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1

Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington  

SciTech Connect

PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

2000-12-11

2

Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington  

SciTech Connect

PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L; Taira, Randal Y

2001-01-10

3

Artificial neural networks for pitting potential prediction of resistance spot welding joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to predict the influence of welding process on pitting corrosion behaviour (PCB) of resistance spot welding (RSW) joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS). PCB is estimated from the pitting potential (Epitt), which is predicted from three RSW parameters. The prediction is carried out by artificial neural networks (ANNs) because the phenomena that

Óscar Martín; Pilar De Tiedra; Manuel López

2010-01-01

4

Ascraeus Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

31 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows collapse pits on the northern flank of the giant Tharsis shield volcano, Ascraeus Mons. Details in rock and dust are seen when this image is examined at its full, 1.5 meters (5 ft) per pixel resolution. Large, dark boulders occur on the floors of some of the pits, for example. This scene is located near 13.1oN, 103.1oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2005-01-01

5

ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND  

PubMed Central

The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

Pavananunt, Pirudee

2012-01-01

6

Illicit cigarette trade in Thailand.  

PubMed

The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991-2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

Pavananunt, Pirudee

2011-11-01

7

Pitting corrosion of aluminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the experiments performed during the last few decades which enhance knowledge of the pitting of aluminum. Specifically, metastable and stable pits, pit chemistry and the effect of intermetallics on pitting are discussed. The properties of metastable alloys and inhibition of Al are also discussed.

Z Szklarska-Smialowska

1999-01-01

8

PCB biohalogenation under anaerobic conditions  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting research on the biodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) under anoxic conditions. Reductive dechlorination of PCB's has been observed in treatments inoculated with Hudson River sediments. Differences in gas chromatograms between time 0 and 4-month incubations indicate pattern shifts of the PCB homologs that constitute Aroclor 1242 from highly chlorinated to lesser chlorinated congeners. Changes in distribution patterns of PCB homologs were also evident. PCB homologs containing 4, 5, 6, and 7 chlorine atoms were shown to decrease over the incubation period, whereas PCB homologs containing 2 and 3 chlorines increased in concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Gauger, W.K.; McCue, J.J.

1990-01-01

9

PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

Not Available

1989-03-01

10

To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington

Galya I Balatsky; William R Severe; Richard K Wallace

2010-01-01

11

ENANTIOSELECTIVITY IN THE BIODEGRADATION OF PCB ATROPISOMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microcosms inoculated with sediment from two locations in a contaminated reservoir, Lake Hartwell, SC, USA, degraded certain PCB atropisomers enantioselectively while other atropisomers were degraded in racemic proportions. The microcosms were spiked with either 234-236 PCB (PCB...

12

Illicit drug markets and economic irregularities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Markets for illicit drugs present an interesting case study for economics, combining non-standard characteristics such as addiction and product illegality. One response has been to argue the generality of economic principles by suggesting that they apply even in the extreme case of markets for addictive substances, e.g., by showing that demand for illicit goods is responsive to price [1] [Reframing

Jonathan P. Caulkins; Peter Reuter

2006-01-01

13

Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

14

Current sensor in PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel DC\\/AC current sensor works on the fluxgate principle. The core in the form of a 7\\/10 mm ring made of electrodeposited Permalloy is sandwiched into the middle of the printed circuit board (PCB), while the sensor excitation winding is also integrated in the copper layers of the PCB. In order to lower the sensor power consumption, the excitation

P. Ripka; J. Kubik; M. Duffy; W. G. Hurley; S. O'Reilly

2002-01-01

15

Current sensor in PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel DC\\/AC current sensor works on the fluxgate principle. The core in the form of a 7\\/10-mm ring made of electrodeposited permalloy is sandwiched in the middle of a printed circuit board (PCB), whereas the sensor excitation winding is also integrated in the copper layers of the PCB. To lower the sensor power consumption, the excitation winding was tuned

Pavel Ripka; Jan Kubik; Maeve Duffy; William Gerard Hurley; Stephen O'Reilly

2005-01-01

16

Sorption of polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners by residual PCB-oil phases in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the authors show that residual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) oil present in soils heavily contaminated with PCB mixtures (Aroclors) functions as a highly effective partitioning medium accounting for the sorptive uptake of 2-chlorobiphenyl from water. A PCB-oil normalized partition coefficient (K{sub PCB}) was evaluated from the experimental sorption data of 2-chlorobiphenyl onto four PCB-oil contaminated soils which had PCB-oil

Shaobai Sun; S. A. Boyd

2009-01-01

17

PCB cycling in marine plankton  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystem-scale models of contaminant bioaccumulation and toxicity are often sensitive to quantification of uptake and trophic transfer at the base of aquatic food chains. Significant uncertainty remains in assessing the rates and routes of transfer of hydrophobic contaminants by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Using radio-labeled 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB), the authors have conducted experiments to measure the transfer of PCB from seawater to phytoplankton to copepods. Uptake, equilibration, and release of PCB onto/from algal cells were found to be rapid and not appreciably affected by the algal growth phase. Initial experiments indicate that when PCB-contaminated diatoms were fed to calanoid copepods, the assimilation efficiencies in the grazers ranged from 30--50%. Ongoing experiments are investigating this process further and quantitatively comparing copepod uptake of PCB from food and from the dissolved phase. These parameters of uptake and release are essential in the development and application of contaminant bioaccumulation models for marine and aquatic food chains.

Ashizawa, D.; Brownawell, B.; Fisher, N. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

1995-12-31

18

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

19

Snow Pit Stratigraphy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The student understands that snow leads to avalanches, but is often very inexperienced in the observation of the snow pack. This exercise provides the opportunity to learn about snow stratigraphy, observation, and measurement from a detailed observational perspective. The students work in small groups in 3-6 pits (depends on the class size). By working on a transect from the trees out into the opening, they discover (usually) that the snow depth is different and that the descriptions in the pits differ as one proceeds out from the trees into the opening. (Different stratigraphic units, different thickness, different temperature, different density, different crystals.)

Custer, Stephan

20

Advanced Genetics PCB 5065 Fall 2013 page 1 Syllabus Advanced Genetics PCB 5065 Fall 2013  

E-print Network

Advanced Genetics PCB 5065 Fall 2013 page 1 Syllabus Advanced Genetics PCB 5065.hos.ufl.edu/courses/PCB5065 Genetic analysis is explored with a team of instructors who use genetic approaches in their research programs. The objective of PCB 5065 is to strengthen students' comprehension of genetic concepts

Watson, Craig A.

21

Standard method for toxic PCB congener analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFs) for dioxins and furans has recently expanded to include the co-planar PCBs which have similar toxicological properties. In the ad hoc application of PCB TEFs, researchers have utilized PCB concentration data obtained by a number of different methods. As the use of PCB TEFs expands into more formal applications, methods for these relatively

1991-01-01

22

Shooting up : the impact of illicit economics on military conflict  

E-print Network

The study explores the nexus between illicit economies and military conflicts. It investigates when and how access by belligerents to the production and trafficking of illicit substances affects the strength of belligerents ...

Felbab-Brown, Vanda

2007-01-01

23

Pitting of 3003 aluminum  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al.

Lee, R.

1996-12-31

24

Snake bite: pit vipers.  

PubMed

Pit vipers are the largest group of venomous snakes in the United States and are involved in an estimated 150,000 bites annually of dogs and cats. The severity of any pit viper bite is related to the volume and toxicity of the venom injected as well as the location of the bite, which may influence the rate of venom uptake. The toxicity of rattlesnake venom varies widely. It is possible for pit vipers' venom to be strictly neurotoxic with virtually no local signs of envenomation. Venom consists of 90% water and has a minimum of 10 enzymes and 3 to 12 nonenzymatic proteins and peptides in any individual snake. The onset of clinical signs after envenomation may be delayed for several hours. The presence of fang marks does not indicate that envenomation has occurred, only that a bite has taken place. Systemic clinical manifestations encompass a wide variety of problems including pain, weakness, dizziness, nausea, severe hypotension, and thrombocytopenia. The victim's clotting abnormalities largely depend upon the species of snake involved. Venom induced thrombocytopenia occurs in approximately 30% of envenomations. Many first aid measures have been advocated for pit viper bite victims, none has been shown to prevent morbidity or mortality. Current recommendations for first aid in the field are to keep the victim calm, keep the bite site below heart level if possible, and transport the victim to a veterinary medical facility for primary medical intervention. The patient should be hospitalized and monitored closely for a minimum of 8 hours for the onset of signs of envenomation. The only proven specific therapy against pit viper envenomation is the administration of antivenin. The dosage of antivenin needed is calculated relative to the amount of venom injected, the body mass of the victim, and the bite site. The average dosage in dogs and cats is 1 to 2 vials of antivenin. PMID:17265901

Peterson, Michael E

2006-11-01

25

Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder: International Cooperation Against Illicit Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

From human trafficking to smuggling small arms to looting antiquities, illicit trade poses significant threats to international order. So why is it difficult to establish international cooperation against illicit trade? Governing Guns, Preventing Plunder offers a novel, thought-provoking answer to this crucial question. Conventional wisdom holds that powerful criminal groups obstruct efforts to suppress illicit trade. In contrast, Asif Efrat

Asif Efrat

26

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass

Dingfei Hu; Hans-Joachim Lehmler; Andres Martinez; Kai Wang; Keri C. Hornbuckle

2010-01-01

27

Law Enforcement and Illicit Drug Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

he reduction of illicit drug use in Australia will require a whole- of-government approach, and should be based on three funda- mental strategies: education, treatment for the drug dependent, and law enforcement. A wide variety of Australian institutions can and should con- tribute to each of these three. Our task here is not comprehensive. On the contrary, its scope is

Adam Graycar; Diana Nelson; Mick Palmer

28

Garbage, Recycling, and Illicit Burning or Dumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

With garbage and recycling as the only two disposal options, we confirm prior results that the optimal curbside fee for garbage collection equals the direct resource cost plus external environment cost. When illicit burning or dumping is a third disposal option that cannot be taxed directly, the optimal curbside tax on garbage changes sign. The optimal fee structure is a

Don Fullerton; Thomas C. Kinnaman

1995-01-01

29

Sources of prescription drugs for illicit use  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis exploratory study investigated the sources of four classes of abusable prescription medications (sleeping, sedative\\/anxiety, stimulant, and pain medications) that were used illicitly by undergraduate students in the past year. The relationship between these sources and other substance use was examined.

Sean Esteban McCabe; Carol J. Boyd

2005-01-01

30

Illicit Use of Ketamine in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semistructured interviews were carried out with 20 illicit users of ketamine in Scotland. Participants had used a wide range of illegal drugs. Scottish drug agencies reported limited contact with ketamine users; however, subjects were knowledgeable regarding the licit purpose of ketamine, its effects, and its legal status. Ketamine was usually obtained through diversion from legitimate sources. Three participants reported extensive

Philip J. Dalgarno; David Shewan

1996-01-01

31

Polar Cap Pits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

17 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows kidney bean-shaped pits, and other pits, formed by erosion in a landscape of frozen carbon dioxide. This images shows one of about a dozen different patterns that are common in various locations across the martian south polar residual cap, an area that has been receiving intense scrutiny by the MGS MOC this year, because it is visible on every orbit and in daylight for most of 2005.

Location near: 86.9oS, 6.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

2005-01-01

32

Illicit traffic and abuse of cocaine.  

PubMed

There has been an increasing availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada in recent years. Cocaine abuse has spread from the affluent adult sectors of society to middle-income groups and the young, involving large sections of the population. The increase in illicit demand for, and the social acceptability of, cocaine has led to an increase in illicit cocaine supply. The availability of cocaine on the illicit market has been sustained by a vast over-production of the raw materials needed to produce cocaine in coca-growing areas of South America and the activities of sophisticated trafficking organizations with large operations and profits. As a result, cocaine prices at the wholesale level in South America and Canada are declining, and at the retail level in Canada have remained relatively stable or have slightly decreased. It has been estimated that more than one half of the amount of cocaine on the illicit market in Canada was illegally produced in Colombia, but the main quantities of the raw materials used for such production originated in Bolivia and Peru. Cocaine is smuggled into Canada primarily by commercial air transport, arriving at the three principal ports of entry, namely Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, from whence it is distributed to other parts of the country. As drug law enforcement efforts increase in one area, traffickers shift their illicit operations to other areas in an attempt to escape detection. Current evidence suggests that both the availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada are likely to increase in the coming years. PMID:6569821

Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Keele, S A

1984-01-01

33

Pits in Polar Cap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This full-frame image from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows faults and pits in Mars' north polar residual cap that have not been previously recognized.

The faults and depressions between them are similar to features seen on Earth where the crust is being pulled apart. Such tectonic extension must have occurred very recently because the north polar residual cap is very young, as indicated by the paucity of impact craters on its surface. Alternatively, the faults and pits may be caused by collapse due to removal of material beneath the surface. The pits are aligned along the faults, either because material has drained into the subsurface along the faults or because gas has escaped from the subsurface through them.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

2006-01-01

34

PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1995-04-01

35

Recent PCB accidents in Finland.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accidents were recorded during a 1-year period in Finland. They comprised leaks, fires or explosions of capacitors. Some of the explosions and fires gave rise to high concentrations of PCBs in air and of PCBs and tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs), including 2,3,7,8-TCDF, on surfaces. One large explosion is described in detail, and biomedical data and findings of this case are compared with those of smaller accidents in Finland. PMID:3928359

Elo, O; Vuojolahti, P; Janhunen, H; Rantanen, J

1985-01-01

36

PCB Concentrations of Lake Michigan Invertebrates: Reconstruction Based on PCB Concentrations of Alewives ( Alosa pseudoharengus) and their Bioenergetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invertebrate PCB concentrations are a poorly quantified but crucial step in the trophic transfer of organochlorine contaminants to fishes. In fact, current attempts to quantify PCB fluxes in the Lake Michigan pelagic food web are hampered by poor knowledge of invertebrate PCB concentrations. Models exist that estimate PCB concentrations in fish based upon PCB concentrations in their food. We have

Leland J. Jackson; Stephen R. Carpenter

1995-01-01

37

Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

SciTech Connect

Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation, as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components, and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy the function of the networks and their processes. The complexities inherent to the characterization and anticipation of illicit nuclear trafficking networks requires that a variety of modeling and knowledge technologies be jointly harnessed to construct an effective analytical and decision making workflow in which specific case studies can be built in reasonable time and with realistic effort. In this paper, we explore a solution to this challenge that integrates evidentiary and dynamic modeling with knowledge management and analytical gaming, and demonstrate its application to a geopolitical region at risk.

Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Butner, R. Scott; Cowell, Andrew J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Riensche, Roderick M.; White, Amanda M.; Whitney, Paul D.

2011-03-29

38

Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation, as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components, and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy the function of the networks and their processes. The complexities inherent to the characterization and anticipation of illicit nuclear trafficking networks requires that a variety of modeling and knowledge technologies be jointly harnessed to construct an effective analytical and decision making workflow in which specific case studies can be built in reasonable time and with realistic effort. In this paper, we explore a solution to this challenge that integrates evidentiary and dynamic modeling with knowledge management and analytical gaming, and demonstrate its application to a geopolitical region at risk.

Sanfilippo, Antonio; Butner, Scott; Cowell, Andrew; Dalton, Angela; Haack, Jereme; Kreyling, Sean; Riensche, Rick; White, Amanda; Whitney, Paul

39

Increasing PCB Radiolysis Rates in Transformer Oil  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with ó-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

Mincher, Bruce Jay

2002-11-01

40

Increasing PCB radiolysis rates in transformer oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with ?-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

Mincher, Bruce J.; Brey, Richard R.; Rodriguez, René G.; Pristupa, Scott; Ruhter, Aaron

2002-11-01

41

Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.  

PubMed

The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

2010-06-01

42

Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use  

PubMed Central

The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

2009-01-01

43

40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761...PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance...761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste....

2010-07-01

44

Congener profiles of PCB and a proposed new set of indicator congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new method for calculating total PCB and toxic equivalents (TEQ) of coplanar PCB (Co-PCB) was proposed, called the ‘PCB dual method’. This method analysed various kinds of technical PCB, samples contaminated by technical PCB and byproduct PCB. In the PCB dual method, a data set of 15 indicator congeners was utilized for the calculations, having IUPAC

Yukari Ishikawa; Yukio Noma; Yoshihito Mori; Shin-ichi Sakai

2007-01-01

45

Medical use, illicit use and diversion of prescription stimulant medication.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with the illicit use of prescription stimulants and to assess the relationship between the medical and illicit use of prescription stimulants among undergraduate college students. A Web survey was self-administered by a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large public midwestern university in the spring of 2003. A total of 8.1% reported lifetime illicit use of prescription stimulants and 5.4% reported past year illicit use. The number of undergraduate students who reported illicit use of prescription stimulants exceeded the number of students who reported medical use of prescription stimulants for ADHD. The leading sources of prescription stimulants for illicit use were friends and peers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed several risk factors for illicit use of prescription stimulants such as being male, White, member of a social fraternity or sorority, Jewish religious affiliation, and lower grade point average. All of these characteristics were also related to medically prescribed use of prescription stimulants. Those who initiated medically prescribed use of prescription stimulants for ADHD in elementary school were generally not at increased risk for illicit use of prescription stimulants or other drugs during college as compared to those who were never prescribed stimulant medication. The present study provides evidence that the illicit use of prescription stimulants is a problem among undergraduate college students, and certain subgroups appear to be at heightened risk. PMID:16681175

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J; Boyd, Carol J

2006-03-01

46

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

1993-11-29

47

Herpetological PIT Tag Migration in Seaturtle Flippers  

E-print Network

Herpetological Review PIT Tag Migration in Seaturtle Flippers JEANETTE WYNEKEN* Florida Atlantic and Reptiles PIT Tag Migration in Seaturtle Flippers JEANETTE WYNEKEN* Florida Atlantic University, Biological

Wyneken, Wyneken Jeanette

48

Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

DeVolpi, A.

1997-10-01

49

Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*  

PubMed Central

This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068

GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

2011-01-01

50

Vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use among bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit steroid use, for purposes of performance and physique enhancement, is widely deemed unnecessary, wrong and dangerous. Such activity would appear especially foolhardy when engaged in by non-professional athletes who otherwise adhere to ‘healthy’ exercise regimens. Here a gap exists between many illicit steroid users’ actions and societal expectations. Using qualitative data generated in South Wales, this paper explores bodybuilders’

Lee F. Monaghan

2002-01-01

51

Pedagogical Patronizing of the Pharmacodynamic Promises of Illicit Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews popular drug education textbooks and curricula. Finds most juxtapose physiologic effects of licitly manufactured drugs under headings representing illicitly prepared drugs, ignoring literature reporting that illicit drugs contain adulterants and substitutes. Concludes that one cannot extrapolate results of licitly pure drug lots…

Belcastro, Philip A.

1992-01-01

52

Illicit Use of Prescribed Stimulant Medication among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated illicit use of stimulant medications at a midwestern university. They used a questionnaire to (a) examine the extent to which university students illicitly used stimulant medications prescribed liar attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (b) determine why college students abused such drugs; and (c) identify the factors…

Hall, Kristina M.; Irwin, Melissa M.; Bowman, Krista A.; Frankenberger, William; Jewett, David C.

2005-01-01

53

CRIMINAL FRANCHISING: ALBANIANS AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers how trafficking of marijuana from Al- bania to Italy interlocks with, other forms of illicit trafficking. While Alba- nians have tended to occupy only marginal roles in other forms of illicit drug trafficking, they are centrally involved in the production, importa- tion and distribution of marijuana. The paper identifies a number of — probably unintended — benefits

Vincenzo Ruggiero

54

Urological complications of illicit drug use.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction. Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, prostate cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours in case-control studies. Fournier's gangrene has been reported following injection of heroin and cocaine into the penis. Excessive use of cough medicines can lead to the development of radiolucent stones composed of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. As the current evidence is mostly limited to case reports and case series, future epidemiological studies are needed to fully address this issue. PMID:24535583

Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry

2014-03-01

55

Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6166 (United States)

2007-07-01

56

PCB126 inhibits adipogenesis of human preadipocytes.  

PubMed

Emerging evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are involved in the development of diabetes. Dysfunctional adipocytes play a significant role in initiating insulin resistance. Preadipocytes make up a large portion of adipose tissue and are necessary for the generation of functional mature adipocytes through adipogenesis. PCB126 is a dioxin-like PCB and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. We hypothesized that PCB126 may be involved in the development of diabetes through disruption of adipogenesis. Using a newly developed human preadipocyte cell line called NPAD (Normal PreADipocytes), we found that exposure of preadipocytes to PCB126 resulted in significant reduction in their subsequent ability to fully differentiate into adipocytes, more so than when the cells were exposed to PCB126 during differentiation. Reduction in differentiation by PCB126 was associated with downregulation of transcript levels of a key adipocyte transcription factor, PPAR?, and late adipocyte differentiation genes. An AhR antagonist, CH223191, blocked this effect. These studies indicate that preadipocytes are particularly sensitive to the effects of PCB126 and suggest that AhR activation inhibits PPAR? transcription and subsequent adipogenesis. Our results validate the NPAD cell line as a useful model for studying the effects of POPs on adipogenesis. PMID:25304490

Gadupudi, Gopi; Gourronc, Francoise A; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

2015-02-01

57

The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.  

PubMed

One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs. PMID:21799144

Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

2012-01-01

58

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.  

EPA Science Inventory

DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

59

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

SciTech Connect

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics.

Brieger, G.; Hunter, R.D. (Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States))

1993-10-01

60

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).  

PubMed

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics. PMID:7504612

Brieger, G; Hunter, R D

1993-10-01

61

Contribution of earthworms to PCB bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty cm deep columns containing Aroclor 1242 contaminated soil were bioaugmented with the PCB-degrading micro-organisms, Ralstonia eutrophus H850 and Rhodococcus sp. strain ACS, each of which were grown on sorbitan trioleate, and induced for PCB degradation by salicylic acid and carvone, respectively. Treatments consisted of soils with and without earthworms. Earthworms were utilized to enhance the dispersal of the bioaugmented

A. C Singer; W Jury; E Luepromchai; C.-S Yahng; D. E Crowley

2001-01-01

62

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago.  

PubMed

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m(-3) to 5500 pg m(-3) and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources. PMID:21918637

Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Martinez, Andres; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C

2010-04-01

63

Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ?PCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m -3 to 5500 pg m -3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ?PCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like or neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.

Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Martinez, Andres; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

2010-04-01

64

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-01-01

65

Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.  

PubMed

A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development. PMID:3928346

Miller, R W

1985-05-01

66

10 Percent of Americans Admit to Illicit Drug Use  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. 10 Percent of Americans Admit to Illicit Drug Use ... Abuse THURSDAY, Sept. 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 10 percent of Americans aged 12 and older were ...

67

Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers  

PubMed Central

The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

2011-01-01

68

A rapid method for profiling samples of illicit heroin.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to profile samples of illicit heroin. It involved derivatization and gas chromatographic separation followed by a fully automated data analysis. Six major constituents (acetylcodeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, papaverine, noscapine, codeine, and morphine) were tested and analyzed. The square cosine function was used to evaluate correlation values. The method proved to be efficient and reliable providing information on links between illicit heroin samples. PMID:22522843

Zhang, Jian-xin; Chen, Cun-yi

2012-06-01

69

Vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use among bodybuilders.  

PubMed

Illicit steroid use, for purposes of performance and physique enhancement, is widely deemed unnecessary, wrong and dangerous. Such activity would appear especially foolhardy when engaged in by non-professional athletes who otherwise adhere to 'healthy' exercise regimens. Here a gap exists between many illicit steroid users' actions and societal expectations. Using qualitative data generated in South Wales, this paper explores bodybuilders' vocabularies of motive for illicit steroid use. These accounts which justified, rather than excused, steroid use were predominant during question situations between the participant observer and the researched. In supporting the fundamental tenets of their drug subculture, and as part of the underlying negotiation of self-identity, respondents espoused three main justifications for their own and/or other bodybuilders' illicit steroid use; namely: self-fulfilment accounts, condemnation of condemners and a denial of injury. Here steroid use was rationalised as a legitimate means to an end, observers passing negative judgements were rejected and it was claimed steroids do not (seriously) harm the user's health or threaten society more generally. These vocabularies of motive, acquired and honoured within bodybuilding settings, comprise a complex of subjective meanings which seem to the actor to be an adequate ground for the conduct in question. Similar to other sociological studies, this paper states that it is imperative to explore the social meanings which illicit drug users attach to their 'risk' practices. Without these understandings, researchers and health promoters may struggle to appreciate fully why illicit drug users behave as they do. PMID:12190264

Monaghan, Lee F

2002-09-01

70

INTERACTIVE PIT LAKES 2004 CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This CD and the workshop provide a pit lakes forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international approaches, including arid and wet regions throughout the world. These approaches include characterization, modeling/monitoring, and treatment and r...

71

Tree pits as urban gardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planting containers and tree pits in many parts of New York have been decorated by residents and their agents, using plants, paints, rock and other materials. Such decoration is examined and variations linked to socio?economic groups in different types of dwellings. Some possible motivations are suggested.

Steven Strom

1990-01-01

72

Basal cell nevus syndrome - plantar pits (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas (skin cancers). This ... close-up of the pits found on the sole of the foot of an individual with basal ...

73

Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.  

PubMed

Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

2014-03-01

74

Association of blood pressure and PCB level in Yusho patients  

SciTech Connect

Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with Yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these Yusho patients.

Akagi, K.; Okumura, M.

1985-02-01

75

PCB biodegradation: Laboratory studies transitioned into the field  

SciTech Connect

Two distinct bacterial systems are known to be involved in PCB biotransformations. Both aerobic PCB biodegradation (Oxidative attack) and anaerobic PCB dechlorination (reductive attack) have been demonstrated in the laboratory. These results have been successfully reproducted in recent experiments performed in aquatic sediments. In 1991, GE performed a large scale test of in situ aerobic PCB biodegradation in the Upper Hudson River. The experiments involved six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into Aroclor 1242 contaminated sediments that had already undergone extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Stimulation of indigenous PCB-degrading microorganisms resulted in >50% biodegradation over 10 weeks. A large scale stimulation of in situ anaerobic PCB dechlorination in Housatonic River sediments contaminated with untransformed Aroclor 1260 was initiated in 1992. The experiments similarly involve six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into contaminated sediments to investigate new methods developed to accelerate PCB dechlorination in the field. Preliminary results from this ongoing field test will be discussed.

Abramowicz, D.A. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1993-12-31

76

21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...barrier which is impermeable to migration of PCB's. (b) A compilation...this section if the barrier limits migration of PCB's from the packaging material...food to a level not exceeding the migration which occurs under the same...

2013-04-01

77

Association of blood pressure and PCB level in yusho patients.  

PubMed

Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these yusho patients. PMID:3921361

Akagi, K; Okumura, M

1985-02-01

78

Association of blood pressure and PCB level in yusho patients.  

PubMed Central

Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these yusho patients. PMID:3921361

Akagi, K; Okumura, M

1985-01-01

79

Bayesian Monte Carlo updating of Hudson River PCB model using water column PCB measurements  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed prior probability distributions for model parameters and terms describing physico-chemical processes in sediment and water column models of PCB fate in a segment of the lower Hudson River, and performed importance analyses to identify the key uncertainties affecting the models` predictive power. In this work, the authors employ field measurements of the mean total water column PCB concentration from nearby river segments to refine the prior probability distributions for the important parameters and terms in the water column PCB model, using Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis. The principal objectives of the current work are (1) to implement Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis, to demonstrate the technique and evaluate its potential benefits, and (2) to improve the parameterization of the water column PCB model on the basis of site-specific PCB concentration data. The Bayesian updating procedure resulted in improved estimates of PCB mass loading and re-suspension velocity terms, but posteriors for three other key parameters -- settling velocity and particulate PCB fractions in the water column and surface sediments -- were unaffected by the information extracted from the new field data. In addition, the authors found that some of the high posterior probability parameter vectors, though mathematically plausible, were physically implausible, as a consequence of the unrealistic (but common) Monte Carlo assumption that the model`s parameters are independently distributed. The implications of this and other findings are discussed.

Zhang, S. [ETI, Seattle, WA (United States); Toll, J.; Cothern, K. [Foster Wheeler Environmental, Bellevue, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

80

Modeling pitting degradation of corrosion resistant alloys  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological, stochastic model of pit initiation and growth was developed in support of waste package container design and performance assessment. This model can simulate the time evolution of the distribution in pit depths on a metal surface exposed to an aggressive environment. It can simulate pit initiation and growth under variable-environment histories such as those anticipated in the repository.

Henshall, G.A.

