again caused by the pollution of indoor environments. To objectify the discussion, the dates of the PCB-biomonitoring, the organochlorine-compounds (DDE, HCB, beta-/gamma -HCH, PCDD/PCDF) and the polybrominated biphenyl ethers concerning the investigations within the project "Sentinel Health Departments" in Baden-Wurttemberg are represented. Additionally results from children from Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area) and from teachers which are working in PCB polluted schools as well as from a long term investigated test person are reported. Blood concentrations of the following compounds decreased from 1996/97 to 2002/03: the sum of the concentration of PCB 138,153 and 180 decreased from 0.46 microg/L to 0.20 microg/L, DDE from 0.32 microg/L to 0.17 microg/, HCB from 0.20 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L, beta-HCH below the level of detection, I-TEQ NATO to 4.8 pg/g blood fat, TEQ WHO (without PCB) to 5.5 pg/g blood fat, PCB 126 to 18,8,pg/g blood fat and PCB 169 to 12.8 pg/g blood fat. The influence of breast feeding and the gender on the level of the pollution is conspicious. No local correlations were found in Baden-Wurttemberg, but they were found in comparison with the results of Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area). The difficulty to produce time series while the analyzing pollutants are more and more decreasing, as well as the change of the calculation base of the summation of parameters like I-TEQ NATO to TEQ WHO are discussed. PMID:15856391

Gabrio, T; Broser, S; Erdinger, L; Felder-Kennel, A; Fichtner, G; Häberle, E; Herrmann, T; Kirsch, H; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Mann, V; Päpke, O; Piechotowski, I; Rzonca, E; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schröder, S; Spöker-Maas, K; Weidner, U; Wuthe, J; Zöllner, I; Zöltzer, D

2005-04-01

355

Spleen dysfunction in hemoglobinopathies determined by pitted red cells.  

PubMed

Splenic dysfunction measured by pitted red cells (pit) was studied in hemoglobinopathies (SS-, SC-, and S beta-type thalassemias and CC-type hemoglobinopathy) in relation to age, in steady state, and during certain significant events. Our experience revealed that the pit count rose with age during steady state in most children with SS disease. A marked increase in pit count was noted in patients with CC disease. The pit count in four patients with S beta+ thalassemia remained normal (i.e., less than 3.5%) at all ages. In children with homozygous SS disease tested at the time of pneumococcal sepsis, the pit count was universally elevated. The pit count was in the normal range in one child with SS disease and osteomyelitis but was elevated in all others. All children had normal pit counts (less than 3.5%) at the onset of acute splenic sequestration crisis, and the counts remained normal during transfusion therapy. No correlation was detected between the pit count and the size of the spleen in patients under 1 year of age. PMID:3239712

Grover, R; Wethers, D L

1988-01-01

356

Pit distribution in the equatorial region of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini radar images of Titan's surface reveal numerous dark circular features in the equatorial region. These may be related to methane sublimation and have been interpreted as pits. In the T8 equatorial swath, we identify 199 individual pits and estimate their diameters. We analyze the observed spatial distribution and size to characterize these features and understand their formation. Chi-square analysis confirms a significant deviation from a random distribution and shows clustering over the entire swath. However, analysis of the densest cluster of pits, a group of 50, shows a more random distribution. Fractal analysis and comparison with a same-sized random set find only a hint of linearity. A Poisson distribution fits the observed pit-sizes, although resolution limits size determination for the smallest pits, those less than 1 km in diameter. Models for random pit generation and evolution simulate the observed Poisson distribution of pit sizes, with larger pits forming by the coalescing of smaller, overlapping ones. Pits, estimated to cover 0.5% of the equatorial T8 swath, could be an erosion mechanism that significantly contributes to the negative skew that has been observed in Titan's hypsography.

Adams, Kimberly A.; Jurdy, Donna M.

2012-05-01

357

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

358

Pharmacy Students Attitudes toward the Need for University Implemented Policies Regarding Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the extent of alcohol and illicit drug use by pharmacy students (N=1440) in eight schools of pharmacy in the southeastern United States. Reported drug use was low, but almost 70 percent of students perceived a need for substance abuse and awareness programs. (Author/MLW)

Szeinbach, Sheryl L.; Banahan, Benjamin F., III

1990-01-01

359

Licit, Illicit, and Non-medical Prescription Drug Abuse Among Pharmacists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of licit, illicit, and non-medical prescription drug abuse among pharmacists is a growing problem in the U.S. Studies and surveys have shown that health care professionals, including pharmacists, are more likely than the general population to abuse drugs, particularly prescription drugs. As pharmacists, this poses an ethical problem for all of us. As a pharmacist, we are one

Anna McDonald

360

Licit and Illicit Use of Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Undergraduate College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the relationship between a diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), grade point average (GPA), and licit and illicit drug use. Participants and Methods: They obtained survey data from a convenience sample of undergraduates in a large southern public university. Results: Among 1,550 respondents,…

Advokat, Claire D.; Guidry, Devan; Martino, Leslie

2008-01-01

361

College Students' Use of Compliance-Gaining Strategies to Obtain Prescription Stimulant Medications for Illicit Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine college students' illicit use of prescription stimulant medications and compliance-gaining strategies that they would use to obtain a stimulant medication. Design: A questionnaire-based study. Setting: Seven hundred and twenty undergraduate college students at a large, northeastern university in the United States were…

Checton, Maria G.; Greene, Kathryn

2011-01-01

362

Organized Crime and Illicit Activities in Spain: Causes and Facilitating Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain is not a country that we traditionally associate with organized crime, yet this article will show that there are a myriad of organized crime groups active there, engaging in a whole range of illicit activities. Therefore, after having demonstrated the scale and severity of the problem, the article will consider, assess and analyze the factors that facilitate it. Fundamentally,

Jennifer Sands

2007-01-01

363

Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

2007-01-01

364

Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

2006-01-01

365

Adolescent Precursors of Intensity of Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use Among Adult Initiators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined (a) adolescent psychosocial risk factors for frequency (intensity) of marijuana use and for other illicit drug use among those who started using these drugs in early adulthood (adult initiators) and (b) the protective role of parent-adolescent relations in reducing or preventing drug use when adolescents enter early adulthood. The study's participants were male and female youth from

Neo K. Morojele; Judith S. Brook

2001-01-01

366

Urinalysis and hair analysis for illicit drugs of driver applicants and drivers in the trucking industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to compare the differential rate of detection of illicit drugs when using two distinct sample types, hair and urine specimens. The specimens were collected from persons who applied for employment as a truck driver, or were collected from randomly selected currently employed truck drivers. The data is examined for job applicants and employees to

Tom Mieczkowski

2010-01-01

367

DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

368

Illicit Drugs and Alcohol in Breast Milk: Assessing Risk to Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no question that breast-feeding is beneficial to both mother and infant. Manifold advantages ensue from the process; protection against infection and reduced risk of exposure to external sources of food contamination are only two of the many. Yet, the degree and risk involved from in vivo contamination of this precious fluid through maternal use of illicit drugs, tobacco

Henry C. Nipper

369

Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

2005-01-01

370

Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

Page, Richard C.; And Others

1987-01-01

371

Report Reveals Millions of Young Adults Use Illicit Substances Every Day  

MedlinePLUS

... millions of young adults use illicit substances every day According to SAMHSA’s data, on an average day, 3.2 million young adults used marijuana, 57, ... 20. Underage drinkers drank on average 5.7 days per month and consumed an average of 4. ...

372

Overcoming Barriers to Prevention, Care, and Treatment of Hepatitis C in Illicit Drug Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection drug use accounts for most of the incident infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States and other developed countries. HCV infection is a complex and challenging medical condition in injection drug users (IDUs). Elements of care for hepatitis C in illicit drug users include prevention counseling and education; screening for transmission risk behavior; testing for HCV

2005-01-01

373

Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

1977-01-01

374

Patterns in stream fish assemblage structure and function associated with a PCB gradient.  

