Science.gov

Sample records for pit mining operations

  1. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  2. Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  3. Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Larry

    This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  4. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  5. Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  6. Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  7. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  8. Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

  9. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory



    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine

    drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  10. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote

  11. Shiftable belt conveyor systems in open pit mining

    SciTech Connect

    Weissflog, J.

    1983-10-01

    During recent years the open-cast mining scene in the USA has altered and the first steps towards continuous haulage have been made. The authors are of the opinion that this development will continue in the future due to the fact that governments, not only the American Government, have introduced environmental laws and regulations which require very high standards of reclamation of mined-out areas. To improve the strip mining system and to improve and to meet reclamation standards, many mining companies now start to operate with cross pit conveying or round the pit conveying systems.

  12. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  13. Complementary Use of Information from Space-Based Dinsar and Field Measuring Systems for Operational Monitoring Purposes in Open Pit Iron Mines of Carajas Mining Complex (brazilian Amazon Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradella, W. R.; Mura, J. C.; Gama, F. F.; Santos, A. R.; Silva, G. G.; Galo, M.; Camargo, P. O.; Silva, A. Q.

    2015-04-01

    Now spanning five simultaneous open-pit operations with exploration carried out through open pit benching, Carajas complex encompasses the world's largest iron reserves. Open pit mining operations in the area can lead to slope instabilities with risks to personnel, equipment and production due to intense excavations in rock products of low geomechanical quality, blasting practices and heavy precipitation. Thus, an effective prediction and management of surface deformations should be a key concern for the mining operations. The ground displacement monitoring techniques in Carajas include surface measurement techniques at discrete points (total station/reflective prisms) and over area using SSR (Slope Stability Radar, a ground based radar). On the other hand, DInSAR techniques are receiving relevance in the mining industry for reasons such a synoptic and continuous coverage without the need for ground instrumentation and a point-to-point good accuracy of measuring displacements (millimeter to centimeter scale) over a dense grid. Using a stack of 33 StripMap TerraSAR-X images acquired over Carajas covering the time span from March 2012 to April 2013, a monitoring approach is discussed based on the complementary use of information provided by DInSAR (DInSAR Time-Series and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and surface measuring techniques (total station/prisms, ground-based radar).

  14. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  15. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5

  16. Environmental noise from surface mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A sample of five mines were observed as part of a study to determine the magnitude and sources of environmental noise from surface mining operations and to identify noise abatement methods. These mining operations consisted of: a Minnesota iron ore mine, Midwestern and Appalachian coal mines, a Missouri clay pit operation, and a Texas limestone quarry. These operations are typical of Eastern and Midwestern mining activities. This paper highlights the findings of the noise measurement portion of that study.

  17. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel.

    The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodności urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Biorąc pod uwagę wysokość kosztów inwestycyjnych a także eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodności maszyn i urządzeń górniczych jest sprawą kluczową dla zapewnienia sprawnego działania i dla wyeliminowania niepożądanych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w początkowych etapach eksploatacji mają ogromne znaczenie również w późniejszych fazach działalności przedsięwzięcia. Awaria urządzeń wiertniczych powoduje opóźnienia przy pracach strzałowych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodność urządzeń wiertniczych w oparciu o metodę Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjność maszyn i zakres oraz częstość napraw obliczono na podstawie dostępnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16

  19. Prediction of ground vibrations resulting from the blasting operations in an open-pit mine by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iphar, Melih; Yavuz, Mahmut; Ak, Hakan

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the peak particle velocity (PPV) values from both presently constructed simple regression model and fuzzy-based model. For this purpose, vibrations induced by bench blasting operations were measured in an open-pit mine operated by the most important magnesite producing company (MAS) in Turkey. After gathering the ordered pairs of distance and PPV values, the site-specific parameters were determined using traditional regression method. Also, an attempt has been made to investigate the applicability of a relatively new soft computing method called as the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict PPV. To achieve this objective, data obtained from the blasting measurements were evaluated by constructing an ANFIS-based prediction model. The distance from the blasting site to the monitoring stations and the charge weight per delay were selected as the input parameters of the constructed model, the output parameter being the PPV. Valid for the site, the PPV prediction capability of the constructed ANFIS-based model has proved to be successful in terms of statistical performance indices such as variance account for (VAF), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of estimation, and correlation between predicted and measured PPV values. Also, using these statistical performance indices, a prediction performance comparison has been made between the presently constructed ANFIS-based model and the classical regression-based prediction method, which has been widely used in the literature. Although the prediction performance of the regression-based model was high, the comparison has indicated that the proposed ANFIS-based model exhibited better prediction performance than the classical regression-based model.

  20. Design approaches in quarrying and pit-mining reclamation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1999-01-01

    art show a celebration of beauty and experience -- abstract geology. The last design approach combines art and science in a human-nature ecosystem termed integration. With environmental concerns, an operating or reclaimed mine site can no longer be considered isolated from its surroundings. Site analysis of mine works needs to go beyond site-specific information and relate to the regional context of the greater landscape. Understanding design approach can turn undesirable features (mines and pits) into something perceived as desirable by the public.

  1. [Sanitary evaluation of microclimate conditions at the ore mining and alluvial pits sites].

    PubMed

    Chebotarev, A G; Afanas'eva, R F

    1998-01-01

    The authors summarized results of hygienic research carried in pits of Transbaikal region, Yakutia. Tchukotka, Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Krivoy Rog, European North and other areas. Microclimate parameters in winze of mining and alluvial pits appeared to vary significantly and to depend on certain specific factors (depth of mining, climate geographic zone of the enterprise, temperature of the ores treated, etc.). Considering degree of influence on workers' heat state, taking into account significance of clothes heat insulation required, the authors defined 4 types of microclimate at workplace. For operative selection of optimal special clothing set, the authors represent dependence of proper heat resistance of clothes for main and auxiliary occupations on microclimate conditions. PMID:9855739

  2. Bioremediation of Pit Lakes - Gilt Edge Mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Superfund Office and the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) conducted a field-scale treatability study demonstrating an in situ bio/geochemical treatment technology ...

  3. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  4. Monitoring of Uranium Mining and Milling Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2004-12-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Additional Protocol has engendered the monitoring of past and present uranium mining and milling operations by the IAEA. This activity requires tools, instruments, and expertise unfamiliar to Agency safeguards inspectors, but methods and instruments for effecting such monitoring are currently being employed by geologists, geophysicists, mining engineers, environmental officials, and archaeologists. Remote sensing in the form of photography, radar imagery, and gamma ray spectroscopy complements field data by disclosing prior mine-related activities or the magnitude of present ones, including: surveying pit volumes, mapping the spatial distribution of mine tailings over time, identifying soil and mineral disparities, and revealing biophysical data.