1996-11-01

81

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004  

EPA Science Inventory

This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

82

Dissolved PCB congener distribution in generator column solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generator column technique previously used to study the solubility of sparingly soluble compounds, has been employed in this study to prepare high throughput aqueous PCB solutions for use in treatability studies. In the present study, Aroclor 1242 mixture was used to load the generator column. The total PCB concentration and the PCB congener distribution pattern in the effluent changed

Upal Ghosh; A. Scott Weber; James N. Jensen; John R. Smith

1998-01-01

83

Distribution of PCB congeners in aquatic ecosystems: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples, sediments, and animal species in the frame of a survey of the River Arrone (Central Italy, near Rome) after a major contamination episode. Animal species were selected on the basis of their living and feeding habits and evaluated as candidate bioindicators of PCB pollution in this lotic ecosystem. Total PCB concentrations

S. Chiavarini; C. Cremisini; P. Soldati

1997-01-01

84

PCB residues in Mercenaria mercenaria from New Bedford harbor, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

GIGER & BLUMER (1974) first reported about PCB's in Buzzards Bay. According to data report sheets supplied by the MASSACHUSETTS DIVISION OF MARINE FISHERIES (1977), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from New Bedford Harbor contained ii0 mg\\/kg PCB's (dry weight, Aroclor 1242) in 1976, whereas soft shell clams contained 21 53 mg\\/kg PCB's (wet weight, Aroclor 1254). Decreasing amounts of residues

Karl H. Deubert; Ilidio Corte-Real

1981-01-01

85

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD? PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The EnviroGard? polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

86

The Limnology of Summer Camp Pit Lake: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface water bodies are expected to form in several pits at the Getchell Open Pit Mine after mining has ceased due to inflowing surface and ground water. Predicting the long-term geochemical behavior of the pit water is important in assessing potential environmental effects. One of the pits, the Summer Camp Pit, began to develop a pit lake in 1991 when

J. V. Parshley; R. J. Bowell

2003-01-01

87

Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195

Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

2014-09-01

88

Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and

G. Brieger; R. D. Hunter

1993-01-01

89

3D integration with PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of 3D integration and packaging of power electronics using printed circuit board (PCB) technology is presented. This is to show how power electronics can benefit from the same advantages that have been exploited by the microelectronic industry, for some time already, regarding high density packaging, as implemented in modern digital photo and video cameras for example. Complementary technologies,

E. C. W. de Jong; L. A. Ferreira; P. Bauer

2006-01-01

90

REMEDIATION OF PCB IN CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot-scale study will be conducted to evaluate the bioremedial techniques of natural attenuation, sequenced anaerobic/aerobic treatment, and addition of a commercially available microbial amendment product for use in treating PCB contaminated soils at Air Force Base sites. Th...

91

Fingerprinting PCB patterns among Mohawk women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association of contaminated fish consumption and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden by comparing the similarity of the congener pattern in yellow perch, caught near the point source of industrial pollution, and in other local fish to the pattern found in the breast milk of Mohawk women from Akwesasne, a Native American community located along the St.

SYNI-AN HWANG; BAO-ZHU YANG; EDWARD F FITZGERALD; BRIAN BUSH; KATSI COOK

2001-01-01

92

Herring gull eggs indicate stabilizing Great Lakes PCB concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The author evaluated the fit of 3 alternative models to herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg PCB concentration data from 1978--1992 to examine whether PCB levels were decreasing or had ceased to decline. The best fit models indicate that, following initial declines, no discernible PCB decreases are occurring in 4 of the 5 lakes. Only Lake Erie indicates a continued PCB decline, though the Erie data may be too noisy to differentiate model fits. These results are consistent with previous analyses indicating stable PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes and suggest that further improvements may be too slow to be of practical importance from a management perspective.

Stow, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Center for Limnology

1995-12-31

93

Pedagogical patronizing of the pharmacodynamic promises of illicit drugs.  

PubMed

A review of popular drug education textbooks and curricula indicated most juxtapose the physiologic effects of licitly manufactured drugs under headings representing illicitly prepared drugs. This misrepresentation ignores the literature, which is undivided, in reporting that illicit drugs contain adulterants and substitutes such as: sodium acetate, sodium cyclamate, dolomite, acetaminophen, gypsum, mannitol, inositol, lidocaine, amydricaine, benzocaine, caffeine, ephedrine, intercaine, phenylpropanolamine, piperocaine, procainamide, azopyridine, bromodiphenhydramine, ibuprofen, methaqualone, phenobarital trazodone, acetylcodine, codeine, quinine, quinidine, thallium, arsenic and strychnine. The temptation to extrapolate the results of licitly pure drug lots administered at precisely measured doses to represent the pharmacodynamics of illegally prepared drug lots administered at indiscernible doses must be avoided in drug educational resources. There is a pressing need to correct the factual base, both implied and suggestive, of drug education resources regarding the purity and toxicity of illicitly manufactured and purchased drugs. PMID:1593391

Belcastro, P A

1992-01-01

94

Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

2006-11-01

95

Report Reveals Millions of Young Adults Use Illicit Substances Every Day  

MedlinePLUS

... Report reveals millions of young adults use illicit substances every day Tuesday, June 10, 2014 According to ... every day, thousands of young adults use illicit substances for the first time. This includes 2,470 ...

96

Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on K(ow) and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing K(ow), or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5-8 chlorine atoms/molecule, K(ow) and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5-8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desorcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

1999-01-01

97

Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever), activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s), and responses with short IRTs (< 0.67 s). Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac) dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY) were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were observed. PMID:21615898

2011-01-01

98

Open-pit equipment notebook  

SciTech Connect

Beds of consolidated material need to be drilled and blasted before successful excavation. In open-pit mining it is common to move fragmented material across to spoil piles by dragline, shovel, or bucketwheel excavator. One method recently introduced uses explosives to throw much of the overburden across the pit, thus reducing the amount of material needing rehandling. The increased cost of explosives must be balanced with the reduced cost of power needed by the prime excavator. The drill hole pattern and the use of high energy explosives require careful design. Making the choice between hydraulic excavators with a backhoe or front shovel, wheel loaders, and rope-operated shovels continues to be an interesting area of debate. While the rope-operated electric shovel is best for large output, smaller shovels are being replaced by hydraulic excavators for numerous reasons. One of the advantages of hydraulic excavators is that they weigh around half that of rope-operated shovels with the same size bucket. Another advantage is their mobility. They can move at a speed roughly twice that of a rope-operated shovel. Hydraulic excavators can successfully attack a solid face that needs blasting before being loaded by a wheel loader or rope-operated shovel. Neither the rope-operated shovel nor the wheel loader has the wrist-action of the hydraulic excavator. The backhoe's ability to dig below the level on which it is situated and to load trucks that are on the pit floor is important. Recently, many equipment manufacturers have introduced microprocessor-controlled systems for higher power and simpler operation. The choice between wheel loaders and hydraulic excavators should be based on site conditions.

Not Available

1984-12-01

99

Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensors for Pcb Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We realised an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using carbon-based screen-printed disposable electrodes as solid-phase for reagent immobilisation and as signal transducer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate with Ag or Ab as enzyme label was used; hydrogen peroxide and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FCA) as mediator were employed in order to evaluate the HRP activity in the range 10-8-10-10 M. Indirect and direct competitive assays for PCB were performed and a detection limit of 0.01 ?g/mL was obtained in direct competitive format. The advantage of this approach is the relatively fast analysis (30 min) in comparison with a test based on microtiter assay plates (14h); moreover, the use of disposable screen-printed electrodes eliminates the problems of fouling and surface regeneration of electrochemical device.

Laschi, S.; Mascini, M.; Fránek, M.

2000-12-01

100

Degradation pathways of PCB upon gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In order to understand the modifications of the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260 upon gamma irradiation, a total of 14 pure polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were separately irradiated in solution. Dechlorination was observed, and the generated products were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Degradation proceeds more rapidly in methanol/water mixture than in petroleum ether, but the relative amount of ortho-dechlorinated congeners formed upon irradiation was smaller in the former solvent Ortho chlorines are preferentially lost in petroleum ether except when they are involved in a 2,5 (or 3,6) substitution pattern, in which case para dechlorination becomes predominant. The precursors of some toxicologically important congeners such as congeners 77, 118, 167, and 189 have been identified. These data are useful to rationalize the modifications of the chromatographic profile of PCB complex mixture upon gamma irradiation.

Lepine, F. (Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec (Canada)); Masse, R. (Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Pointe-Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1990-11-01

101

Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

2006-01-01

102

INTELLIGENT ILLICIT OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED AVIATION SECURITY  

E-print Network

INTELLIGENT ILLICIT OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED AVIATION SECURITY Vallipuram.green}@griffith.edu.au ABSTRACT Although aviation security is not a new phenomenon to the world, current threats are much more hindering passenger life style. In order to provide adequate security, a much more sophisticated, reliable

Blumenstein, Michael

103

Thoracic complications of illicit drug use: an organ system approach.  

PubMed

Illicit drug use constitutes a major health problem and may be associated with various thoracic complications. These complications vary depending on the specific drug used and the route of administration. Commonly abused drugs that may play a role in causing thoracic disease include cocaine, opiates, and methamphetamine derivatives. Intravenously abused oral medications may contain filler agents that may be responsible for disease. Thoracic complications may be categorized as pulmonary, pleural, mediastinal, cardiovascular, and chest wall complications. Pulmonary complications of drug abuse include pneumonia, cardiogenic edema, acute lung injury, pulmonary hemorrhage, and aspiration pneumonia. Filler agents such as talc may result in panacinar emphysema or high-attenuation upper-lobe conglomerate masses. The primary pleural complication of illicit drug use is pneumothorax. Mediastinal and cardiovascular complications of illicit drug use include pneumomediastinum, cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, and injection-related pseudoaneurysms. Chest wall complications include diskitis and vertebral osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, costochondritis, and septic arthritis. Categorization of thoracic complications of illicit drug use may facilitate understanding of these disorders and allow accurate diagnosis. PMID:12376606

Gotway, Michael B; Marder, Shelley R; Hanks, Douglas K; Leung, Jessica W T; Dawn, Samuel K; Gean, Alisa D; Reddy, Gautham P; Araoz, Philip A; Webb, W Richard

2002-10-01

104

Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

1983-01-01

105

Systematic approach to the profiling analysis of illicit amphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of automated workstations for the study of the origin of illicit produced amphetamine was examined by comparing the precision of peak identification methods of gas chromatographically determined impurities of confiscated amphetamine powders. The identification parameters used were absolute and relative retention times and retention indices. The retention index monitoring proved to be the most precise identification method when

A.-L. Pikkarainen

1996-01-01

106

Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

Hemingway, Judy

2006-01-01

107

Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9, 161 undergraduate students attending a large, public, midwestern research university in the United States self-administered a Web-based survey. The prevalence

Sean Esteban McCabe; Christian J. Teter; Carol J. Boyd

2006-01-01

108

Childhood Victimization and Illicit Drug Use in Middle Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prospective cohort design, the authors examined in this study whether childhood victimization increases the risk for illicit drug use and related problems in middle adulthood. Court-documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect and matched controls (N = 892) were first assessed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) during 1989–1995 and again in middle

Cathy Spatz Widom; Naomi R. Marmorstein; Helene Raskin White

2006-01-01

109

Acts of terror, illicit drugs and money laundering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlights the connexions between terrorism, illicit drugs and money laundering; the author is General Counsel for the Executive Office of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy in the USA. Describes how money laundering is intimately linked to terrorism and drug trafficking in Colombia, using the example of the Black Market Peso Exchange, a complex underground financial system to

Ed Jurith

2003-01-01

110

Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

2008-01-01

111

PCB-Based Break-Out Box  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

Lee, Jason H.

2011-01-01

112

PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY MODELING CALIBRATION OF THE MAIN PIT, TYRONE MINE, NEW MEXICO, USA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major difficulty facing many open pit mines where sulfides are present is the pit lake water quality after closure. A reliable prediction of future water quality within an open pit mine, excavated below the water table, requires a large amount of information and predictions for maybe hundreds of years into the future. These long-term predictions can only be useful

113

PCB radiolysis in Isooctane in the presence of ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a single set of experiments we have investigated the effect of ozone on the radiation chemistry of PCB 155 in isooctane. The results suggest that PCB decomposition in this oil-like alkane solution is inhibited by ozone, probably due to the ozone-electron capture reaction. Hydroxyl radicals generated by ozone-electron capture apparently do not play role in PCB decomposition in this

B. J Mincher; K Liekhus; R. E Arbon

1996-01-01

114

PCB update: the dragon has grown another head  

SciTech Connect

An update on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is presented. The electric utility industry's efforts to comply with EPA's PCB rules continue unabated. But just when the industry seemed to have the PCB problem under control, another problem developed: toxic emissions from PCB transformer fires. Currently the nations firefighters, health officials, and building authorities are asking the utilities to resolve this new problem. Efforts to solve the problem are described.

McGraw, M.G.

1984-11-01

115

Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

2009-01-01

116

Accumulation of PCB Congeners in Nestling Tree Swallows  

E-print Network

Accumulation of PCB Congeners in Nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River Sciences, Section of Ecology and Systematics, Ithaca, New York 14850 Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor

McCarty, John P.

117

Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data  

SciTech Connect

A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C. [Blasland, Bouck and Lee, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

118

Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination of the congener. The authors used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, the authors found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing K{sub ow} or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. The authors concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5--8 chlorine atoms/molecule, K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desourcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

1999-11-01

119

Ground Water Recharge through Pits and Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well water was successfully recharged to the Meade formation in Southcentral Kansas through a pit and a well. However, when surface runoff water was recharged, the surface of the pit became sealed over for all practical purposes and the specific capacity ...

H. L. Manges

1973-01-01

120

Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

2012-01-01

121

COPPER PITTING AND PINHOLE LEAK RESEARCH STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Localized copper corrosion or pitting is a significant problem at many water utilities across the United States. Copper pinhole leak problems resulting from extensive pitting are widely under reported. Given the sensitive nature of the problem, extent of damage possible, costs o...

122

40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761...DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household...

2010-07-01

123

The relationship between induction time for pitting and pitting potential for high purity aluminum.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine if a distribution of pit induction times (from potentiostatic experiments) could be used to predict a distribution of pitting potentials (from potentiodynamic experiments) for high-purity aluminum. Pit induction times were measured for 99.99 Al in 50 mM NaCl at potentials of -0.35, -0.3, -0.25, and -0.2 V vs. saturated calomel electrode. Analysis of the data showed that the pit germination rate generally was an exponential function of the applied potential; however, a subset of the germination rate data appeared to be mostly potential insensitive. The germination rate behavior was used as an input into a mathematical relationship that provided a prediction of pitting potential distribution. Good general agreement was found between the predicted distribution and an experimentally determined pitting potential distribution, suggesting that the relationships presented here provide a suitable means for quantitatively describing pit germination rate.

Wall, Frederick Douglas; Vandenavyle, Justin J.; Martinez, Michael A.

2003-08-01

124

MUTAGENICITY OF 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE, PCB3, AND 4-OH-PCB3 IN THE LUNG OF TRANSGENIC BIGBLUE® RATS  

PubMed Central

Recent findings of high levels of predominantly lower chlorinated biphenyls in indoor and outdoor air open the question of possible health consequences. Lower chlorinated biphenyls are more readily metabolized to reactive and potentially harmful intermediates, acting as mutagens and cancer initiators. The goal of this study was to assess the mutagenicity of PCB3 in the lungs of rats. Male BigBlue® 334 Fisher transgenic rats, which carry the bacterial lacI gene as a target of mutagenicity, were given intraperitoneal injections of corn oil, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, positive control), 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) or its metabolite 4-hydroxy-PCB3 (4-OH-PCB3) weekly for 4 weeks. Lungs tissue was harvested to determine mutant frequencies, mutation spectra, and pathological changes. 3-MC caused a 15-fold increase in mutant frequency and an increase in transversion type mutations; a very early occurrence of this type of mutation in lung tissue was previously identified in Ki-ras oncogenes of lung tumors from 3-MC exposed mice. The 2-fold increase in the mutant frequency after treatment with PCB3 and 4-OH-PCB3 was not statistically significant, but a shift in the mutation spectra, especially with PCB3, and an increase in mutations outside of the hotspot region for spontaneous mutations (bp 1-400), suggest that PCB3 and possibly 4-OH-PCB3 are mutagenic in the rat lung. PMID:18438460

Maddox, Catherine; Wang, Bingxuan; Kirby, Patricia A.; Wang, Kai; Ludewig, Gabriele

2008-01-01

125

Generating the Right PCB Data: Determination of Aroclors Versus PCB Congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate, as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds

A. L. Prignano; PRIGNANO AL; J. E. Hyatt

2008-01-01

126

International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

2004-09-18

127

NELIS - a Neutron Inspection System for Detection of Illicit Drugs  

SciTech Connect

NELIS (Neutron ELemental Inspection System) is currently being developed to inspect cargo pallets for illicit drugs. NELIS must be used in conjunction with an x-ray imaging system to optimize the inspection capabilities at ports of entry. Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis is utilized to measure the major and minor chemical elements in a non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Fourteen-MeV neutrons produced with a pulsed d-T neutron generator are the interrogating particles. NELIS analyzes the characteristic gamma rays emitted from the object that are produced by nuclear reactions from fast and thermal neutrons. These gamma rays have different energies for each chemical element, and act as their fingerprints. Since the elemental composition of illicit drugs is quite different from that of innocuous materials, drugs hidden in pallets are identified through the comparison of expected and measured elemental composition and ratios. Results of tests of the system will be discussed.

Barzilov, Alexander P.; Womble, Phillip C.; Vourvopoulos, George [Applied Physics Institute, Western Kentucky University, 1 Big Red Way, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

2003-08-26

128

Licit and illicit drug use in cluster headache.  

PubMed

Cluster headache patients seem to use more licit and illicit substances than the general population. The epidemiologic data supporting this is growing. We included the licit drugs in this review because their use seems to be driven by the same addiction mechanisms leading to illicit drug abuse. Some drugs may be used in an attempt to treat cluster headache, especially cocaine and hallucinogens. Drug exposure may also play a role in CH pathophysiology, as suggested by interesting data on tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure. A common factor may contribute both to CH and drug use predisposition. Genetic factors may be at play, and the dopaminergic and orexinergic pathways could be targeted for future studies. PMID:24715619

Govare, Amelie; Leroux, Elizabeth

2014-05-01

129

EPA, utilities grapple with PCB problems  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 transformers contain toxic PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). While data on effects of low-dose PCBs are not clearcut, a recent study indicates firefighters, for example, could be more at risk than currently believed because furans are formed when PCBs in transformers are intensely hot. California and Florida utility companies have spent millions of dollars to replace transformers. The Environmental Protection Agency appears ready to accede to demands to replace PCB-containing electrical equipment more quickly than just as equipment wears out.

Sun, M.

1983-10-07

130

Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron interrogation systems  

SciTech Connect

Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of these materials. Two particular techniques, Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis, are discussed. Examples of modeling studies are provided which illustrate the applications of these two techniques.

Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

1994-06-01

131

Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the\\u000aenabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However,\\u000aas an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to\\u000apernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system\\u000ais corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer\\u000asales and

Jonathan White; Nilanjan Banerjee

2010-01-01

132

Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users as well as enabling forensic links between seizures to be examined. PMID:24447454

Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

2014-02-01

133

Illicit markets, violence, warlords, and governance: West African cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that wartime leaders of illicit commercial networks engage in exploitative behavior and lack popular\\u000a support. Evidence from West Africa suggests otherwise. Some wartime leaders use their commercial activities in post-conflict\\u000a situations to build political support among demobilized fighters. Wartime leaders may then use these relationships to launch\\u000a successful electoral campaigns and to protect themselves from political

William Reno

2009-01-01

134

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...samples to verify the cleanup and on-site disposal of bulk PCB...cap means, when referring to on-site cleanup and disposal of PCB remediation waste, a uniform placement of concrete, asphalt...accordance with State law, a notation on the deed to the property,...

2012-07-01

135

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...samples to verify the cleanup and on-site disposal of bulk PCB...cap means, when referring to on-site cleanup and disposal of PCB remediation waste, a uniform placement of concrete, asphalt...accordance with State law, a notation on the deed to the property,...

2013-07-01

136

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...samples to verify the cleanup and on-site disposal of bulk PCB...cap means, when referring to on-site cleanup and disposal of PCB remediation waste, a uniform placement of concrete, asphalt...accordance with State law, a notation on the deed to the property,...

2011-07-01

137

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...samples to verify the cleanup and on-site disposal of bulk PCB...cap means, when referring to on-site cleanup and disposal of PCB remediation waste, a uniform placement of concrete, asphalt...accordance with State law, a notation on the deed to the property,...

2010-07-01

138

Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations  

SciTech Connect

PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

1987-12-01

139

PCB congener analysis with Hall electrolytic conductivity detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the development of an analytical methodology for the analysis of PCB congeners based on integrating relative retention data provided by other researchers. The retention data were transposed into a multiple retention marker system which provided good precision in the calculation of relative retention indices for PCB congener analysis. Analytical run times for the developed methodology were approximately

Edstrom

1989-01-01

140

40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761.269 Section...761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase, collect and analyze...

2011-07-01

141

40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761.269 Section...761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase, collect and analyze...

2012-07-01

142

40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. 761.269 Section...761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase, collect and analyze...

2013-07-01

143

PCB EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES: A THEORETICAL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a theoretical assessment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formation and destruction in conventional fossil fuel fired sources. Results suggest a small but finite possibility that PCB isomers may be found in their emissions. The study was the result of...

144

PCB's in fish from selected waters of New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent concern over the impact of PCB's on human health and on natural resources precipitated a shift from low level monitoring to the statewide monitoring in New York. The objectives of this program were to determine the level and extent of PCB contamination in fish inhabiting or migrating through major waterways in New York and to isolate contaminated portions,

J. J. Spagnoli; L. C. Skinner

1977-01-01

145

Predicting and controlling downwind concentrations of PCB from surface impoundments  

SciTech Connect

Over 227,000 kv of PCB were discharged into the Hudson River from two capacitor manufacturing plants at Fort Edward and Hudson Falls, New York. Much of the discharged PCB was absorbed by the bottom sediments of the river and accumulated behind the Fort Edward Dam. A large amount of the contaminated sediments migrated dowstream when the dam was removed. An effort has been made to dredge PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River and to deposit those sediments in a secure containment site. Part of this project was an air quality impact analysis which addressed the effect of PCB volatilization from the proposed containment site on ambient 24-hour concentrations of PCB downwind of the site. An estimate of the volatilization rate was made and a dispersion modeling analysis was performed in order to calculate the potential impact on residences. 4 references, 1 table.

Angiola, A.J.; Soden, J.M.

1982-01-01

146

Changes in enantiomeric fractions during microbial reductive dechlorination of PCB132, PCB149, and araclor 1254 in Lake Hartwell sediment microcosms.  

PubMed

The enantioselectivity of microbial reductive dechlorination of chiral PCBs in sediments from Lake Hartwell, SC, was determined by microcosm studies and enantiomer-specific GC analysis. Sediments from two locations in the vicinity of the highest levels of PCB contamination were used as inocula. Dechlorination activity was monitored by concentration decreases in the spiked chiral PCBs and formation of dechlorination products using both achiral and chiral chromatography. Live microcosms spiked with PCB132 (234-236) exhibited dechlorination of PCB132 to PCB91 (236-24) and PCB51 (24-26). Meta dechlorination was the dominant mechanism. Microcosms spiked with PCB149 (245-236) exhibited preferential para dechlorination of PCB149 to PCB95 (236-25), followed by meta dechlorination to PCB53 (25-26) and subsequently PCB19 (26-2). Dechlorination of chiral PCB132 and PCB149 was not enantioselective. In Aroclor 1254-spiked microcosms, reductive dechlorination of PCB149 also was nonenantioselective. These results suggest that dechlorinating enzymes responsible for the dehalogenation of the chiral PCB132 and PCB149 congeners bind the two enantiomers equally. Reductive dechlorination of PCB91 and PCB95, however, occurred in an enantioselective manner, indicating that the dechlorinating enzymes for these PCBs are enantiomer-specific. The chlorine substitution pattern on the biphenyl ring appears to influence whether reductive dechlorination of chiral PCB congeners is enantioselective. Enantioselective PCB dechlorination by the microbial population of Lake Hartwell sediments occurs for select chiral PCBs; thus, certain chiral PCBs might be useful as markers for in situ reductive dechlorination. PMID:12680661

Pakdeesusuk, Usarat; Jones, W Jack; Lee, Cindy M; Garrison, Arthur W; O'Niell, Walter L; Freedman, David L; Coates, John T; Wong, Charles S

2003-03-15

147

Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QA/G4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

BANNING, D.L.

2001-03-20

148

Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

BANNING, D.L.

2001-01-18

149

EMC in power electronics and PCB design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation consists of two parts. Part I is about Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in power electronics and part II is about the Maximum Radiated Electromagnetic Emissions Calculator (MREMC), which is a software tool for EMC in printed circuit board (PCB) design. Switched-mode power converters can be significant sources of electromagnetic fields that interfere with the proper operation of nearby circuits or distant radio receivers. Part I of this dissertation provides comprehensive and organized information on the latest EMC developments in power converters. It describes and evaluates different technologies to ensure that power converters meet electromagnetic compatibility requirements. Chapters 2 and 3 describe EMC noise sources and coupling mechanisms in power converters. Chapter 4 reviews the measurements used to characterize and troubleshoot EMC problems. Chapters 5 -- 8 cover passive filter solutions, active filter solutions, noise cancellation methods and reduced-noise driving schemes. Part II describes the methods used, calculations made, and implementation details of the MREMC, which is a software tool that allows the user to calculate the maximum possible radiated emissions that could occur due to specific source geometries on a PCB. Chapters 9 -- 13 covers the I/O coupling EMI algorithm, Common-mode EMI algorithm, Power Bus EMI algorithm and Differential-Mode EMI algorithm used in the MREMC.

Zhu, Chentian

150

Formation of toxic PCB congeners and PCB-solvent adducts in a sunlight irradiated cyclohexane solution of Aroclor 1254  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodegradation by sunlight is an important decomposition mechanism of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment. Photodegradation of PCBs proceeds through successive dechlorination of the biphenyl nucleus and thus modify the proportions of the various congeners in a PCB mixture. The objectives of this work is to study the effects of sunlight on a typical PCB mixture such as Aroclor 1254, in

François Lépine; Sylvain Milot; Nancy Vincent

1992-01-01

151

Illicit buprenorphine use, interest in and access to buprenorphine treatment among syringe exchange participants.  

PubMed

Poor access to buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) may contribute to illicit buprenorphine use. This study investigated illicit buprenorphine use and barriers to BMT among syringe exchange participants. Computer-based interviews conducted at a New York City harm reduction agency determined: prior buprenorphine use; barriers to BMT; and interest in BMT. Of 102 opioid users, 57 had used illicit buprenorphine and 32 had used prescribed buprenorphine. When illicit buprenorphine users were compared to non-users: barriers to BMT ("did not know where to get treatment") were more common (64 vs. 36%, p<0.01); mean levels of interest in BMT were greater (3.37±1.29 vs. 2.80±1.34, p=0.03); and more participants reported themselves likely to initiate treatment (82 vs. 50%, p<0.01). Illicit buprenorphine users were interested in BMT but did not know where to go for treatment. Addressing barriers to BMT could reduce illicit buprenorphine use. PMID:25205666

Fox, Aaron D; Chamberlain, Adam; Sohler, Nancy L; Frost, Taeko; Cunningham, Chinazo O

2015-01-01

152

Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment  

SciTech Connect

The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system reliability and reduce integration difficulties. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approach. During integration, multiple areas where technology development would enhance the effectiveness of the system were identified. Most notable of these areas were the manipulator control system, tool design, and tool handling. Various issues were identified regarding the interfacing of the Pit Viper with the Tank Farm environment and the maturity of remote/ robotic systems for unstructured environments.

Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick L.

2002-08-08

153

Pitting corrosion of 5052 aluminum alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative degree of pitting of 5052 aluminum alloy in a prepaint cleaning process is correlated with the proportion of MgO in the surface oxide of the alloy. Magnesium oxide, formed on the surface during process heat treatments of the alloy, is soluble in the acidic environment of the particular cleaning solutions, thus allowing easier access of corrosive ion to the aluminum metal. The pitting mechanism involves the: (1) formation of microscopic, localized galvanic cells between aluminum (anode) and iron-containing constituents (cathodic sites) normally found in the matrix of 5052 (and other 5xxx aluminum alloys), (2) aggravation of pit formation by chloride, and (3) enhancement of cathodic reactions and hence the overall corrosion process due to penetration of the oxide layer by cupric and ferric ions, and dissolved O 2 present in the cleaning solutions. Pitting was eliminated by adding 0.1% NaNO 3 to the cleaning bath.

Lockwood, F.; Lee, S.; Faunce, J.; Green, J. A. S.; Ptashnick, W. J.

1985-01-01

154

Manure pit injuries: Rare, deadly, and preventable  

PubMed Central

A male worker entered an underground manure pit and lost consciousness. His coworker tried to rescue him and also lost consciousness in the pit. Emergency service arrived in minutes and removed both of them from the pit. Both men suffered anoxic brain injury and died in the hospital. Cases from Iowa Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation Program Data Base program were reviewed. Occupational mortality rate was found to be 7.4 per 10,000 per year for occupational deaths related to agriculture compared to 3.1 per 10,000 per year for deaths not related to agriculture. In most of the cases associated with sewage or livestock waste handling, victims died of asphyxiation. While manure pit injury is rare, it has an extremely high fatality rate. The most effective strategy to decrease mortality is active prevention. PMID:22988406

Hallam, Daniel M; Liao, Junlin; Choi, Kent

2012-01-01

155

Fetal adrenal development: comparing effects of combined exposures to PCB 118 and PCB 153 in a sheep model.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of exposure to the ubiquitous contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the fetal adrenal cortex and on plasma cortisol using the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) as a model. Pregnant ewes were intendedly subjected to oral treatment with PCB 153 (98 ?g/kg bw/day), PCB 118 (49 ?g/kg bw/day) or the vehicle corn oil from mating until euthanasia on gestation day 134 (±0.25 SE). However, because of accidental cross-contamination occurring twice causing a mixed exposure scenario in all three groups, the focus of this paper is to compare three distinct groups of fetuses with different adipose tissue PCB levels (PCB 153high, PCB 118high and low, combined groups) rather than comparing animals exposed to single PCB congeners to those of a control group. When comparing endocrine and anatomical parameters from fetuses in the PCB 153high (n = 13) or PCB 118high (n = 14) groups with the low, combined group (n = 14), there was a significant decrease in fetal body weight (P < 0.05), plasma cortisol concentration (P < 0.001) and adrenal cortex thickness (P < 0.001). Furthermore, adrenal weight was decreased and plasma ACTH was increased only in the PCB 118high group. Expression of several genes encoding enzymes and receptors related to steroid hormone synthesis was also affected and mostly down-regulated in fetuses with high PCB tissue levels. In conclusion, we suggest that mono-and di-ortho PCBs were able to interfere with growth, adrenal development and cortisol production in the fetal sheep model. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:21544918

Zimmer, Karin E; Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Gutleb, Arno C; Østby, Gunn C; Dahl, Ellen; Berg, Vidar; Skaare, Janneche U; Olsaker, Ingrid; Ropstad, Erik

2013-03-01

156

Modelling the hydrodynamic resistance of bordered pits.  