PubMed

Stream fish assemblage structure and function were examined for significant response along a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gradient from two PCB-contaminated streams (Clear Creek and Richland Creek watershed) at three locations and a control stream (Little Indian Creek), Indiana, USA. Fish were sampled in the summer months of 1995 and from 1999 to 2002. 51 fish assemblage attributes-including structure (i.e., fish composition) and function (i.e., trophic, reproductive, condition guilds), biomass, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) metric scores-were evaluated for significance according to an increasing PCB gradient. Eight biomass attributes of fish assemblages decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species biomass, number of sunfish biomass, percent sunfish biomass, number of sucker biomass, percent sucker biomass, biomass of sensitive species, percent sensitive species biomass, and percent carnivore biomass. Three biomass attributes increased with PCB concentration: percent minnow biomass, percent pioneer species biomass, and percent tolerant species biomass. Seven species composition and relative abundance characters decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species; number of darter, madtom, and sculpin; number of darter; number of sunfish; number of sucker; number of sensitive species; and percent individuals as carnivores. Percent individuals as pioneer species increased with increasing PCB concentration. Two IBI metrics, percent individuals as headwater species and number of minnow species, increased as PCB concentrations increased, whereas number of sucker species and percent individuals as pioneer species decreased with increasing PCB concentration class. We observed a direct response between decreased relative abundance and biomass of carnivores and increased relative abundance minnows as the PCB gradient increased. Total IBI score did not detect subtle changes to the fish community that were observed along a PCB gradient, whereas diagnostic analysis of the individual metrics did. PMID:23604193

Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Sparks, Daniel W

2013-08-01

375

Evidence for unique and ubiquitous environmental sources of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).  

PubMed

The non-Aroclor congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has been recently detected in air, water, biota, sediment, and suspended sediment. Although it has been known since at least the 1970s that this congener is produced inadvertently during the production of diarylide yellow pigments, this work presents the first evidence that the use of these pigments in consumer goods results in the dispersion of PCB 11 throughout the environment at levels that are problematic in terms of achieving water quality standards for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this work, PCB 11 is measured at ppb levels in consumer goods that are likely to be discarded in ways that allow them to enter wastewater treatment plants and combined sewer overflows, including newspapers, magazines, cardboard boxes used for food packaging, and plastic bags. Also, using data sets acquired for the purpose of calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for PCBs, PCB 11 loads to the New York/New Jersey Harbor and Delaware River are calculated. Despite the fact that there are no known manufacturers of diarylide yellow pigments in the Delaware River watershed, the loads of PCB 11 to the Delaware River exceed the TMDL for the sum of PCBs by nearly a factor of 2. The ratio of PCB 11 to a characteristic dechlorination end product, PCB 4 (2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl), in these data sets indicates that dechlorination is not a significant source of PCB 11 in these systems. In the upper Hudson River, where extensive dechlorination of heavy PCB congeners occurs, the ratio is just 0.012. In contrast, downstream in the NY/NJ Harbor as well as in the Delaware River the ratio is much higher and more variable. Pigment use therefore appears to be the main source of PCB 11 in these systems, and this congener is likely to present a significant obstacle to achieving PCB water quality standards throughout the United States. PMID:20384375

Rodenburg, Lisa A; Guo, Jia; Du, Songyan; Cavallo, Gregory J

2010-04-15

376

Illicit Use of Buprenorphine in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND There is growing evidence about illicit use of buprenorphine in the U.S. The study aims to: 1) identify prevalence and predictors of illicit buprenorphine use in a community sample of 396 young adult (18-23 years old) non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids; 2) describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviors linked to illicit buprenorphine use as reported by a qualitative sub-sample (n=51). METHODS Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Qualitative interview participants were selected from the larger sample. The sample (n=396) was 54% male and 50% white; 7.8% reported lifetime illicit use of buprenorphine. RESULTS Logistic regression analysis results indicate that white ethnicity, intranasal inhalation of pharmaceutical opioids, symptoms of opioid dependence, and a greater number of pharmaceutical opioids used in lifetime were statistically significant predictors of illicit buprenorphine use. Qualitative interviews revealed that buprenorphine was more commonly used by more experienced users who were introduced to it by their “junkie friends.” Those who used buprenorphine to self-medicate withdrawal referred to it as a “miracle pill.” When used to get high, reported experiences ranged from “the best high ever” to “puking for days.” Participants reported using buprenorphine/naloxone orally or by intranasal inhalation. Injection of buprenorphine without naloxone was also reported. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that illicit buprenorphine use is gaining ground primarily among whites and those who are more advanced in their drug use careers. Continued monitoring is needed to better understand evolving patterns and trends of illicit buprenorphine use.

Daniulaityte, Raminta; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

2011-01-01

377

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

378

Prognostic factors of green pit viper bites.  

PubMed

Clinical features of green pit viper bites vary from asymptomatic to fatal bleeding. Antivenin promptly reverses the coagulopathy but has considerable adverse side effects. In this study, potential clinical predictors of severe outcomes (wound necrosis, wound infection, and systemic bleeding) and antivenin allergy were determined in 271 moderate to severe cases of green pit viper bites by multivariate analysis. The incidences of systemic bleeding, wound necrosis, secondary infection, and antivenin allergy were 17.3%, 6.6%, 5.5%, and 20.8% respectively. The predictors of systemic bleeding were the combination of thrombocytopenia and prolonged venous clotting time and bite sites away from digits. A bite on the fingers or toes was a risk factor for skin necrosis (P = 0.03). Systemic absorption of the venom from digits may be poor, resulting in severe local but mild systemic effects. The presence of blisters often led to necrosis and secondary infections (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.0006, respectively). Although negative skin test results do not exclude the possibility of antivenin allergy, positive results indicate a high risk (P = 0.016) requiring special precautions. PMID:9452286

Rojnuckarin, P; Mahasandana, S; Intragumthornchai, T; Sutcharitchan, P; Swasdikul, D

1998-01-01

379

Unhealthy Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use are Associated with Decreased Quality of HIV Care  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ?4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted ? ?2.74; 95% CI ?4.23, ?1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted ? ?3.51 95% CI ?4.99, ?2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received.

Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

2012-01-01

380

What Users Think about the Differences between Caffeine and Illicit/Prescription Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE.

Franke, Andreas G.

2012-01-01

381

Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions  

SciTech Connect

The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ``did what he/she was told.`` The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician`s office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface.

Erickson, M.D.

1993-03-01

382

Hudson River PCB reclamation demonstration project, New York  

SciTech Connect

An abstract of the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for a demonstration project to dredge Hudson River sediments to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination describes an effort to reduce the 40 hot spots by half. Positive impacts would be the removal of potential health hazards, but there is a risk that the dredging operations will release some contaminants into the surrounding water, leaving PCBs in the water and no longer contained. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 is the legal mandate for the EIS.

Not Available

1982-11-01

383

40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes...concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method 3500B/3540C...of PCB bulk product waste. Use Method 8082 from...

2010-07-01

384

Development of a Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Degradation Endpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several researchers have demonstrated the transformation if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. This transformation, or conversion, is characteristic and often dependent on PCB congener structure and in addition, dictates the products or endpoints. Since transformation is linked to microbial activities, bioremediation has been hailed as a possible solution for PCB-contaminated soils and sediments, and several demonstration

E. M. Just; T. Klasson

1999-01-01

385

PCB 77 dechlorination products modulate pro-inflammatory events in vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with detrimental health outcomes including cardiovascular diseases. Remediation of these compounds is a critical component of environmental policy. Although remediation efforts aim to completely remove toxicants, little is known about the effects of potential remediation byproducts. We previously published that Fe/Pd nanoparticles effectively dechlorinate PCB 77 to biphenyl, thus eliminating PCB-induced endothelial dysfunction using primary vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we analyzed the toxic effects of PCB congener mixtures (representative mixtures of commercial PCBs based on previous dechlorination data) produced at multiple time points during the dechlorination of PCB 77 to biphenyl. Compared with pure PCB 77, exposing endothelial cells to lower chlorinated PCB byproducts led to improved cellular viability, decreased superoxide production, and decreased nuclear factor kappa B activation based on duration of remediation. Presence of the parent compound, PCB 77, led to significant increases in mRNA and protein inflammatory marker expression. These data implicate that PCB dechlorination reduces biological toxicity to vascular endothelial cells. PMID:23504249

Eske, Katryn; Newsome, Bradley; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

2014-05-01

386

Formulation and Characterization of an Experimental PCB Mixture Designed to Mimic Human Exposure from Contaminated Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each environmental exposure matrix contains a unique mixture of PCB congeners. Since several congener types have multiple and distinct biological actions, it is important to characterize congener profiles in exposure sources. The Fox River Environment and Diet Study (FRIENDS) is assessing the human health effects of consumption of PCB-contaminated fish from the Fox River in northeastern Wisconsin. Concurrent laboratory studies

Paul J. Kostyniak; Larry G. Hansen; John J. Widholm; Rich D. Fitzpatrick; James R. Olson; Jennifer L. Helferich; Kyung Ho Kim; Helen J. K. Sable; Rich F. Seegal; Isaac N. Pessah; Susan L. Schantz

2005-01-01

387

AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB NEAR THREE LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nomi...