  5. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Moran, B.; Goldstein, P.; Glenn, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  6. A simplified economic filter for open-pit gold-silver mining in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Menzie, W. David; Long, Keith R.

    1998-01-01

    In resource assessments of undiscovered mineral deposits and in the early stages of exploration, including planning, a need for prefeasibility cost models exists. In exploration, these models to filter economic from uneconomic deposits help to focus on targets that can really benefit the exploration enterprise. In resource assessment, these models can be used to eliminate deposits that would probably be uneconomic even if discovered. The U. S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) previously developed simplified cost models for such problems (Camm, 1991). These cost models estimate operating and capital expenditures for a mineral deposit given its tonnage, grade, and depth. These cost models were also incorporated in USBM prefeasibility software (Smith, 1991). Because the cost data used to estimate operating and capital costs in these models are now over ten years old, we decided that it was necessary to test these equations with more current data. We limited this study to open-pit gold-silver mines located in the United States.

  7. Mine seepage problems in drift mine operations

    SciTech Connect

    DeRossett, C.; Johnson, D.E.; Bradshaw, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Extensive mining in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Region has occurred in coal deposits located above valley floors. Underground mines present unique stability problems resulting from the creation of mine pools in abandoned works. {open_quotes}Blowouts{close_quotes} occur when hydrostatic pressures result in the cataclysmic failure of an outcrop-barrier. Additionally, seepage from flooded works results in saturation of colluvium, which may ultimately mobilize as landslides. Several case studies of both landslides and blowouts illustrate that considerations should be taken into account to control or prevent these problems. Underground mine maps and seepage conditions at the individual sites were examined to determine the mine layouts, outcrop-barrier widths, and structure of the mine floors. Discharge monitoring points were established in and near the landslides. These studies depict how mine layout, operation, and geology influence drainage conditions. The authors suggest that mine designs should incorporate drainage control to insure long-term stability and limit liability. The goal of the post-mining drainage plan is control of the mine drainage, which will reduce the size of mine pools and lower the hydrostatic pressure. Recommendations are made as to several methods that may be useful in controlling mine drainage.

  8. Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Operational apron with pit hydrants in foreground, aircraft in background. View to west - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. PMID:22054578

  10. Preliminary report on the implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Goldstein, P.; Moran, B.; Glenn, L.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV. The purpose of the experiment is to obtain local and regional seismic data together with ``ground truth``, from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions.

  11. 3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view to the northeast. One of the servo motor housings is visible in the right background of the photograph. Notice the wicket gate linkage greasing tubes along the top of the operating ring. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  12. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock

  13. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  14. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

  15. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  16. A simplified economic filter for open-pit mining and heap-leach recovery of copper in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Singer, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the economic viability of mineral deposits of various sizes and grades is a critical task in all phases of mineral supply, from land-use management to mine development. This study evaluates two simple tools for estimating the economic viability of porphyry copper deposits mined by open-pit, heap-leach methods when only limited information on these deposits is available. These two methods are useful for evaluating deposits that either (1) are undiscovered deposits predicted by a mineral resource assessment, or (2) have been discovered but for which little data has been collected or released. The first tool uses ordinary least-squared regression analysis of cost and operating data from selected deposits to estimate a predictive relationship between mining rate, itself estimated from deposit size, and capital and operating costs. The second method uses cost models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (Camm, 1991) updated using appropriate cost indices. We find that the cost model method works best for estimating capital costs and the empirical model works best for estimating operating costs for mines to be developed in the United States.

  17. Hyperspectral analysis for qualitative and quantitative features related to acid mine drainage at a remediated open-pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G.; Calvin, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The exposure of pyrite to oxygen and water in mine waste environments is known to generate acidity and the accumulation of secondary iron minerals. Sulfates and secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) exhibit diverse spectral properties in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The use of hyperspectral imagery for identification of AMD mineralogy and contamination has been well studied. Fewer studies have examined the impacts of hydrologic variations on mapping AMD or the unique spectral signatures of mine waters. Open-pit mine lakes are an additional environmental hazard which have not been widely studied using imaging spectroscopy. A better understanding of AMD variation related to climate fluctuations and the spectral signatures of contaminated surface waters will aid future assessments of environmental contamination. This study examined the ability of multi-season airborne hyperspectral data to identify the geochemical evolution of substances and contaminant patterns at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site. The mine is located 24 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe and contains remnant tailings piles and several AMD collection ponds. The objectives were to 1) distinguish temporal changes in mineralogy at a the remediated open-pit sulfur mine, 2) identify the absorption features of mine affected waters, and 3) quantitatively link water spectra to known dissolved iron concentrations. Images from NASA's AVIRIS instrument were collected in the spring, summer, and fall seasons for two consecutive years at Leviathan (HyspIRI campaign). Images had a spatial resolution of 15 meters at nadir. Ground-based surveys using the ASD FieldSpecPro spectrometer and laboratory spectral and chemical analysis complemented the remote sensing data. Temporal changes in surface mineralogy were difficult to distinguish. However, seasonal changes in pond water quality were identified. Dissolved ferric iron and chlorophyll

  18. Turnaround team revitalizes mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2005-11-01

    Starting from scratch, the Broe Companies' Century Coal trains the next generation. The article describes how the newly created Century Coal LLC, controlled by Denver-based Broe Companies investment firm, is rebuilding and expanding its highwall mining operations, increasing production from a current 1 million tons to 5 to 6 million tons in 2006 and 2007. The company has a $100,000 outreach program with 95% of these funds going to local communities. Present coal mining operations are spread around Bell, Clay, Harlan Knox and Leslie Counties. A priority is the renovation of the WenLar preparation plant in Bell County. 5 photos.

  19. 78 FR 77706 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Gemfield Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... impacts associated with the Gemfield Mine Project, a proposed open pit gold mine and associated processing... pit, heap leach, gold mining operation known as the Gemfield Mine Project. The proposed project...