PubMed

Previous studies of the hydrodynamics of plant stems have shown that resistance to flow through bordered pits on the side walls of tracheids makes up a significant proportion of their total resistance, and that this proportion increases with tracheid diameter. This suggests a possible reason why tracheids with a diameter above around 100 microm have failed to evolve. This possibility has been investigated by obtaining an estimate for the resistance of a single pit, and incorporating it into analytical models of tracheid resistance and wood resistivity. The hydrodynamic resistance of the bordered pits of Tsuga canadensis was investigated using large-scale physical models. The importance of individual components of the pit were investigated by comparing the resistance of models with different pore sizes in their pit membrane, and with or without the torus and border. The estimate for the resistance of a real bordered pit was 1.70x10(15) Pa s m(-3). Resistance of pits varied with morphology as might be predicted; the resistance was inversely proportional to the pore size to the power of 0.715; removing the torus reduced resistance by 28%, while removal of the torus and border together reduced it by 72%. It was estimated that in a 'typical tracheid' pit resistance should account for 29% of the total. Incorporating the results into the model for the resistivity of wood showed that resistivity should fall as tracheid diameter increases. However, to minimize resistance wider tracheids would also need to be proportionally much longer. It is suggested that the diameter of tracheids in conifers is limited by upper limits to cell length or cell volume. This limitation is avoided by angiosperms because they can digest away the ends of their cells to produce long, wide vessels composed of many short cells. PMID:12021296

Lancashire, J R; Ennos, A R

2002-06-01

157

Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA).

Macdonald, D.W. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-05-01

158

Pit 9 project: A private sector initiative  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Pit 9 Comprehensive Demonstration which is intended to demonstrate a cost-effective approach to remediate an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) waste disposal pit through a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Interim Action. The remediation will include additional requirements, if needed, to provide high confidence that only minor additional work would be necessary to accomplish the final closure as part of the overall final closure strategy for the INEL's Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA).

Macdonald, D.W. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Hughes, F.P.; Burton, B.N. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1993-01-01

159

POST-BETZE PIT LAKE WATER QUALITY PREDICTION, NEVADA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Barrick Goldstrike Mine is located in the Carlin Trend, about 20 miles northwest of Carlin, Nevada. The majority of the ore mined at Goldstrike is from the Post-Betze open pit, the largest open pit operation in Nevada. Nevada law requires that the water quality of temporary or permanent reservoirs that may develop in open pits be periodically tested. Pit

William M. Schafer; Mark Logsdon; Guosheng Zhan; Ron Espell

160

W-12 valve pit decontamination demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Waste tank W-12 is a tank in the ORNL Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLLW) system that collected waste from Building 3525. Because of a leaking flange in the discharge line from W-12 to the evaporator service tank (W-22) and continual inleakage into the tank from an unknown source, W-12 was removed from service to comply with the Federal Facilities Agreement requirement. The initial response was to decontaminate the valve pit between tank W-12 and the evaporator service tank (W-22) to determine if personnel could enter the pit to attempt repair of the leaking flange. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination from the pit to the environment and to other waste systems was of concern during the decontamination. The drain in the pit goes to the process waste system; therefore, if high-level liquid waste were generated during decontamination activities, it would have to be removed from the pit by means other than the available liquid waste connection. Remote decontamination of W-12 was conducted using the General Mills manipulator bridge and telescoping trolley and REMOTEC RM-10 manipulator. The initial objective of repairing the leaking flange was not conducted because of the repair uncertainty and the unknown tank inleakage. Rather, new piping was installed to empty the W-12 tank that would bypass the valve pit and eliminate the need to repair the flange. The radiological surveys indicated that a substantial decontamination factor was achieved.

Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

1995-12-01

161

Pitting corrosion of passivated zinc monocrystals  

SciTech Connect

The pitting and polarization characteristics of low-index surfaces of zinc monocrystals were studied in weakly alkaline (pH 9.2) solutions containing 0.1 M sodium chloride, using single-cycle potentiodynamic polarization tests and a scan rate of 0.5 mV/s. Tests were conducted in the presence and absence of a bicarbonate/carbonate buffer. Electrode surface orientations and crystallographic directions lying in these surfaces were determined using X-ray techniques. The surfaces were close to the (0001), (10{bar 1}0), and (11{bar 2}0) planes. Pit morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Passivity was observed only in the buffered solution, and pitting of the passivated surface occurred near {minus}0.85 V{sub SCE}. The (0001) basal plane appeared to have a slightly better pitting resistance and a lower passive current density than the other orientations. Basal plane surfaces prepared by cleavage exhibited superior resistance to anodic dissolution in the unbuffered solution. Crystallographic pitting geometries observed on passivated crystals were attributed to the enhanced resistance of the (0001) plane to active dissolution. Events leading to pit initiation were reviewed in terms of localized changes in solution chemistry that resulted in a decreased pH and formation of soluble zinc chloride ion complexes (ZnCl{sub x}{sup [2{minus}x]+}).

Guo, R.; Weinberg, F.; Tromans, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

1995-05-01

162

PCBQ: computerized quantification of total PCB and congeners in environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized methodologies for the quantification of total PCBs, PCB in Aroclor mixtures and individual PCB congeners in environmental samples are presented. The method for total PCBs is based on a multiple-linear regression analysis using data from capillary gas chromatography of aroclor standards. PCB congeners were identified and their weight percentages determined in Aroclor mixtures by GC\\/MS. PCB congeners and total

P. D. Capel; R. A. Rapaport; S. J. Eisenreich; B. B. Looney

1985-01-01

163

ENHANCING DISSIPATION OF AROCLOR 1248 (PCB) USING SUBSTRATE AMENDMENT IN RHIZOSPHERE SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils contaminated in the laboratory with Aroclor 1248 (PCB) were amended with biphenyl and plant residues that are known to induce PCB degradation, and planted with crops that inherently stimulated PCB dissipation in a previous study to determine if the combination of soil amendment and planting could further enhance PCB dissipation beyond that shown by planting alone. The plants used

E. Kudjo Dzantor; Joelle E. Woolston

2001-01-01

164

Biogeochemical controls on PCB deposition in Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

PCB concentrations, congener patterns, and fluxes were examined in 13 dated and organically characterized (C, N, delta(13)C, delta(15)N) marine sediment cores from Hudson Bay, Canada, to investigate the importance of organic matter (OM) supply and transport to PCB sequestration. Drawdown of PCBs, supported by marine primary production, is reflected in elevated summation operatorPCB concentrations and more highly chlorinated PCB signatures in surface sediments underlying eutrophic regions. Sediments in oligotrophic regions, which are dominated by "old" marine OM, have lower PCB concentrations and weathered signatures. For the surface of Hudson Bay, average atmospheric deposition appears to be very low (ca. 1.4 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)) compared to fluxes reported for nearby lakes (ca. 44 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)). (210)Pb fails to provide a means to normalize the fluxes, highlighting important differences in the biocycling of (210)Pb and PCBs. Unlike (210)Pb, atmospheric PCB exchange with the water's surface is partially forced by the aquatic organic carbon cycle. The extremely low atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the surface of Hudson Bay is likely a reflection of the Bay's exceptionally low productivity and vertical carbon fluxes. If future marine production and vertical flux of carbon increase due to loss of ice cover or change in river input as consequences of global warming, PCB deposition would also increase. PMID:20392087

Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Macdonald, Robie W; Johannessen, Sophia C; Stern, Gary A

2010-05-01

165

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

2010-01-01

166

Personality Traits and Illicit Substances: The Moderating Role of Poverty  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit substances increase risk of morbidity and mortality and have significant consequences for society. Personality traits are associated with drug use; we test whether these associations vary by socioeconomic status. Method Participants (N=412) from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and self-reported use of opiates and cocaine. 50% of participants were living below 125% of the federal poverty line. Mean-level personality differences across never, former, and current opiate/cocaine users were compared. Logistic regressions compared never versus current users and interactions between personality traits and poverty status tested whether these associations varied by socioeconomic status. Results High Neuroticism and low Agreeableness increased risk of drug use. The association between low Conscientiousness and drug use was moderated by poverty, such that low Conscientiousness was a stronger risk factor for illicit substance use among those with relatively higher SES: For every standard deviation decrease in Conscientiousness, there was a greater than 2-fold increase in risk of illicit substance use (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.45–3.17). Conscientiousness was unrelated to drug use among participants living below 125% of the federal poverty line. Conclusions Under favorable economic conditions, the tendency to be organized, disciplined, and deliberate is protective against drug use. These tendencies, however, matter less when financial resources are scarce. In contrast, those prone to emotional distress and antagonism are at greater risk for current drug use, regardless of their economic situation. PMID:23265091

Sutin, Angelina R.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

2012-01-01

167

Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely ? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (?0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

2010-06-01

168

Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

1994-07-01

169

Baseline Risk Assessment for the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits and Rubble Pit  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a description of the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (BRPs) and Rubble Pit (RP) unit. It also describes the objectives and scope of the baseline risk assessment (BRA).

Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1996-03-01

170

An integrated treatment methodology for PCB-contaminated soil  

E-print Network

. Samples were taken at day 0, 90, and 180. Changes in the composition of specific PCB congeners (one trichlorobiphenyl, two tetrachlorobiphenyls, two pentachlorobiphenyls, and one heptachlorobiphenyl) were monitored by gas chromatograph-electron capture...

Garcia, Shannon S

2012-06-07

171

PCB origami : folding circuit boards into electronic products  

E-print Network

PCB origami is a concept for an alternative manufacturing process of electronic products, in which the electronic material will be manufactured flat and folded into functional 3D graspable products by the user. PCBs will ...

Sterman, Yoav

2013-01-01

172

40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.  

...to prevent, treat, or contain further releases or mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. ...was removed or left in place in order to prevent or minimize human exposure, infiltration of water, and erosion. Any...

2014-07-01

173

21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING...intended for or used with human food, finished animal feed...barrier which is impermeable to migration of PCB's. (b) A...

2011-04-01

174

21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING...intended for or used with human food, finished animal feed...barrier which is impermeable to migration of PCB's. (b) A...

2012-04-01

175

ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS OF CHIRAL PCB ATROPISOMERS IN RADIODATED SEDIMENT CORES  

EPA Science Inventory

Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...

176

Illicit Drug and Injecting Equipment Markets inside English Prisons: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, disrupting the supply of illicit drugs and injecting equipment inside Her Majesty's (HM) prisons has become an important focus for prison drug policy. This paper presents findings from qualitative research, which invited 24 drug injectors with prison experience to discuss the role and operation of illicit drug and injecting…

Hughes, Rhidian

2003-01-01

177

Risk of Selected Birth Defects with Prenatal Illicit Drug Use, Hawaii, 1986–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the association between prenatal illicit drug use and birth defects is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of a variety of birth defects with prenatal illicit drug use. Data were derived from an active, population-based adverse pregnancy outcome registry. Cases were all infants and fetuses with any of 54 selected birth defects

Mathias B. Forrester; Ruth D. Merz

2006-01-01

178

Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

2010-01-01

179

Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). METHODS: 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were

Danielle C Ompad; Crystal M Fuller; Christina A Chan; Victoria Frye; David Vlahov; Sandro Galea

2008-01-01

180

Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use Among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies examining media content, 95% found a statistically significant association between increased

Marcella Nunez-Smith; Elizabeth Wolf; Helen Mikiko Huang; Peggy G. Chen; Lana Lee; Ezekiel J. Emanuel; Cary P. Gross

2010-01-01

181

The risk for mild kidney function decline associated with illicit drug use among hypertensive men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have examined the deleterious effect of illicit drug use on kidney function. Methods: Six hundred forty-seven patients enrolled in the Hypertension Clinic of the Veterans Administration Medical Center of New Orleans, LA, were interviewed regarding illicit drug use and followed up for a median of 7 years to determine the incidence of mild kidney function decline (increase

Suma Vupputuri; Vecihi Batuman; Paul Muntner; Lydia A. Bazzano; John J. Lefante; Paul K. Whelton; Jiang He

2004-01-01

182

Identification of novel illicit amphetamines from vapor-phase FTIR spectra — a chemometrical solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-aided procedure automating the identification of illicit amphetamine analogs eluting from a gas chromatograph coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is presented. The expert system discriminates novel amphetamines from other classes of drugs of abuse normally screened in illicit tablets or powders. The main analytical advantages of the system over the automated procedures dedicated to general unknown analysis

M Praisler; I Dirinck; J Van Bocxlaer; A De Leenheer; D. L Massart

2000-01-01

183

Recidivism among male subjects incarcerated for illicit drug use in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit drug users are generally considered both patients and criminals in Taiwan. This study pre- sents drug use behaviors and criminal recidivism of male subjects incarcerated for illicit drug use in Taiwan after detoxification at a detention center. This study also examined the relationship between drug use behaviors and subsequent recidivism. Charts and crime records of 794 male patients from

SHU-CHUAN CHIANG; HUNG-YU CHAN; CHIUNG-HSU CHEN; HSIAO-JU SUN; HUNG-JUNG CHANG; WEI J. CHEN; SHIH-KU LIN; CHIH-KEN CHEN

2006-01-01

184

Prevalence and Motives for Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants in an Undergraduate Student Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the prevalence and motives for illicit use of prescription stimulants and alcohol and other drugs (AODs), associated with these motives, the authors distributed a self-administered Web survey TO a random sample of 9,161 undergraduate college students. Of the study participants, 8.1% reported lifetime and 5.4% reported past-year illicit…

Teter, Christian J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Boyd, Carol J.; Guthrie, Sally K.

2005-01-01

185

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances in music videos: a content analysis of prevalence and genre.  

PubMed

Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances. PMID:15963915

Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

2005-07-01

186

Use of Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Tobacco Among Characters on Prime-Time Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research of addictive substances suggests that use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco is overrepresented on prime-time television (TV). These studies, however, have relied on frequency counts of the substance, rather than the prevalence of use among characters. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco users among characters on

Judith A. Long; Patrick G. O'Connor; George Gerbner; John Concato

2002-01-01

187

Use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco among characters on prime?time television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research of addictive substances suggests that use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco is overrepresented on prime?time television (TV). These studies, however, have relied on frequency counts of the substance, rather than the prevalence of use among characters. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco users among characters on

Judith A. Long; Patrick G. OConnor; George Gerbner; John Concato

2002-01-01

188

Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

2014-01-01

189

Illicit drug use research in Latin America: Epidemiology, service use, and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use, services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that

Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola; María Elena Medina-Mora; Cristina G. Magaña; William A. Vega; Christina Alejo-Garcia; Tania Real Quintanar; Luc ´ õa Vazquez; Patricia D. Ballesteros; Juan Ibarra; Heidi Rosales

2006-01-01

190

POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS -2012 1 Introduction and Background  

E-print Network

POLICY AND GUIDELINES ON THE USE OF ILLICIT DRUGS - 2012 1 Introduction and Background had a formal policy statement or code of practice relating to use of illicit drugs, procedures have, or selling a drug covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) is against the law. Whilst there is at present

Bearhop, Stuart

191

Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children.  

PubMed Central

In the last decade advances in the analytic methods for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have resulted in widespread availability of congener-specific analysis procedures, and large amounts of data on PCB congener profiles in soil, air, water, sediments, foodstuffs, and human tissues have become available. These data have revealed that the PCB residues in environmental media and human tissues may not closely resemble any of the commercial PCB mixtures, depending on source of exposure, bioaccumulation through the food chain, and weathering of PCBs in the environment. At the same time, toxicological research has led to a growing awareness that different classes of PCB congeners have different profiles of toxicity. These advances in analytic techniques and toxicological knowledge are beginning to influence the risk assessment process. As the data from ongoing PCB studies assessing the mediators of neurobehavioral outcomes in children are published, the weight of evidence for PCB effects on neurodevelopment is growing. Studies in Taiwan, Michigan (USA), New York (USA), Holland, Germany, and the Faroe Islands have all reported negative associations between prenatal PCB exposure and measures of cognitive functioning in infancy or childhood. The German study also reported a negative association between postnatal PCB exposure and cognitive function in early childhood--a result that had not been found in previous studies. Only one published study in North Carolina (USA) has failed to find an association between PCB exposure and cognitive outcomes. Despite the fact that several more recent studies have used congener-specific analytic techniques, there have been only limited attempts to assess the role of specific PCB congeners or classes of congeners in mediating neurodevelopmental outcomes. From a statistical standpoint, attempts to determine the role of individual congeners in mediating outcomes are hampered by the fact that concentrations of most individual congeners are highly correlated with each other and with total PCBs. From a toxicological standpoint, these efforts are hampered by the fact that many of the PCB congeners present in human tissues have never been studied in the laboratory, and their relative potency to produce nervous system effects is unknown. More complete information on the health effects of various congeners or congener classes would allow more informed scientific and risk assessment decisions. PMID:12611666

Schantz, Susan L; Widholm, John J; Rice, Deborah C

2003-01-01

192

The synergetic effect of chloride and sulphate on pitting corrosion of copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pitting corrosion of copper in chloride and sulphate containing borate-buffered solutions has been investigated by statistical analysis of pit induction times. The pitting susceptibility is quantified by the pit generation rate (?0) deduced from the pit induction time distributions. Sulphate ions, like chloride ions, can induce copper pitting and the same pit induction time distribution laws are observed. However

J.-P. Duthil; G. Mankowski; A. Giusti

1996-01-01

193

Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners by egg injection  

SciTech Connect

The utility of egg injection studies for predicting potential embryotoxicity of PCBs and TCDD compares favorably with feeding studies. The effects of PCB congeners 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-tetraCB (PCB 77), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentaCB (PCB 105), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCB (PCB 153) were examined on embryonic development in chickens (Gallus gallus), northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and common terns (Sterna hirundo) through hatching following air cell injections on day 4. The estimated LD{sub 50}s for these congeners in chickens were approximately 0.4 ppb, 2.6 ppb, 3326 ppb, and greater than 14,000 ppb, respectively; low effect levels (10--20% embryonic mortality) were 0.2 ppb, 1.2 ppb, 900 ppb, and 14,000 ppb respectively. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 126 was 48 ppb for bobwhite, 65 ppb for American kestrels, and 104 ppb for common terns. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 77 was 688 ppb for American kestrels. one or more hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase was assayed for each species. For PCB 126, the order of responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction was: chicken > common tern > American kestrel > bobwhite, with chicken being approximately 100 times more responsive than common tern. These values are compared to existing Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) including bioassay-derived ones.

Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Klein, P.N. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Environmental Science Center

1995-12-31

194

PCB sensors in fluxgate magnetometer with controlled excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A miniature fluxgate sensor with amorphous race-track core manufactured with printed circuit board (PCB) technology is presented in this paper. The number of PCB layers was increased to five; this allowed for increasing the number of turns of pickup\\/compensating winding (68), resulting in the compensation current in the feedback loop below 15mA for a 50?T measured field. The sensor was

Michal Janošek; Pavel Ripka

2009-01-01

195

Molecular genetics and evolutionary relationship of PCB-degrading bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biphenyl-utilizing soil bacteria are ubiquitously distributed in the natural environment. They cometabolize a variety of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to chlorobenzoic acids through a 2,3-dioxygenase pathway, or alternatively through a 3,4-dioxygenase system. Thebph genes coding for the metabolism of biphenyl have been cloned from several pseudomonads. The biochemistry and molecular genetics of PCB degradation are reviewed and discussed from the

Kensuke Furukawa

1994-01-01

196

Global burden of disease from alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco.  

PubMed

The use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs entails considerable burden of disease: in 2000, about 4% of the global burden as measured in disability adjusted life years was attributable to each alcohol and tobacco, and 0.8% to illicit drugs. The burden of alcohol in the above statistic was calculated as net burden, i.e. incorporating the protective health effects. Tobacco use was found to be the most important of 25 risk factors for developed countries in the comparative risk assessment underlying the data. It had the highest mortality risk of all the substance use categories, especially for the elderly. Alcohol use was also important in developed countries, but constituted the most important of all risk factors in emerging economies. Alcohol use affected younger people than tobacco, both in terms of disability and mortality. The burden of disease attributable to the use of legal substances clearly outweighed the use of illegal drugs. A large part of the substance-attributable burden would be avoidable if known effective interventions were implemented. PMID:17132570

Rehm, Jürgen; Taylor, Benjamin; Room, Robin

2006-11-01

197

PCB-resistant diatoms in the Hudson River estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatom cells that are resistant, as well as sensitive, to the toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are widespread throughout the highly polluted Hudson River estuary. A study of the distribution of PCB resistance among populations of the diatoms, Thalassiosira nordenskioldii and Asterionella glacialis, revealed few spatial or temporal patterns for the trait during spring and summer. The number of estuarine clones of A. glacialis tolerant of more than 25 ppb of PCB was greater than twice the number of clones isolated from nearshore waters at Sandy Hook, NJ. This suggests that selection pressure for PCB resistance is greater in the estuary than in the New York Bight apex. If specific sites of selection exist, the mixing of cells within the estuary may be rapid enough to distribute resistant clones throughout the estuary, or the selection process may involve a generalized response to a multitude of pollutants. Several clones of both species tested were not only tolerant of PCB, but were actually enhanced in their growth in the presence of PCB. Such clones were distributed throughout the estuary during both seasons. Selection in the estuary favours not only resistant strains of diatoms, but forms that may utilize organic pollutants.

Cosper, Elizabeth M.; Wurster, Charles F.; Bautista, Mark F.

1988-02-01

198

Factors Associated with High-Frequency Illicit Methadone Use among Rural Appalachian Drug Users  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of illicit methadone as well as methadone-related overdose deaths. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe factors associated low- and high-frequency methadone use in a cohort of rural Appalachian drug users. Methods Interviews assessing sociodemographics, illicit drug use and drug treatment, psychiatric disorders, health, and sociometric drug network characteristics were conducted with 503 rural drug users between 2008 and 2010. A two-level mixed effects regression model was utilized to differentiate low- (one use per month or less in the past 6 months) versus high-frequency (daily or weekly use in the past 6 months) illicit methadone users. Results The lifetime prevalence of illicit methadone use in this population was 94.7% (n=476) and slightly less than half (46.3%) were high-frequency users. In the mixed effects regression model, initiating illicit methadone use at a younger age was associated with high-frequency illicit methadone use. Whereas taking a prescribed medication for a physical problem, undergoing additional weeks of outpatient drug free treatment, daily OxyContin® use in the past month, and having fewer ties and second order connections in the drug network reduced the odds of high-frequency illicit methadone use. Conclusions Rates of illicit methadone use and high-frequency illicit methadone use among this sample of rural drug users were considerably higher than those previously reported in the literature. Health practitioners in rural areas should routinely screen for illicit opioid use, including methadone. PMID:23841864

Hall, Martin T.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Havens, Jennifer R.

2013-01-01

199

Application of the stochastic process to pitting corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Pitting corrosion can be considered as a combination of two physical processes: the pit generation process and its depth growth process. Both processes are uncertain and can be modeled by stochastic processes. A model that combines two stochastic processes to describe pitting corrosion was developed. In this model, the pit generation process is represented by the Poisson process, and the pit depth growth process is modeled by the Markov process. The probability distribution of corrosion pit depth and the probability of time-to-failure are derived based upon the combined stochastic processes. Examples of the use of this method in dealing with experimental data also were developed.

Hong, H.P. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1999-01-01

200

Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153  

PubMed Central

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4?,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2?,3,4,4?,5? pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2?,4,4?,5,5?-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter time points. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly differently from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals. PMID:19362103

Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

2009-01-01

201

Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Woller, Michael J. [Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States); Gore, Andrea C. [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute for Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)], E-mail: andrea.gore@mail.utexas.edu

2009-06-01

202

PCB-153 Shows Different Dynamics of Mobilisation from Differentiated Rat Adipocytes during Lipolysis in Comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. Conclusion/Significance These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes. PMID:25211159

Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

2014-01-01

203

Identification of a novel PCB source through analysis of 209 PCB congeners by US EPA modified method 1668  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCDD\\/Fs and PCBs in surface waters and effluent waste streams flowing into New York\\/New Jersey Harbor were sampled by large volume filtration and solid phase extraction (XAD-2). Passive hexane samplers were employed in sewer trackdown. Extraction media were analyzed for 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD\\/Fs and all 209 PCB congeners. The non-Aroclor PCB congener, 3,3?-DiCB, was ubiquitous in the harbor and was

Simon Litten; Brian Fowler; Diane Luszniak

2002-01-01

204

Formation of toxic PCB congeners and PCB-solvent adducts in a sunlight irradiated cyclohexane solution of aroclor 1254  

SciTech Connect

Photodegradation by sunlight is an important decomposition mechanism of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment. Photodegradation of PCBs proceeds through successive dechlorination of the biphenyl nucleus and thus modify the proportions of the various congeners in a PCB mixture. The objectives of this work is to study the effects of sunlight on a typical PCB mixture such as Aroclor 1254, in a congener specific approach in order to observe the variations in the levels of these toxic congeners in the irradiated mixture.

Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Vincent, N. (Armand-Frappier Inst., Laval, Quebec (Canada))

1992-01-01

205

JiTT - La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) What is "tar" and how does it form? 2) List the animals that have been uncovered in the tar pits that you didn't know were native to North America. Why do you think these animals are now extinct? ...

Guertin, Laura

206

Magma Pathways, Calderas, and Pit Craters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students trace the path that magma takes from the mantle to the surface and learn how calderas and pit craters form. The site contains seven activities from kindergarten level to twelfth grade and includes the required materials and worksheets. There is also a virtual field trip including both Crater Rim Drive and Chain of Craters Road.

207

Extracting Valuable Data from Classroom Trading Pits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How well does competitive theory explain the outcome in experimental markets? The authors examined the results of a large number of classroom trading experiments that used a pit-trading design found in Experiments with Economic Principles, an introductory economics textbook by Bergstrom and Miller. They compared experimental outcomes with…

Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Kwok, Eugene

2005-01-01

208

OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, TO 8750 PIT WITH DRILL SETTING AN EXPLOSIVE CHARGE TO REMOVE OVERBURDEN AND ACCESS COAL SEAMS LOCATED 200 FEET BELOW FOR STRIPPING. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

209

21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.  

...contains 3 to 5 percent PCB's) have been identified as a primary source of PCB's in paper products. Some virgin paper products have also been found to contain PCB's, the source of which is generally attributed to direct...

2014-04-01

210

21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.  

...contains 3 to 5 percent PCB's) have been identified as a primary source of PCB's in paper products. Some virgin paper products have also been found to contain PCB's, the source of which is generally attributed to direct...

2014-04-01

211

Opportunities and risks of the proposed FCTC protocol on illicit trade.  

PubMed

Illicit trade in tobacco products presents a threat to public health because it undermines the use of tax and price policies, which are among the most effective mechanisms for reducing tobacco consumption. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are in the final stages of negotiating a protocol aimed at strengthening international cooperation in the fight against illicit tobacco trade. While an effective multilateral response to illicit tobacco trade would make a significant contribution to global tobacco control, achieving this through the FCTC forum is challenging. First, while illicit tobacco trade is a health problem, the expertise, experience and capacity needed to combat illicit trade are not traditionally found in health agencies. The development of links with other agencies, both domestic and international, is critical to ensure both an effective response and an efficient use of limited governmental and non-governmental resources. Second, in many parts of the world, the tobacco industry cooperates closely with governments in the combating of illicit trade. This cooperation poses risks for tobacco control, particularly if relationships and norms of cooperation spill over into other areas of FCTC implementation. An examination of the industry's positioning suggests that it sees an opportunity to portray itself as 'legitimate' and 'responsible', a friend of governments, and a way to integrate itself into FCTC processes. This paper makes suggestions for moving forward in this challenging area towards ensuring that the approach taken actually reduces illicit tobacco trade, strengthens tobacco tax policies and does not operate to undermine the FCTC. PMID:21821819

Liberman, Jonathan; Blecher, Evan; Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Burke, Fishburn

2011-11-01

212

Mosh pits and Circle pits: Collective motion at heavy metal concerts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal concerts present an extreme environment in which large crowds (˜10^2- 10^5) of humans experience very loud music (˜130dB) in sync with bright, flashing lights, often while intoxicated. In this setting, we find two types of collective motion: mosh pits, in which participants collide with each other randomly in a manner resembling an ideal gas, and circle pits, in which participants run collectively in a circle forming a vortex of people. We model these two collective behaviors using a flocking model and find qualitative and quantitative agreement with the behaviors found in videos of metal concerts. Futhermore, we find a phase diagram showing the transition from a mosh pit to a circle pit as well as a predicted third phase, lane formation.