388

CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

389

A Fluxgate Magnetic Sensor: From PCB to Micro-Integrated Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a double-axis micro Fluxgate magnetic sensor is presented. The device represents an evolution of a PCB dual axis sensor previously realized. In the PCB version the experimental results exhibit excellent agreement with the simulations performed using a tool based on the finite element method. Using the same design approach a version of double-axis Fluxgate structure is here

Andrea Baschirotto; Enrico Dallago; Piero Malcovati; Marco Marchesi; Giuseppe Venchi

2007-01-01

390

From a PCB Fluxgate to an integrated micro Fluxgate magnetic sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a double axis micro fluxgate magnetic sensor is presented. The device represents an evolution of a PCB dual axis sensor previously realized. In the PCB version the experimental results exhibit excellent agreement with the simulations performed using a tool based on the finite element method. Using the same design approach a version of the double axis fluxgate

Andrea Baschirotto; Enrico Dallago; Piero Malcovati; Marco Marchesi; Giuseppe Venchi

2005-01-01

391

Levels of DDT and PCB Compounds in North Atlantic Fin-back Whales  

PubMed Central

DDT and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds were found in blubber tissue samples of 12 North American fin-back whales collected in 1970 and 1971. Concentrations of DDT and metabolites ranged up to 2.557 ppm, while the highest PCB concentration was 0.185 ppm Gas chromatographic results were confirmed by chemical derivatization.

Saschenbrecker, P. W.

1973-01-01

392

DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C56BL/6 MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

At room temperature, nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of each of these PCB atropisomers is present in technical mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective dis...

393

Effects of conformal coatings on the corrosion rate of PCB-based multielectrode-array-sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multielectrode array sensor (MAS) for monitoring corrosion of Cu is developed using typical printed circuit board (PCB) processes. Its robustness is tested in highly corrosive HCl solutions with two different conformal coatings, namely acrylic and epoxy. It is found that the corrosion inhibiting nature of epoxy which should prolong the lifetime of epoxy-coated PCB-based MAS sensor was observed only in

Aysha Salman; Zainal Arif Burhanudin; Nor Hisham Hamid

2010-01-01

394

PCB congener distribution in estuarine water, sediment and fish samples: implications for monitoring programs.  

PubMed

Traditional analyses for PCBs in environmental matrices have focused on commercial Aroclor mixtures with detection limits in the 100 to 1000 part per trillion range. This approach has recently been supplanted by analyses for specific PCB compounds called congeners with detection limits less than 0.5 ppt. At the national level, total PCB determinations based upon selected PCB congeners typically characterize analyses of surface water, sediment and tissue. These federal efforts rely on a suite of 18 to 20 congeners out of a total of 209 congeners to characterize total PCB. The present study compares total PCB estimates based upon this subset of congeners with estimates based upon an expanded list of 81 congeners from water, sediment and fish tissue collected from the Delaware Estuary. Analytical data from monitoring programs conducted in the Delaware Estuary by the Delaware River Basin Commission, NOAA National Ocean Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency from 1996 to 1998 were evaluated. Total PCB estimates derived from the different sets of congeners, including the adjustment factor of 2.0 used by NOAA, were compared. This evaluation indicated that differences exist between total PCB determinations based upon these approaches, and that these differences vary depending on the matrix analyzed. The bias associated with using a smaller set of PCB congeners, and the implications for risk assessment are discussed. PMID:12943264

Fikslin, Thomas J; Santoro, Edward D

2003-09-01

395

EFFECTS OF PCB (AROCLORR 1254) ON NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN RHESUS (MACACA MULATA) MONKEYS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of low level chronic polychlorinated biphenyl - Aroclor 1254 - (PCB) exposure were investigated on nonspecific immune parameters in female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Five groups of monkeys were orally administered PCB at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 40, or 80 ug/...

396

RESIDUES OF PCB'S AND DDT IN THE WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Fish from western Lake Superior (1972-73) contained DDT and PCB residues at concentrations greater than 0.1 ppm. The most predominant PCB's were those containing 3 to 6 chlorine atoms per molecule, and GLC data indicated that the mixtures were most like the commercial product Aro...

397

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PCB DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, HYBRIZYME DELFIA TM ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The DELFIA PCB Assay is a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay based on the sequential addition of sample extract and europium-labeled PCB tracer to a monoclonal antibody reagent specific for PCBs. In this assay, the antibody reagent and sample extract are added to a strip...

398

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

Madenjian, C. P.; Hanchin, P. A.; Chernyak, S. M.; Begnoche, L. J.

2009-01-01

399

In-Pit Crushing and Conveying with Movable Crushers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a summary of the work performed to evaluate the feasibility and desirability of a movable in pit crusher combined with conveyors to substantially reduce or eliminate truck or train haulage in large open pit, nonfuel mineral mines. The repor...

R. N. Johnson

1980-01-01

400

Pitting corrosion and scaling of carbon steels in geothermal brine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain an understanding of pitting corrosion in geothermal brines, an evaluation was made of failures in a surface pipeline and wellhead casing exposed to hypersaline brine in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Uniform corrosion, pitting corrosion, and various forms of highly localized, selective attacks were observed. The corrosion product (FeâOâ) was covered with a transition zone of corrosion product

A. Goldberg; L. B. Owen

1979-01-01

401

Open Pit Mining Extraction and Ore Transportation Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Open pit transportation has an important role in the open pit mining business. In some cases, the transportation has a 50% slice of total operating costs. Therefore, it is important to carefully calculate the most economic transportation method for the sp...

P. Pitkaenen

1998-01-01

402

Characterisation of pitting corrosion by white light interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method is described for obtaining detailed information on the size and shape of many corrosion pits by examination with White Light Interferometry. The entire surface is first imaged at low resolution by automatically stitching individual images into one composite image. Specially written software analyses the image and determines the location of all corrosion pits. The program then guides

Børge Holme; Otto Lunder

2007-01-01

403

The development of localized pits during stainless steel oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the localized pitting attack of 20% Cr\\/25%Ni stainless steel and a similar alloy containing a dispersion of titanium nitride particles has been made over the temperature range 1023 to 1173 K. Pitting is initiated when localized spoiling of the protective chromic oxide film occurs. Rapid oxidation of the chromium-depleted substrate then proceeds with the formation of an

H. E. Evans; D. A. Hilton; R. A. Holm; S. J. Webster

1980-01-01

404

Effects of long-term maternal exposure to low doses of PCB126 and PCB153 on the reproductive system and related hormones of young male goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, female goats were orally exposed to PCB126 or PCB153, at 49 ng\\/kg body weight per day and 98mg\\/kg body weight per day respectively, from gestational day 60 until delivery at approximately day 150. Exposure of the offspring contin- ued via lactation until postnatal day 40. Reproductive toxicity in the male offspring was studied by the evaluation of

Irma C Oskam; Jan L Lyche; Anette Krogenæs; Ragnar Thomassen; Janneche U Skaare; Richard Wiger; Ellen Dahl; Torres Sweeney; Audun Stien; Erik Ropstad

2005-01-01

405

Altered Stress-Induced Cortisol Levels in Goats Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) During Fetal and Postnatal Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in

Karin E. Zimmer; Arno C. Gutleb; Jan L. Lyche; Ellen Dahl; Irma C. Oskam; Anette Krogenæs; Janneche Utne Skaare; Erik Ropstad

2009-01-01

406

Secrets of the Noachian Highlands: Pit Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] A) Context Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] B) Gullies in M12-00595 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] C) Layers and gullies in M09-00539, M15-00964

Among the most exciting places that the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has photographed during its three and a half years in orbit has been this crater in central Noachis Terra. Located at 47oS, 355oW, the crater appears to have been almost completely filled, and subsequently eroded in localized pits, by unknown processes. In this one place we see elements of the two most important results of the MOC investigation--the discovery of young gullies formed by fluid erosion and the occurrence of thick sequences of layered rock attesting to a martian past of substantial geologic activity.