  20. Analysis of open-pit mines using high-resolution topography from UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Among the anthropogenic topographic signatures on the Earth, open-pit mines deserve a great importance, since they significantly affect the Earth's surface and its related processes (e.g. erosion, pollution). Their geomorphological analysis, therefore, represents a real challenge for the Earth science community. The purpose of this research is to characterize the open-pit mining features using a recently published landscape metric, the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC) (Sofia et al., 2014), and high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) derived from drone surveyed topography. The research focuses on two main case studies of iron mines located in the Beijing district (P.R. China). The main topographic information (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) was derived using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique. The results underline the effectiveness of the adopted methodologies and survey techniques in the characterization of the main geomorphic features of the mines. Thanks to the SLLAC, the terraced area given by multi-benched sideways-moving method for the iron extraction is automatically depicted, and using some SLLAC derived parameters, the related terraces extent is automatically estimated. The analysis of the correlation length orientation, furthermore, allows to identify the terraces orientation respect to the North, and to understand as well the shape of the open-pit area. This provides a basis for a large scale and low cost topographic survey for a sustainable environmental planning and, for example, for the mitigation of environmental anthropogenic impact due to mining. References Sofia G., Marinello F, Tarolli P. 2014. A new landscape metric for the identification of terraced sites: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.018

  1. Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

    2012-04-01

    Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

  2. Example calculations of possible ground-water inflow to mine pits at the West Decker, East Decker, and proposed North Decker mines, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed plans to raise the spillway of the Tongue River Dam, Montana, 14 feet would result in an increase in the reservoir stage, which will affect the amount of ground-water inflow from the reservoir to existing and proposed surface coal mine pits near Tongue River Reservoir. Example calculations are based on flow from the reservoir to the mine pits through areas approximately perpendicular to the long axis of the reservoir. The planned increase in the stage of the reservoir will result in an increase of inflow to the mine pits in most areas. The increases will be greatest where the mine pits are near the reservoir and separated from the reservoir solely by aquifer zones of relatively large hydraulic conductivity. However, the inflow determined from the calculations is subject to a large degree of error, owing to the simplified method of calculation and the assumptions used. (USGS)

  3. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  4. ANCHOR HILL PIT LAKE IN SITU TREATMENT, GILT EDGE MINE SUPERFUND SITE, S. DAKOTA, USA - A RETROSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Region VII Superfund office and the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP)have been conducting a field scale technology demonstration of an in situ treatment of the Anchor Hill Pit Lake at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund...

  5. Characterization of Aerosol Particles around an Open Pit Coal Mine in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Ebert, Doerthe; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    PM10 around open pit coal mines in Germany frequently exceeds the 24 hours limit value of 50 ?g/m3. To comply with current EU regulations appropriate mitigation strategies have to be developed. For this goal accurate source apportionment is an indispensable prerequisite. In this study characterization of the dust immission was performed by electronmicroscopic individual particle analysis. Particles were collected close to the open pit mine from January 2007 until February 2008 with a two stage cascade impactor (aerodynamic particle diameter: 0.4 - 1 μm and 1 - 10 μm). The size, shape, and chemical composition of more than 30,000 particles were determined by automated scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The most abundant particle groups encountered are secondary aerosol particles, soot, silicates, silicate/coal mixtures, coal, sulfates, carbonates, Fe-rich particles and (aged) sea salt. The relative abundance of the different particle groups is highly variable as function of the specific meteorological conditions. It can be distinguished between at least three different scenarios, which were found to cause exceeding of the daily PM10 limit value. a) high concentrations of silicates and silicate/coal mixtures which can be assigned to mining activities, b) high concentrations of secondary aerosol particles and soot (urban background), occurring during inversion periods with stagnant air masses, and c) high concentrations of (aged) sea salt indicating direct transport of air masses from the North Sea. PM2.5 and PM1 are always dominated by urban background aerosol (secondary aerosol particles and soot). Following these results, significant reduction potentials for PM10 only exist for the contribution of the open pit mine (silicates, silicate/coal mixed particles) and for urban background aerosols (secondary aerosol particles and soot). As the contribution of the open pit mine is mainly apparent in the PM10-2.5 fraction

  6. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines "Kolubara", Serbia--risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ðurašević, M; Kandić, A; Stefanović, P; Vukanac, I; Sešlak, B; Milošević, Z; Marković, T

    2014-05-01

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and (40)K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines "Kolubara" and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. PMID:24360863

  7. Nature-oriented open coal mining technologies using mined-out space in an open-pit. Part II: A method for selecting rational sequence of mining flat dipping stratified deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Molotilov, S.G.; Norri, V.K.; Cheskidov, V.I.; Mattis, A.R.

    2007-01-15

    A method is proposed for selecting a rational mining sequence with internal dumping for flat stratified deposits, using new principles of the open-pit process-space formation and development. The main criteria for substantiating the mining sequence are geometrical form and development direction of the open-pit space, structure of the working wall and transportation network, internal dumping capacities and mining earthworks volumes.

  8. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment. PMID:23858994

  9. Characterization of ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers, Mesabi Iron Range, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study to characterize ground-water flow conditions between the Canisteo Mine Pit, Bovey, Minnesota, and surrounding aquifers following mine abandonment. The objective of the study was to estimate the amount of steady-state, ground-water flow between the Canisteo Mine Pit and surrounding aquifers at pit water-level altitudes below the level at which surface-water discharge from the pit may occur. Single-well hydraulic tests and stream-hydrograph analyses were conducted to estimate horizontal hydraulic conductivities and ground-water recharge rates, respectively, for glacial aquifers surrounding the mine pit. Average hydraulic conductivity values ranged from 0.05 to 5.0 ft/day for sands and clays and from 0.01 to 121 ft/day for coarse sands, gravels, and boulders. The 15-year averages for the estimated annual recharge using the winter records and the entire years of record for defining baseflow recession rates were 7.07 and 7.58 in., respectively. These recharge estimates accounted for 25 and 27 percent, respectively, of the average annual precipitation for the 1968-82 streamflow monitoring period. Ground-water flow rates into and out of the mine pit were estimated using a calibrated steady-state, ground-water flow model simulating an area of approximately 75 mi2 surrounding the mine pit. The model residuals, or difference between simulated and measured water levels, for 15 monitoring wells adjacent to the mine pit varied between +28.65 and –3.78 ft. The best-match simulated water levels were within 4 ft of measured water levels for 9 of the 15 wells, and within 2 ft for 4 of the wells. The simulated net ground-water flow into the Canisteo Mine Pit was +1.34 ft3/s, and the net ground-water flow calculated from pit water levels measured between July 5, 1999 and February 25, 2001 was +5.4 ft3/s. Simulated water levels and ground-water flow to and from the mine