Bierbaum, Matthew; Silverberg, Jesse L.; Sethna, James P.; Cohen, Itai

2013-03-01

213

Pit Viper strikes at the Hanford site. Pit maintenance using robotics at the Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect

The Pit Viper - a remote operations waste retrieval system - was developed to replace manual operations in the valve pits of waste storge tanks at the Hanford Site. The system consists of a typical industrial backhoe fitted with a robotic manipulator arm and is operated remotely from a control trailer located outside of the tank farm. Cameras mounted to the arm and within the containment tent allow the operator to view the entire pit area and operate the system using a joystick. The arm's gripper can grasp a variety of tools that allow personnel to perform cleaning, debris removal, and concrete repair tasks -- a more efficient and less dose-intensive process than the previous "long-pole" method. The project team overcame a variety of obstacles during development and testing of the Pit Viper system, and deployment occurred in Hanford Tank C-104 in December 2001.

Roeder-Smith, Lynne

2002-06-30

214

Cessation of illicit drug use in young adulthood.  

PubMed

The predictors of cessation of marijuana and cocaine use were examined in a longitudinal cohort of young adult men and women (N = 1222). Six domains of predictors were examined: socioeconomic background variables, participation in the social roles of adulthood, degree of drug involvement, social context of drug use, health status, and deviant activities and conventionality of life experiences. Factors that predicted cessation of use in adulthood paralleled those that predicted lack of initiation in adolescence: conventionality in social role performance, social context unfavorable to the use of drugs, and good health. A most important predictor was prior degree of involvement in licit and illicit drugs. In multivariate analyses, degree of prior drug involvement remained the strongest predictor of drug cessation for of marijuana use, while friends' use was the most important for cocaine. Those who use drugs in response to social influences are more likely to stop using them than those who also use drugs for psychological reasons. PMID:2913970

Kandel, D B; Raveis, V H

1989-02-01

215

Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment  

E-print Network

Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the enabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However, as an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to pernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system is corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer sales and restocking trends for products. In this paper, we first present plausible aftermaths of corporate espionage using real data from online sources. Second, to mitigate corporate espionage in a retail store environment, we present a simple lowcost system called Mirage. Mirage uses additional programmable low cost passive RFID tags called honeytokens to inject noise in retail store inven-torying. Using a simple history based algorithm that controls activation and de-activation of honeytokens, Mirage randomizes sales and restocking trends. We evaluate Mirage in a real warehouse environment using a commercial off-the-shelf Motoro...

White, Jonathan

2010-01-01

216

Women and illicit drugs: sexuality and crack cocaine.  

PubMed

As part of a larger, federally funded study, the purpose of this preliminary, descriptive study was to describe the sexual feelings and sexual functioning of women who used large amounts of crack cocaine. A structured interview with questions pertaining to the effect of crack use on sexual feelings and sexual function was conducted with 100 African-American women who either were in treatment for crack abuse or were currently using the drug. The data did not support the commonly held notions that crack is an aphrodisiac for women and that crack makes women want sex. Furthermore, the women in this study had a higher level of sexual dysfunction than was found in a previous study of women who used alcohol. More research on the sexual experiences of women who use illicit drugs such as crack is needed if practitioners are to base their interventions on women's realities, not on stereotypes. PMID:7759343

Henderson, D J; Boyd, C J; Whitmarsh, J

1995-01-01

217

Managing Hepatitis C in Users of Illicit Drugs  

PubMed Central

Persons who inject illicit drugs are the group most severely affected by the hepatitis C epidemic but the least likely to receive treatment. Controlling the epidemic will require developing strategies for effectively treating drug users. A growing number of reports have shown that a substantial proportion of drug users treated for hepatitis C can achieve sustained virologic responses even if they have psychiatric comorbidity and even if they continue to use drugs while receiving hepatitis C treatment. Successfully treating hepatitis C in injection drug users requires collaboration between those with expertise in hepatitis and those with expertise in caring for substance users. Careful attention to management of adverse effects and strong links with mental health services are important. Further research is needed to better define which patients can be successfully treated and the program elements that are critical for success. In the meantime, substantial progress can be made using current knowledge if appropriate resources are brought to bear. PMID:23801897

Edlin, Brian R.; Carden, Michael R.; Ferrando, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

218

Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.  

PubMed

This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:9818990

Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

1998-11-01

219

A strategy to reduce illicit drug use is effective in elite Australian football  

PubMed Central

Background The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prescribes that drug testing is conducted in sports competitions to detect drug use in athletes. This testing includes performance-enhancing drugs as well as illicit substances such as marijuana, amphetamines and cocaine. Illicit drugs are tested for on match days but not on non-match days. Some athletes are known to use illicit substances for recreational purposes, away from competition times and this poses a serious health and welfare issue not addressed by the usual sport drug testing regimes. This paper reports the results of the first 7?years of an illicit drug-testing programme that included non-match day testing in the elite Australian Football competition, the Australian Football League (AFL). Methods Players in the AFL were tested for illicit drugs both in-competition and out-of-competition. Players were selected for illicit substance tests either randomly or targeted based on previous test history or time since previous test. The number of tests conducted was increased each year from 2005 to 2011 and testing was focused on high-risk times during non-competition periods. Results There were no positive match day tests. There was a significant reduction in positive tests (19–6) for illicit drugs during non-competition periods over the 7?years (p<0.0001). The reduction in positive tests may be related to player education, the greater number of tests conducted and the harm minimisation approach of the illicit drug policy. Conclusions An illicit drugs programme using a harm minimisation strategy can work effectively alongside a sport's WADA compliant Anti-Doping Code. PMID:22893512

Harcourt, Peter R; Unglik, Harry; Cook, Jill L

2012-01-01

220

The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010  

PubMed Central

Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve measurement approaches and estimates. PMID:24489886

Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

2014-01-01

221

The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.  

PubMed

Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve measurement approaches and estimates. PMID:24489886

Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

2014-01-01

222

Controls on pit lake water quality at sixteen open-pit mines in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five mines in Nevada currently have, or will likely have, a pit lake. The large bulk mineable deposits in Nevada mined below the water table are of several types, including Carlin-type Au, quartz-adularia precious metal, quartz-alunite precious metal and porphyry-Cu (-Mo) deposits. Of the 16 past or existing pit lakes at 12 different Nevada mines, most had near neutral pH

Lisa Shevenell; Katherine A Connors; Christopher D Henry

1999-01-01

223

Plasmodesmata and pit development in secondary xylem elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing pit membranes of secondary xylem elements in Drimys winteri, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Sorbus aucuparia, Tilia vulgaris and Trochodendron aralioides have been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Absence of plasmodesmata from the membranes of vessel elements and tracheids indicates that their pits develop independently of these structures. On the other hand, plasmodesmata are abundant in pit membranes between fibres,

J. R. Barnett

1982-01-01

224

Analysis of pits induced stresses due to metal corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion damage due to pitting is commonly observed in a wide range of aluminum alloys and structural steels that are being used for aerospace and naval structural applications. In order to predict the nucleation of cracks resulting from nucleation and growth of pits, there is a need to obtain the stress environment around pits. The objective of this study

Ramana M. Pidaparti; Appajoysula S. Rao

2008-01-01

225

Pitting corrosion on weld joints of offshore structure jackets  

SciTech Connect

During underwater inspection, pitting corrosion was observed on weld joints of offshore structure jackets. A detailed investigation was carried out to find the cause of the pitting. Pitting and galvanic corrosion studies and cathodic protection experiments were carried out in synthetic seawater and in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Field exposure studies also were carried out. Remedial measures are described.

Anto, P.F.

2000-04-01

226

Deformation prediction of foundation pit using Gaussian Process machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of deformation of foundation pit by means of conventional method such as mechanics analysis or numerical method often has a large error because the deformation process of foundation pit is a highly complicated nonlinear evolution process. A novel method based on Gaussian process (GP) machine learning is proposed for solving the problem of deformation prediction of foundation pit. GP

Guoshao Su; Keshi ZHANG; Huanling Zhang; Yan Zhang

2009-01-01

227

30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.  

... 2014-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56...Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons...10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near the...

2014-07-01

228

30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56...Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons...10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near the...

2010-07-01

229

30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56...Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons...10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near the...

2013-07-01

230

30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56...Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons...10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near the...

2012-07-01

231

30 CFR 56.3131 - Pit or quarry wall perimeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Pit or quarry wall perimeter. 56.3131 Section 56...Mining Methods § 56.3131 Pit or quarry wall perimeter. In places where persons...10 feet from the top of the pit or quarry wall. Other conditions at or near the...

2011-07-01

232

Enhanced ID Pit Sizing Using Multivariate Regression Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPRI is funding a program to enhance and improve the reliability of inside diameter (ID) pit sizing for balance-of plant heat exchangers, such as condensers and component cooling water heat exchangers. More traditional approaches to ID pit sizing involve the use of frequency-specific amplitude or phase angles. The enhanced multivariate regression algorithm for ID pit depth sizing incorporates three simultaneous

Kenji Krzywosz

2007-01-01

233

99. ARAIII. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

99. ARA-III. Overall view of drilling area in reactor pit. Bridge over pit in use for operations. Shows water in pool, reactor, hoist, operators, and general view of interior of reactor pit area. August 12, 1963. Ineel photo no. 63-4454. Photographer: Benson. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

234

Plant uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under varying cropping conditions.  

PubMed

A 60-d greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake and in-soil degradation of PCB-5 under single cropping and intercropping conditions involving three crop plant species: pumpkin, soybean and corn. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil surface was also tested. The results show that while uptake of PCB-5 by the test plant species is possible and the root concentration of PCB-5 had a control on the upward transport of PCB-5 to the above-ground portion of the plants, the PCB-5 extracted by the plants mainly accumulated in the root materials. Phytoextraction contributed insignificantly toward the loss of the soil-borne PCB-5. Volatilization of PCB-5 from the soil was recorded but it appeared that this did not result in a marked loss of PCB-5 in the bulk soil though it might cause remarkable removal of PCB-5 in a thin layer of the topsoil (1 mm). It is likely that the in-soil biodegradation contributed markedly to the observed reduction in soil-borne PCB-5. The in-soil biodegradation of PCB-5 was significantly enhanced under intercropping conditions, which appeared to be related to increased microbial activities, particularly bacterial activities. The soil residual PCB-5 was correlated with the activity of the following enzymes: catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). PMID:21724228

Li, Huashou; Liu, Longyuan; Lin, Chuxia; Wang, Shaorui

2011-08-01

235

Diversion of methadone: illicit methadone use among applicants to two metropolitan drug abuse programs.  

PubMed

Newly admitted patients from two comprehensive drug abuse programs in the Baltimore area were queried concerning frequency of illicit methadone use and availability of illicit methadone for a 3-month period prior to their admission. The results showed that a significant percentage of applicants had used illicit methadone prior to seeking treatment, and that for the most part they were using "program methadone" presumably diverted from take-home medication from patients active in treatment programs in the Maryland area. The clinical and rehabilitative aspects of take-home medication are carefully assessed in relation to these somewhat disturbing findings. PMID:730402

Goldman, F R; Thistel, C I

1978-08-01

236

In situ phytoextraction of polychlorinated biphenyl - (PCB)contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale field trial of phytoextraction of PCBs provides insight into the practical application of this technology, using the plant species Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin), Carex normalis (sedge), and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue). This in situ trial took place at a historically contaminated field site, in soil contaminated with a mean concentration of 46 microg/g (range of 0.6 - 200 microg/g) total PCBs (Aroclor 1254/1260). Shoot bioaccumulation factors (where BAF(shoot)=[PCB(shoot)]/[PCB(soil)]) of up to 0.29 were achieved in sedge. Pumpkin plants produced shoot BAFs of only 0.15. However, PCB concentrations in pumpkin shoots decreased as the distance above the root increased, suggesting that higher overall pumpkin shoot BAFs might be achieved in shorter, more densely planted plants. A model for estimating the overall PCB concentration in large pumpkin shoots with minimal sampling is proposed. Examination of congener data supports the hypothesis that C. pepo ssp pepo plants exhibit a unique biological uptake mechanism that allows for the accumulation of a significant concentration of PCBs in plant shoots. Although this mechanism is not well understood, the co-eluting IUPAC congeners 93/95 and 105/127 appear to be preferentially mobilized. Presently, all three plant species exhibit potential as PCB phytoextractors, however further research is required to elucidate methods for optimizing this technology. PMID:17258285

Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison; Reimer, Kenneth J

2007-03-01

237

5th International PCB Workshop--summary and implications.  

PubMed

A summation of new and novel findings presented at "The Fifth PCB Workshop: New Knowledge Gained from Old Pollutants" workshop is provided in this overview, along with discussion of data gaps and research needs in the future. Relative to the previous workshop, the scientific presentations had a decreased emphasis on toxicology; rather, more than half of the sessions dealt with environmental sources, fate and transport, or transformations. Approximately 100 presentations in the form of talks and posters were included in the workshop. The presentations were generally divided into: emissions and transport of PCBs in natural and urban settings; chiral aspects of PCB transport; metabolism and distribution; new aspects of environmental metabolism of PCBs--from microbes to plants to animals; reproduction, developmental and cardiovascular effects of PCBs; updates on Anniston--the most highly exposed PCB community in the U.S. to date; and new and novel approaches for evaluating PCB mixtures (e.g., PCB toxic equivalency factors, and TEFs)--and the implications of such for risk assessment. An overarching state-of-the-science view is important to the goal of preventing negative health consequences. Currently, there are still many roadblocks to evaluating risk associated with this large group of 209 congeners--all of which have different physiochemical properties, variable fate and transport mechanism in the environment, and a range of ability for persistence, bioaccumulation, and biological activity. PMID:20728937

Birnbaum, L S; Staskal-Wikoff, D S

2010-11-01

238

Partial pressures of PCB-11 in air from several Great Lakes sites.  

PubMed

Relatively high concentrations of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) have been reported in water and air, and it has been suggested that this compound did not come from commercial PCB products. We report here data on atmospheric partial pressures of PCB-11 and of total PCBs at five sites around the Great Lakes and demonstrate that both total PCBs and PCB-11 track human population density. In addition, we show that with the exception of Chicago, the PCB congener pattern at our sampling sites is best represented by Aroclor 1242; in Chicago, the pattern is best represented by a 1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1242 and 1254. With the possible exception of Sturgeon Point New York, the levels of PCB-11 in air have not changed between January 2004 and December 2007. The source of PCB-11 may be related to yellow pigments, to the degradation of more highly chlorinated PCB congeners, or to both. PMID:19764206

Basu, Ilora; Arnold, Karen A; Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A

2009-09-01

239

21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable...significant percentage of paper food-packaging materials contain PCB's which...The source of PCB's in paper food-packaging materials is primarily...

2010-04-01

240

EFFECTS AND INTERACTIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB) WITH ESTUARINE MICROORGANISMS AND SHELLFISH  

EPA Science Inventory

The role of estuarine bacteria in the mobilization, transport, and removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was investigated in estuarine environments. A main objective of this investigation was to determine a secondary impact of PCB contamination of estuarine systems. The spec...

241

Cleaning Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contaminated Garden Soil by Phytoremediation  

PubMed Central

A poplar planted system resulted in the complete removal of at least 19 of the 29 potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners detected in trace amounts (37.9 ng g-1 in total) in a commercial garden soil, while the unplanted soil only had 2 congeners completely removed after 96 days. In addition, the most recalcitrant congener, PCB 52, only decreased by 0.1% in the unplanted reactors while declining by 22.3% in the planted system. There was also greater removal of a PCB 77 spike in the planted system when compared to the unplanted system, 17.2% in the planted system versus 2.8% in the unplanted system. The results suggest that phytoremediation may be an effective tool in cleaning commercially available garden soils that are lightly contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24409084

Schnoor, Jerald L.

2013-01-01

242

Temporal trends toward stability of Hudson River PCB contamination  

SciTech Connect

PCB was used in the manufacture of electrical equipment at two General Electric Company (GE) facilities located on the upper Hudson River about 1 km apart in Fort Edward and Hudson Falls (Washington Co.) New York. Discharges of PCB from these plants resulted in concentrations in bottom sediments of the Hudson River which now exceed those of other major rivers by about two orders of magnitude and those of small remote streams by more than three orders of magnitude. Intensive monitoring was initiated in 1977 by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to ascertain the magnitude of and trends in contaminant conditions of biotic and physical strata. The paper summarizes PCB trends from 1977 to 1981 in three major monitoring components - water, multiplate residues and fish.

Sloan, R.J. (New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany); Simpson, K.W.; Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

1983-10-01

243

PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.  

PubMed

Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

2014-01-01

244

Immunoassay panel profile for detecting total PCB content  

SciTech Connect

Immunoassay test kits are being widely used to provide rapid, inexpensive screening of soil samples for the presence of PCBs at or above a given threshold value. Currently available immunoassay methods are sensitive to aroclor preparations that contain the more highly chlorinated PCB congeners. The interpretation of these tests is accomplished by comparison to an appropriate aroclor standard. If PCB contamination at a site has undergone significant changes through weathering or biological degradation, or if contamination has occurred from lower chlorinated species, the relative sensitivity of available test methods is reduced. This paper describes the results of a program to develop and demonstrate an Immunoassay Panel Method that normalizes the recovery of PCBs detected and thereby provides an accurate representation of the total PCB content of a sample. The development and validation of this method, and the associative correlation testing data using laboratory and environmental samples, will be discussed.

Friedman, S.; Allen, R. [EnSys, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gui, J.; Barren, E.; Berdahl, D. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

245

Preliminary report on fractured igneous-rock environment test pits  

SciTech Connect

Three large calibration models or test pits were completed on May 1, 1981, at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Denver Federal Center Calibration Facility. Each calibration model was constructed of large stone blocks that have a cored borehole and wire-sawn simulated fractures. Details of the test pit sizes, simulated fracture locations, rock type of each test pit, and location and access of these pits are discussed. Geophysical well logs were obtained from these test pits and these data are shown and discussed.

Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.; LaDelfe, C.M.

1983-01-01

246

PCB Congeners and Dechlorination in Sediments of Upper Sheboygan River, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine hand-collected sediment cores were obtained for PCB concentration analysis and dating from the Upper Sheboygan River, Wisconsin, USA. The primary PCB Aroclors in the Upper Sheboygan River were 1248 (50%) and 1254 (50%). The total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.1–104 ppm (based on dry weight). The PCB data obtained from the sampling were analyzed using a

Juan Li; Msengi K. Mgonella; Philip A. Bzdusek; Erik R. Christensen

2005-01-01

247

Thyroid hormone status of Atlantic croaker exposed to Aroclor 1254 and selected PCB congeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) were exposed to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1254) or one of three individual congeners (planar PCB 77 or ortho-substituted PCB 47 and PCB 153) in the diet for 30 days to investigate the effects of PCBs on circulating thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Aroclor 1254 (0.2 and 1.0 mg\\/kg body mass\\/day) decreased plasma T3

Kimberly D. LeRoy; Peter Thomas; Izhar A. Khan

2006-01-01

248

PCBQ: computerized quantification of total PCB and congeners in environmental samples  

SciTech Connect

Computerized methodologies for the quantification of total PCBs, PCB in Aroclor mixtures and individual PCB congeners in environmental samples are presented. The method for total PCBs is based on a multiple-linear regression analysis using data from capillary gas chromatography of aroclor standards. PCB congeners were identified and their weight percentages determined in Aroclor mixtures by GC/MS. PCB congeners and total PCBs were accurately quantified in predetermined test data and environmental samples.

Capel, P.D.; Rapaport, R.A.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Looney, B.B.

1985-01-01

249

Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans in ambient air during the Smithville PCB incineration project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incineration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is a controversial topic. In this research, the data obtained for almost 1600 ambient air PCB samples and 200 PCDD/DF samples during the course of the Smithville, Canada PCB incineration project, were analyzed to examine the possible contribution of incinerator stack emissions and/or other Site activities on observed levels. A strong seasonal fluctuation in ambient air PCB concentrations was observed. However, testing of the incinerator stack showed that the incinerator emissions were consistently very low and not temperature related. The meteorological and source testing information was used for wind sector analysis, air dispersion and receptor modeling. These results indicated that the Site was the source for the elevated PCB concentrations, but that the incinerator was only responsible for a minor fraction of these concentrations. The primary factor found responsible for the elevated ambient air PCB concentrations was temperature dependent volatilization from on-site storage of high PCB concentration liquids and fugitive emissions from Site activities, such as water treatment. The results from this research have a number of implications for PCB management policies in particular, as well as air monitoring studies in general. (1)The ongoing storage of PCB contaminated material can result in significant air emissions to the environment. (2)High concentration PCB liquids are more responsible for elevated PCB concentrations and will result in higher concentrations and/or mass emissions of PCB to the environment relative to PCB contaminated soils. (3)Evaluation and selection of remediation technologies must include the environmental effects of ongoing storage and/or the potential problems with alternative technologies. (4)The destruction of the high level PCB liquids resulted in a discernible decrease in ambient air concentrations of PCB. The destruction of all PCB wastes on-site reduced ambient air concentrations to background levels. (5)Wind sector scoring is a practical and easily automated method for looking at possible effects from local sources.

Mills, William James

2001-09-01

250

[Concentration changes in PCB isomers in the blood in patients with PCB poisoning].  

PubMed

The blood of 3 yu-cheng patients sampled from 1980 to 1985 and of 14 yusho patients sampled from 1982 to 1988 were analyzed for 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers by gas chromatography with a capillary column. The concentrations of PCBs in yu-cheng patients were up to 400 ppb and much higher than those of yusho patients. The high concentration of PCBs were decreased at biological half lives of about 50 months and 2,4,3',4'-tetra-CB and 2,4,5,3',4'-penta-CB were first decreased with time at half lives of about 12 months. Therefore, peculiar gas chromatographic pattern for yusho patients would be formed 3 years after the onset. The concentration and patterns of blood PCBs of yusho patient kept in similar levels during 1982 to 1988. PMID:2501193

Ohma, M; Kuroki, H; Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y; Hsu, S T

1989-05-01

251

Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.  

PubMed

Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure. PMID:19184731

Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik

2009-01-01

252

Hospital nurses' attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use.  

PubMed

Negative attitudes toward patients with a history of illicit drug use can adversely affect the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship, resulting in suboptimal patient care. We examined registered nurses' attitudes toward patients with illicit drug use (e.g., non-prescription use of opioids and narcotics, use of illicit drugs) admitted to the general internal medicine unit of an urban hospital and attempted to identify nurse-specific and environmental factors influencing these attitudes. The results indicated that nurses had a neutral attitude toward working with patients with a history of illicit drug use, but respondents also had low motivation and role support (i.e., perception of receiving support to fulfil one's professional role) related to caring for this high-risk population. The authors suggest greater use of organizational tools, such as protocols, consult services and in-services, to address nurses' clinical concerns and support therapeutic nurse-patient relationships and thereby enhance care delivery. PMID:23862324

Chu, Charlene; Galang, Ashley

2013-06-01

253

National Survey Shows Lower Rate of Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents Ages 12 to 17  

MedlinePLUS

... illicit drug use among adolescents ages 12 to 17 Report also shows continued lower rates of current ... and binge drinking among those aged 12 to 17 Tuesday, September 16, 2014 The rate of current ( ...

254

Assessment of detection limits of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing for detection of illicit connections.  

PubMed

Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with fiber-optic cables is a powerful tool to detect illicit connections in storm sewer systems. High-frequency temperature measurements along the in-sewer cable create a detailed representation of temperature anomalies due to illicit discharges. The detection limits of the monitoring equipment itself are well-known, but there is little information available on detection limits for the discovery of illicit connections, as in mixing of sewers, and attenuation also plays an important role. This paper describes the results of full-scale experiments aiming to quantify the detection limits for illicit connections under various sewer conditions. Based on the results, a new monitoring set-up for (partially) filled sewer conduits has been proposed. PMID:23787308

Nienhuis, Jaap; de Haan, Cornelis; Langeveld, Jeroen; Klootwijk, Martijn; Clemens, François

2013-01-01

255

Influence of pitting corrosion on structural integrity of aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the US Air Force has focused attention on extending the life of its aging fleet. Consequently, the Air Force is concerned about a growing number of aging aircraft that require extensive maintenance. One of the main causes of aging aircraft failure is due to corrosion damage and fatigue of its aluminum alloy parts. Many parts of corrosion damage can affect the aluminum structures of an aircraft. In this paper, result on controlled pitting corrosion will be discussed. Pitting corrosion triggers serious damage in aircraft structures because pits act as one of the nucleation sites for fatigue crack formation. To study the role of pits in fatigue crack initiation, pits were created on high strength aluminum alloy 2024-T3 samples by an accelerated electrochemical method. These pits have a variety of diameters and depths. The scanning electronic microscopy. The pitted surface was examined, and parameters such as average roughness and pit depth were determined. In addition, 3D images of the pitted surface were recorded. These result provide the details of the critical pit size that can lead to fatigue crack initiation in Al 2024-T3. The understanding of the role of pitting in crack initiation aids in extending the fatigue life of the aging aircraft.

Simon, Laura B.; Khobaib, Mohammad; Matikas, Theodore E.; Jeffcoate, C. S.; Donley, M. S.

1999-02-01

256

Generating the Right PCB Data: Determination of Aroclors Versus PCB Congeners  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate, as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs, has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy, a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented. (authors)

Prignano, A.L.; Narquis, C.T.; Hyatt, J.E. [Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

257

GENERATING THE RIGHT PCB DATA DETERMINATION OF AROCLORS VERSUS PCB CONGENERS  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate. as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors'. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs. has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7.8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2.3.7.8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy. a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented.

NARQUIS CT; PRIGNANO AL

2007-11-21

258

MIC myths -- Does pitting cause MIC?  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that sulfate reducers, acid producers, metal oxidizers and certain other bacteria can contribute to corrosion. However, it is far from clear how biological activity influences corrosion processes, how much metal loss is caused by bacteria and most importantly, how microbial attack can be differentiated from other corrosion mechanisms. Confusion between Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) and other corrosion mechanisms is common . Criteria such as pit ``tunneling``, ``tiger striping``, pit terracing, ``high`` biological counts, tuberculation and preferential weld attack have frequently been used as diagnostic Rosetta stones solely identifying MIC. Unfortunately, many commonly accepted diagnostic criteria are not unique to MIC, but can also result from numerous corrosion processes unrelated to biological activity. Diagnosis of corrosion mechanisms, whether involving MIC or not, requires critical evaluation of all data thorough understanding of fundamental corrosion processes and consistency of both phenomenological observations and theoretical information.

Herro, H.M. [Nalco Chemical Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1998-12-31

259

Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

Kushner, L.

1987-01-01

260

Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders  

PubMed Central

Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide risk in illicit drug users. PMID:24648739

Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

2014-01-01

261

Contamination of PCB congeners in bear lake fish tissues, livers, and brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCB congeners and DDE in Bear Lake fish tissues, livers, and brains were determined in this study. Three different species of fish — Northern Pike, Walleye, and Bullhead — were examined and 59 congeners were detected. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 118, 138, 153, and 180. The levels of PCB congeners in fish from Pickeral Lake,

Min Qi; M. Anderson; S. Meyer; J. Carson

1997-01-01

262

gamma. Irradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents  

SciTech Connect

{gamma}Irradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied.

Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N. (Armand-Frappier Institute, Laval, Quebec (Canada))

1990-09-01

263

PCB sources, transformations, and contributions in recent Fox River, Wisconsin sediments determined from receptor modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PCB contamination in lower Fox River sediments was investigated in order to identify possible PCB sources, contributions, and transformations, using two receptor models. Congener specific sediment PCB data from sites immediately upstream of DePere dam to Green Bay that had been gathered for the Green Bay\\/Fox River Mass Balance Study, were used in this analysis. The first receptor model

Ipek Imamoglu; Erik R. Christensen

2002-01-01

264

40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance...761.61(a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and...

2010-07-01

265

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes ( Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB

Charles P. Madenjian; Patrick A. Hanchin; Sergei M. Chernyak; Linda J. Begnoche

2009-01-01

266

Police drug crackdowns and hospitalisation rates for illicit-injection-related infections in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal data, this analysis tests the hypothesis that eight police drug crackdowns implemented in 27 New York City police precincts between 1995 and 1999 were associated with subsequent increases in monthly precinct-specific hospitalisation rates for illicit-injection-related abscesses, cellulitis, and endocarditis. Crackdowns are sustained police initiatives designed to reduce the possession and sale of illicit drugs through heightened surveillance and

Hannah L. F. Cooper; David Wypij; Nancy Krieger

2005-01-01

267

Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

Harlow, D. Gary

2012-08-01

268

Risk assessment of technologies for detecting illicit drugs in containers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national facility for testing and evaluating existing and emerging prototype systems in an operational environment. The results of initial tests using the advanced x-ray subsystem installed at the testbed are given in this paper. A description of typical cargo contents and those characteristics applicable to nuclear interrogation techniques are provided in the appendix.

Brandenstein, Albert E.

1995-03-01

269

Cannabis and other illicit drugs: comorbid use and abuse/dependence in males and females.  