Picture A shows the location of the other two figures, which are sections of three of about a dozen images acquired of this crater. Picture B (M12-00595) shows examples of gullies on the pit walls. Their contributary pattern (including the angles at which they join) argues for fluid behavior during their creation; the dark floors suggest that they have been active recently (or else they, like the slopes around them and most of Mars, would be lighter-toned owing to the accumulation of dust). These gullies are formed well down on the pit wall, where a distinctive, boulder-rich layer is found. Figure C, a mosaic of two high resolution images (M09-00539 and M15-00964), shows an area somewhat higher in the sequence of layered material that fills the crater. This sequence clearly alternates between layers that either contain or erode to form boulders and layers that do not have boulders. Note in particular the overhanging layers near the top center--such overhangs are evidence of the strength of the material. Here, too, gullies appear to start at specific layers; these, however, may not be as young as those seen in (B), as they appear to have at least a thin covering of dust. How it is that this crater came to be filled with layers of material containing (or eroding to create) boulders is a mystery.

2001-01-01

407

Apportionment of PCB sources near a transformer maintenance and repair facility in Ankara, Turkey.  

PubMed

The concentration and major sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were evaluated in the sediments from a special environmental protection area located near a transformer maintenance and repair facility (TMRF) in Ankara, Turkey. ?PCB concentrations analyzed on Aroclor and congener basis (seven indicator congeners) ranged from 0.1 to 84.2 and 0.1 to 21.7 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Results show that higher total PCB concentrations were localized around one of the drainage channels of the TMRF. Identity and contribution of PCB sources were predicted using a chemical mass balance (CMB) based receptor model. The CMB model typically identified Aroclor 1260, the PCB mixture frequently used in transformers, as the major PCB source confirming the effect of the TMRF on the area. Poor prediction of some sample congener profiles suggest presence of environmental degradation mechanisms such as volatilization and differential solubilization of lower chlorinated congeners from sediments. PMID:23719777

Karakas, Filiz; Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

2013-08-01

408

Sulfate conjugates are urinary markers of inhalation exposure to 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3)  

PubMed Central

PCBs are contaminants in the air of older buildings and cities, which raises the concern of inhalation exposure. No reliable biomarker of such exposure is available. We exposed rats to air containing 2 mg/m3 PCB3 via nose-only inhalation for 2 h, collected urine, and analyzed it by LC/MS. Each rat inhaled an estimated dose of 35 ?g PCB3, and excreted 27±2 % of it as sulfates within 24 h. Peak excretion occurred within 6 h. PCB sulfates were stable in urine for at least three days at room temperature without chemical preservatives. These data support the use of PCB sulfate conjugates as suitable urinary biomarkers of PCB3 and other airborne PCBs.

Dhakal, Kiran; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Thorne, Peter S.; Robertson, Larry W.

2013-01-01

409

A size-based probabilistic assessment of PCB exposure from Lake Michigan fish consumption  

SciTech Connect

The state of Wisconsin has recently issued a fish consumption advisory that includes suggested consumption rates for Lake Michigan fish, based on fish size and PCB concentration. To evaluate the size-based exposure risk from Lake Michigan fish consumption, the authors estimated PCB exposure probabilities for five Lake Michigan fish species using two Bayesian models. The models confirm that very few individuals of any of the five species are likely to have PCB concentrations low enough to fall into the category in which consumption is unrestricted. Among smaller fish (<50 cm), brown trout have the highest PCB levels, while lake trout are the most contaminated among larger fish (>60 cm). Eating meals from multiple individuals of some species results in a high probability that at least one of the meals will exceed 1.9 mg/kg, the upper PCB concentration recommended for consumption in the advisory.

Stow, C.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Nicholas School of the Environment] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Nicholas School of the Environment; Qian, S.S. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States)] [Portland State Univ., OR (United States)

1998-08-01

410

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure assessment by multivariate statistical analysis of serum congener profiles in an adult Native American population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes occurring after uptake. However, the relative importance of each factor for individual subjects cannot currently be determined. The present study characterizes levels and patterns of PCB congeners in a large cohort of adult Akwesasne Mohawks with historical PCB exposure.

Anthony P. DeCaprio; Glenn W. Johnson; Alice M. Tarbell; David O. Carpenter; Jeffrey R. Chiarenzelli; Gayle S. Morse; Azara L. Santiago-Rivera; Maria J. Schymura

2005-01-01

411

Influence of animal waste disposal pits on groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the implementation of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta in 1999, the number of the farmers that do not meet the management criteria is on the decline. However, there is a possibility that many of the animal waste disposal pits that have been either abandoned or refilled according to the law have been the potential contamination source. In this study, we discussed the impacts of the abandoned disposal pits to groundwater quality. The results showed that high concentrations of nitrate (above 100mg/L) were observed in the downstream of the disposal pits. It suggests that the abandoned animal waste disposal pits have been the potential pollution source even after the period of 15 years since the termination of use. Implementation of immediate countermeasure is necessary because the animal waste disposal pits are the long-term-sources of high levels of nitrate.

Lee, Seongwon; Hosaka, Akiko; Tase, Norio

412

Feathers as bioindicators of PCB exposure in clapper rails.  

PubMed

In this study we used feathers to biomonitor exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1268 congener mixture in clapper rails (Rallus longirostris). This species has been used as an indicator species of environmental damage for the LCP superfund site located in Brunswick, GA, USA which is contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a congener mixture that has been used in limited amounts elsewhere and therefore can be used as a contaminant marker. The Aroclor 1268 congener mixture, including congener profiles, were quantified in feathers using gas chromatography (GC). Concurrently, each sample was quantified for the total Aroclor 1268 congener mixture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and compared to the GC results to determine if ELISA was an efficient method for quantifying or qualifying PCBs in feathers. ELISA consistently quantified PCB loads over an order of magnitude lower than the GC. Based on sample replication, extraction recovery, and sample spike, it appears that GC is the more reliable method of detection and that ELISA methods may be more suitable for qualitative exposure assessment for this particular Aroclor. Moreover, since all clapper rails from the LCP site had the Aroclor 1268 congener mixture in their feathers, this experiment showed that birds were returning to the site to breed despite the adverse effects experienced by this population from the contamination revealed in previous studies. This study also supports the utility of feathers as a non-lethal mechanism by which to biomonitor PCBs in the environment. PMID:20221687

Summers, J W; Gaines, K F; Garvin, N; Stephens, W L; Cumbee, J C; Mills, G L

2010-08-01

413

Study of atmospheric PCB concentrations over the eastern Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air samples were collected between April 1999 and March 2001 at a background marine site in the eastern Mediterranean Sea and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total PCB congeners (?PCBs) in the gas and particulate phases of the atmosphere were 68.1 ± 28.8 and 2.3 ± 1.8 pg/m3, respectively. The lack of seasonal variation for the atmospheric concentration of individual congeners and ?PCBs and the shallow slopes obtained from the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) plots for several PCB congeners indicated that long-range transport is the main factor controlling the atmospheric levels of PCBs in this area. Most of the episodes with elevated concentrations of ?PCBs concurred with air transport from western and central Europe. This observation was mostly attributed to the predominance of N-NW winds in eastern Mediterranean. The wind speed apparently did not affect the atmospheric concentration of PCBs. Significant changes observed on the homologue group profile of PCBs were mostly related to the origin of air parcels sampled and during summer were most probably related to the reaction of the lighter congeners with OH radicals. Partitioning of PCBs between gas and particulate phases was well correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PLo) for 11 of the 37 samples. The slopes of log Kp versus log PLo ranged between -0.233 and -0.445 and are among the shallowest measured worldwide. This fact may indicate absorption of PCBs in particles covered by a polar film.

Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.

2002-12-01

414

Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Abramowicz, D.A. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

415

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations.

Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

2011-01-01

416

Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

2014-01-01

417

Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.  

PubMed

We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean=141ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean=98ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior. PMID:24954559

Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

2014-09-15

418

Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

419

Microbial contents of soil from fire pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires generate polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can lead to carcinogenic compounds, which are potential health risks. PAHs can be degraded to water and carbon dioxide by certain soil microbes. Thus, during participation in a NASA-funded summer research experience at Utah State University, our high school student team sampled soils from a month-old fire pit in which plant materials had been burnt. We detected in soil samples, from surface, 10 and 20 cm depths, microbes that would grow on a defined minimal medium source. Other microbes were cultured from the roots of plants that had established at the fire pit. A diversity of microbes was present in all samples based on visible differences in cell shape and color. It was surprising that the surface ash, although exposed to sunlight over the month interval, had culturable colonies. Many of these culturable bacteria were pigmented perhaps as a protection against UV radiation from the sun. We searched for genes in the microbes that encoded enzymes called dioxygenases that in other bacteria are involved in degradation of PAHs. This test involved using polymerase chain reactions to detect the genes. PCR products were found in two of the fifteen isolates tested although their sizes differed from the control gene product from a PAH-degrading mycobacterium isolate. These results suggest that the soils did contain microbes with the possible potential to alter the PAH compounds generated from vegetation fires. Our findings serve as a starting point for future studies looking at recovery and remediation of fired acreages.

Moon, K.; Esparza, V.; de Sandre, J.; Cheney, S.; Anderson, A.; White, M. A.

2006-12-01

420

Lunar Pit Craters Presumed to be the Entrances of Lava Caves by Analogy to the Earth Lava Tube Pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lava caves could be useful as outposts for the human exploration of the Moon. Lava caves or lava tubes are formed when the external surface of the lava flows cools more quickly to make a hardened crust over subsurface lava flows. The lava flow eventually ceases and drains out of the tube, leaving an empty space. The frail part of the ceiling of lava tube could collapse to expose the entrance to the lava tubes which is called a pit crater. Several pit craters with the diameter of around 100 meters have been found by analyzing the data of SELENE and LRO lunar missions. It is hard to use these pit craters for outposts since these are too large in scale. In this study, small scale pit craters which are fit for outposts have been investigated using the NAC image data of LROC. Several topographic patterns which are believed to be lunar caves have been found and the similar pit craters of the Earth were compared and analyzed to identify caves. For this analysis, the image data of satellites and aerial photographs are collected and classified to construct a database. Several pit craters analogous to lunar pit craters were derived and a morphological pit crater model was generated using the 3D printer based on this database.

Hong, Ik-Seon; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

2014-06-01

421

75 FR 37295 - Control of Immediate Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Fentanyl as a Schedule II...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fentanyl DEA has determined from the forensic testing of seized illicit fentanyl...successfully used this synthesis route. Forensic laboratories can determine whether...determined by DEA's Office of Forensic Sciences that ANPP can also be...

2010-06-29

422

Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant  

EPA Science Inventory

Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

423

PCB congener distributions in muscle, liver and gonad of Fundulus heteroclitus from the lower Hudson River Estuary and Newark Bay.  

PubMed

Gradients in sediment polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and PCB congener profiles exist along the Hudson River (NY, USA). We evaluated site and tissue differences in PCB concentration and congener profiles in resident mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) collected from PCB-contaminated sites in the lower Hudson River and the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Fish were collected from three PCB-contaminated sites Piermont Marsh (P), Iona Marsh (I), and Newark Bay (NB), and from two reference sites (Flax Pond, NY; Succotash Salt Marsh, RI). Congener profiles were statistically analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and general linear model (GLM) profile analysis. Contaminated fish had PCB tissue concentrations approximately 10-fold higher than those of reference fish. There were no site differences in PCB body burden (all tissues combined) among the contaminated site fish. However, relative PCB concentration did differ between organs: NB fish (gonad=liver>muscle); I and P fish (gonad>liver>muscle). In contrast to PCB content, PCB congener profiles did show site differences; NB mummichog being depleted in the less chlorinated congeners relative to I and P fish, likely reflecting different PCB sources to these populations. Within a site, however, PCB congener patterns were similar between liver, gonad and muscle. In conclusion, PCA and GLM analyses gave complementary results, both analyses indicating differences in site, but not tissue, distributions of PCB congeners. This study also demonstrates that unlike congener profiles, total PCB content does differ dramatically amongst tissues and further, that PCB differences among tissues (gonad vs. liver vs. muscle) can vary with site. PMID:12738290

Monosson, E; Ashley, J T F; McElroy, A E; Woltering, D; Elskus, A A

2003-07-01

424

Illicit Opioid Use in Canada: Comparing Social, Health, and Drug Use Characteristics of Untreated Users in Five Cities (OPICAN Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the estimated 125,000 injection drug users (IDUs) in Canada use illicit opioids and are outside treatment (i.e., methadone maintenance treatment). Empirical data suggest that illicit opioid users outside treatment are characterized by various health and social problem characteristics, including polydrug use, physical and mental morbidity, social marginalization, and crime. Although required for evidence-based programming, systematic information on this

Benedikt Fischer; Jürgen Rehm; Suzanne Brissette; Serge Brochu; Julie Bruneau; Nady El-Guebaly; Lina Noël; Mark Tyndall; Cameron Wild; Phil Mun; Dolly Baliunas

2005-01-01

425

2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes  

PubMed Central

Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of PCBs and their metabolites in wildlife and humans are due to metabolism by P450 enzymes, but also suggest that the enantioselective formation of neurotoxic PCB 136 metabolites, such as 4-OH-PCB 136, may play a role in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs.

Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

2011-01-01

426

Annotated Bibliography of Selected References on PCB and the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site, Michigan, 1982-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fifty six publications pertaining to the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site Publications stored in the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Environmental Response Division site files are summarized. Publications are presented chronologically within four categories: PCB releases, PCB remediation, PCB safety, and PCB testing and cleanup. The text consists of bibliographical information and brief summaries of various published documents pertaining to PCB contamination of the Kalamazoo River. Numerous investigators such as the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Pacific, and various contractors have demonstrated that multiple and at times continuous releases and re-releases of PCBs have occurred as a result of operations at papermill facilities owned and operated by the 'Potential Responsible Parties'.

Simard, Andreanne

2003-01-01

427

Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.  

PubMed

This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted. PMID:22789049

Liberman, Jonathan

2012-01-01

428

Harassment, discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship among social discrimination, violence, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) residing in Los Angeles. Five Hundred twenty-six YMSM (aged 18-24 years) were recruited using a venue-based, stratified probability sampling design. Surveys assessed childhood financial hardship, violence (physical assault, sexual assault, intimate partner violence), social discrimination (homophobia and racism), and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Analyses examined main and interaction effects of key variables on drug use. Experiences of financial hardship, physical intimate partner violence and homophobia predicted drug use. Although African American participants were less likely to report drug use than their Caucasian peers, those who experienced greater sexual racism were at significantly greater risk for drug use. Racial/ethnic minority YMSM were at increased risk for experiencing various forms of social discrimination and violence that place them at increased risk for drug use. PMID:20707690

Wong, Carolyn F; Weiss, George; Ayala, George; Kipke, Michele D

2010-08-01

429

The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

2010-04-01

430

Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material  

SciTech Connect

Subcommittee 45B Radiation Protection Instrumentation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation , IEC 62401 Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material and IEC 62244 Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders .

Chiaro Jr, Peter John [ORNL

2009-01-01

431

An extended literature review of health professionals' perceptions of illicit drugs and their clients who use them.  