  10. Extensive rill erosion and gullying on abandoned pit mining sites in Lusatia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Kaiser, Andreas; Vláčilová, Markéta; Schindewolf, Marcus; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    As the major economic driver in the province of Lusatia, Eastern Germany, the large open-cast lignite mining sites characterize the landscape and leave vast areas of irreversible changed post-mining landscapes behind. Cost-intensive renaturation projects have been implemented in order to restructure former mine sites into stabile self-sustaining ecosystems and local recreation areas. With considerable expenditure the pits are stabilized, flooded and surrounding areas are restructured. Nevertheless, heavy soil erosion, extensive gullying and slope instability are challenges for the restructuring and renaturation of the abandoned open-cast mining sites. The majority of the sites remain inaccessible to the public due to instable conditions resulting in uncontrolled slides and large gullies. In this study a combined approach of UAV-based aerial imagery, 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction and physically-based soil erosion modelling is carried out in order to document, quantify and better understand the causes of erosion processes on mining sites. Rainfall simulations have been carried out in lausatian post mining areas to reproduce soil detachment processes and observe the responsible mechanisms for the considerable erosion rates. Water repellency and soil sealing by biological crusts were hindering infiltration and consequently increasing runoff rates despite the mainly sandy soil texture. On non-vegetated experimental plots runoff coefficients up to 87 % were measured. In a modelling routine for a major gully catchment regarding a 50 years rainfall event, simulation results reveal runoff coefficients of up to 84% and erosion rates of 118 Mg*ha^-1. At the sediment pass over point 450Mg of sediments enter the surface water bodies. A system response of this order of magnitude were unexpected by the authorities. By applying 3D multi-vision surface reconstruction a model validation is now possible and further may illustrate the great importance of soil conservation

  11. Description of work for 100-DR-2 Operable Unit Vadose Drilling/test pits

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the scope of work for the boreholes/test pits of the 100-DR-2 Operable Unit. Sampling and field activities include: Soil screening; geologic sampling; soil sampling (physical property); analytical sampling and depths; and geophysical logging.

  12. Spontaneous revegetation vs. forestry reclamation in post-mining sand pits.

    PubMed

    Šebelíková, Lenka; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation development of sites restored by two different methods, spontaneous revegetation and forestry reclamation, was compared in four sand pit mining complexes located in the southern part of the Czech Republic, central Europe. The space-for-time substitution method was applied to collect vegetation records in 13 differently aged and sufficiently large sites with known history. The restoration method, age (time since site abandonment/reclamation), groundwater table, slope, and aspect in all sampled plots were recorded in addition to the visual estimation of percentage cover of all present vascular plant species. Multivariate methods and GLM were used for the data elaboration. Restoration method was the major factor influencing species pattern. Both spontaneously revegetated and forestry reclaimed sites developed towards forest on a comparable timescale. Although the sites did not significantly differ in species richness (160 species in spontaneously revegetated vs. 111 in forestry reclaimed sites), spontaneously revegetated sites tended to be more diverse with more species of conservation potential (10 Red List species in spontaneous sites vs. 4 Red List species in forestry reclaimed sites). These results support the use of spontaneous revegetation as an effective and low-cost method of sand pit restoration and may contribute to implementation of this method in practice. PMID:26342299

  13. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  14. 3D Modeling of Landslide in Open-pit Mining on Basis of Ground-based LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Slope stability is not only an important problem which is related to production and safety in open-pit mining, but also very complex task. There are three main reasons which affect the slope stability as follows: geotechnical factors: Geological structure, lithologic characteristics, water, cohesion, friction, etc.; climate factors: Rainfall and temperature; and external factors: Open-pit mining process, explosion vibration, dynamic load, etc.. The 3rd reason, as a specially one in open-pit mining, not only causes some dynamic problems but also induces the fast geometry changing which must be considered in the following research using numerical simulation and stability analysis. Recently, LIDAR technology has been applied in many fields and places in the world wide. Ground-based LIDAR technology with high accuracy up to 3mm increasingly accommodates to monitoring landslides and detecting changing. LIDAR data collection and preprocessing research have been carried out by Department of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology at RWTH Aachen University. LIDAR data, so-called a point-cloud of mass data in high density can be obtained in short time for the sensitive open-pit mining area by using ground-based LIDAR. To obtain a consistent surface model, it is necessary to set up multiple scans with the ground-based LIDAR. The framework of data preprocessing which can be implemented by Poly-Works is introduced as follows: gross error detection and elimination, integration of reference frame, model fusion of different scans (re-sampled in overlap region), data reduction without removing the useful information which is a challenge and research front in LIDAR data processing. After data preprocessing, 3D surface model can be directly generated in Poly-Works or generated in other software by building the triangular meshes. The 3D surface landslide model can be applied to further researches such as: real time landslide geometry monitoring due to the fast data collection and

  15. Automatic monitoring system for high-steep slope in open-pit mine based on GPS and data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunmei; Li, Xianfu; Qin, Sunwei; Qiu, Dandan; Wu, Yanlin; Xiao, Yun; Zhou, Jian

    2008-12-01

    Recently, GPS has been more and more applicative in open pit mine slope safety monitoring. Daye Iron Mine open pit high-steep slope automatic monitoring system mainly consists of three modules, namely, GPS data processing module, monitoring and warning module, emergency plans module. According to the rock mass structural feature and the side slope stability evaluation, it is arranged altogether to seven GPS distortion monitoring points on the sharp of Fault F9 at Daye iron Mine, adopted the combination of monofrequent static GPS receiver and data-transmission radio to carry on the observation, the data processing mainly uses three transect interpolation method to solve the questions of discontinuity and Effectiveness in the data succession. According to the displacement monitoring data from 1990 to 1996 of Daye Iron Mine East Open Pit Shizi mountain Landslide A2, researching the displacement criterion, rate criterion, acceleration criterion, creep curve tangent angle criterion etc of landslide failure, the result shows that the landslide A2 is the lapse type crag nature landslide whose movement in three phases, namely creep stage, accelerated phase, destruction stage. It is different of the failure criterion in different stages and different position that is at the rear, central, front margin of the landslide. It has important guiding significance to put forward the comprehensive failure criterion of seven new-settled monitoring points combining the slope deformation destruction and macroscopic evidence.

  16. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The

  17. [An occupational physiology study at the Asarel Mining and Milling Works. The evaluation of the work load in the basic jobs in an open-pit mine].

    PubMed

    Mincheva, L; Khadzhiolova, I; Deianov, Kh

    1995-01-01

    This occupational physiology study was undertaken within a wider applied-research framework designed to evaluate the occupational environment and its impact on workers at "Asarel" Mining and Milling Works. Analysis of activities showed physical effort (dynamic and static) to be the major problem at the open pit, though varying in extent between jobs (most prominent for blasters and bulldozerists). Nervous/emotional strain, while not leading, was sustained mostly by diggers and blasters, followed by drivers. Organization of work (shift regimen, no regulated breaks, stepwise schedule of days off work) was hardly appropriate and did not allow for recovery. Interviewed workers qualified working conditions as extremely unfavorable; they disapproved with the physical factors of the occupational environment, the workplace, the state of machines and devices, and remuneration for work performed. Exertion from work, assessed by pulse rate and energy expended, was moderate for most activities of diggers, drivers, and drillers. The burden of physical effort was great for blasters at the open pit and for diggers and drillers performing extra repair operations (pulse rate, 100-110 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.2-5.5 Kcal/min). Hardest and least attractive was the work of blasters at stores for explosive materials (pulse rate, 120-141 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.5-6.5 Kcal/min). These adverse factors of labor activities might produce a negative impact on worker health and performance, leading to occupational impairment of their musculoskeletal system, to labor-related disorders of their cardiovascular and nervous systems, etc. Preventive measures are thus necessary to limit physical exertion, optimize the work-and-rest regimen; also, there is a need for conducting pertinent preventive medical examinations, providing social measures (conditions for transportation, rest, nutrition, sports), etc. PMID:8524750