PubMed

Cannabis and other illicit drugs are often used or abused comorbidly. Two competing theories to explain this comorbidity are (i) the phenotypic causation (gateway) model and (ii) the correlated liabilities model. We used data from 1191 male and 934 female same-sex twin pairs to test 13 genetically informative models of comorbidity. Models were fit separately for use and abuse/dependence in both sexes. The correlated liabilities model provided a good fit to the data for cannabis and other illicit drug use, as well as abuse/dependence. The relationship between the use or abuse of cannabis and other illicit drugs is not entirely phenotypic, as depicted by the random multiformity of cannabis model, which is an adaptation of the gateway model. The comorbidity appears to arise from correlated genetic and environmental influences. There is some evidence for a model in which high-risk cannabis users may be at increased risk for other illicit drug use. For abuse/dependence, a model with causal pathways between the liability for cannabis and other illicit drug abuse/dependence also fits well. Overall, our results suggest that the use and abuse/dependence of cannabis and other illicit drugs are strongly linked via common risk factors that jointly influence their individual liabilities. PMID:14990863

Agrawal, Arpana; Neale, Michael C; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S

2004-05-01

270

Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

2004-11-01

271

A new technology for fluidic microsystems based on PCB technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology for fluidic microsystems has been developed at Rostock University. This new technology is based on the manufacturing principles of printed circuit boards (PCB). The same manufacturing steps closely connect fluidic and electric components. Unlike the requirements for other technologies, e.g., silicon technology, only moderately complex equipment is necessary. The microsystems fabricated by this new technology can handle

Tobias Merkel; Michael Graeber; Lienhard Pagel

1999-01-01

272

PCB congener analysis with Hall electrolytic conductivity detection  

SciTech Connect

This work reports the development of an analytical methodology for the analysis of PCB congeners based on integrating relative retention data provided by other researchers. The retention data were transposed into a multiple retention marker system which provided good precision in the calculation of relative retention indices for PCB congener analysis. Analytical run times for the developed methodology were approximately one hour using a commercially available GC capillary column. A Tracor Model 700A Hall Electrolytic Conductivity Detector (HECD) was employed in the GC detection of Aroclor standards and environmental samples. Responses by the HECD provided good sensitivity and were reasonably predictable. Ten response factors were calculated based on the molar chlorine content of each homolog group. Homolog distributions were determined for Aroclors 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 1262 along with binary and ternary mixtures of the same. These distributions were compared with distributions reported by other researchers using electron capture detection as well as chemical ionization mass spectrometric methodologies. Homolog distributions acquired by the HECD methodology showed good correlation with the previously mentioned methodologies. The developed analytical methodology was used in the analysis of bluefish (Pomatomas saltatrix) and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) collected from the York River, lower James River and lower Chesapeake Bay in Virginia. Total PCB concentrations were calculated and homolog distributions were constructed from the acquired data. Increases in total PCB concentrations were found in the analyzed fish samples during the fall of 1985 collected from the lower James River and lower Chesapeake Bay.

Edstrom, R.D.

1989-01-01

273

Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Dechlorination and Biodegradation Endpoints  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation served as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation, thus allowing evaluation of several of the most common transformation patterns. Correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0).

Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

1999-04-19

274

EVALUATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR PESTICIDES AND PCB'S IN RAW WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The general EPA protocol for screening industrial effluents for priority pollutants (Federal Register 38, No. 75, Part II), has been tested for its applicability to the analysis of the priority pollutant pesticides and PCB's in raw wastewater. Raw wastewater from the municipal se...

275

Accumulation of heavy metals and PCB's in an urban lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contaminated, urban lake was surveyed for the areal and depth distribution of toxic metals and PCBs. Additionally, 137Cs dating of sediment cores were conducted to get an estimate of sedimentation rates, PCB loading rates, and the period of peak loading of metals. Lead and Zn concentrations were greatly elevated in the surface sediments. The depositional history of lead in

R. D. DeLaune; R. P. Gambrell; R. S. Knox

1989-01-01

276

Logistic regression tree applied to classify PCB golden finger defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic inspection and classification of printed circuit board (PCB) defects remains a problem in the Integrated Circuit (IC) industry. In a small volume, large production variety environment, some of the widely used defects classification tools are the Bayes classifier, the linear discriminant function (LDF) classifier, the minimum distance classifier, and the K-nearest neighbour (K-NN) classifier. These classifiers all have shortcomings

B. C. Jiang; C. C. Wang; P. L. Chen

2004-01-01

277

Analysis on cracking blind vias of PCB for mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microvia interconnection technology, which mainly includes blind via and buried via, has been put forward to meet the trends of ldquofaster, lighter, reliablerdquo in electronic industry. The technology plays a crucial role in the development of low cost and high density printed circuit board (PCB). However, as the cost for raw materials, like copper, keeps increasing, one defect blind via

Li-Na Ji; Zhen-Guo Yang

2008-01-01

278

Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

279

IMPACT OF SUSPENDED PARTICULATES ON PCB VOLATILIZATION FROM SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to experimentally quantify the mass of PCBs that can be transported from PCB-contaminated suspended particulate to the air phase under various conditions as a means of evaluating the mechanism and importance of suspended particulates in volatili...

280

Application of Process Management Tools for PCB Manufacturing and Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents the important steps of process management (PM) tools application for the printed circuits boards (PCB) manufacturing and diagnostics. The PM approach is a way of production and non-production activities management in manufacturing systems. The implementation of the approach represents the integration of knowledge from more areas of the science. The goal of PM application is improvement of

Jiri Tupa; Josef Basl; Vlastimil Skocil

2006-01-01

281

The Effect of Intrauterine PCB Exposure on Visual Recognition Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of prenatal exposure in 123 infants to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cord serum PCB level, and maternal report of contaminated fish consumption predicted less preference for a novel stimulus on Fagan's test of visual recognition memory (VRM) at 7 months. Preference for novelty decreased in a dose-dependent fashion and postnatal…

Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

1985-01-01

282

Effects of PCB dynamic responses on solder joint stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of board level electronic package subjected to drop impact loadings is one of the most concerned issues. In this paper, a standard board level drop impact test was modeled as double cantilever beam model. The deflection and curvature of the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and the component were compared with that derived from static analysis in order to

Tong An; Fei Qin

2009-01-01

283

Electromagnetic characterization of PCB cards for mobile phones  

E-print Network

Electromagnetic characterization of PCB cards for mobile phones Ali Jazzar(*), Edith Clavel state, more the price linked to the EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) requirements is important .Thus the electromagnetic perturbations inside and outside the structure. The required CAD tool to achieve this modeling

Boyer, Edmond

284

The status of PCB radiation chemistry research; prospects for waste treatment in nonpolar solvents and soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a review of PCB radiolysis in oil, polar and nonpolar solvents and soil. The origins of PCB radiolysis research in alkaline isopropanol are discussed, and contrasted with radiolysis in neutral isopropanol and nonpolar solutions. Micellar solution chemistry is presented. Additionally, new applications of soil PCB radiolysis will be discussed and the effect of soil on the chemistry shown. The applicability of the extraction of PCBs from soil followed by the floatation of the solvent and subsequent radiolysis of the PCB in the floatant are reported, along with radiolysis of PCB in soil matrices.

Curry, Randy D.; Mincher, Bruce J.

1999-10-01

285

Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Zoology; Patnode, K.P. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

286

Mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-poisoned rats  

SciTech Connect

To clarify the mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-poisoned rats, the following two experiments were carried out. Experiment No. 1: Rats were separated into three groups. Group 1 was fed a normal diet, group 2 was fed a PCB-supplemented diet, and group 3 was fed a dichlorodiphyltrichloroethane (DDT)-supplemented diet. After 5 months, the rats were killed. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in livers of the PCB- and DDT-exposed rats had increased. The activity of catalase was increased in the PCB-fed rats but decreased after the administered of DDT. The glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased only in the PCB-administered rats. These results indicate that PCB and DDT have some effects to enhance lipid oxidation. It is probable that the decrease in glutathione peroxidase is the major reason for the increase of lipid oxidation in PCB-poisoned rats. The mechanism of lipid peroxidate production in DDT-poisoned rats could be different from the case of PCB poisoning. Experiment No. 2: Rats were separated into two groups. To one group, normal diet was given and to the other group PCB-supplemented diet was given. After 1 month, the rats were killed. In PCB-exposed rats, activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were increased. The increase in glutathione reductase could be compensation for a decrease in glutathione peroxidase. It is probable that PCB is metabolized to make glutathione conjugates by the action of glutathione S-transferase.

Kamohara, K.; Yagi, N.; Itokawa, Y.

1984-06-01

287

CEREBROVASCULAR TOXICITY OF PCB153 IS ENHANCED BY BINDING TO SILICA NANOPARTICLES  

PubMed Central

Environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are frequently bound onto nanoparticles (NPs). However, the toxicity and health effects of PCBs assembled onto nanoparticles are unknown. The aim of this study was to study the hypothesis that binding PCBs to silica NPs potentiates PCB-induced cerebrovascular toxicity and brain damage in an experimental stroke model. Mice (C57BL/6, males, 12-week-old) were exposed to PCB153 bound to NPs (PCB153-NPs), PCB153, or vehicle. PCB153 was administered in the amount of 5 ng/g body weight. A group of treated animals was subjected to a 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain infarct volume, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins, and inflammatory mediators were assessed. As compared to controls, a 24 h exposure to PCB153-NPs injected into cerebral vasculature resulted in significant elevation of the BBB permeability, disruption of TJ protein expression, increased proinflammatory responses, and enhanced monocyte transmigration in mouse brain capillaries. Importantly, exposure to PCB153-NPs increased stroke volume and potentiated brain damage in mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. A long-term (30 days) oral exposure to PCB153-NPs resulted in a higher PCB153 content in the abdominal adipose tissue and amplified adhesion of leukocytes to the brain endothelium as compared to treatment with PCB153 alone. This study provides the first evidence that binding to NPs increases cerebrovascular toxicity of environmental toxicants, such as PCB153. PMID:23081707

Zhang, Bei; Chen, Lei; Choi, Jeong June; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

2012-01-01

288

The potential of PCB photochemistry at Moccasin Bend  

SciTech Connect

The TVA/EPRI Tailored Collaborative Project {open_quotes}Biotransformation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Contaminated Soils{close_quotes}, has as its objective biotransformation of PCB contaminated soils at utility sites (Phase I Report March 1992). However, there is recognition of the existence of other types of nonmetabolic alterations of PCBs in the contaminated soils. Of these nonmetabolic alterations, photoalteration is of special interest to the project. Photoalteration has the potential for enhancing PCB transformation with little intervention and little harm to the microbial community. PCBs have pervaded the environment, and the paucity of knowledge about their chemistry is becoming readily apparent. Although PCBs are quite resistant to degradation, photolysis, which is a chemical decomposition process that is induced by radiant energy, may be important in the environmental chemistry of PCBS. The photochemical degradation of PCBs may affect atmospheric levels of contaminants and photolabile chemicals that reside in water bodies or on surfaces, as for example, on leaves and vegetation. Chemicals present in the environment can undergo direct or indirect phototransformation which includes photosensitized degradation and oxygenation as well as photoinduced degradation. Photoalteration is produced by either artificial light or by light from the sun. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to induce chemical reactions in many chlorinated hydrocarbons under laboratory conditions. To determine whether PCB alterations are the result of light-catalyzed reactions, it is necessary to verify PCB photolysis, to define the products of photolysis, and to explain the conditions and mechanisms necessary to produce such reactions. It is the purpose of this report to review the literature concerning photoalteration of PCBs and the potential role of this mechanism to facilitate PCB remediation at the research site.

Hinton, M.M.; Beck, M.J.

1993-03-30

289

Electrical stimulation of microbial PCB degradation in sediment.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5-3.0 V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40-60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O(2) was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O(2). Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this study suggests that this approach could be a cost-effective, environmentally sustainable strategy to remediate PCBs in situ. PMID:23123087

Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B; Sowers, Kevin R; May, Harold D

2013-01-01

290

2,2?,3,5?,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 95) AND ITS HYDROXYLATED METABOLITES ARE ENANTIOMERICALLY ENRICHED IN FEMALE MICE  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological and laboratory studies link polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several neurotoxic PCB congeners are chiral and undergo enantiomeric enrichment in mammalian species, which may modulate PCB developmental neurotoxicity. This study measures levels and enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 and its hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in adult female C57Bl/6 mice following subchronic exposure to racemic PCB 95. Tissue levels of PCB 95 and OH-PCBs increased with increasing dose. Dose-dependent enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 was observed in brain and other tissues. OH-PCBs also displayed enantiomeric enrichment in blood and liver, but were not detected in adipose and brain. In light of data suggesting enantioselective effects of chiral PCBs on molecular targets linked to PCB developmental neurotoxicity, our observations highlight the importance of accounting for PCB and OH-PCB enantiomeric enrichment in the assessment of PCB developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:22974126

Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Stamou, Marianna; Truong, Kim M.; El-Komy, Mohammed H.M.E.; Lein, Pamela J.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2012-01-01

291

Congener-specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in ovarian follicular wall follows repeated exposure to PCB 126 and PCB 153. Comparison of tissue levels of PCB and biological changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Small (SF), medium (MF) and large (LF) preovulatory porcine follicles were isolated and incubated in an Erlenmeyer flask containing 5 ml of medium with addition of PCB 126 or PCB 153 to test differences in their accumulation in the follicular wall.Methods. The follicles were incubated in M199 medium at 37 °C with constant shaking at 70 rpm, for 6

E. L. Gregoraszczuk; A. Grochowalski; R. Chrzaszcz; M. Wegiel

2003-01-01

292

PCB congener-specific disruption of reproductive neuroendocrine function in Atlantic croaker.  

PubMed

Exposure of Atlantic croaker to Aroclor 1254 has been shown to impair reproductive neuroendocrine function in this species. In addition, we have identified hypothalamic tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, as a target of PCB neuroendocrine toxicity. A previous study in rats has implicated di-ortho-substituted non-coplanar PCB congeners in the inhibition of a similar enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether di-ortho-substituted congeners (PCB 47, PCB 153) or a coplanar congener (PCB 77) present in Aroclor 1254 could be responsible for the reproductive impairment observed in croaker exposed to the PCB mixture. Fish were exposed to PCB 47 and PCB 153 in the diet (0, 0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days and to PCB 77 (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days. Neither PCB 47 nor PCB 153 altered hypothalamic TPH activity or gonadal growth at doses similar to the effective doses of the Aroclor 1254 mixture. Therefore, these ortho-substituted PCB congeners known to be neurotoxic in mammalian systems are unlikely to contribute to Aroclor 1254-induced reproductive neuroendocrine disruption in croaker. In contrast, PCB 77 significantly inhibited hypothalamic TPH activity and gonadal growth at doses much lower than the effective doses of Aroclor 1254. The results provide the first evidence for PCB congener-specific disruption of reproductive neuroendocrine function in a vertebrate species. PMID:16690116

Khan, Izhar A; Thomas, Peter

2006-07-01

293

The Pit and the Safety Pendulum  

SciTech Connect

The hypothesis of this paper is that the safety analysis pendulum has swung considerably in the direction of increasingly complex and lengthy safety evaluations and intense reviews during the past 30 years. The test of this hypothesis will be a review of the safety analysis conducted for various activities associated with the retrieval of transuranic radioactive waste from burial pits at a National Laboratory site over a span of 30 years. The examination will focus on the safety aspects and the safety analysis that was conducted for the projects. At the conclusion of this examination, the paper will identify five reasons why the changes have taken place.

Nitschke, Robert Leon; Ramos, Amadeo Gabriel

2000-11-01

294

Analysis and cleaning of dirty W48 pits  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will summarize the results of an investigation of a dirty W48 pit and the subsequent development of a process for cleaning this class of pits in preparation for long-term storage. The residues of the dirty pit were analyzed for chemical identification and evidence of species known to promote corrosion of the metal cladding. The cleaning process was developed to reduce the potential for future corrosion during long-term storage.

LeMay, J.D.

1996-04-01

295

Effects of long-term maternal exposure to low doses of PCB126 and PCB153 on the reproductive system and related hormones of young male goats.  

PubMed

In this study, female goats were orally exposed to PCB126 or PCB153, at 49 ng/kg body weight per day and 98 microg/kg body weight per day respectively, from gestational day 60 until delivery at approximately day 150. Exposure of the offspring continued via lactation until postnatal day 40. Reproductive toxicity in the male offspring was studied by the evaluation of conventional reproductive endpoints as well as flow cytometric analyses of spermatogenesis and sperm chromatin structure. PCB153-treated animals showed a significant smaller testis diameter in comparison to the control group. Neither of the treated groups showed differences for plasma FSH in comparison to controls. PCB153-treated animals differed significantly from the control group with respect to plasma LH and testosterone levels, whereas PCB126-treated animals only differed from the controls in plasma testosterone concentrations. Neither the PCB126 nor the PCB153 group differed from the controls with respect to the conventional sperm parameters or testis histology. A significant lower ratio of interstitium area to seminiferous tubules area and proportion of diploid testis cells were observed for the PCB153 group. Sperm from PCB153-treated animals showed a significantly higher percentage of sperm with damaged DNA. From the results of the present study it was concluded that PCB153 was able to induce alterations in reproductive endpoints related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis as well as to the testis. The effects observed in male kids after a long-term maternal exposure to PCB153 support the concept that exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds during foetal development may lead to adverse reproductive effects in adult life. PMID:16264102

Oskam, Irma C; Lyche, Jan L; Krogenaes, Anette; Thomassen, Ragnar; Skaare, Janneche U; Wiger, Richard; Dahl, Ellen; Sweeney, Torres; Stien, Audun; Ropstad, Erik

2005-11-01

296

Looking northeast across transfer table pit at Boiler Shop (Bldg. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking northeast across transfer table pit at Boiler Shop (Bldg. 152) - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, Boiler Shop, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

297

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

298

Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among young drug users is not a widespread problem in Sweden. Harm-reduction measures should target drug users with more severe problems, among whom illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common and pose a medical risk. Illicit use of other prescription drugs, which are less controlled and more widely used by young people, is an important issue for further research. PMID:24139199

2013-01-01

299

Illicit peyote use among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment: a preliminary investigation.  

PubMed

Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems. PMID:16798681

Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

2006-01-01

300

Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Tele-operated and robotic systems operated in unstructured field environments pose unique challenges for tool design. Since field tasks are not always well defined and the robot work area usually cannot be designed for ease of operation, the tools must be versatile. It's important to carefully consider the orientation of the grip the robot takes on the tool, as it's not easily changed in the field. The stiffness of the robot and the possibility of robot positioning errors encourages the use of non-contact or minimal-contact tooling. While normal hand tools can usually be modified for use by the robot, this is not always the most effective approach. It's desirable to have tooling that is relatively independent of the robot; in this case, the robot places the tool near the desired work location and the tool performs its task relatively independently. Here we consider the adaptation of a number of tools for cleanup of a radioactively contaminated piping junction and valve pit. The tasks to be considered are debris removal (small nuts and bolts and pipe up to 100 mm in diameter), size reduction, surface cleaning, and support of past practice crane-based methods for working in the pits.

Catalan, Michael A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.

2002-04-11

301

Development of a synthetic PCB mixture resembling the average polychlorinated biphenyl profile in Chicago air.  

PubMed

Studies of environmental and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ideally performed with PCB mixtures reflecting the composition of environmental PCB profiles to mimic actual effects and to account for complex interactions among individual PCB congeners. Unfortunately, only a few laboratory studies employing synthetic PCB mixtures have been reported, in part because of the challenges associated with the preparation of complex PCB mixtures containing many individual PCB congeners. The objective of this study was to develop a PCB mixture that resembles the average PCB profile recorded from 1996 to 2002 at a satellite station of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network located at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, Illinois, using commercial PCB mixtures. Initial simulations, using published Aroclor profiles, showed that a mixture containing 65% Aroclor 1242 and 35% Aroclor 1254 was a good approximation of the target profile. A synthetic Chicago air mixture (CAM) was prepared by mixing the respective Aroclors in this ratio, followed by GC/MS/MS analysis. Comparison of the PCB profile of the synthetic mixture with the target profile suggests that the synthetic PCB mixture is a good approximation of the average IIT Chicago air profiles (similarity coefficient cos ? = 0.82; average relative percent difference = 84%). The synthetic CAM was also a reasonable approximation of the average of 184 PCB profiles analyzed in 2007 at 37 sites throughout Chicago as part of the University of Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program (isbrp), with a cos ? of 0.70 and an average relative percent difference of 118%. While the CAM and the two Chicago air profiles contained primarily di- to pentachlorobiphenyls, higher chlorinated congeners, including congeners with seven or eight chlorine atoms, were underrepresented in the synthetic CAM. The calculated TCDD toxic equivalency quotients of the synthetic CAM (2.7 ng/mg PCB) and the IIT Chicago air profile (1.6 ng/mg PCB) were comparable, but lower by two orders of magnitude than the isbrp Chicago air profile (865 ng/mg PCB) due to surprisingly high PCB 126 levels in Chicago air. In contrast, the calculated neurotoxic equivalency quotients of the CAM (0.33 mg/mg PCB) and the two Chicago air profiles (0.44 and 0.30 mg/mg PCB, respectively) were similar. This study demonstrates the challenges and methods of creating and characterizing synthetic, environmental mixtures of PCBs. PMID:19375801

Zhao, H X; Adamcakova-Dodd, A; Hu, D; Hornbuckle, K C; Just, C L; Robertson, L W; Thorne, P S; Lehmler, H-J

2010-11-01

302

Development of a Synthetic PCB Mixture Resembling the Average Polychlorinated Biphenyl Profile in Chicago Air  

PubMed Central

Studies of environmental and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ideally performed with PCB mixtures reflecting the composition of environmental PCB profiles to mimic actual effects and to account for complex interactions among individual PCB congeners. Unfortunately, only a few laboratory studies employing synthetic PCB mixtures have been reported, in part because of the challenges associated with the preparation of complex PCB mixtures containing many individual PCB congeners. The objective of this study was to develop a PCB mixture that resembles the average PCB profile recorded from 1996 to 2002 at a satellite station of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network located at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, Illinois, using commercial PCB mixtures. Initial simulations, using published Aroclor profiles, showed that a mixture containing 65% Aroclor 1242 and 35% Aroclor 1254 was a good approximation of the target profile. A synthetic Chicago air mixture (CAM) was prepared by mixing the respective Aroclor's in this ratio, followed by GC/MS/MS analysis. Comparison of the PCB profile of the synthetic mixture with the target profile suggests that the synthetic PCB mixture is a good approximation of the average IIT Chicago air profiles (similarity coefficient cos ? = 0.82; average relative percent difference = 84%). The synthetic CAM was also a reasonable approximation of the average of 184 PCB profiles analyzed in 2007 at 37 sites throughout Chicago as part of the University of Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program (isbrp), with a cos ? of 0.70 and an average relative percent difference of 118%. While the CAM and the two Chicago air profiles contained primarily di- to pentachlorobiphenyls, higher chlorinated congeners, including congeners with seven or eight chlorine atoms, were underrepresented in the synthetic CAM. The calculated TCDD toxic equivalency quotients of the synthetic CAM (2.7 ng/mg PCB) and the IIT Chicago air profile (1.6 ng/mg PCB) were comparable, but lower by two orders of magnitude than the isbrp Chicago air profile (865 ng/mg PCB) due to surprisingly high PCB 126 levels in Chicago air. In contrast, the calculated neurotoxic equivalency quotients of the CAM (0.33 mg/mg PCB) and the two Chicago air profiles (0.44 and 0.30 mg/mg PCB, respectively) were similar. This study demonstrates the challenges and methods of creating and characterizing synthetic, environmental mixtures of PCBs. PMID:19375801

Zhao, H.; Adamcakova-Dodd, A.; Hu, D.; Hornbuckle, K.C.; Just, C.L.; Robertson, L.W.; Thorne, P.S.; Lehmler, H.-J.

2009-01-01

303

Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Methods Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Results Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2?months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Conclusions Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme caution. PMID:24614041

Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

2014-01-01

304

Preliminary Analysis of Lunar Pit Crater Morphometry, Morphology, and Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents preliminary results of an investigation of pit craters on the lunar surface and their relationship to volatile concentrations. Pit craters are a special type of crater that contains a circular pit (negative relief feature) within the central region of the crater, which may be related to the presence and possible release of volatiles during crater formation. Most studies connecting volatiles to pit crater formation have been conducted on Mars and Ganymede (which are considered relatively volatile rich), but few have been conducted concerning pit craters on comparatively volatile-depleted bodies such as the Moon. The working hypothesis of this study is that volatiles play a role in pit crater formation on solid bodies throughout the solar system. A subset of the lunar complex crater population (20 - 60 km in diameter) was examined and pit craters from this population were identified and characterized using Lunar Orbital Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data as well as visual data sets from the Apollo and LRO/LROC. The smaller diameter was chosen because this is above the transition from simple to complex craters, while the upper limit was chosen to avoid the transition to peak-ring craters and multi-ring basins. The percentage of pit craters to the total 20-60 km complex crater population is being determined independently for highland and maria terrains to identify proposed increases in the percentages of pit craters in the highlands as opposed to the maria, as the former has a higher percentage of volatiles in the lunar regolith. The ratio of pit craters to the total crater population 20-60 km in diameter will be compared to the populations on both Mars and Ganymede, which are celestial bodies that are considered to have sizable pit crater populations. It is expected that the lunar pit crater population will be much less than that of Ganymede or Mars. Lastly, morphometric and morphologic analyses will be performed on each pit crater to better understand the physical characteristics of pit craters on a celestial body that has a very low volatile percentage. Ultimately, the multivariate techniques used here will aid in defining pit craters versus other structures across the solar system, with special emphasis focusing on the drier bodies.

Malinski, P. T.; Milam, K.

2013-12-01

305

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of "leptin-resistance" in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF?). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. PMID:24978599

Ferrante, Maria C; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

2014-09-15

306

Evaluation of a precipitation collector for PCB analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of a large wet-only precipitation collector for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis was investigated using generator column-produced solutions. Total recoveries were quantitative for two experiments utilizing mixed Aroclor generator columns for the PCB source, with input-weighted average congener recoveries of 104 and 99%. Small losses were observed on the filter and collection reservoirs (> 3%), and no breakthrough to the second extraction cartridge was observed. Loss to the collector surface was 11 and 2%, and in the first case most likely reflects contamination rather than actual retention during the experiment. Individual congener recoveries generally rather than actual chlorination, a relationship that may be due mostly to analytical uncertainties for more highly chlorinated congeners.

Murray, Michael W.; Andren, Anders W.

307

PCB congeners in tissues of European otter (Lutra lutra)  

SciTech Connect

Otters (Lutra lutra) have declined over much of their European range during the past forty years and are now absent from large areas of the lowlands of Western Europe. The most likely cause of the decline is the effects of bioaccumulating contaminants, organochlorine pesticides and PCBs having been implicated. There have been several recent studies of organochlorine residues (pesticides and PCBs) in otter tissues and scats have been used to monitor residues in otter populations. However, only from The Netherlands have data on individual PCB congeners in otter tissues and scats been reported; this Dutch otter population is now extirpated. We report a survey of PCB congeners in samples of tissues and scats from several populations of otters. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

Mason, C.F.; Ratford, J.R. (Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom))

1994-10-01

308

Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs  

SciTech Connect

The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. (Institute of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain))

1989-11-01

309

Who is Ready to Change Illicit Drug Use Behavior: An Emergency Department Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify emergency department patients who are ready to change their illicit drug use behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study of 198 Emergency Department patients at least 18 years old, seeking emergency department services, using at least one illicit drug, and scoring positive for alcohol problem based on CAGE score ? 1. Results Of the patients, 46% were “not ready” to change their drug behavior, 21% and 33% were “unsure” and “ready”, respectively. Our results identified that “Readiness to change alcohol behavior” [t (197) = 3.37, p ? 0.001], health insurance [t (197) = ?3.011, p ? 0.003], number of drug use [t (197) = 2.88, p ? 0.004], and drug-related injury [t (197) = 1.98, p ? 0.049] were related to readiness to change illicit drug behavior. Conclusion Our results re-iterate the need for intervention programs that focus on screening and treatment for both drugs and alcohol. PMID:24357930

Frausto, Kenneth A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

2009-01-01

310

Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.  

PubMed

The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5?×?10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

2014-12-01

311

Immunity of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng children in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now, there has been no studies about the immune status of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies. In an earlier study, Yu-Cheng babies were reported to have a high infant mortality rate. It was reported that these babies would easily catch cold, experience diarrhea and abdominal pains. Recently, it was found that the bronchitis rate of Yu-Cheng babies is higher

Shou Jen Lan; Yea Yin Yen; Joung Liang Lan; Eng Rin Chen; Ying Chin Ko

1990-01-01

312

PCB Congener Accumulation by Periphyton, Herbivores, and Omnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The concentrations of 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in periphyton, herbivorous fish (stoneroller\\u000a minnows, Campostoma anomalum), and omnivorous fish (striped shiners, Luxilus chrysocephalus) in an industrially contaminated stream and a reference stream in eastern Tennessee. The sum of the concentrations of the\\u000a 20 congeners, normalized by dry mass, was one to two orders of magnitude higher in

W. R. Hill; G. E. Napolitano

1997-01-01

313

Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by glass capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die Zusammensetzung sieben technischer Gemische polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB) mit unterschiedlichem Chlorierungsgrad (Aroclor- [Monsanto, USA] und Clophen A- [Bayer, Bundesrepublik Deutschland]-Typen) wurde mit hochauflösender Gas-Chromatographie mit Elektroneneinfang-Detektion in Dünnfilm-Glascapillaren mit Methylpolysiloxan (SE 30) und gereinigtem Apiezon L als flüssiger Phase untersucht. Die Identifizierung der Einzelkomponenten erfolgte durch chromatographischen Vergleich mit definierten Referenzsubstanzen oder Vergleich der aus Inkrementen berechneten Retentionsindices. Für die

K. Ballschmiter; M. Zell

1980-01-01

314

Feathers as bioindicators of PCB exposure in clapper rails  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we used feathers to biomonitor exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1268 congener mixture\\u000a in clapper rails (Rallus longirostris). This species has been used as an indicator species of environmental damage for the LCP superfund site located in Brunswick,\\u000a GA, USA which is contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a congener mixture that has been used in limited

Jay W. Summers; Karen F. Gaines; N. Garvin; W. L. Stephens; J. C. Cumbee; Gary L. Mills

2010-01-01

315

Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan

Randy Showstack

2002-01-01

316

Secrets of the Noachian Highlands: Pit Craters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] A) Context Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] B) Gullies in M12-00595 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] C) Layers and gullies in M09-00539, M15-00964

Among the most exciting places that the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) has photographed during its three and a half years in orbit has been this crater in central Noachis Terra. Located at 47oS, 355oW, the crater appears to have been almost completely filled, and subsequently eroded in localized pits, by unknown processes. In this one place we see elements of the two most important results of the MOC investigation--the discovery of young gullies formed by fluid erosion and the occurrence of thick sequences of layered rock attesting to a martian past of substantial geologic activity.