PubMed

The literature relating to health professionals and illicit drugs and clients who use them shows many common themes. It is evident that the majority of health professionals hold negative, stereotypical perceptions of illicit drug-users. Consequently, these negative attitudes become prejudicial, hence blocking the professional from carrying out effective and humane nursing care to this client group. Evidence also shows that health professionals' perceptions on the legalization of currently illicit drugs is linked to their own use of these drugs rather than any social or health reasons. Professionals' views on the different illicit substances are also coloured by their use, not by the actual evidence relating to the effects of that drug, in particular, cannabis. The literature shows that health professionals project heavily on to the client all their own negative perceptions of illicit drug use, in the care setting. This has produced very unsatisfactory and unsafe care, resulting in both client and carer being dissatisfied with the whole aspect of care. In addition, specialist teams are being swamped by health professionals who are referring almost every illicit drug-user to these services. The future may be brighter with the generalist and specialist working closely together for the benefit of all, especially the client and, ultimately, the community. PMID:9004621

McLaughlin, D; Long, A

1996-10-01

432

Relationship between the Foveal Avascular Zone and Foveal Pit Morphology  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the relationship between foveal pit morphology and size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Methods. Forty-two subjects were recruited. Volumetric images of the macula were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Images of the FAZ were obtained using either a modified fundus camera or an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope. Foveal pit metrics (depth, diameter, slope, volume, and area) were automatically extracted from retinal thickness data, whereas the FAZ was manually segmented by two observers to extract estimates of FAZ diameter and area. Results. Consistent with previous reports, the authors observed significant variation in foveal pit morphology. The average foveal pit volume was 0.081 mm3 (range, 0.022 to 0.190 mm3). The size of the FAZ was also highly variable between persons, with FAZ area ranging from 0.05 to 1.05 mm2 and FAZ diameter ranging from 0.20 to 1.08 mm. FAZ area was significantly correlated with foveal pit area, depth, and volume; deeper and broader foveal pits were associated with larger FAZs. Conclusions. Although these results are consistent with predictions from existing models of foveal development, more work is needed to confirm the developmental link between the size of the FAZ and the degree of foveal pit excavation. In addition, more work is needed to understand the relationship between these and other anatomic features of the human foveal region, including peak cone density, rod-free zone diameter, and Henle fiber layer.

Dubis, Adam M.; Hansen, Benjamin R.; Cooper, Robert F.; Beringer, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

2012-01-01

433

The role of bacteria in pit propagation of carbon steel.  

PubMed

Pit propagation in carbon steel exposed to a phosphate-containing electrolyte required either stagnant conditions or microbial colonization of anodic regions. A scanning vibrating electrode (SVE) was used to resolve formation and inactivation of anodic and cathodic sites on carbon steel. In sterile, continuously aerated medium, pits initiated and repassivated, while in the absence of aeration, pits initiated and propagated. Pit propagation was also observed in continuously aerated medium inoculated with a heterotrophic bacterium, originally isolated from a corrosion tubercle formed on a steel pipe in a fresh water environment. Autoradiography of bacteria following uptake of (14)C-acetate into cellular material in combination with SVE analysis demonstrated that sites of anodic activity coincided with sites of bacterial activity. Prelabeled bacteria also preferentially attached to corrosion products over the anodic sites. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that attraction to anodic sites did not depend on bacterial viability and was not specific for iron as a substratum. The results suggest that bacteria may preferentially attach to the corrosion products formed over corrosion pits. The biofilms over these anodic sites may create stagnant conditions within corrosion pits that result in pit propagation. PMID:22115288

Franklin, M; White, D C; Little, B; Ray, R; Pope, R

2000-01-01

434

Locomotor hyperactivity in PCB-exposed rhesus monkeys  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of locomotor activity were measured, using a crossed photobeam cage, in young rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) whose mothers had been fed low levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, Aroclor 1248) both before and during gestation and nursing. In Exp. 1, a group of young monkeys whose mothers had been fed 2.5 ppM PCBs (the 2.5 ppM concurrent-exposure group) was compared with the control group of Exp. 1 at 6 (Exp la) and 12 (Exp lb) mon of age. In Exp. lla, a group of young monkeys born from the same 2.5 ppM mothers after they had been off their 2.5 ppM PCB diets for periods ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 yr (i.e., the 2.5 ppM post-exposure group) was compared with the control group of Exp. II at 12 mon of age. In Exp. IIb, two groups of young monkeys from groups of mothers fed 0.5 and 1.0 ppM PCBs three times per week (concurrent-exposure) were compared at 12 mon of age with the control group of Exp. II. In the 12-mon tests the mean data and variability of the two control groups were very similar, both in their mean locomotor activity levels in early sessions and in activity at about half that level in later sessions, suggesting between-session adaptation over the course of the experiment. In contrast, both the concurrent and the post-exposure 2.5 ppM groups showed between-session patterns which began at control activity levels but which rose to levels at least three times those of the controls by the final sessions. The 1.0 ppM group showed within-session decrements which became less pronounced as the experiment continued. This latter pattern was the only one shown by any group which was consistent with the concept of reactivity. Overall, all of the PCB-treated groups were more active than their controls with no quantitative difference related to PCB dosage. Dose-effect differences appeared in the form of qualitatively different activity patterns between the groups, for which no quantitative description appeared obvious.

Bowman, R.E.; Heironimus, M.P.; Barsotti, D.A.

1981-10-01

435

Use of illicit drugs by truck drivers arriving at paranaguá port terminal, Brazil.  

PubMed

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of recent use of illicit drugs among truck drivers who had parked their vehicles at the terminal port in Paranaguá City at Paraná State, southern Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger research project conducted among drivers at a regional Brazilian port. Data on professional characteristics, involvement in road traffic injuries, sleep, and use of alcohol and illicit drugs were collected using a questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and analyzed for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabis using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Results: Sixty-two drivers were included in the study. Toxicological analyses showed that 8.1 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7-17.8%) of the urine samples were positive for drugs (4.8% for cocaine, 1.6% for amphetamine, and 1.6% for both); 8.1 percent reported drug use during the preceding 30 days in the questionnaire and only one tested positive for the drug in the urine sample. No sample was positive for cannabinoids. In total, at least 14.5 percent (95% CI, 6.9-25.8%) had used illicit drugs during the preceding 30 days based on self-reports and urine testing. Drivers who reported involvement in traffic injuries the year before more often tested positive for drugs in biological samples (P <.05). Conclusions: This research provides preliminary evidence that the use of illicit stimulants was common among professional truck drivers transporting grain loads. Thus, actions are needed to reduce drug use among truck drivers in order to prevent drug-related road traffic injuries. PMID:24313348

Peixe, Tiago Severo; de Almeida, Rafael Menck; Girotto, Edmarlon; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

2014-10-01

436

Use of illicit stimulant drugs in Finland: A wastewater study in ten major cities.  

PubMed

Estimations of drug use at the national level are generally based on various sources of information, such as drug seizures, socio-scientific studies, toxicological data and hospital records. Nevertheless, all of these approaches have limitations that cannot be overcome, even if conclusions are drawn from combined data retrieved from different sources. Drug epidemiology through wastewater analysis has the potential to provide unique perspectives, internationally comparable data, and up-to-date information on the use of both traditional illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPSs). In Finland, no large-scale studies on regional illicit drug consumption, based on a wastewater approach, have been reported. In this study, 24-h influent composite samples were collected during two 1-week study periods from ten different wastewater treatment plants in May and November-December 2012. The cities included in the study represent the geographical areas throughout Finland and cover 40% of the Finnish population. The samples were analyzed with an in-house validated, ultra high-performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for various common illicit drugs and some NPS type stimulant drugs. The results were also compared with available statistics, information on drug seizures and laboratory-confirmed toxicological data, as well as other studies available based on wastewater analysis. The data show that illicit stimulant drug use is more common in the larger cities of Southern Finland. Amphetamine was the most commonly used drug in all 10 cities during both collection periods (excluding the collection period in May in Lappeenranta). Cocaine consumption remains very low in Finland in comparison to other European countries; it was concentrated in the biggest cities in Southern Finland. This study shows interesting temporal and spatial differences in drug use in Finland, as well as the possibilities of using wastewater analytics to reveal local hotspots of NPS consumption. PMID:24331163

Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

2014-07-15

437

Informal and Illicit Entrepreneurs: Fighting for a Place in the Neoliberal Economic Order  

PubMed Central

A panel at the 2007 meetings of the American Anthropological Association examined the working lives of illicit and informal entrepreneurs living in “the gaps” or “shadows” of neoliberal globalization. Panelists challenged dichotomies such as informal/formal and legal/illegal by examining the everyday practices of workers in diverse settings. Emphasis was placed on entrepreneurs’ efforts to legitimate their activities and identities to themselves and others.