  18. A microbial arsenic cycle in sediments of an acidic mine impoundment: Herman Pit, Clear Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, Jodi S.; McCann, Shelley; Bennett, S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Stolz, J. R.; Stoneburner, B.; Saltikov, C.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of prokaryotes in the redox reactions of arsenic occurring between its +5 [arsenate; As(V)] and +3 [arsenite; As(III)] oxidation states has been well established. Most research to date has focused upon circum-neutral pH environments (e.g., freshwater or estuarine sediments) or arsenic-rich “extreme” environments like hot springs and soda lakes. In contrast, relatively little work has been conducted in acidic environments. With this in mind we conducted experiments with sediments taken from the Herman Pit, an acid mine drainage impoundment of a former mercury (cinnabar) mine. Due to the large adsorptive capacity of the abundant Fe(III)-rich minerals, we were unable to initially detect in solution either As(V) or As(III) added to the aqueous phase of live sediment slurries or autoclaved controls, although the former consumed added electron donors (i.e., lactate, acetate, hydrogen), while the latter did not. This prompted us to conduct further experiments with diluted slurries using the live materials from the first incubation as inoculum. In these experiments we observed reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anoxic conditions and reduction rates were enhanced by addition of electron donors. We also observed oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in oxic slurries as well as in anoxic slurries amended with nitrate. We noted an acid-tolerant trend for sediment slurries in the cases of As(III) oxidation (aerobic and anaerobic) as well as for anaerobic As(V) reduction. These observations indicate the presence of a viable microbial arsenic redox cycle in the sediments of this extreme environment, a result reinforced by the successful amplification of arsenic functional genes (aioA, and arrA) from these materials.

  19. The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining.

    PubMed

    Fox, D K; Hopkins, B L; Anger, W K

    1987-01-01

    A token economy that used trading stamps as tokens was instituted at two dangerous open-pit mines. Employees earned stamps for working without lost-time injuries, for being in work groups in which all other workers had no lost-time injuries, for not being involved in equipment-damaging accidents, for making adopted safety suggestions, and for unusual behavior which prevented an injury or accident. They lost stamp awards if they or other workers in their group were injured, caused equipment damage, or failed to report accidents or injuries. The stamps could be exchanged for a selection of thousands of items at redemption stores. Implementation of the token economy was followed by large reductions in the number of days lost from work because of injuries, the number of lost-time injuries, and the costs of accidents and injuries. The reductions in costs far exceeded the costs of operating the token economy. All improvements were maintained over several years. PMID:3667473

  20. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.

    2002-06-18

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.

  1. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  2. Selenium bioaccumulation in stocked fish as an indicator of fishery potential in pit lakes on reclaimed coal mines in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Rasmussen, J B; Palace, V P; Sterling, G; Hontela, A

    2013-07-01

    Pit lakes are a common reclamation strategy for open pit mines; however, there is a concern about their water quality and suitability as fish habitat because they are often contaminated by metals or metalloids. This study assessed the exposure of fish and invertebrates to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were stocked into two thermal coal pit lakes (water Se < 2 μg/L, low water Se) and two metallurgical coal pit lakes (water Se > 15 μg/L, high water Se). Se accumulation in stocked fish and concentrations in invertebrates were characterized over a period of 2 years. In the metallurgical pits, invertebrates had higher Se concentrations and fish accumulated Se to higher levels (exceeding USEPA tissue Se guidelines) than biota in the thermal pits. Rainbow and brook trout accumulated similar concentrations of Se in their muscle and exhibited a similar relationship between whole-body and muscle Se concentrations. These results may be used by resource managers to assess compliance with whole-body tissue Se guidelines and to determine if pit lakes in coal mining areas pose a significant Se risk to wildlife or human health. The high Se exposure in metallurgical coal pits indicates that under the current mining and reclamation strategy, these lakes are not suitable for management as recreational "put and take" fisheries. PMID:23665755

  3. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  4. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  5. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a)...

  8. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a)...

  10. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  11. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt), respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  12. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of littoral sediments of an acidic post-mining pit lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagauzère, S.; Moreira, S.; Koschorreck, M.

    2011-02-01

    In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (Eastern Germany) but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH < 3). The biogeochemical functioning of these lakes is mainly governed by cycling of iron. This represents a relevant ecological problem and intensive research has been conducted to understand the involved biogeochemical processes and develop bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates) under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera) is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors) was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the diffusive oxygen uptake by sediment, indicating a stimulation of the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation) but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  13. Influence of bioturbation on the biogeochemistry of the sediment in the littoral zone of an acidic mine pit lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagauzère, S.; Moreira, S.; Koschorreck, M.

    2010-10-01

    In the last decades, the mining exploitation of large areas in Lusatia (South-eastern Germany) but also in other mining areas worldwide has led to the formation of hundreds of pit lakes. Pyrite oxidation in the surrounding dumps makes many such lakes extremely acidic (pH < 3). The biogeochemical functioning of these lakes is mainly governed by cycling of iron. This represents a relevant ecological problem and intensive research has been conducted to understand the involved biogeochemical processes and develop bioremediation strategies. Despite some studies reporting the presence of living organisms (mostly bacteria, algae, and macro-invertebrates) under such acidic conditions, and their trophic interactions, their potential impact on the ecosystem functioning was poorly investigated. The present study aimed to assess the influence of chironomid larvae on oxygen dynamics and iron cycle in the sediment of acidic pit lakes. In the Mining Lake 111, used as a study case since 1996, Chironomus crassimanus (Insecta, Diptera) is the dominant benthic macro-invertebrate species and occurs at relatively high abundances in shallow water. A 16-day laboratory experiment using microcosms combined with high resolution measurements (DET gel probes and O2 microsensors) was carried out. The burrowing activity of C. crassimanus larvae induced a 3-fold increase of the oxygen consumption by sediment, and stimulated the mineralization of organic matter in the upper layers of the sediment. The iron cycle was also impacted (e.g. lower rates of reduction and oxidation, increase of iron-oxidizing bacteria abundance, stimulation of mineral formation) but with no significant effect on the iron flux at the sediment-water interface, and thus on the water acidity budget. This work provides the first assessment of bioturbation in an acidic mining lake and shows that its influence on biogeochemistry cannot be neglected.