Picture A shows the location of the other two figures, which are sections of three of about a dozen images acquired of this crater. Picture B (M12-00595) shows examples of gullies on the pit walls. Their contributary pattern (including the angles at which they join) argues for fluid behavior during their creation; the dark floors suggest that they have been active recently (or else they, like the slopes around them and most of Mars, would be lighter-toned owing to the accumulation of dust). These gullies are formed well down on the pit wall, where a distinctive, boulder-rich layer is found. Figure C, a mosaic of two high resolution images (M09-00539 and M15-00964), shows an area somewhat higher in the sequence of layered material that fills the crater. This sequence clearly alternates between layers that either contain or erode to form boulders and layers that do not have boulders. Note in particular the overhanging layers near the top center--such overhangs are evidence of the strength of the material. Here, too, gullies appear to start at specific layers; these, however, may not be as young as those seen in (B), as they appear to have at least a thin covering of dust. How it is that this crater came to be filled with layers of material containing (or eroding to create) boulders is a mystery.

2001-01-01

317

Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales  

PubMed Central

Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

Liang, Bryan A

2013-01-01

318

Plasmodesmata and pit development in secondary xylem elements.  

PubMed

Developing pit membranes of secondary xylem elements in Drimys winteri, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Sorbus aucuparia, Tilia vulgaris and Trochodendron aralioides have been examined by transmission electron microscopy. Absence of plasmodesmata from the membranes of vessel elements and tracheids indicates that their pits develop independently of these structures. On the other hand, plasmodesmata are abundant in pit membranes between fibres, parenchyma cells, and combinations of these cell types in Fagus, Quercus and Tilia. In each case the plasmodesmata pass right through the developing pit membrane. In the case of Sorbus fibres, however, plasmodesmata were absent from the majority of pit membrane profiles seen in sections. Occasionally they were observed in large numbers associated with a swollen region on one side of the pit membrane between fibres and between fibres and parenchyma, radiating from a small area of the middle lamella. In the case of fibre to parenchyma pitting, this swelling was always found on the fibre side of the membrane, while on the other side a small number of plasmodesmata were present completing communication with the parenchyma cytoplasm. These observations are discussed with regard to the role of plasmodesmata in pit formation, and in the differentiation of the various cell types in secondary xylem. The significance their distribution may have for our understanding of xylem evolution is also discussed. PMID:24271775

Barnett, J R

1982-08-01

319

Characterisation of pitting corrosion by white light interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method is described for obtaining detailed information on the size and shape of many corrosion pits by examination with White Light Interferometry. The entire surface is first imaged at low resolution by automatically stitching individual images into one composite image. Specially written software analyses the image and determines the location of all corrosion pits. The program then guides

Børge Holme; Otto Lunder

2007-01-01

320

Are ball pits the playground for potentially harmful bacteria?  

PubMed

Ball pits, enclosed play areas with padded floors and pits of small plastic balls, have become popular features for children at fast food restaurants. This pilot study sought to identify and confirm bacterial organisms that place children at a potential health risk in three play pits within fast food restaurants. Data for this descriptive study were randomly collected from restaurants offering play pits with multicolored, round, hollow, plastic balls within urban communities of the Tidewater region of Virginia. Specimens were collected from entrances into the ball pits as well as various areas of the bottom lining to incur a representative sample. Results indicated an increased level of normal flora as well as nonhuman flora, demonstrating that bacteria are present within the ball pits. The results question the safety of these play pits for both health care providers and parents. Nurses play a vital role in public awareness through health education. Disinfection protocol and proper handwashing are the keys to making ball pit play areas safe for children. PMID:10532011

Davis, S G; Corbitt, A M; Everton, V M; Grano, C A; Kiefner, P A; Wilson, A S; Gray, M

1999-01-01

321

Inspection and planarization of programmed pit masks for EUV lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme Ultraviolet lithography requires defect free multilayer-coated masks. The defects in multilayer-coated masks originate from several sources including: the incoming substrate, pre-multilayer deposition cleaning, multilayer deposition, and handling processes. A previous study showed the majority of currently detectable defects are contributed by the incoming substrate. The purpose of this study is to understand the ability of multilayer deposition to modulate the size and shape of substrate pits, and to, ultimately, enable us to determine if a defect of a particular size and shape is tolerable, and will result in a non-printable pit after coating. In order to execute a systematic study, pits with controlled sizes and shapes were required. Programmed pit arrays were generated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB). The arrays were designed to contain pits of various widths and depths. The physical size of these pits was measured using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) both before and after multilayer deposition. These programmed pit arrays were also used to probe the sensitivity of a state of the art Lasertec M1350 defect inspection system to defect size and shape both before and after coating. Finally, the results were compared to those from natural pits. The programmed defects generated in this study will also enable further development of defect mitigation by other planarization techniques as well as improving inspection recipes.

Seo, S.-C.; Han, S.-I.; Ikuta, Y.; Kearney, P.; Ma, A.; Krick, D.

2005-11-01

322

UNDERGROUND WORKINGS DETECTION AT THE FIMISTON OPEN PIT KCGM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines (KCGM) Fimiston Open Pit is located on the eastern boundary of the Kalgoorlie-Boulder City and is mining an area traditionally known as the Golden Mile. The pit area has been continuously worked since 1893, predominantly by underground mining methods and more recently through open cut mining. There are over 2000 km of old mine headings

J. Jiang; K. Karunaratna; T. Jones

323

7 CFR 52.779 - Freedom from pits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...practically free from pits may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Practically free...reasonably free from pits may be given a score of 16 or 17 points. Canned red tart...S. Grade B, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting...

2010-01-01

324

Factors related to the potential risk of trying an illicit drug among high school students in Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify risk factors of trying an illicit drug among adolescents exposed to an environment strongly using licit drugs, attitude toward illicit drugs, and use of tobacco, alcohol and tranquilizers were explored in a high school in Paris, April 1990. After a semi-directive interview and a pilot test, 233 students of one class chosen at random out of three at

J. Menares; E. Thiriot; N. Aguilera-Torres

1997-01-01

325

The role of conduct disorder in explaining the comorbidity between alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundConduct disorder (CD), alcohol dependence (AD), and illicit drug dependence (IDD) frequently co-occur. This paper describes the result of an investigation of the extent to which comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adolescents are explained by etiological factors in common with conduct disorder.

Tanya M. M. Button; Soo Hyun Rhee; John K. Hewitt; Susan E. Young; Robin P. Corley; Michael C. Stallings

2007-01-01

326

Comparative cost-effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing the global burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use together pose a formidable challenge to international public health. Building on earlier estimates of the demonstrated burden of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use at the global level, this review aims to consider the comparative cost-effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for reducing the global burden of disease from these three risk factors. Although the number

DAN CHISHOLM; CHRIS DORAN; KENJI SHIBUYA; J URGEN REHM

2006-01-01

327

Serum antioxidant micromineral (Cu, Zn, Fe) status of drug dependent subjects: Influence of illicit drugs and lifestyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Use of illicit drugs induces multiple nutrient deficiencies. Drug habit, sexual practice and socioeconomic factors influence the nutrient profile of drug dependent subjects. The literature on this issue is still insufficient. This study has tested the hypothesis that illicit drug use and lifestyle impair mineral status. To test this hypothesis, 253 men multiple drug users of age 18–45 years

Kazi Jahangir Hossain; Monira Ahsan; SK Nazrul Islam

2007-01-01

328

Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

2011-01-01

329

Effectiveness and tolerability of combination treatment of chronic hepatitis C in illicit drug users: Meta-analysis of prospective studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem. In Western countries, illicit drug users (IDUs) constitute the largest proportion of HCV patients. International guidelines no longer regard ongoing illicit drug use as a contraindication to antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Nonetheless, in clinical practice, few IDUs have access to HCV treatment, likely because many physicians

Barbara Zanini; Loredana Covolo; Francesco Donato; Alberto Lanzini

2010-01-01

330

The drugs that dare not speak their name: Injecting and other illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C infection.  

PubMed

Exploration of patients' illicit drug use during treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is largely absent from the clinical literature. This paper explores injecting and other illicit drug use among people receiving interferon-based treatment for HCV infection, from the perspective of one group of health professionals. Data are presented from a qualitative study of six health professionals responsible for managing HCV treatment regimens at three major metropolitan hospitals across Sydney, Australia. During semi-structured in-depth interviews, participants discussed patients' use of injected and non-injected illicit drugs while coping with a demanding therapeutic regimen. Health professionals highlighted the socially conservative environment of healthcare and its negative perceptions of illicit drug users. Also discussed are the management of people who inject during treatment and the efficacy of cannabis to reduce side effects. The findings of this study indicate that while the health professionals adopted a harm reduction approach to patients' illicit drug use during HCV treatment, information regarding the risks and benefits of illicit drug use is silenced in this context. While ever prohibition remains Australia's illicit drug policy this situation appears unlikely to change. Research which investigates the extent of illicit drug use during HCV treatment, the risks and benefits associated with their use in this context, and the harms of perpetuating a duplicitous healthcare system is required. PMID:17854725

Hopwood, Max; Treloar, Carla

2007-10-01

331

Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…

van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

2011-01-01

332

Co-occurrence of alcohol, smokeless tobacco, cigarette, and illicit drug use by lower ranking military personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Worldwide Survey of Health Related Behaviors is administered periodically to a probability sample of military personnel. Earlier reports of these surveys suggested that illicit drug use was highest among the lowest ranking personnel. This paper reports a secondary analysis of the 1992 and 1995 surveys of the lowest ranking personnel. The results suggested that in general illicit drug users

Tzu-Cheg Kao; Sid J Schneider; Kenneth J Hoffman

2000-01-01

333

Influence of animal waste disposal pits on groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the implementation of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta in 1999, the number of the farmers that do not meet the management criteria is on the decline. However, there is a possibility that many of the animal waste disposal pits that have been either abandoned or refilled according to the law have been the potential contamination source. In this study, we discussed the impacts of the abandoned disposal pits to groundwater quality. The results showed that high concentrations of nitrate (above 100mg/L) were observed in the downstream of the disposal pits. It suggests that the abandoned animal waste disposal pits have been the potential pollution source even after the period of 15 years since the termination of use. Implementation of immediate countermeasure is necessary because the animal waste disposal pits are the long-term-sources of high levels of nitrate.

Lee, Seongwon; Hosaka, Akiko; Tase, Norio

334

Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

335

2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) Atropisomers Interact Enantioselectively with Hepatic Microsomal Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

2,2?,3,3?,6,6?-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is a chiral and highly neurotoxic PCB congener of environmental relevance. (+)-PCB 136 was previously shown to be enriched in tissues from mice treated with racemic PCB 136. We investigated the spectral interactions of (+)-, (-)- and (±)-PCB 136 with mouse and rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to test the hypothesis that enantioselective binding to specific P450 enzymes causes the enrichment of (+)-PCB 136 in vivo. Hepatic microsomes prepared from C57BL/6 mice or Long Evans rats treated with ?-naphthoflavone or 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital and dexamethasone (prototypical inducers of CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A, respectively) were used to determine first, if the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer binds to hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater extent than does the (-)-PCB 136 atropisomer; and second, if P450 enzymes of one subfamily bind the two PCB 136 atropisomers more efficiently than do P450 enzymes of other subfamilies. Increasing concentrations of (+)-, (-)- or (±)-PCB 136 were added to hepatic microsomes and the difference spectrum and maximal absorbance change, a measure of PCB binding to P450 enzymes, were measured. A significantly larger absorbance change was observed with (+)-PCB 136 than with (-)-PCB 136 with all four hepatic microsomal preparations in mice and rats, indicating that (+)-PCB 136 interacted with microsomal P450 enzymes to a greater degree than did (-)-PCB 136. In addition, binding of the PCB 136 atropisomers was greatest in microsomes from PB-treated mice and rats, and was inhibited by CYP2B antibodies, indicating the involvement of CYP2B enzymes. Together these results suggest preferential binding of (+)-PCB 136 to P450 enzymes (such as CYP2B and CYP3A) in hepatic microsomes, an observation that may explain the enantioselective enrichment of the (+)-PCB 136 atropisomer in tissues of mice. PMID:18494506

Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

2008-01-01

336

Distribution of PCB congeners in seven lake systems: Interactions between sediment and food-web transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the role of two processes, partitioning of PCBs between sediment and biota and food-web transport, in determining the concentration of PCB congeners in the biota of seven lakes. Biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-sediment PCB concentration (organic carbon), or BSF, ratios were calculated as markers of the partitioning of PCBs between biota and sediment, and biota

Colin R. Macdonald; Chris D. Metcalfe; Gordon C. Balch; Tracy L. Metcalfe

1993-01-01

337

PCB decline in settling particles and benthic recycling of PCBs and PAHs in Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment traps were deployed at fives sites in Lake Superior at multiple depths during lake stratification in 1987 and 1991. Mass, organic carbon, PCB, and PAH fluxes were determined. PCB concentrations on settling solids declined from 1984 to 1991 with a first-order rate constant of 0.26 yr⁻¹ similar to reported water column concentration decreases. Total PCB settling fluxes from the

Jeff D. Jeremiason; Steven J. Eisenreich; Joel E. Baker; Brian J. Eadie

1998-01-01

338

Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

1992-01-01

339

Lunar Pit Craters Presumed to be the Entrances of Lava Caves by Analogy to the Earth Lava Tube Pits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lava caves could be useful as outposts for the human exploration of the Moon. Lava caves or lava tubes are formed when the external surface of the lava flows cools more quickly to make a hardened crust over subsurface lava flows. The lava flow eventually ceases and drains out of the tube, leaving an empty space. The frail part of the ceiling of lava tube could collapse to expose the entrance to the lava tubes which is called a pit crater. Several pit craters with the diameter of around 100 meters have been found by analyzing the data of SELENE and LRO lunar missions. It is hard to use these pit craters for outposts since these are too large in scale. In this study, small scale pit craters which are fit for outposts have been investigated using the NAC image data of LROC. Several topographic patterns which are believed to be lunar caves have been found and the similar pit craters of the Earth were compared and analyzed to identify caves. For this analysis, the image data of satellites and aerial photographs are collected and classified to construct a database. Several pit craters analogous to lunar pit craters were derived and a morphological pit crater model was generated using the 3D printer based on this database.

Hong, Ik-Seon; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin

2014-06-01

340

Thyroid hormone status of Atlantic croaker exposed to Aroclor 1254 and selected PCB congeners.  

PubMed

Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) were exposed to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1254) or one of three individual congeners (planar PCB 77 or ortho-substituted PCB 47 and PCB 153) in the diet for 30 days to investigate the effects of PCBs on circulating thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Aroclor 1254 (0.2 and 1.0 mg/kg body mass/day) decreased plasma T3 levels consistently, but the effects on T4 levels were inconsistent from year to year. Exposure to PCB 153 (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg body mass/day) significantly lowered both T4 and T3, while PCB 47 at the same doses had no effect on thyroid hormone levels. The lower doses of PCB 77 (0.004, 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg body mass/day) had no effect on T4 or T3, whereas the highest dose (0.1 mg/kg body mass/day) increased T4 levels significantly. The results of the present study demonstrate that exposure to PCBs at environmentally realistic concentrations can have profound effects on the thyroid status of Atlantic croaker. The ortho-substituted PCB 153 appears to contribute at least partially to the deleterious effects of Aroclor 1254 on thyroid status, whereas the planar PCB 77 at concentrations present in the mixture is unlikely to alter thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17110171

LeRoy, Kimberly D; Thomas, Peter; Khan, Izhar A

2006-11-01

341

PCB congener profiles in nestling tree swallows and their insect prey.  

PubMed

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are widely used as indicators of local polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in North America. Although determining total PCB residues in tissues is useful in environmental monitoring, analysis of PCB congener profiles may reveal sources of contamination and thus prove to be a more refined tool to track contaminants through the food web. To show how differences in PCB congener patterns in birds can be linked to the PCB patterns in their prey, we evaluated PCB congeners in tissues of tree swallow nestlings and their insect prey using principal component analysis and Euclidean similarities. The PC1 scores for PCB residues in nestlings fell between those of the Hexagenia (Ephemeroptera, mayflies) and Chironomidae (Diptera, midges), the two major prey groups of the nestlings. The congener pattern was not related to the location of nest boxes within the study area. However, Hexagenia insects and the nestlings that consumed them were richer in less chlorinated congeners and had higher PC1 scores than Chironomidae insect. In concordance, congener pattern of nestlings that hatched earlier and consumed more mayflies was more similar than that of other nestling to the pattern of nestings texagenia as calculated by Euclidean similarities. We point to the importance of understanding the seasonal availability of specific types of insect prey and their PCB congener pattern before these data are applied in models of trophic transfer of individual PCB congeners within a food web. PMID:17165104

Papp, Zsuzsanna; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sebastian, Mary; Smits, Judit E G

2007-02-01

342

Interrenal stress responsiveness of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) is impaired by dietary exposure to PCB 126.  

PubMed

Activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis is characteristic of stress responses, which may result from a variety of environmental challenges. To investigate whether the stress response, and in particular the HPI axis, in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) is compromised by short-term exposure to PCB 126, fish of both sexes were fed diets containing PCB 126 (50 microg/kg fish . day) for 5 days. In the first approach, which was performed twice, fish were acutely stressed for periods varying between 1 and 30 min at the end of the exposure period; in the second approach fish were sampled at the end of the exposure period either at rest or after 2 h of stress (confinement). After 5 days, the body weights in all experiments were significantly lower in PCB-fed fish than in control fish. There were no changes in basal plasma glucose levels, plasma ion concentrations, or branchial, renal, and intestinal Na,K-ATPase activity following PCB exposure. In the first experimental approach, in which fish experienced acute sampling stress, plasma cortisol levels reached lower levels in PCB-fed fish than in controls. This suggests an impaired ability to acutely activate interrenal steroidogenesis in PCB-treated tilapia. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)- and cAMP-stimulated in vitro cortisol release from superfused head kidneys was lower in tissues from tilapia exposed to PCB 126 than in tissues from control animals. This effect persisted after 24 h in vitro, which, together with the high PCB 126 concentrations measured in the head kidneys of PCB-fed fish, may indicate direct toxic effects on the interrenal cells. The second experimental approach demonstrated that basal plasma cortisol and ACTH levels were not influenced by PCB treatment, but that the basal ACTH content of the rostral pars distalis (RPD) of the pituitary gland of PCB-fed fish was lower than that of control fish. After 2 h confinement, plasma cortisol levels and ACTH content of the RPD rose to similar values in both groups, whereas plasma ACTH levels were higher in confined PCB-fed fish than in confined controls. PCB-fed fish showed a lower hyperglycemic response to confinement than control fish. Confinement resulted in similarly elevated renal and intestinal Na,K-ATPase activities in both PCB-fed and control fish; branchial enzyme activities were not affected. Since PCB did not affect Na,K-ATPase activities and plasma ion concentrations, it is concluded that the effects of PCB 126 on the HPI axis in tilapia are not secondary to ionoregulatory dysfunction. PMID:9405123

Quabius, E S; Balm, P H; Wendelaar Bonga, S E

1997-12-01

343

In situ stimulation of aerobic PCB biodegradation in Hudson River sediments  

SciTech Connect

A 73-day field study of in situ aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River shows that indigenous aerobic microorganisms can degrade the lightly chlorinated PCBs present in these sediments. Addition of inorganic nutrients, biphenyl, and oxygen enhanced PCB biodegradation, as indicated both by a 37 to 55 percent loss of PCBs and by the production of chlorobenzoates, intermediates in the PCB biodegradation pathway. Repeated inoculation with a purified PCB-degrading bacterium failed to improve biodegradative activity. Biodegradation was also observed under mixed but unamended conditions, which suggests that this process may occur commonly in river sediments, with implications for PCB fate models and risk assessments.

Harkness, M.R.; McDermott, J.B.; Abramowicz, D.A.; Salvo, J.J.; Flanagan, W.P.; Stephens, M.L.; Mondello, F.J.; May, R.J.; Lobos, J.H.; Carroll, K.M.; Brennan, M.J.; Bracco, A.A.; Fish, K.M.; Warner, G.L.; Wilson, P.R.; Dietrich, D.K.; Lin, D.T.; Morgan, C.B.; Gately, W.L. (GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States))

1993-01-22

344

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario.  

PubMed

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout. PMID:20067852

Madenjian, Charles P; Keir, Michael J; Whittle, D Michael; Noguchi, George E

2010-03-01

345

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

2010-01-01

346

Role of suspended sediments on the distribution of PCB in the Seine Estuary (France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) contamination and its relationship to SPM (suspended particulate material) have been studied in the Seine Estuary, which is heavily polluted by these persistent and hydrophobic man-made chemicals. Two sampling cruises have been performed during different freshwater discharge conditions. PCB and SPM concentrations, as well as grain-size distributions in the particulate material have been determined. Water samples have been collected at fixed positions during a tidal cycle, and along transects within the estuary. PCB concentrations vary from 2 ng 1 -1 in the marine zone to 250 ng 1 -1 within the estuary, and reach 1.3 × 10 3 ng 1 -1 in the turbidity maximum zone. During a tidal cycle, low PCB concentrations are observed at high water, and are in the same range in February as in July. High PCB contamination is observed at low water, but PCB concentrations are about five times higher in February. SPM and PCB variations are well correlated in both periods of observations. Higher PCB contamination during February is explained by higher SPM inputs, mainly due to particles of riverine origin. The transport of PCB within the estuary depends on the quantity and the grainsize composition of suspended material, which varies according to freshwater discharge and tidal amplitude.

Abarnou, Alain; Avoine, Jacques; Dupont, Jean Paul; Lafite, Robert; Simon, Serge

1987-11-01

347

Factors influencing individual variability of PCB body burdens in fish populations.  

E-print Network

?? I investigated the contributions of hydrophobicity, species differences, and spatial and temporal variation to individual variability in PCB concentrations using three species of cyprinids,… (more)

McLeod, Anne

2014-01-01

348

PCB-153 EXPOSURE COORDINATES CELL CYCLE PROGRESSION AND CELLULAR METABOLISM IN HUMAN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

PubMed Central

2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) is a non-metabolizable environmental chemical contaminant commonly found in breast milk of PCB exposed individuals, suggesting that chronic exposure to PCB-153 could have adverse health effects. We have shown previously that PCB-153 increased reactive oxygen species levels in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, which were associated with DNA damage, growth inhibition, and cytotoxicity. This study investigates the hypothesis that PCB-153 exposure coordinates cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism by inhibiting cyclin D1 accumulation. PCB-153 treated MCF-10A cells exhibited a dose and time dependent decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels. The decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels was associated with an inhibition in AKT and GSK-3? phosphorylation, which correlated with an increase in cyclin D1-T286 phosphorylation. Fibroblasts carrying a mutant form of cyclin D1 (T286A) were resistant to PCB-153 induced degradation of cyclin D1. Pre-treatment of cells with a proteasome inhibitor (MG132) suppressed PCB-153 induced decrease in cyclin D1 protein levels. Interestingly, suppression in cyclin D1 accumulation was associated with an increase in cellular glucose consumption, and hexokinase II and pyruvate kinase protein levels. These results suggest that cyclin D1 coordinates cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism in PCB-153 treated non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells. PMID:20394812

Venkatesha, Venkatasubbaiah A.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswam, Prabhat C.

2010-01-01

349

Biostimulation of PCB-degrading bacteria by compounds released from plant roots  

SciTech Connect

Flavonoid and coumarin compounds produced by plants supported the growth of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria, and the bacteria retained their PCB-degrading properties. Root leachates and washings from mulberry trees also supported the growth of a PCB-degrading bacterium. These results indicate that chemicals released by some plant roots may serve as cometabolites for PCB-degrading bacteria. Identification of the right plant species and development of appropriate cultivation practices promises to lead to an ecologically sound means to achieve sustained in situ degradation of PCBs at contaminated terrestrial sites.

Fletcher, J.S.; Hegde, R.S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology; Donnelly, P.K. [Santa Fe Junior Coll., NM (United States)

1995-12-31

350

EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.  

EPA Science Inventory

There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

351

[Human biomonitoring investigations of organochlorine compounds -- PCB, DDE, HCB, beta- and gamma-HCH, PCDD/PCDF, Dioxin-like PCB's and polybrominated biphenyl ethers].  

PubMed

Although PCB and PCB-containing materials are not processed for a long time, PCB is under discussion again and again caused by the pollution of indoor environments. To objectify the discussion, the dates of the PCB-biomonitoring, the organochlorine-compounds (DDE, HCB, beta-/gamma -HCH, PCDD/PCDF) and the polybrominated biphenyl ethers concerning the investigations within the project "Sentinel Health Departments" in Baden-Wurttemberg are represented. Additionally results from children from Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area) and from teachers which are working in PCB polluted schools as well as from a long term investigated test person are reported. Blood concentrations of the following compounds decreased from 1996/97 to 2002/03: the sum of the concentration of PCB 138,153 and 180 decreased from 0.46 microg/L to 0.20 microg/L, DDE from 0.32 microg/L to 0.17 microg/, HCB from 0.20 microg/L to 0.08 microg/L, beta-HCH below the level of detection, I-TEQ NATO to 4.8 pg/g blood fat, TEQ WHO (without PCB) to 5.5 pg/g blood fat, PCB 126 to 18,8,pg/g blood fat and PCB 169 to 12.8 pg/g blood fat. The influence of breast feeding and the gender on the level of the pollution is conspicious. No local correlations were found in Baden-Wurttemberg, but they were found in comparison with the results of Kazakhstan (Aral-Sea area). The difficulty to produce time series while the analyzing pollutants are more and more decreasing, as well as the change of the calculation base of the summation of parameters like I-TEQ NATO to TEQ WHO are discussed. PMID:15856391

Gabrio, T; Broser, S; Erdinger, L; Felder-Kennel, A; Fichtner, G; Häberle, E; Herrmann, T; Kirsch, H; Kouros, B; Link, B; Maisner, V; Mann, V; Päpke, O; Piechotowski, I; Rzonca, E; Schick, K-H; Schrimpf, M; Schröder, S; Spöker-Maas, K; Weidner, U; Wuthe, J; Zöllner, I; Zöltzer, D

2005-04-01

352

Relationship between the Foveal Avascular Zone and Foveal Pit Morphology  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To assess the relationship between foveal pit morphology and size of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Methods. Forty-two subjects were recruited. Volumetric images of the macula were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Images of the FAZ were obtained using either a modified fundus camera or an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope. Foveal pit metrics (depth, diameter, slope, volume, and area) were automatically extracted from retinal thickness data, whereas the FAZ was manually segmented by two observers to extract estimates of FAZ diameter and area. Results. Consistent with previous reports, the authors observed significant variation in foveal pit morphology. The average foveal pit volume was 0.081 mm3 (range, 0.022 to 0.190 mm3). The size of the FAZ was also highly variable between persons, with FAZ area ranging from 0.05 to 1.05 mm2 and FAZ diameter ranging from 0.20 to 1.08 mm. FAZ area was significantly correlated with foveal pit area, depth, and volume; deeper and broader foveal pits were associated with larger FAZs. Conclusions. Although these results are consistent with predictions from existing models of foveal development, more work is needed to confirm the developmental link between the size of the FAZ and the degree of foveal pit excavation. In addition, more work is needed to understand the relationship between these and other anatomic features of the human foveal region, including peak cone density, rod-free zone diameter, and Henle fiber layer. PMID:22323466

Dubis, Adam M.; Hansen, Benjamin R.; Cooper, Robert F.; Beringer, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph

2012-01-01

353

Enhanced ID Pit Sizing Using Multivariate Regression Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EPRI is funding a program to enhance and improve the reliability of inside diameter (ID) pit sizing for balance-of plant heat exchangers, such as condensers and component cooling water heat exchangers. More traditional approaches to ID pit sizing involve the use of frequency-specific amplitude or phase angles. The enhanced multivariate regression algorithm for ID pit depth sizing incorporates three simultaneous input parameters of frequency, amplitude, and phase angle. A set of calibration data sets consisting of machined pits of various rounded and elongated shapes and depths was acquired in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz for stainless steel tubing having nominal wall thickness of 0.028 inch. To add noise to the acquired data set, each test sample was rotated and test data acquired at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o'clock positions. The ID pit depths were estimated using a second order and fourth order regression functions by relying on normalized amplitude and phase angle information from multiple frequencies. Due to unique damage morphology associated with the microbiologically-influenced ID pits, it was necessary to modify the elongated calibration standard-based algorithms by relying on the algorithm developed solely from the destructive sectioning results. This paper presents the use of transformed multivariate regression algorithm to estimate ID pit depths and compare the results with the traditional univariate phase angle analysis. Both estimates were then compared with the destructive sectioning results.