Galemba, Rebecca B.

2013-01-01

438

Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs: state of the art, potential and research needs.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary conference on this topic was recently organized to present the epidemiological knowledge of patterns in drug use and the information obtained from wastewater analysis. This paper gives an overview of the main issues that emerged during the conference, focusing on the identified research gaps and requirements and on the future challenges and opportunities from bringing together wastewater analysis and drug epidemiology. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) uses an established multi-indicator system to monitor illicit drug use and to identify the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The methodological challenges of monitoring a hidden and stigmatized behavior like drug use include the limitations of self-report data and reporting delays. An increasing evidence base suggests that wastewater analysis can address some of these problems. Specifically this technique can: monitor temporal and spatial trends in drug use at different scales, provide updated estimates of drug use, and identify changing habits and the use of new substances. A best practice protocol developed by a Europe-wide network of experts is available to produce homogeneous and comparable data at different sites. The systematic evaluation of uncertainties related to wastewater analysis has highlighted which areas require careful control and those that need further investigation to generally improve the approach. Wastewater analysis has considerable potential to complement existing approaches for monitoring drug use due to its ability to produce objective, real-time estimates of drug use and to give timely information of any change in the patterns of use. PMID:24963530

Castiglioni, Sara; Thomas, Kevin V; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Vandam, Liesbeth; Griffiths, Paul

2014-07-15

439

Detection of Concealed Liquid Explosives and Illicit Drugs in Unopened Bottles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the use of Magnetic Resonance relaxometry as a non-invasive method to detect concealed liquid explosives and drugs in unopened containers. The safe, non-ionizing detection is based on sensing liquid alteration without opening its container. The technique has proven to be effective with non-metallic bottles, independently of their shape and size. Other spectroscopic and bulk methods to identify illicit liquid substances as well as the potential of combining screening technologies are presented.

Kumar, Sankaran; Prado, Pablo J.

440

Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health  

PubMed Central

Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence.

2013-01-01

441

Price and purity analysis for illicit drug: Data and conceptual issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on illicit drug purity and prices are invaluable but challenging. Academic purists argue they are unsuitable for economic analysis [Manski, C.F., Pepper, J.V., Petrie, C.V., 2001. Informing America's Policy on Illegal Drugs: What We Don’t Know Keeps Hurting Us. National Academy Press, Washington, DC], but in practice they are used frequently [ONDCP, 2001a. What America's Users Spend on Illegal

Jonathan P. Caulkins

2007-01-01

442

Drinking, smoking, and illicit drug use among 15 and 16 year olds in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine patterns of self reported drinking, smoking, and illicit drug use among a representative United Kingdom sample of people born in 1979.Design: Cross sectional, single phase survey based on a stratified cluster sample of 70 United Kingdom secondary schools during March and April 1995. Pupils completed a 406 item standardised questionnaire under examination conditions.Setting: United Kingdom state and

Patrick McC Miller; Martin Plant

1996-01-01

443

Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the 'North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health' Programme  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. Methods ‘Mixed methods’ research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1?year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Results Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. Conclusions A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT.

McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

2014-01-01

444

Outdoor air PCB concentrations in three communities along the Upper Hudson River, New York.  

PubMed

Outdoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in upstate New York as part of a nonoccupational exposure investigation. The adjacent study communities of Hudson Falls and Fort Edward contain numerous sites of current and former PCB contamination, including two capacitor-manufacturing facilities. Outdoor air PCB concentrations in the study municipalities were significantly higher than in the comparison municipality of Glens Falls. Total PCB concentrations in the study area ranged from 0.102 to 4.011 ng/m(3) (median: 0.711 ng/m(3)). For the comparison area, concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 2.366 ng/m(3) (median: 0.431 ng/m(3)). Although our sampling was not designed to identify point sources, the presence of PCB-contaminated sites in the study area likely contributed to this observed difference in concentration. While elevated relative to the comparison area, total PCB concentrations in the study area are lower than those in other communities with known PCB-contaminated sites, and similar to levels reported in other locations from the northeastern United States. PMID:17879110

Palmer, Patrick M; Belanger, Erin E; Wilson, Lloyd R; Hwang, Syni-An A; Narang, Rajinder S; Gomez, Marta I; Cayo, Michael R; Durocher, Lorie A; Fitzgerald, Edward F

2008-04-01

445

Discovery and epidemiology of PCB poisoning in Taiwan: a four-year followup.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning from the consumption of contaminated rice oil, covering four counties in central Taiwan, was investigated. There were 1843 cases by the end of 1980. The highest frequency of incidence occurred during the period from March to July 1979. The severity of clinical manifestations varied. Most patients showed symptoms of mild or moderate severity. The major age group affected was between 11 and 20 years old. Most of the victims were students and factory workers. The amount of PCB intake in each victim was estimated to be 0.7 to 1.84 g and the latent period from the time of intake to the onset of clinical manifestations was approximately 3 to 4 months. The patients' blood PCB concentrations ranged from 3 ppb to 1156 ppb; 44.27% of 613 patients had levels of 51 to 100 ppb and 27.6% PCB blood levels over 100 ppb. In the course of 3.5 years, 2061 persons were determined to be PCB poisoning victims. Now, except for a few severe cases, their skin symptoms are very much improved. Thirty-nine babies showing hyperpigmentation were born from PCB-poisoned mothers. The fatality rate was high: eight of them died. Another 24 deaths were reported among the PCB-poisoned group, almost half of them (12) from hepatoma, liver cirrhosis or liver diseases with hepatomegaly.

Hsu, S T; Ma, C I; Hsu, S K; Wu, S S; Hsu, N H; Yeh, C C; Wu, S B

1985-01-01

446

An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization  

SciTech Connect

These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

1990-12-31

447

Characterization by arbitrary primer polymerase chain reaction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading strains of Comamonas testosteroni isolated from PCB-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In this study, we isolated and characterized biphenyl (BP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading bacterial strains found in PCB-contaminated soil from an auto manufacturing plant located in Syracuse, New York. Twenty-one BP and PCB-degrading bacteria were randomly selected to form a representative sample of the bacterial population present at the site. Of the 21 bacteria, 13 were identified as Comamonas testosteroni, constituting about 60% of the bacterial population examined. Other PCB degraders identified were Acidovorax facilis, Alcaligenes xylosoxydans, Bacillus sphericus, Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava, Pseudomonas avanae, and Rhodococcus fascians. Owing to the abundance of C. testosteroni at this site, only these isolates were further characterized for their PCB congener degradation profile, 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase activity, and genetic relatedness by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The PCB congener degradation pattern revealed a high degree of variability among the C. testosteroni isolates. The majority of the C. testosteroni isolates tested could degrade more than 95% of the PCB congeners up to pentachlorinated biphenyl. Only four isolates could degrade more than 80% of hexachlorobiphenyl. All 12 isolates of C. testosteroni tested were able to attack 2,3,4,5,6,3',4'-heptachlorobiphenyl, indicating involvement of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase, while 2,3,5,6,2',3',6'-heptachlorobiphenyl was attacked by 6 strains, suggesting an oxidation reaction mediated by 3,4-dioxygenase. 2,3-Dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase activity was also found to vary among the C. testosteroni isolates tested in this study. Eleven strains showed 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase activity specific for 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, whereas isolate BW 169 could metabolize both 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl and 4-methylcatechol, and isolate BW74 had the ability to metabolize all three substrates (2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl, 4-chlorocatechol, and 4-methylcatechol).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7641143