  14. Stimulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria in lake water from a former open-pit mine through addition of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.M.; Wielinga, B.W.; Gannon, J.E.; Moore, J.N.

    1999-03-01

    A method to improve water quality in a lake occupying a former open-pit mine was evaluated in a laboratory-scale study. Untreated pit lake water contained high levels of sulfate, iron, and arsenic and was mildly acidic ({approximately} pH 6). Varying amounts of two locally available organic waste products were added to pit water and maintained in microcosms under anoxic conditions. In selected microcosms, populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased with time; sulfide was generated by sulfate reduction; sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations approached zero; and pH approached neutrality. Best results were obtained with intermediate amounts of waste potato skin.

  15. 43 CFR 3482.3 - Mining operations maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mining operations maps. 3482.3 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Exploration and Resource Recovery and Protection Plans § 3482.3 Mining operations maps....

  16. 43 CFR 3482.3 - Mining operations maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mining operations maps. 3482.3 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Exploration and Resource Recovery and Protection Plans § 3482.3 Mining operations maps....

  17. 43 CFR 3482.3 - Mining operations maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mining operations maps. 3482.3 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Exploration and Resource Recovery and Protection Plans § 3482.3 Mining operations maps....

  18. 43 CFR 3482.3 - Mining operations maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mining operations maps. 3482.3 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES Exploration and Resource Recovery and Protection Plans § 3482.3 Mining operations maps....

  19. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  20. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y.

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  1. Mars methane analogue mission: Mission simulation and rover operations at Jeffrey Mine and Norbestos Mine Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadi, A.; Cloutis, E.; Samson, C.; Whyte, L.; Ellery, A.; Bell, J. F.; Berard, G.; Boivin, A.; Haddad, E.; Lavoie, J.; Jamroz, W.; Kruzelecky, R.; Mack, A.; Mann, P.; Olsen, K.; Perrot, M.; Popa, D.; Rhind, T.; Sharma, R.; Stromberg, J.; Strong, K.; Tremblay, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Wing, B.; Wong, B.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), through its Analogue Missions program, supported a microrover-based analogue mission designed to simulate a Mars rover mission geared toward identifying and characterizing methane emissions on Mars. The analogue mission included two, progressively more complex, deployments in open-pit asbestos mines where methane can be generated from the weathering of olivine into serpentine: the Jeffrey mine deployment (June 2011) and the Norbestos mine deployment (June 2012). At the Jeffrey Mine, testing was conducted over 4 days using a modified off-the-shelf Pioneer rover and scientific instruments including Raman spectrometer, Picarro methane detector, hyperspectral point spectrometer and electromagnetic induction sounder for testing rock and gas samples. At the Norbestos Mine, we used the research Kapvik microrover which features enhanced autonomous navigation capabilities and a wider array of scientific instruments. This paper describes the rover operations in terms of planning, deployment, communication and equipment setup, rover path parameters and instrument performance. Overall, the deployments suggest that a search strategy of “follow the methane” is not practical given the mechanisms of methane dispersion. Rather, identification of features related to methane sources based on image tone/color and texture from panoramic imagery is more profitable.

  2. WORKSHOP ON THE CHARACTERIZATION, MODELING, REMEDIATION AND MONITORING OF MINING-IMPACTED PIT LAKES, SANDS RGENCY CASINO HOTEL, DOWNTOWN RENO, NV. APRIL 4-6, 2000 (PROGRAM FLYER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific infomation on current approaches for assessing the characterization, monitoring, treatment and/or remediation of impacts on aquatic ecosystems including pit lakes from mining-related contamination i...

  3. Formation of the composition and properties of dumps on the open-pit mines of Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesin, Y. V.; Luk'yanova, S. Y.; Tyuleneva, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 the total volume of coal mining in the Kuzbass was about 200 million tons, including 116 million tons (60.3%) produced open way, Figure 1. In 2014, it was produced more than 203 million tons of coal. In addition, there is no reason to believe that in the near future volume of coal will decline. Accordingly, the volume of wastewater discharged by enterprises will increase. So, from 2006 to 2009 there was an increase of polluted water discharge coal mines from 217 to 245 million m3. Therefore, the problem of water pollution mines governmental waters and career is very important.

  4. Processes at the sediment water interface after addition of organic matter and lime to an acid mine pit lake mesocosm

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias Koschorreck; Elke Bozau; Rene Froemmichen; Walter Geller; Peter Herzsprung; Katrin Wendt-Potthoff

    2007-03-01

    A strategy to neutralize acidic pit lakes was tested in a field mesocosm of 4500 m{sup 3} volume in the Acidic Pit Mine Lake 111 in the Koyne-Plessa lignite mining district of Lusatia, Germany. Carbokalk, a byproduct from sugar production, and wheat straw was applied near to the sediment surface to stimulate in lake microbial alkalinity generation by sulfate and iron reduction. The biogeochemical processes at the sediment-water interface were studied over 3 years by geochemical monitoring and an in situ microprofiler. Substrate addition generated a reactive zone at the sediment surface where sulfate and iron reduction proceeded. Gross sulfate reduction reached values up to 10 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. The neutralization rates between 27 and 0 meq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} were considerably lower than in previous laboratory experiments. The precipitation of ferric iron minerals resulted in a growing acidic sediment layer on top of the neutral sediment. In this layer sulfate reduction was observed but iron sulfides could not precipitate. In the anoxic sediment H{sub 2}S was oxidized by ferric iron minerals. H{sub 2}S partly diffused to the water column where it was oxidized. As a result the net formation of iron sulfides decreased after 1 year although gross sulfate reduction rates continued to be high. The rate of iron reduction exceeded the sulfate reduction rate, which resulted in high fluxes of ferrous iron out of the sediment. 46 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Summitville Mine Superfund Site, Operable Unit 2, Summitville, CO, December 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The decision document presents the selected interim remedial action, for reducing or eliminating acid mine drainage from the Cropsy Waste Pile (CWP), Summitville Dam Impoundment (SDI), Beaver Mud Dump (BMD), and Mine Pits at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site (Site) in Rio Grande County, Colorado. The interim remedy addresses the reduction or elimination of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the CWP, SDI, and BMD, and the Mine Pits. The AMD originates from sources altered or disturbed during mining activities at the Site.

  6. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  7. Do state-and-transition models derived from vegetation succession also represent avian succession in restored mine pits?