Krzywosz, Kenji

2007-03-01

354

Illicit drug use, alcohol use and problem drinking among infrequent and frequent road ragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between illicit drug and alcohol use, problem drinking, and road rage. Particular attention is devoted to the association between these behaviors and frequent involvement in road rage activities. The data are taken from the 2002 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a representative telephone survey with a sample

Jennifer E. Butters; Reginald G. Smart; Robert E. Mann; Mark Asbridge

2005-01-01

355

A Mixture-Model Approach to Linking ADHD to Adolescent Onset of Illicit Drug Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research findings have been mixed as to whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to illicit drug use independent of conduct problems (CP). With the current study, the authors add to this literature by investigating the association between trajectories of ADHD symptoms across childhood and adolescence and onset of…

Malone, Patrick S.; Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Lamis, Dorian A.

2010-01-01

356

Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

2005-01-01

357

An Australian twin study of cannabis and other illicit drug use and misuse, and other psychopathology.  

PubMed

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug throughout the developed world and there is consistent evidence of heritable influences on multiple stages of cannabis involvement including initiation of use and abuse/dependence. In this paper, we describe the methodology and preliminary results of a large-scale interview study of 3,824 young adult twins (born 1972-1979) and their siblings. Cannabis use was common with 75.2% of males and 64.7% of females reporting some lifetime use of cannabis while 24.5% of males and 11.8% of females reported meeting criteria for DSM-IV cannabis abuse or dependence. Rates of other drug use disorders and common psychiatric conditions were highly correlated with extent of cannabis involvement and there was consistent evidence of heritable influences across a range of cannabis phenotypes including early (?15 years) opportunity to use (h 2 = 72%), early (?16 years) onset use (h 2 = 80%), using cannabis 11+ times lifetime (h 2 = 76%), and DSM abuse/dependence (h 2 = 72%). Early age of onset of cannabis use was strongly associated with increased rates of subsequent use of other illicit drugs and with illicit drug abuse/dependence; further analyses indicating that some component of this association may have been mediated by increasing exposure to and opportunity to use other illicit drugs. PMID:22874079

Lynskey, Michael T; Agrawal, Arpana; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G

2012-10-01

358

Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from

Kodo Kawase; Yuichi Ogawa; Yuuki Watanabe; Hiroyuki Inoue

2003-01-01

359

What Users Think about the Differences between Caffeine and Illicit\\/Prescription Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit\\/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate.

Andreas G. Franke; Klaus Lieb; Elisabeth Hildt

2012-01-01

360

Other Psychiatric Syndromes: Adjustment Disorder, Factitious Disorder, Illicit Steroid Abuse, and Cultural Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard psychiatric textbooks frequently omit less common but important clinical topics related to a medical model view of\\u000a psychiatry. This chapter covers four such additional topics: adjustment disorder, factitious disorder, psychiatric effects\\u000a of illicit anabolic steroid abuse, and special psychiatric syndromes identified by eponyms or cultural ties.

William R. Yates

361

Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

Page, Richard C.; And Others

1987-01-01

362

[Evaluation of illicit drug use among students from universities in Gda?sk].  

PubMed

Anonymous questionnaire examinations were performed among 1585 students from eight universities in Gda?sk, including 664 men and 921 woman from 17 to 48 (mean 21.4 +/- 2.26) years old. Illicit drugs were used by 45.9% of them, including 33.7% applying sporadically. Since a large group of respondents (approx. 24%) used from two to seven narcotics, frequency of students' contacts with different narcotics, given below, was altogether higher than 45.9%. Women significantly less frequently than men were taken two or more illicit drugs (chi 2 = 69.4; p < 0.0001). Cannabis was used by approx. 41% respondents (including about 29.8% applying sporadically), amphetamine by about 11% (including about 7.4% applying sporadically), LSD and magic mushrooms approx. 3.7% each, cocaine 1.1%. A few students took opium alkaloids, ecstasy, jimson-weed, and peyote. Men applied illicit drugs significantly more often than women did (chi 2 = 65.16; p < 0.0001). Drug addicted students (approx. 1.4%) smoked more cigarettes and drunk more alcohol. The frequency of illicit drugs use was the highest among students from Academy of Fine Arts (about 70%), University School of Physical Education (about 58%) and Gda?sk University (about 49%). Respondents of Priest Seminary have had no contacts with narcotics. PMID:11450350

Chodorowski, Z; Anand, J S; Salamon, M; Waldman, W; Wnuk, K; Ciechanowicz, R; Swiatek-Brzezi?ski, K

2001-01-01

363

Identification of di(? ?-phenylisopropyl)amine as the main ingredient in illicit amphetamine tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. -The identification of di( ?-phenylisopropyl)amine found as the main ingredient in several sets of amphetamine tablets sold on the illicit market in Rome, Italy, during 1999-2000 is described. The identification was achieved by examining the ultraviolet and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral properties as well as the chromatographic, gas chromatographic, and mass spectrometric data. The molecular structure of the ingredient

Valeria OTTAVIANO; Carmelo FURNARI; Felice ROSATI

2002-01-01

364

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis  

E-print Network

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater of Chemistry, University of Athens, Athens, Greece21 *Co-first authors. ABSTRACT Aims To perform wastewater population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants

Wehrli, Bernhard

365

Positive and negative aspects of participation in illicit drug research: Implications for recruitment and ethical conduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved understanding of incentives and barriers to drug user research participation may improve study recruitment, retention and outcomes and enhance the ethical acceptability of illicit drug research. In Melbourne, Australia during 2001–2004, 507 injecting drug users were recruited from Needle and Syringe Programs and asked to nominate the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ things about research. Commonly reported positive aspects of drug

Monica J. Barratt; Josephine S. Norman; Craig L. Fry

2007-01-01

366

Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

Choo, Hyekyung

2012-01-01

367

Beyond risk factors: The theoretical contextualization of illicit ADHD medication use among high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescription ADHD medication has been shown to be on the rise as a drug of abuse among young people. Unlike other drugs that serve only the purpose of achieving a high, this particular substance can also be perceived as useful and beneficial by those who abuse it. It is these positive attributes given to the illicit use of these drugs

William Christopher Watkins

2008-01-01

368

DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

369

Marital Homophily on Illicit Drug Use among Young Adults: Assortative Mating or Marital Influence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of longitudinal and current survey data on 545 married/cohabiting couples found highest marital homophily for ethnicity, fertility expectations, religion, educational attainment, marital satisfaction, and illicit drug use. On drug use, data best supported a model of marital selection and assortative mating but was inconclusive concerning…

Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

1993-01-01

370

Displacement of Canada's largest public illicit drug market in response to a police crackdown  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Law enforcement is often used in an effort to reduce the social, community and health-related harms of illicit drug use by injection drug users (IDUs). There are, however, few data on the benefits of such enforcement or on the potential harms. A large-scale police \\

Evan Wood; Patricia M. Spittal; Thomas Kerr; Kathy Li; Robert S. Hogg; Mark W. Tyndall; Julio S. G. Montaner; Martin T. Schechter

2004-01-01

371

Decision biases and persistent illicit drug use: an experimental study of distributed choice and addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment tested the hypothesis that differences in drug use are correlated with differences in decision making. The subjects were 22 drug clinic patients who had used either opiates or stimulants for an average of 10 years, and 21 community residents who reported that they had rarely used illicit addictive drugs. The procedure consisted of a series of binary choices

Gene M Heyman; Brian Dunn

2002-01-01

372

Locating illicit connections in storm water sewers using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing.  

PubMed

A newly developed technique using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has been developed to find illicit household sewage connections to storm water systems in the Netherlands. DTS allows for the accurate measurement of temperature along a fiber-optic cable, with high spatial (2m) and temporal (30s) resolution. We inserted a fiber-optic cable of 1300m in two storm water drains. At certain locations, significant temperature differences with an intermittent character were measured, indicating inflow of water that was not storm water. In all cases, we found that foul water from households or companies entered the storm water system through an illicit sewage connection. The method of using temperature differences for illicit connection detection in storm water networks is discussed. The technique of using fiber-optic cables for distributed temperature sensing is explained in detail. The DTS method is a reliable, inexpensive and practically feasible method to detect illicit connections to storm water systems, which does not require access to private property. PMID:19735929

Hoes, O A C; Schilperoort, R P S; Luxemburg, W M J; Clemens, F H L R; van de Giesen, N C

2009-12-01

373

Application of Bayesian statistical analysis to illicit substance detection using nondestructive interrogation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive interrogation systems designed to locate illicit substances in sealed containers involve decision making when the available objective information is incomplete. The greater the quantity of information, the more reliable is the determination of the unknown content. Therefore, it is important to be able to utilize all possible measured data pertaining to the unknown object. Among the data which can

Leonid Sagalovsky; Donald L. Smith; Bradley J. Micklich; Charles L. Fink; Thomas J. Yule

1997-01-01

374

Cannabis and Other Illicit Drugs: Comorbid Use and Abuse\\/Dependence in Males and Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis and other illicit drugs are often used or abused comorbidly. Two competing theories to explain this comorbidity are (i) the phenotypic causation (gateway) model and (ii) the correlated liabilities model. We used data from 1191 male and 934 female same-sex twin pairs to test 13 genetically informative models of comorbidity. Models were fit separately for use and abuse\\/dependence in

Arpana Agrawal; Michael C. Neale; Carol. A. Prescott; Kenneth S. Kendler

2004-01-01

375

Contemporaneous and Intertemporal Relationship Between the Consumption of Licit and Illicit Substances by Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a representative sample of the 1999 National School-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey, this study investigated the risky behavior of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana consumption by underage students. The research analyzes the contemporaneous and intertemporal relationship between the use of these licit and illicit substances. Evidence of a gateway from cigarettes to marijuana was found; however, prior use of alcohol

Mohamed Abdel-Ghany; Min Qi Wang

2003-01-01

376

Vulnerability among Vietnamese illicit drug users in Australia: challenges for change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A broad range of vulnerabilities, risk factors and challenges for change were examined in order to better understand why ethnic Vietnamese have the highest profile in Australia in relation to illicit drug use. A literature review of vulnerability and risk factors experienced by ethnic Vietnamese people in Australia was conducted. Emerging themes and concepts were tested against the 1996 Australian

Gary Reid; Peter Higgs; Lorraine Beyer; Nick Crofts

2002-01-01

377

Physical Abuse, Sexual Victimization and Illicit Drug Use: A Structural Analysis Among High Risk Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between child physical and sexual abuse and illicit drug use in youths in a juvenile detention center. Results suggest that, for both sexes, sexual victimization had a primarily direct effect on drug use, whereas physical abuse had both a direct and an indirect effect on drug use. (Author/NB)

Dembo, Richard; And Others

1987-01-01

378

College Student Interests in Drug Education Go Further than Illicit Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire was constructed which allowed students to formulate questions they felt college students had about drugs. Most questions about effects concerned herbal drugs. Most questions about hazards concerned tobacco. Questions about drug regulation concerned illicit drugs. Student surveys should precede planning of drug education programs.…

Gold, Robert S.; And Others

1980-01-01

379

Illicit interest groups: The political impact of the Medellin drug trafficking organizations in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) exist and have an effect on health, crime, economies, and politics, little research has explored these entities as political organizations. Legal interest groups and movements have been found to influence domestic and international politics because they operate within legal parameters. Illicit groups, such as DTOs, have rarely been accounted for—especially in the literature on interest

Patricia Helena Micolta

2012-01-01

380

Illicit Interest Groups: The Political Impact of The Medellin Drug Trafficking Organizations in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) exist and have an effect on health, crime, economies, and politics, little research has explored these entities as political organizations. Legal interest groups and movements have been found to influence domestic and international politics because they operate within legal parameters. Illicit groups, such as DTOs, have rarely been accounted for—especially in the literature on interest

Patricia Micolta

2012-01-01

381

Illicit drug use in the army: A social-organizational analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempted to identify relationships between certain facets of the social environment of military units and the reported level of illicit drug use in the units. Two instruments were developed for the study, an anonymous self-report drug use questionnaire and a drug abuse prevalence index. From a total of 398 units ( N = 17,143) surveyed on drug use, 3,284 enlisted

Royer Cook; Donald Walizer; Douglas Mace

1976-01-01

382

Licit, Illicit, and Non-medical Prescription Drug Abuse Among Pharmacists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of licit, illicit, and non-medical prescription drug abuse among pharmacists is a growing problem in the U.S. Studies and surveys have shown that health care professionals, including pharmacists, are more likely than the general population to abuse drugs, particularly prescription drugs. As pharmacists, this poses an ethical problem for all of us. As a pharmacist, we are one

Anna McDonald

383

Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis  

PubMed Central

Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10?3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernandez, Felix; Gonzalez-Marino, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Ostman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

2014-01-01

384

Deaths by unintentional illicit drug overdose in Italy, 1984–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine whether there has been an increase in deaths by overdose in Italy, as elsewhere in the Western world, over the past fifteen years. Method: This study's conclusions are based on analysis of official data on overdose deaths attributed to illicit drug addiction and abuse (ICD-9 codes 304 and 305) from 1984 to 2000, drawn from two archives

A. Preti; P. Miotto; M. De Coppi

2002-01-01

385

Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

2013-01-01

386

Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

2004-01-01

387

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure Ionization Mass · Performance of Mass Spectrometers and MS/MS (chemical speciation and identification) ­ No need surfaces Typical enhancement of 10x but have seen up to 2000x enhancement Liquid: Nebulizer Assisted DESI

Perkins, Richard A.

388

Licit and Illicit Use of Prescription Psychostimulants in Upperclassmen and Alumni  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of prescription stimulants after college has not been well researched. In an online survey, current upperclassmen undergraduates (N = 96) and recent alumni (N = 337) reported licit and illicit use of prescription stimulants, perceptions of peer use, self-diagnosis of attention disorder, and plans for continued use. Post-graduate rate of use…

Underhill, Brynne; Langdon, Su

2013-01-01

389

Social and structural factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically review factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users, focusing on exposures exogenous to individuals that likely shape access and adherence to HIV treatment. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed English-language studies among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users with at least one of these endpoint of interest: a diagnosis of AIDS; death; changes/differences in CD4 cell counts; or changes/differences in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods Articles were included if they reported factors associated with an outcome of interest among a group of illicit drug users. Studies were identified, screened and selected using systematic methods. Results Of 2,668 studies matching the search criteria, 58 (2%) met the inclusion criteria, all but one from North America or Western Europe. Overall, 41 (71%) studies contained significant individual-level clinical characteristics or behaviours (e.g., illicit drug use) associated with disease progression. Fifteen studies (26%) identified significant social, physical, economic or policy-level exposures, including incarceration, housing status or lack of legal income. Conclusion While past studies demonstrate important environmental exposures that appear to shape access to care and subsequent disease progression, the limited literature to examine these factors demonstrates the need for future research to consider risk environment characteristics and the role they may play in shaping health outcomes from HIV infection among drug users through determining access and adherence to evidence-based care. (198 words) PMID:22333747

Milloy, M-J; Marshall, Brandon; Kerr, Thomas; Buxton, Jane; Rhodes, Tim; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

2014-01-01

390

Report Reveals Millions of Young Adults Use Illicit Substances Every Day  

MedlinePLUS

... millions of young adults use illicit substances every day According to SAMHSA’s data, on an average day, 3.2 million young adults used marijuana, 57, ... 20. Underage drinkers drank on average 5.7 days per month and consumed an average of 4. ...

391

Licit and Illicit Use of Medications for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Undergraduate College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors studied the relationship between a diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), grade point average (GPA), and licit and illicit drug use. Participants and Methods: They obtained survey data from a convenience sample of undergraduates in a large southern public university. Results: Among 1,550 respondents,…

Advokat, Claire D.; Guidry, Devan; Martino, Leslie

2008-01-01

392

The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) 1999: Northern Territory drug patterns and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The national Illicit Drug Reporting System acts as an early warning system to detect and track amphetamine, heroin, cannabis, and cocaine use patterns and emerging trends. In the Northern Territory, structured interviews of 28 key informants and analysis of other drug indicator data, demonstrated that there was were diverse groups of amphetamine, opiate, and cannabis users in Darwin. There were

Bridie O'Reilly; Paul Rysavy; Chris Moon

393

Temporal trends and spatial distribution of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB in pine and spruce shoots.  

PubMed

In Germany, there is a lack of consistent and comparable data for the time dependent behaviour and spatial distribution of dioxin-like and indicator PCB in ambient air, deposition and plants. The aim of this study was to improve the data on PCDD/PCDF, dioxin-like PCB and non dioxin-like PCB in spruce and pine shoots from different locations and years by retrospective monitoring. The survey was conducted with archived samples of one-year old spruce shoots (Picea abies) and pine shoots (Pinus sylvestris) from the German environmental specimen bank. Two sets of samples from locations in urbanized areas in western and eastern Germany (Warndt and Duebener Heide Mitte, respectively) were investigated as time series. Additionally, spruce shoots from seven different rural locations sampled in the years 2000-2004 were analyzed in order to get an overview about the spatial distribution of PCB and PCDD/PCDF. The analytical results of the samples from the two urbanized areas clearly show that the atmospheric contamination with PCDD and PCDF has declined by about 75% between 1985 and 1997 at Warndt and about 40% between 1991 and 1997 at Duebener Heide. However, concentrations stayed virtually constant at both locations from 1997 to 2004 at a level of about 1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dry matter (d.m.). Similarly, the investigation of spruce shoots from rural locations from 2000 to 2004 did not reveal a temporal trend at any site. PCDD/PCDF levels were between 0.1 and 1.0 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. At the urbanized location Warndt the six indicator PCB as well as the 12 dioxin-like PCB according to WHO revealed a significant decline by more than 75% between 1985 and 1999. Thereafter, PCB levels stayed virtually constant. At the location Duebener Heide an overall decrease of PCB concentrations in pine shoots of about 60% was detected between 1991 and 2004. Spruce shoots from all locations showed a relevant contribution of dioxin-like PCB to the total WHO toxicity equivalent (PCDD/PCDF+PCB). In most samples, the contribution of dioxin-like PCB was between 21% and 41%. The TEQ contribution of PCB in the samples from three rural sites was higher and similar to the TEQ value of PCDD/PCDF. The investigated pine shoots from the urbanized site Duebener Heide showed a 15-28% contribution of dioxin-like PCB to total TEQ and thus lower than in spruce shoots from different locations. In all samples except one PCB 126 contributed to more than 80% to the PCB-TEQ. PMID:17222447

Rappolder, Marianne; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Schädel, Silke; Waller, Ulrich; Körner, Wolfgang

2007-04-01

394

Pitting corrosion on weld joints offshore structure jackets  

SciTech Connect

During underwater inspection, pitting corrosion was observed on various weld joints of offshore structure jackets. For this purpose, during underwater inspection surveys cathodic protection potentials were measured at different locations on the jackets. The position and condition of anodes were also examined. Pitting and galvanic corrosion studies and cathodic protection experiments were carried out in synthetic sea water and in 3.5% NaCl solution. Field exposure studies were also carried out. The present paper describes the investigations carried out to determine reasons for pitting corrosion on weld joints and remedial measures.

Anto, P.F. [Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd., Panvel (India). Inst. of Engineering and Ocean Technology

1999-11-01

395

41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. THE BEAR PIT (OLD SIDE DINING ROOM). THE ETCHINGS ON THE CEILING BEAMS AND COLUMNS OF PARK WILDLIFE ARE ORIGINAL TO THE OLD SIDE DINING ROOM. THE SIDE DINING ROOM WAS DESIGNED AND BUILT BY ROBERT REAMER IN 1927. IN 1962 WHEN IT WAS CONVERTED INTO THE BEAR PIT A WALL WAS ADDED BETWEEN THE THREE COLUMNS THAT SEPARATE THIS ROOM FROM THE MAIN DINING ROOM. THE ORIGINAL BEAR PIT ETCHINGS DEPICTING BEARS TENDING BAR AND PLAYING THE PIANO WERE MOUNTED ON THE WALL BETWEEN THE COLUMNS. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

396

Evidence for unique and ubiquitous environmental sources of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).  

PubMed

The non-Aroclor congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has been recently detected in air, water, biota, sediment, and suspended sediment. Although it has been known since at least the 1970s that this congener is produced inadvertently during the production of diarylide yellow pigments, this work presents the first evidence that the use of these pigments in consumer goods results in the dispersion of PCB 11 throughout the environment at levels that are problematic in terms of achieving water quality standards for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this work, PCB 11 is measured at ppb levels in consumer goods that are likely to be discarded in ways that allow them to enter wastewater treatment plants and combined sewer overflows, including newspapers, magazines, cardboard boxes used for food packaging, and plastic bags. Also, using data sets acquired for the purpose of calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for PCBs, PCB 11 loads to the New York/New Jersey Harbor and Delaware River are calculated. Despite the fact that there are no known manufacturers of diarylide yellow pigments in the Delaware River watershed, the loads of PCB 11 to the Delaware River exceed the TMDL for the sum of PCBs by nearly a factor of 2. The ratio of PCB 11 to a characteristic dechlorination end product, PCB 4 (2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl), in these data sets indicates that dechlorination is not a significant source of PCB 11 in these systems. In the upper Hudson River, where extensive dechlorination of heavy PCB congeners occurs, the ratio is just 0.012. In contrast, downstream in the NY/NJ Harbor as well as in the Delaware River the ratio is much higher and more variable. Pigment use therefore appears to be the main source of PCB 11 in these systems, and this congener is likely to present a significant obstacle to achieving PCB water quality standards throughout the United States. PMID:20384375

Rodenburg, Lisa A; Guo, Jia; Du, Songyan; Cavallo, Gregory J

2010-04-15

397

Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

1977-01-01

398

Initation of pitting corrosion in martensitic stainless steels. [17-4PH; 13-8Mo; Custom 450  

Microsoft Academic Search

The form of localized corrosion known as pitting often initiates preferentially at microstructural inhomogeneities. The pit initiation resistance, therefore, is controlled by the characteristics of the initiation sites, rather than by the bulk material composition. This investigation correlates the pit initiation resistance, as measured by critical pitting potentials, with preferred pit initiation sites for 3 martensitic stainless steels. Pit initiation

W. R. Cieslak; R. E. Semarge; F. S. Bovard

1986-01-01

399

The effects of a dredge excavation pit on benthic macrofauna in offshore Louisiana.  

PubMed

Over two years after the original creation of a sand excavation pit 8 km off the Louisiana coast, benthic macrofauna communities and sedimentary characteristics are still effected. Macrofaunal communities inside the pit had lower abundance, biomass, and diversity than communities outside the pit. This difference, however, was only significant with some of the stations outside the pit. Results from multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis showed that macrofaunal communities were less than 32% similar inside the pit to communities outside the pit. The polychaete Mediomastus ambiseta was the most abundant species outside the excavation pit, but the species was only counted once inside the pit. The most dominant species, which made up over 90% of organisms inside the pit, was the pioneer polychaete Paraprionospio pinnata. Only three species were found at each station inside the pit as opposed to 9-27 species at stations outside the pit. All species inside the pit were also found outside the pit; thus, change was due to a loss of species rather than replacement by different species. Sediment inside the pit contained more silt and clay; however, no difference in water quality was detected compared with outside the pit. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed near the dredge pit in 2005 and could have effected sediment transport in the region. Because the macrofaunal community inside the pit has not recovered within 38 months, it is likely that it will require more time before it resembles the surrounding conditions. PMID:18247082

Palmer, Terence A; Montagna, Paul A; Nairn, Robert B

2008-04-01

400

Sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporters and phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells: Redundant roles for PiT-1 and PiT-2  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated serum phosphate has emerged as a major risk factor for vascular calcification. The sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, was previously shown to be required for phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation and calcification of cultured human VSMCs, but its importance in vascular calcification in vivo, as well as the potential role of its homologue, PiT-2, have not been determined. We investigated the in vivo requirement for PiT-1 in vascular calcification using a mouse model of chronic kidney disease, and the potential compensatory role of PiT-2 using in vitro knockdown and over-expression strategies. Approach and Results Mice with targeted deletion of PiT-1 in VSMCs were generated (PiT-1?sm). PiT-1 mRNA levels were undetectable whereas PiT-2 mRNA levels were increased 2 fold in the vascular aortic media of PiT-1?sm compared to PiT-1flox/flox control. When arterial medial calcification was induced in PiT-1?sm and PiT-1flox/flox by chronic kidney disease followed by dietary phosphate loading, the degree of aortic calcification was not different between genotypes, suggesting compensation by PiT-2. Consistent with this possibility, VSMCs isolated from PiT-1?sm mice had no PiT-1 mRNA expression, increased PiT-2 mRNA levels, and no difference in sodium-dependent phosphate uptake or phosphate-induced matrix calcification compared to PiT-1flox/flox VSMCs. Knockdown of PiT-2 decreased phosphate uptake and phosphate-induced calcification of PiT-1?sm VSMCs. Furthermore, over-expression of PiT-2 restored these parameters in human PiT-1-deficient VSMCs. Conclusions PiT-2 can mediate phosphate uptake and calcification of VSMCs in the absence of PiT-1. Mechanistically, PiT-1 and PiT-2 appear to serve redundant roles in phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:23968976

Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Lau, Wei Ling; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; Chavkin, Nick; Wallingford, Mary C.; Peterson, Danielle F.; Li, Xianwu; Liu, Yonggang; Chin, Michael T.; Levi, Moshe; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

2014-01-01

401

Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the impact on HIV treatment. Design Multivariable regression of cross-sectional data from 1163 HIV-infected and 294 controls from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Methods An analysis of (1) prevalence of specific illicit drug use (ever, current), (2) being on HAART among those with an indication and (3) current HIV RNA and CD4 cell count among HAART users. Results Median age was 42 years, approximately 50% were non-Caucasian and 33% were women. Eighty-six percent of HIV-infected and 67% of controls reported ever using illicit drugs (P <0.0001); 28% of HIV-infected and 16% of controls reported current use (P = 0.0001). In adjusted models, current cocaine use and past heroin use were associated with not currently being on HAART. Among HAART users, those reporting past heroin use were as likely to have an undetectable HIV viral load as those who had never used heroin. Current and past cocaine use and current heroin use was associated with lower odds of undetectable HIV RNA. Past amphetamine use was associated with having an undetectable HIV. Similar results were seen for CD4 lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Illicit drug use in the US is common, although far fewer report current use than past use. Among HIV-infected patients, understanding of the type of illicit drugs used and whether drug use was in the past or ongoing is important, because of their differential effects on HIV treatment outcomes. PMID:18195562

Cofrancesco, Joseph; Scherzer, Rebecca; Tien, Phyllis C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Southwell, Heather; Sidney, Stephen; Dobs, Adrian; Grunfeld, Carl

2011-01-01

402

Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions  

SciTech Connect

The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ``did what he/she was told.`` The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician`s office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface.

Erickson, M.D.

1993-03-01

403

Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs.  

PubMed

We outline and evaluate competing explanations of three relationships that have consistently been found between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs, namely, (1) that cannabis use typically precedes the use of other illicit drugs; and that (2) the earlier cannabis is used, and (3) the more regularly it is used, the more likely a young person is to use other illicit drugs. We consider three major competing explanations of these patterns: (1) that the relationship is due to the fact that there is a shared illicit market for cannabis and other drugs which makes it more likely that other illicit drugs will be used if cannabis is used; (2) that they are explained by the characteristics of those who use cannabis; and (3) that they reflect a causal relationship in which the pharmacological effects of cannabis on brain function increase the likelihood of using other illicit drugs. These explanations are evaluated in the light of evidence from longitudinal epidemiological studies, simulation studies, discordant twin studies and animal studies. The available evidence indicates that the association reflects in part but is not wholly explained by: (1) the selective recruitment to heavy cannabis use of persons with pre-existing traits (that may be in part genetic) that predispose to the use of a variety of different drugs; (2) the affiliation of cannabis users with drug using peers in settings that provide more opportunities to use other illicit drugs at an earlier age; (3) supported by socialisation into an illicit drug subculture with favourable attitudes towards the use of other illicit drugs. Animal studies have raised the possibility that regular cannabis use may have pharmacological effects on brain function that increase the likelihood of using other drugs. We conclude with suggestions for the type of research studies that will enable a decision to be made about the relative contributions that social context, individual characteristics, and drug effects make to the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other drugs. PMID:16191720

Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael

2005-01-01

404

Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Page Museum La Brea Tar Pits is one of the worldâs most famous fossil localities, recognized for having the largest and most diverse assemblage of extinct Ice Age plants and animals in the world. Visitors can learn about Los Angeles as it was between 10,000 and 40,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age, when animals such as saber-toothed cats and mammoths roamed the Los Angeles Basin. Through windows at the Page Museum Laboratory, visitors can watch bones being cleaned and repaired. Outside the Museum, in Hancock Park, life-size replicas of several extinct mammals are featured. The online Return to the Ice Age Exploration Guide is an extensive tutorial covering La Brea Geology, Geologic Time, Asphalt Deposits, Fossil Burial and Conditions of Fossilization, as well as La Brea Flora and Fauna and Human Exploration and Excavations. PDF versions are also available for download. There is also online information about the research efforts of the Museum, as well as pictures and information about the excavation site and findings.

405

Retaining latch for a water pit gate  

DOEpatents

A retaining latch is described for use in a hazardous materials storage or handling facility to adjustably retain a water pit gate in a gate frame. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame. 4 figs.

Beale, A.R.

1997-11-18

406

Retaining latch for a water pit gate  

DOEpatents

A retaining latch for use in a hazardous materials storage or handling facility to adjustably retain a water pit gate in a gate frame. A retaining latch is provided comprising a latch plate which is rotatably mounted to each end of the top of the gate and a recessed opening, formed in the gate frame, for engaging an edge of the latch plate. The latch plate is circular in profile with one side cut away or flat, such that the latch plate is D-shaped. The remaining circular edge of the latch plate comprises steps of successively reduced thickness. The stepped edge of the latch plate fits inside a recessed opening formed in the gate frame. As the latch plate is rotated, alternate steps of the latch plate are engaged by the recessed opening. When the latch plate is rotated such that the flat portion of the latch plate faces the recessed opening in the gate frame, there is no connection between the opening and the latch plate and the gate is unlatched from the gate frame.