Joshi, B; Walia, S

1995-07-01

448

Effects of PCB on the adrenergic response in perfused gills and on levels of muscle glycogen in Rainbow trout ( Salmo gairdneri Rich.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations in behavior have been observed in PCB exposed fish. The response to external disturbance seems to be less evident in the PCB exposed fish than in unexposed ones. Furthermore, the levels of muscle glycogen are reported to be higher in fish exposed to PCB. The question arose if these PCB related effects on fish were the result of an

A. Kiessling; P. Paert; O. Ring; K. Lindahl-Kiessling

1983-01-01

449

An improved clean-up strategy for simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fatty food samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study and extension of a simple automated clean-up method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) to a broad range of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is described. The isolation of seven PCDD, ten PCDF, and three coplanar PCB (cPCB) is extended to eight mono-ortho substituted PCB and seven so-called \\

Catherine Pirard; Jean-François Focant; Edwin De Pauw

2002-01-01

450

Estimating the prevalence of illicit drug use among students using the crosswise model.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of our study is to compare the prevalence of illicit drug use estimated through a technique referred to as the "crosswise model" (CM) with the results from conventional direct questioning (DQ). Method: About 1,500 students from Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2009-2010 were first interviewed by DQ and, then three months later, by the CM. Result: The CM yielded significantly higher estimates than DQ for lifetime prevalence of use of any illicit drug (CM = 20.2%,DQ = 3.0%, p < .001) and for lifetime prevalence of use of opium or its residue (CM = 13.6%, DQ = 1.0%, p < .001). Also, for use of any illicit drug in the last month and use of opium or its residue in the last month, the CM yielded higher point estimates than DQ, although these differences were not significant (any drug: CM = 1.5%, DQ = 0.2%, p = .66; opium: CM = 3.8%, DQ = 0.0%, p = .21). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the CM is a fruitful data collection method for sensitive topics such as substance abuse. PMID:24689805

Shamsipour, Mansour; Yunesian, Masoud; Fotouhi, Akbar; Jann, Ben; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Asghari, Fariba; Akhlaghi, Ali Asghar

2014-08-01

451

Stigmatization of Illicit Drug Use among Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training1  

PubMed Central

Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action.

Varas-Diaz, Nelson; Negron, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintron; Rivera, Souhail Malave

2010-01-01

452

Effects of sewer conditions on the degradation of selected illicit drug residues in wastewater.  

PubMed

The stability of five illicit drug markers in wastewater was tested under different sewer conditions using laboratory-scale sewer reactors. Wastewater was spiked with deuterium labelled isotopes of cocaine, benzoyl ecgonine, methamphetamine, MDMA and 6-acetyl morphine to avoid interference from the native isotopes already present in the wastewater matrix. The sewer reactors were operated at 20 °C and pH 7.5, and wastewater was sampled at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h to measure the transformation/degradation of these marker compounds. The results showed that while methamphetamine, MDMA and benzoyl ecgonine were stable in the sewer reactors, cocaine and 6-acetyl morphine degraded quickly. Their degradation rates are significantly higher than the values reportedly measured in wastewater alone (without biofilms). All the degradation processes followed first order kinetics. Benzoyl ecgonine and morphine were also formed from the degradation of cocaine and 6-acetyl morphine, respectively, with stable formation rates throughout the test. These findings suggest that, in sewage epidemiology, it is essential to have relevant information of the sewer system (i.e. type of sewer, hydraulic retention time) in order to accurately back-estimate the consumption of illicit drugs. More research is required to look into detailed sewer conditions (e.g. temperature, pH and ratio of biofilm area to wastewater volume among others) to identify their effects on the fate of illicit drug markers in sewer systems. PMID:24169511

Thai, Phong K; Jiang, Guangming; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lai, Foon Yin; Mueller, Jochen F

2014-01-01

453

Stigmatization of illicit drug use among Puerto Rican health professionals in training.  

PubMed

Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525

Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Santiago-Negrón, Salvador; Neilands, Torsten B; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Malavé-Rivera, Souhail

2010-06-01

454

Measuring the stability of illicit drug markets: why does it matter?  

PubMed

Contemporary drug policy in the United States favors a balanced approach including a supply side dimension. The supply side dimension is grounded in the assumption that the disruption of illicit drug markets will result in diminished capacity of the markets to provide for consumer demand and thereby a reduction in the use of illicit drugs and a related increase in demand for treatment. In this paper we consider the disruption of methamphetamine markets in 10 cities in terms of the relative stability of those markets. We use data from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program for the years 2000-2003. We conduct a comparative analysis of those markets and look at patterns of methamphetamine use and participation in treatment in those cities. Our findings demonstrate how it is possible to construct measures of market stability, and how to use those measures to assess the stability of illicit drug markets in terms of both relative value and in fluctuation over time. We also demonstrate that markets with different patterns of stability will exhibit different patterns of drug using and treatment participation. We conclude that understanding patterns of market stability will help us to understand and respond to patterns of drug using and treatment participation. PMID:17175119

Brownstein, Henry H; Taylor, Bruce G

2007-09-01

455

Urine specimen detection of concurrent nonprescribed medicinal and illicit drug use in patients prescribed buprenorphine.  

PubMed

Patients being treated with buprenorphine usually have a history of opioid dependence and may be predisposed to misuse of drugs. Concurrent drug misuse increases the risk of life-threatening drug interactions. This retrospective data analysis observed which nonprescribed and illicit drugs were most commonly detected in the urine of patients from pain management clinics taking buprenorphine with or without a prescription. GC, LC/MS and LC-MS-MS were used to quantify 20,929 urine specimens. The most prevalent illicit drug used in both the groups (prescribed and nonprescribed buprenorphine) was marijuana, followed by cocaine. The most prevalent nonprescribed medications abused by both the groups were benzodiazepines, followed by oxycodone and hydrocodone. The overall prevalence of illicit and nonprescribed drug use was significantly higher in subjects who used buprenorphine without a prescription versus prescribed use. Of the concurrent use of marijuana and cocaine with buprenorphine, cocaine is most concerning since it decreases exposure to buprenorphine (lower area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration). The concurrent use of nonprescribed benzodiazepines with buprenorphine can cause excess sedation leading to respiratory depression and even death. These findings highlight the importance of educating patients about these potential toxicities. Furthermore, pain providers should consider expanding the spectrum of drugs that they monitor in patients under treatment. PMID:24080973

Guo, Alexander Y; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S

2013-01-01

456

Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use.

Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

2014-01-01

457

Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Illicit Drug Use and Health Services Utilization  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the relationships between illicit drug use and three types of health services utilization: emergency room utilization, hospitalization, and medical attention required due to injury(s). Data Waves 1 and 2 (11,253 males and 13,059 females) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Study Design We derive benchmark estimates by employing standard cross-sectional data models to pooled waves of NESARC data. To control for potential bias due to time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity, we reestimate the relationships with fixed-effects models. Principal Findings The cross-sectional data models suggest that illicit drug use is positively and significantly related to health services utilization in almost all specifications. Conversely, the only significant (p<.05) relationships in the fixed-effects models are the odds of receiving medical attention for an injury and the number of injuries requiring medical attention for men, and the number of times hospitalized for men and women. Conclusions Failing to control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity could lead to biased coefficients when estimating the effects of illicit drug use on health services utilization. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between types of drug user (casual versus heavy) and estimate gender-specific models.

French, Michael T; Fang, Hai; Balsa, Ana I

2011-01-01

458

The Effects of a Dredge Excavation Pit on Benthic Macrofauna in Offshore Louisiana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over two years after the original creation of a sand excavation pit 8 km off the Louisiana coast, benthic macrofauna communities and sedimentary characteristics are still effected. Macrofaunal communities inside the pit had lower abundance, biomass, and diversity than communities outside the pit. This difference, however, was only significant with some of the stations outside the pit. Results from multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis showed that macrofaunal communities were less than 32% similar inside the pit to communities outside the pit. The polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta was the most abundant species outside the excavation pit, but the species was only counted once inside the pit. The most dominant species, which made up over 90% of organisms inside the pit, was the pioneer polychaete Paraprionospio pinnata. Only three species were found at each station inside the pit as opposed to 9-27 species at stations outside the pit. All species inside th