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael D; Stokes, Vicki L; Fontaine, Joseph B; Hardy, Giles E StJ; Grigg, Andrew H; Hobbs, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    State-and-transition models are increasingly used as a tool to inform management of post-disturbance succession and effective conservation of biodiversity in production landscapes. However, if they are to do this effectively, they need to represent faunal, as well as vegetation, succession. We assessed the congruence between vegetation and avian succession by sampling avian communities in each state of a state-and-transition model used to inform management of post-mining restoration in a production landscape in southwestern Australia. While avian communities differed significantly among states classified as on a desirable successional pathway, they did not differ between desirable and deviated states of the same post-mining age. Overall, we concluded there was poor congruence between vegetation and avian succession in this state-and-transition model. We identified four factors that likely contributed to this lack of congruence, which were that long-term monitoring of succession in restored mine pits was not used to update and improve models, states were not defined based on ecological processes and thresholds, states were not defined by criteria that were important in structuring the avian community, and states were not based on criteria that related to values in the reference community. We believe that consideration of these four factors in the development of state-and-transition models should improve their ability to accurately represent faunal, as well as vegetation, succession. Developing state-and-transition models that better incorporate patterns of faunal succession should improve the ability to manage post-disturbance succession across a range of ecosystems for biodiversity conservation. PMID:26591446

  8. Sub-pixel method for analysis of optical data in determining the overburden dumps and open pit mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, D.; Nikolov, H.; Petkov, D.; Banushev, B.

    2011-11-01

    Mining plants are one of the factors having major negative impact on the area where they are situated. In our study this is the case of the mine production plant consisting of Elacite mine and Mirkovo floatation plant both located in central part of Stara Planina Mountain. In this study an attempt is made to delineate the overburden dumps and open pit mines by means of remotely sensed multispectral data with moderate spatial resolution (e.g. Landsat TM/ETM+ 30m) is a challenging task. The major difficulties arise from: 1) large period using the dump (introducing the need for multitemporal data); 2) the unknown proportions of vegetation, soil and embedding rock samples in the boundary areas and their seasonal variations; 3) relatively restricted access to places of interest. A variety of methods have been proposed to overcome the problems with pixels corresponding to two or more end-members, but a promising one is the soft classification which assign single pixel to several land cover classes in proportion to the area of the pixel that each class covers. In this scenario for every pixel of the data the correct proportion of the end-members should be found and then co-registered with the corresponding original pixel. As a result this sub-pixel classification procedure generates a number of fraction images equal to the number of land cover classes (end-members). The sub-pixel mapping algorithms we have exploited so far have one property in common: accuracy assessment of sub-pixel mapping algorithms is not easy because of missing high resolution ground truth data. One possible solution is to incorporate in the method adopted additional ex-situ and in-situ measured data from field and laboratory spectrometers with bandwidth about 1 nm. This study presents a successful implementation of soft classification method with additional, precise spectrometric data for determination of dump areas of the copper plant and open ore mine. The results achieved are proving that the in

  9. The effects of phosphorus additions on the sedimentation of contaminants in a uranium mine pit-lake.

    PubMed

    Dessouki, Tarik C E; Hudson, Jeff J; Neal, Brian R; Bogard, Matthew J

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the usefulness of phytoplankton for the removal of surface water contaminants. Nine large mesocosms (92.2m(3)) were suspended in the flooded DJX uranium pit at Cluff Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada), and filled with highly contaminated mine water. Each mesocosm was fertilized with a different amount of phosphorus throughout the 35 day experiment to stimulate phytoplankton growth, and to create a range in phosphorus load (g) to examine how contaminants may be affected by different nutrient regimes. Algal growth was rapid in fertilized mesocosms (as demonstrated by chlorophyll a profiles). As phosphorus loads increased there were significant declines (p<0.05) in the surface water concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. This decline was near significant for uranium (p=0.065). The surface water concentrations of Ra-226, Mo, and Se showed no relationship to phosphorus load. Contaminant concentrations in sediment traps suspended at the bottom of each mesocosm generally showed the opposite trend to that observed in the surface water, with most contaminants (As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Ra-226, U, and Zn) exhibiting a significant positive relationship (p<0.05) with phosphorus load. Selenium and Mo did not respond to nutrient treatments. Our results suggest that phytoremediation has the potential to lower many surface water contaminants through the sedimentation of phytoplankton. Based on our results, we estimate that the Saskatchewan Surface Water Quality Objectives (SSWQO) for DJX pit would be met in approximately 45 weeks for Co, 65 weeks for Ni, 15 weeks for U, and 5 weeks for Zn. PMID:15979684

  10. Uav-Based Point Cloud Generation for Open-Pit Mine Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, M.; Sohn, G.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Along with the advancement of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), improvement of high-resolution cameras and development of vision-based mapping techniques, unmanned aerial imagery has become a matter of remarkable interest among researchers and industries. These images have the potential to provide data with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution for three-dimensional (3D) modelling. In this paper, we present our theoretical and technical experiments regarding the development, implementation and evaluation of a UAV-based photogrammetric system for precise 3D modelling. This system was preliminarily evaluated for the application of gravel-pit surveying. The hardware of the system includes an electric powered helicopter, a 16-megapixels visible camera and inertial navigation system. The software of the system consists of the in-house programs built for sensor calibration, platform calibration, system integration and flight planning. It also includes the algorithms developed for structure from motion (SfM) computation including sparse matching, motion estimation, bundle adjustment and dense matching.

  11. Estimation of long-term stability of mine pillars in underground pit

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, S.; Sugimoto, F.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuzumi, M.

    1996-12-01

    Recently in Japan, unexpected degradation (surface subsidence) at old underground quarry sites, such as `Ohya-Ishi` (pumice tuff) pit field has often occurred. At these quarry sites, the excavation was started 20 or 30 years ago with mechanical chain cutter and the Room and Pillar method, and stopped 7 or more years ago. Therefore, a reliable method has been required for an estimation of long term mechanical properties of the rock and for an observation of a stability of rock-pillars or structures. In this study, creep tests under uniaxial compressive load were carried out on the `Ohya-Ishi`, with the aim of estimating the long term stability of the rock. From these results, a creep mechanism of the rock was discussed using the failure mechanism hypothesis proposed by Bieniawski and by others. On this basis, critical time to failure was predicted by the relationship between the logarithm of life time and stress ratio of the sustained axial creep load. Additionally, outline of the monitoring system of AE/MS activity in the field, which have set by the Ohya Aria Consolidate Public Corporation and the others to predict or to prevent the degradation of those residual pillars, is to be reported.