Beale, Arden R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

407

Hudson River PCB reclamation demonstration project, New York  

SciTech Connect

An abstract of the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for a demonstration project to dredge Hudson River sediments to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination describes an effort to reduce the 40 hot spots by half. Positive impacts would be the removal of potential health hazards, but there is a risk that the dredging operations will release some contaminants into the surrounding water, leaving PCBs in the water and no longer contained. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 is the legal mandate for the EIS.

Not Available

1982-11-01

408

40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. 261.8 Section 261.8 Protection...HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of...

2010-07-01

409

Formulation and Characterization of an Experimental PCB Mixture Designed to Mimic Human Exposure from Contaminated Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each environmental exposure matrix contains a unique mixture of PCB congeners. Since several congener types have multiple and distinct biological actions, it is important to characterize congener profiles in exposure sources. The Fox River Environment and Diet Study (FRIENDS) is assessing the human health effects of consumption of PCB-contaminated fish from the Fox River in northeastern Wisconsin. Concurrent laboratory studies

Paul J. Kostyniak; Larry G. Hansen; John J. Widholm; Rich D. Fitzpatrick; James R. Olson; Jennifer L. Helferich; Kyung Ho Kim; Helen J. K. Sable; Rich F. Seegal; Isaac N. Pessah; Susan L. Schantz

2005-01-01

410

PCB Congener Distribution in Estuarine Water, Sediment and Fish Samples: Implications for Monitoring Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional analyses for PCBs in environmental matrices havefocused on commercial Aroclor mixtures with detection limits inthe 100 to 1000 part per trillion range. This approach hasrecently been supplanted by analyses for specific PCB compoundscalled congeners with detection limits less than 0.5 ppt. At thenational level, total PCB determinations based upon selected PCBcongeners typically characterize analyses of surface water,sediment and tissue.

Thomas J. Fikslin; Edward D. Santoro

2003-01-01

411

Environmental and occupational exposures and serum PCB concentrations and patterns among Mohawk men at Akwesasne  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to address the question of how fish consumption, occupation, and outdoor air affected serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns among 139 Native American men living near three hazardous waste sites. They were interviewed about their residential, occupational, and dietary histories, and donated 20 ml of venous blood for congener-specific PCB analysis. The similarity in the congener

Edward F Fitzgerald; Syni-An Hwang; Marta Gomez; Brian Bush; Bao-Zhu Yang; Alice Tarbell

2007-01-01

412

Dissolution of PCB congeners from an Aroclor and an Aroclor\\/hydraulic oil mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few measurements of the dissolution of individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners dissolved from Aroclor mixtures in water have been reported, and there is no available information on how the aqueous solubilities of these compounds are affected by their presence in organic liquids such as hydraulic oils. A series of experiments were performed to study the dissolution of specific PCB congeners

Richard G. Luthy; David A. Dzombark; Michael J. R. Shannon; Ronald Unterman; John R. Smith

1997-01-01

413

INCA: an expert system for process planning in PCB assembly line  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of INCA, an expert system that tackles the problem of optimization of the automatic insertion of components on printed circuit board (PCB) in the production assembly line. The authors describe the present situation in the PCB assembly line for component insertion, why an expert system has been chosen and the benefits expected from its introduction, how

Patrizia Cavalloro; Emanuela Cividati

1988-01-01

414

PCB uptake and accumulation by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed via a  

E-print Network

PCB uptake and accumulation by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed via a contaminated algal August 1999; accepted 17 December 1999 Abstract Reproductively active oysters were fed daily with 0.2 g also eval- uated. PCBs were accumulated by the oysters and transferred to the eggs. PCB accumulation

Hartley, Troy W.

415

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

2009-01-01

416

Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open buring of biomass  

EPA Science Inventory

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment. Development and implementation of policies ...

417

Toward the Next Level of PCB Usage in Power Electronic Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A means for power electronics to exploit the level of 3-D packaging already being implemented in compact consumer products, such as digital cameras, is investigated in order to increase its power density. The increase in functionality and usage of printed circuit board (PCB) in power electronic converters is highlighted and improvements proposed to boost PCB usage to the next level.

Erik C. W. de Jong; B. J. A. Ferreira; P. Bauer

2008-01-01

418

Bioaccumulation of PCB Congeners by Diporeia spp.: Kinetics and Factors Affecting Bioavailability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicokinetics of four polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined for the amphipod Diporeia spp. exposed to selected PCB congeners through both water and sediment to determine the effect of temperature and organism size (mass). For compounds with log Kow 6 or greater, the water-only uptake coefficient (ku) was inversely proportional to the size of the organism at all temperatures.

Peter F. Landrum; Elizabeth A. Tigue; Susan Kane Driscoll; Duane C. Gossiaux; Patricia L. Van Hoof; Michelle L. Gedeon; Matthew Adler

2001-01-01

419

The importance of runoff to DDT and PCB inputs to the Sado estuary and Ria Formosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCB congeners, DDT and metabolites were determined in suspended sediments and in the oysterCrassostrea angulata from the upper Sado estuary over two years (1987\\/88 and 1990) and from Ria Formosa during 1990. Levels of DDT concentrations in suspended sediments collected in both estuarine areas, either in 1988 or 1990, increased in winter. Otherwise, PCB concentrations varied in an erratic way.

A. M. Ferreira; C. Vale

1995-01-01

420

TLR4 Signaling Is Involved in Brain Vascular Toxicity of PCB153 Bound to Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

PCBs bind to environmental particles; however, potential toxicity exhibited by such complexes is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to study the hypothesis that assembling onto nanoparticles can influence the PCB153-induced brain endothelial toxicity via interaction with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To address this hypothesis, TLR4-deficient and wild type control mice (males, 10 week old) were exposed to PCB153 (5 ng/g body weight) bound to chemically inert silica nanoparticles (PCB153-NPs), PCB153 alone, silica nanoparticles (NPs; diameter, 20 nm), or vehicle. Selected animals were also subjected to 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. As compared to exposure to PCB153 alone, treatment with PCB153-NP potentiated the brain infarct volume in control mice. Importantly, this effect was attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice. Similarly, PCB153-NP-induced proinflammatory responses and disruption of tight junction integrity were less pronounced in TLR4-deficient mice as compared to control animals. Additional in vitro experiments revealed that TLR4 mediates toxicity of PCB153-NP via recruitment of tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). The results of current study indicate that binding to seemingly inert nanoparticles increase cerebrovascular toxicity of PCBs and suggest that targeting the TLR4/TRAF6 signaling may protect against these effects. PMID:23690990

Zhang, Bei; Choi, Jeong June; Eum, Sung Yong; Daunert, Sylvia; Toborek, Michal

2013-01-01

421

Manufacturing an environmentally friendly PCB using existing industrial processes and equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the possibility of utilising an additive screen printing process with conductive ink and adhesive together with a degradable substrate to identify whether this process offers a viable alternative to current subtractive methods of PCB manufacture. Existing manufacturing equipment and production process were adopted in order to establish the compatibility of a sustainable and environmental friendly PCB with

A. Ryan; H. Lewis

2007-01-01

422

RESIDUES OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) IN A 'CLADOPHORA' COMMUNITY ALONG THE LAKE HURON SHORELINE  

EPA Science Inventory

PCB residues were measured in samples of Cladophora, Ulothrix, net plankton, water, and fish collected in the Harbor Beach area of Lake Huron. The PCB patterns in the samples were found to match a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and 1254. Aroclor 1242 represented about 60% of the mixture...

423

Biomarkers of exposure: Novel methods for the chemical analysis of PCB  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the extent of migration of PCB from a Superfund chemical dump site to the inhabitants of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, we have developed an ultrasensitive chemical analysis of milk, blood, and urine. The method, which measures 68 PCB congeners, p, p[prime]-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and mirex, uses conventional gas chromatography. The data are organized using widely available

B. Bush; E. F. Fitzgerald; P. M. Ramarumo

1993-01-01

424

Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake.  

PubMed

We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE. PMID:19446308

Madenjian, Charles P; Hanchin, Patrick A; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J

2009-07-15

425

13. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; INSIDE COG PIT: GREAT SPUR WHEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; INSIDE COG PIT: GREAT SPUR WHEEL AND WALLOWER ON LEFT, AUXILIARY PINION ON RIGHT - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

426

11. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH SCALE - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

427

10. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. INTERIOR, LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, STAIRWAY IN BACKROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

428

12. LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, WITH SCALE, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. LAMP MECHANISM WEIGHT PIT, WITH SCALE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Hunting Island Lighthouse, Lighthouse, Hunting Island State Park, U.S. Route 21, 16 miles East of Beaufort, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

429

38. Concrete foundations of the fuel oil pit west of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Concrete foundations of the fuel oil pit west of the tool storage building between the north and south roundhouses. - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

430

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT AND CAR JACKING PADS, FACING EAST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

431

15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS, OVERHEAD CATWALKS AND OVERHEAD CRANE SUPPORT, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

432

14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INTERIOR, INSPECTION PITS AND OVERHEAD CATWALKS, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

433

Molten salt corrosion of SiC: Pitting mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin films of Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 at 1000 C lead to severe pitting of sintered alpha-SiC. These pits are important as they cause a strength reduction in this material. The growth of product layers is related to pit formation for the Na2CO3 case. The early reaction stages involve repeated oxidation and dissolution to form sodium silicate. This results in severe grain boundary attack. After this a porous silica layer forms between the sodium silicate melt and the SiC. The pores in this layer appear to act as paths for the melt to reach the SiC and create larger pits.

Jacobson, N. S.; Smialek, J. L.

1985-01-01

434

23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit is located under the center first-floor window. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

435

Development and validation of protocols to differentiate PCB patterns between farmed and wild salmon.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns based on full congener PCB analyses of three farmed and five wild species of salmon from coastal British Columbia, Canada are compared using principal components analysis (PCA) and the best fit linear decomposition of the observed PCB composition in terms of Aroclor 1242, 1254, and 1260 end-members. The two complementary analysis methods are used to investigate congener composition pattern differences between species, trophic levels, feeding preferences, and farmed or wild feeding regimes, with the intent of better understanding PCB processes in both salmon and salmon consumers. PCA supports classification of PCB congeners into nine groups based on a) structure activity groups (SAG) related to the bioaccumulation potential in fish-eating mammals, b) Cl number, and c) the numbers of vicinal meta- and para-H. All three factors are needed to interpret congener distributions since SAGs by themselves do not fully explain PCB distributions. Farmed salmon exhibit very similar congener patterns that overlap the PCA and Aroclor composition of their food, while wild salmon separate into two distinct groups, with chinook and "coastal" coho having higher proportions of the higher chlorinated, Aroclor 1260 type, nonmetabolizable congeners, and chum, pink, sockeye, and "remote" coho having higher proportions of the lower chlorinated, more volatile and metabolizable Aroclor 1242 type, congeners. Wild chinook have the highest PCB and toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, and the highest proportions of A1254 A1260, and PCB congeners in the most refractory SAG. Because both "coastal" and "remote" coho groups are likely to be consuming prey of similar size and trophic level, the PCB delivery mechanism (e.g., atmosphere vs runoff) apparently has more influence on the salmon PCB profile than biotransformation, suggesting that the wild chinook PCB profile is determined by feeding preference. Overall, wild salmon distributions primarily relate to trophic level, feeding preferences, and longevity, while metabolism appears at most a minor factor. The new classification protocol takes better advantage of individual congener PCB analyses and provides a better framework for understanding the PCB distributions in salmon and, potentially, the movement of individual PCB congeners through marine food chains than previous classification schemes. PMID:21341688

Yunker, Mark B; Ikonomou, Michael G; Sather, Paula J; Friesen, Erin N; Higgs, Dave A; Dubetz, Cory

2011-03-15

436

The Influence of Atmospheric Transport Regimes on Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Concentrations Measured at Zeppelin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of exclusively anthropogenic origin. PCBs are toxic, bioaccumulative and have a great potential of long-range transport. PCBs have been banned globally under the Stockholm convention on POPs since 2004. We analysed times series of 21 PCB congeners ranging from PCB 18 to PCB 187 that have been measured at Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) since 1993. Although primary PCB emissions have been steadily reduced, a strong decreasing trend is not observed in the PCB concentrations in the Arctic. In order to investigate the influence of atmospheric transport on the PCB concentrations and to identify the potential source regions of the PCBs, we calculated footprints for the Zeppelin measurement site using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. Footprints can be interpreted as potential source regions where PCBs may have been picked up. Based on various statistical analyses of the footprints (cluster analysis, k-medoid, silhouette), we identified the prevailing transport regimes for Zeppelin which were represented by 5 different clusters. Cluster 1 and 3 belong to transport regimes with highest residence times over Europe (cluster 1) and North-America (cluster 3); both transport regimes dominantly occur from late fall to early spring. Clusters 2 and 4 represent air masses with surface contact predominantly over the Atlantic Ocean (cluster 2), only occurring during the summer months, and the Arctic Ocean (cluster 4) mainly observed in spring and autumn, but also in summer. Cluster 5 is representative of air originating from the Pacific ocean and eastern Asia; this transport regime occurs mainly in spring and fall. We grouped the PCB concentrations measured at Zeppelin according to the 5 different clusters and calculated the median for each cluster and PCB congener. The median for medium to heavier PCBs is highest for cluster 1 and 3, which represent transport regimes over the continent, suggesting that emissions of the respective PCBs dominantly occur over land. However, for the lighter congeners (PCB-18-PCB-47) the highest median concentration corresponds to cluster 2 and the lowest to cluster 3 and 5. The high concentration of the lighter congeners resulting from the transport over the ocean, represented by clusters 2 and to some extent 4, cannot be explained by primary PCB emissions. Also the use of a temperature-dependent primary PCB emission inventory did not resolve this apparent contradiction between high PCB concentrations and a transport regime under which Zeppelin does not receive air from the continents. Our data therefore suggest that in addition to atmospheric transport regimes and primary PCB emissions, also other factors such as secondary emissions from the ocean and/or from soils strongly influence the concentrations of lighter PCBs measured at Zeppelin.

Ubl, S.; Scheringer, M.; Hungerbuehler, K.

2013-12-01

437

Opportunities for Sustainable Mining Pit Lakes in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Due to operational and regulatory practicalities, pit lakes will continue to be common legacies of mine lease relinquishments.\\u000a Unplanned or inappropriate management of these geographical features can lead to both short- and long-term liability to mining\\u000a companies, local communities, and the nearby environment during mining operations or after lease relinquishment. However,\\u000a the potential for pit lakes to provide benefit to

Clinton Mccullough; Mark A. Lund

2006-01-01

438

Revegetation of oilwell reserve pits in West Texas  

E-print Network

(Panicum coloratum), alkali sacaton (Spor obolus air oides), and f'ourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) were evaluated on recently covered oilwell reserve pits in West Texas. Seeds of each species were broadcast onto freshly disced soil in pure stands... (Panicum coloratum), alkali sacaton (Spor obolus air oides), and f'ourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) were evaluated on recently covered oilwell reserve pits in West Texas. Seeds of each species were broadcast onto freshly disced soil in pure stands...

McFarland, Mark Lee

2012-06-07

439

GASIFICATION OF APRICOT PIT SHELLS IN A DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, gasification potential of apricot pit shells is investigated by a pilot scale downdraft gasifier. Apricot shells could be gasified in a downdraft gasifier to produce clean gas with a calorific value of around 5.82 MJ\\/Nm and with a combustible fraction of 39% v\\/v. Low moisture (11.74%) and ash content (0.78%) are the main advantages of apricot pit

I. Gezer; M. Do?ru; G. Akay

2009-01-01

440

Limitation of the Cavitron technique by conifer pit aspiration.  

PubMed

The Cavitron technique facilitates time and material saving for vulnerability analysis. The use of rotors with small diameters leads to high water pressure gradients (DeltaP) across samples, which may cause pit aspiration in conifers. In this study, the effect of pit aspiration on Cavitron measurements was analysed and a modified 'conifer method' was tested which avoids critical (i.e. pit aspiration inducing) DeltaP. Four conifer species were used (Juniperus communis, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, and Larix decidua) for vulnerability analysis based on the standard Cavitron technique and the conifer method. In addition, DeltaP thresholds for pit aspiration were determined and water extraction curves were constructed. Vulnerability curves obtained with the standard method showed generally a less negative P for the induction of embolism than curves of the conifer method. Differences were species-specific with the smallest effects in Juniperus. Larix showed the most pronounced shifts in P(50) (pressure at 50% loss of conductivity) between the standard (-1.5 MPa) and the conifer (-3.5 MPa) methods. Pit aspiration occurred at the lowest DeltaP in Larix and at the highest in Juniperus. Accordingly, at a spinning velocity inducing P(50), DeltaP caused only a 4% loss of conductivity induced by pit aspiration in Juniperus, but about 60% in Larix. Water extraction curves were similar to vulnerability curves indicating that spinning itself did not affect pits. Conifer pit aspiration can have major influences on Cavitron measurements and lead to an overestimation of vulnerability thresholds when a small rotor is used. Thus, the conifer method presented here enables correct vulnerability analysis by avoiding artificial conductivity losses. PMID:20551085

Beikircher, B; Ameglio, T; Cochard, H; Mayr, S

2010-07-01

441

Influence of cold working on the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the influence of cold rolling and tensile deformation on the pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 304 and AISI 430 stainless steels, investigated using some electrochemical techniques specifically designed for the different pitting stages to be analyzed separately. Cold work is shown to act differently depending on the pitting stage under consideration. (i) The pit initiation frequency shows

L. Peguet; B. Malki; B. Baroux

2007-01-01

442

A size-based probabilistic assessment of PCB exposure from Lake Michigan fish consumption  

SciTech Connect

The state of Wisconsin has recently issued a fish consumption advisory that includes suggested consumption rates for Lake Michigan fish, based on fish size and PCB concentration. To evaluate the size-based exposure risk from Lake Michigan fish consumption, the authors estimated PCB exposure probabilities for five Lake Michigan fish species using two Bayesian models. The models confirm that very few individuals of any of the five species are likely to have PCB concentrations low enough to fall into the category in which consumption is unrestricted. Among smaller fish (<50 cm), brown trout have the highest PCB levels, while lake trout are the most contaminated among larger fish (>60 cm). Eating meals from multiple individuals of some species results in a high probability that at least one of the meals will exceed 1.9 mg/kg, the upper PCB concentration recommended for consumption in the advisory.

Stow, C.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Nicholas School of the Environment] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Nicholas School of the Environment; Qian, S.S. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States)] [Portland State Univ., OR (United States)

1998-08-01

443

Apportionment of PCB sources near a transformer maintenance and repair facility in Ankara, Turkey.  

PubMed

The concentration and major sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were evaluated in the sediments from a special environmental protection area located near a transformer maintenance and repair facility (TMRF) in Ankara, Turkey. ?PCB concentrations analyzed on Aroclor and congener basis (seven indicator congeners) ranged from 0.1 to 84.2 and 0.1 to 21.7 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Results show that higher total PCB concentrations were localized around one of the drainage channels of the TMRF. Identity and contribution of PCB sources were predicted using a chemical mass balance (CMB) based receptor model. The CMB model typically identified Aroclor 1260, the PCB mixture frequently used in transformers, as the major PCB source confirming the effect of the TMRF on the area. Poor prediction of some sample congener profiles suggest presence of environmental degradation mechanisms such as volatilization and differential solubilization of lower chlorinated congeners from sediments. PMID:23719777

Karakas, Filiz; Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

2013-08-01

444

Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure assessment by multivariate statistical analysis of serum congener profiles in an adult Native American population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes occurring after uptake. However, the relative importance of each factor for individual subjects cannot currently be determined. The present study characterizes levels and patterns of PCB congeners in a large cohort of adult Akwesasne Mohawks with historical PCB exposure.

Anthony P. DeCaprio; Glenn W. Johnson; Alice M. Tarbell; David O. Carpenter; Jeffrey R. Chiarenzelli; Gayle S. Morse; Azara L. Santiago-Rivera; Maria J. Schymura

2005-01-01

445

Compost Science and Utilization, 9(4):274-283 (2001) BIOREMEDIATION OF A PCB-CONTAMINATED SOIL VIA COMPOSTING  

E-print Network

Compost Science and Utilization, 9(4):274-283 (2001) BIOREMEDIATION OF A PCB-CONTAMINATED SOIL VIA. In this study, a PCB-contaminated soil from a former paper mill was mixed with a yard trimmings amendment and composted in field scale piles to determine the effect of soil to amendment ratio on PCB degradation

Michel Jr., Frederick C.

446

Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states-1978–81  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens

W. L. Reichel; S. K. Schmeling; E. Cromartie; T. E. Kaiser; A. J. Krynitsky; T. G. Lamont; B. M. Mulhern; R. M. Prouty; C. J. Stafford; D. M. Swineford

1984-01-01

447

Plasma Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Levels of Workers in a Transformer Recycling Company, their Family Members, and Employees of Surrounding Companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2010, high internal exposures (up to 236 ?g\\/L plasma) for the sum of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were discovered in workers in a transformer recycling company in Germany, where PCB-contaminated material was not handled according to proper occupational hygiene. The release of PCB from this company raised growing concerns regarding possible adverse human health effects correlated with this

Thomas Schettgen; Monika Gube; Andre Esser; Anne Alt; Thomas Kraus

2012-01-01

448

Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth  

PubMed Central

In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

Turnbull, Alan

2014-01-01

449

Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment.  

PubMed Central

Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxinlike toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. PMID:8565922

Abramowicz, D A

1995-01-01

450

Modelling PCB bioaccumulation in a Baltic food web.  

PubMed

A steady state model is developed to describe the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants by 14 species in a Baltic food web including pelagic and benthic aquatic organisms. The model is used to study the bioaccumulation of five PCB congeners of different chlorination levels. The model predictions are evaluated against monitoring data for five of the species in the food web. Predicted concentrations are on average within a factor of two of measured concentrations. The model shows that all PCB congeners were biomagnified in the food web, which is consistent with observations. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the single most sensitive parameter is log K(OW). The most sensitive environmental parameter is the annual average temperature. Although not identified amongst the most sensitive input parameters, the dissolved concentration in water is believed to be important because of the uncertainty in its determination. The most sensitive organism-specific input parameters are the fractional respiration of species from the water column and sediment pore water, which are also difficult to determine. Parameters such as feeding rate, growth rate and lipid content of organism are only important at higher trophic levels. PMID:17291648

Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T

2007-07-01

451

Feathers as bioindicators of PCB exposure in clapper rails.  

PubMed

In this study we used feathers to biomonitor exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1268 congener mixture in clapper rails (Rallus longirostris). This species has been used as an indicator species of environmental damage for the LCP superfund site located in Brunswick, GA, USA which is contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a congener mixture that has been used in limited amounts elsewhere and therefore can be used as a contaminant marker. The Aroclor 1268 congener mixture, including congener profiles, were quantified in feathers using gas chromatography (GC). Concurrently, each sample was quantified for the total Aroclor 1268 congener mixture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and compared to the GC results to determine if ELISA was an efficient method for quantifying or qualifying PCBs in feathers. ELISA consistently quantified PCB loads over an order of magnitude lower than the GC. Based on sample replication, extraction recovery, and sample spike, it appears that GC is the more reliable method of detection and that ELISA methods may be more suitable for qualitative exposure assessment for this particular Aroclor. Moreover, since all clapper rails from the LCP site had the Aroclor 1268 congener mixture in their feathers, this experiment showed that birds were returning to the site to breed despite the adverse effects experienced by this population from the contamination revealed in previous studies. This study also supports the utility of feathers as a non-lethal mechanism by which to biomonitor PCBs in the environment. PMID:20221687

Summers, J W; Gaines, K F; Garvin, N; Stephens, W L; Cumbee, J C; Mills, G L

2010-08-01

452

Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs  

PubMed Central

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

2011-01-01

453

Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses. PMID:24024972

Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

2013-10-15

454

Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Abramowicz, D.A. [GE Corporate Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

455

Detailed PCB congener characterization of influent and effluent at New York and New Jersey WPCPs  

SciTech Connect

The waste streams at 26 New York City and New Jersey water pollution control plants (WPCP) were characterized for PCB. Time-integrated influent and effluent samples were collected during normal and high (storm) flow conditions; high flow influent simulated what may by-pass the plant and be discharged through combined sewer overflows. State-of-the-art congener-specific analytical methods were used to achieve detection limits from 0.05 to 0.3 ng/L. Concentrations of 71 individual PCB congeners that constitute approximately 95% of the total PCB in Aroclors and environmental samples were determined. The PCB concentrations and congener distributions varied notably among plants. Individual congener concentrations were typically well below 1 ng/L in the effluent, with a few congeners being detected at 5 to 10 ng/L levels in some samples. The concentrations were under 1 ng/L in most influent samples, with occasional determinations above 10 ng/L. The average total PCB concentration, defined as the sum of the 71 individual congener concentrations, at the 26 WPCPs were 27, 110, and 160 ng/L for normal flow effluent, normal flow influent, and high flow influent, respectively. The results indicate that PCB levels in New York City and New Jersey WPCP discharges are generally low, with most effluent having total PCB concentrations below 0.05 {micro}g/L. The PCB levels in the influent were commonly under 0.1 {micro}g/L and became slightly elevated at most plants during storms while at some plants the increase in flow appeared to dilute the PCB in the influent. The WPCPs remove, on average, approximately 75% of the PCB received in the influent.

Durell, G.S.; Lizotte, R.D. Jr. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States); Solomon, M.H.; Green, J.W. [New York City DEP, Corona, NY (United States); Spadone, J.; Pires, L. [Linden Roselle Sewerage Authority, Linden, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

456

Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

2014-01-01

457

[Characteristics of microbial community structure in Luzhou-flavor fermentation pits].  

PubMed

Fermentation pit is a kind of solid bioreactors with unique feature for brewing liquor, especially for Luzhou-flavor, which has significant effects on the quality of produced liquor. There exists a close and complicated correlation between pit age (using time) and microbial community. Taking the characteristic component phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in microbial cell membrane as an index, this paper studied the characteristics of the microbial community structure in the pit mud, fermented grains, and yellow water of different age (5-year, 100-year, and 300-year) fermentation pits. The results showed that the total PLFA content was the highest in pit mud, followed by in fermented grains, and in yellow water. The composition of PLFA differed with pit age, and the total PLFA content in yellow water decreased with increasing pit age. In pit mud, straight chain saturated fatty acid had the highest content, occupying 50.7-73.3% of total PLFA and being the highest in 300-year pit. As for the microbial community structure, the PLFA content characterizing Gram-positive (G+) anaerobic bacteria was higher in pit mud, and that characterizing Gram-negative (G-) anaerobic bacteria was higher in fermented grains and yellow water. The PLFA content characterizing G+ and G- bacteria in the pit mud of 100-year pit was higher than that in the pit mud of other ages' pits, while the PLFA content characterizing fungi was higher in the pit mud, fermented grains, and yellow water of 5-year pit, as compared with other ages' pits. Principal component analysis showed that the main varied microbial populations in 5- and 100-year pits were G- bacteria and fungi, and the main varied microbial population in 300-year pit was of bacteria. The indices frequency index, Simpson index, and Shannon index could be chosen for characterizing the diversity of microbial community in fermentation pits. PMID:21774327

Zheng, Jia; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Cai-hong; Zhang, Su-yi; Jin, Yang; Zhao, Jin-song; Zhou, Rong-qing

2011-04-01

458

Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant  

EPA Science Inventory

Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

459

Illicit drug use, depression and their association with highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe examined the interaction of illicit drug use and depressive symptoms, and how they affect the subsequent likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use among women with HIV\\/AIDS.

Judith A. Cook; Dennis D. Grey; Jane K. Burke-Miller; Mardge H. Cohen; David Vlahov; Farzana Kapadia; Tracey E. Wilson; Robert Cook; Rebecca M. Schwartz; Elizabeth T. Golub; Kathryn Anastos; Claudia Ponath; Lakshmi Goparaju; Alexandra M. Levine

2007-01-01

460

A New Player in Environmentally Induced Oxidative Stress: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener, 3,3?-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11)  

PubMed Central

Recent analysis of air samples from Chicago and Lake Michigan areas observed a ubiquitous airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3?-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Our analysis of serum samples also revealed the existence of hydroxylated metabolites of PCB11 in human blood. Because PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to induce oxidative stress, this study sought to determine whether environmental exposure to PCB11 and its 4-hydroxyl metabolite could induce alterations in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). This study also examines if antioxidants could protect the cells from PCB11-induced cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing RWPE-1 cells were exposed to PCB11 and its metabolite, 3,3?-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB11), as well as an airborne PCB mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile, every day for 5 days. Results showed that 4-OH-PCB11 could significantly induce cell growth suppression and decrease the viability and plating efficiency of RWPE-1 cells. 4-OH-PCB11 also significantly increased steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide, O2 •?, as well as hydroperoxides. Finally, treatment with the combination of polyethylene glycol–conjugated CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase added 1h after 4-OH-PCB11 exposures, significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from PCB toxicity. The results strongly support the hypothesis that exposure to a hydroxylated metabolite of PCB11 can inhibit cell proliferation and cause cytotoxicity by increasing steady-state levels of ROS. Furthermore, antioxidant treatments following PCBs exposure could significantly mitigate the PCB-induced cytotoxicity in exponentially growing human prostate epithelial cells. PMID:23997111

Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

2013-01-01