  12. Application of artificial neural network coupled with genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to solve groundwater inflow problem to an advancing open pit mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Baafi, Ernest

    2016-05-01

    In this study, hybrid models are designed to predict groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine and the hydraulic head (HH) in observation wells at different distances from the centre of the pit during its advance. Hybrid methods coupling artificial neural network (ANN) with genetic algorithm (GA) methods (ANN-GA), and simulated annealing (SA) methods (ANN-SA), were utilised. Ratios of depth of pit penetration in aquifer to aquifer thickness, pit bottom radius to its top radius, inverse of pit advance time and the HH in the observation wells to the distance of observation wells from the centre of the pit were used as inputs to the networks. To achieve the objective two hybrid models consisting of ANN-GA and ANN-SA with 4-5-3-1 arrangement were designed. In addition, by switching the last argument of the input layer with the argument of the output layer of two earlier models, two new models were developed to predict the HH in the observation wells for the period of the mining process. The accuracy and reliability of models are verified by field data, results of a numerical finite element model using SEEP/W, outputs of simple ANNs and some well-known analytical solutions. Predicted results obtained by the hybrid methods are closer to the field data compared to the outputs of analytical and simple ANN models. Results show that despite the use of fewer and simpler parameters by the hybrid models, the ANN-GA and to some extent the ANN-SA have the ability to compete with the numerical models.

  13. [Energy requirements of miners engaged in open-pit coal mining].

    PubMed

    Pichkhadze, G M; Shalygin, A E; Zubtsov, Iu N

    1987-01-01

    It has been found that according to the value of daily energy consumption the coal miners engaged in open-cast mining should be referred to group III-IV of work intensity. The determining component of daily energy consumption is energy consumption during the working period the value of which depends on the character of working activity and duration of the working shift. The method of strict evaluation of the calorific value of the food taken and the control of body mass is acceptable for the assessment of daily energy consumption. PMID:2964122

  14. Application of ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis as a tool for optimizing the blast design in large open pit mines

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper explains the methodology for assessing the efficiency of rockmass fragmentation by explosive blasting, from ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis of the blast event. Explosives are used in the mining, quarrying and construction industries for fragmenting rockmass to a suitable size. When an explosive charge is detonated, in addition to fragmenting the rockmass, it will also generate ground vibration and air vibrations. Efficiency of a blast depend upon percentage of blast energy wasted in generating ground vibrations and air vibrations. This in turn will depend upon rockmass characteristics, amount of explosive energy used per delay and spatial distribution of explosive in the rockmass. Ground vibrations and air vibrations, arising out of explosive detonation in a rockmass, could be captured by micro-computer based engineering seismograph and sound level meter. Typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation for a particular rockmass can be identified from ground vibration frequency spectra analysis of the blast event on a personal computer applying Fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The typical frequency range indicative of efficient rockmass fragmentation depends upon rockmass impedance and can be estimated from rockmass characteristics and monitoring few trial blasts. Blast event efficiency is estimated by comparing the typical frequency range with the dominant frequency range of the blast event record. A large number of blast events monitored and analyzed by the author in different rockmass formations and correlation of the results with observations made while fragmented material is lifted and loaded into trucks indicated that ground vibration frequency spectrum analysis could be used as a reliable and cost effective tool for assessing the blasting efficiency and optimizing blast design in large open-pit mines.

  15. Quality-of-water data and statistical summary for selected coal-mined strip pits in Crawford and Cherokee counties, southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Diaz, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Quality-of-water data, collected October 21-23, 1980, and a statistical summary are presented for 42 coal-mined strip pits in Crawford and Cherokee Counties, Southeastern Kansas. The statistical summary includes minimum and maximum observed values , mean, and standard deviation. Simple linear regression equations relating specific conductance, dissolved solids, and acidity to concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, and magnesium, potassium, aluminum, and iron are also presented. (USGS)

  16. Xenotime from the Podwiśniówka mine pit, Holy Cross Mountains (South-Central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M.; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of petrographical and mineralogical (optical microscopy, SEM/EDS) study of xenotime derived from the Upper (Middle?) Cambrian rocks (Wiśniówka Sandstone Fm.) of the abandoned Podwiśniówka mine pit. This is the first work on this mineral from the Holy Cross Mts. The authigenic xenotime occurs primarily as overgrowths around/on zircon in siliciclastic rocks. Moreover, this mineral is characterized by the large size of the overgrowths reaching 50 μm long and 20 μm wide. The presence of pyritecoated zircon/xenotime aggregates indicates that the xenotime formed prior to hydrothermal quartz-pyrite mineralization. The apparent lack of xenotime and vein pyrite in the tuff-bearing series, compared to the other two series displaying hydrothermal signature (pyrite, hematite, nacrite, jarosite), as well as considerable variations of the xenotime overgrowths in size and morphology, and their dominant irregular patchy-zonal microtexture may provide evidence for direct precipitation of this mineral from hydrothermal fluids.

  17. Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

  18. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  19. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  20. Prediction of Backbreak in Open-Pit Blasting Operations Using the Machine Learning Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manoj; Monjezi, M.

    2013-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable phenomenon in blasting operations. It can cause instability of mine walls, falling down of machinery, improper fragmentation, reduced efficiency of drilling, etc. The existence of various effective parameters and their unknown relationships are the main reasons for inaccuracy of the empirical models. Presently, the application of new approaches such as artificial intelligence is highly recommended. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict backbreak in blasting operations of Soungun iron mine, Iran, incorporating rock properties and blast design parameters using the support vector machine (SVM) method. To investigate the suitability of this approach, the predictions by SVM have been compared with multivariate regression analysis (MVRA). The coefficient of determination (CoD) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were taken as performance measures. It was found that the CoD between measured and predicted backbreak was 0.987 and 0.89 by SVM and MVRA, respectively, whereas the MAE was 0.29 and 1.07 by SVM and MVRA, respectively.

  1. Material instability hazards in mine-processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fredland, J.W.; Wu, K.K.; Kirkwood, D.W.

    1993-10-01

    Many accidents occur in the mining industry as a result of the instability of material during handling and processing operation. Accidents due to dump point instability at stockpiles, and at spoil or waste piles, for example, occur with alarming frequency. Miners must be trained to be better aware of these hazards. Information on safe working procedures at stockpiles and surge piles is provided. Mine operators must review their training and operating procedures regularly to ensure that hazardous conditions are avoided.

  2. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  3. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  4. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  5. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  6. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  7. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  8. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  9. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  10. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  11. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  12. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  13. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  14. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  15. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  16. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  17. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  18. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  19. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  20. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  1. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  2. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  3. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  4. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  5. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  6. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  7. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  8. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  9. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  10. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  11. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  12. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  13. Terlinguacreekite, Hg32+O2 Cl2, a new mineral species from the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Gault, Robert A.; Paar, W.H.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Burns, P.C.; Cisneros, S.; Foord, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Terlinguacreekite, ideally Hg32+O2 Cl2, has a very pronounced subcell that is orthorhombic, space-group choices Imam, Imcm, Ima2 and 12cm, with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 6.737(3), b 25.528(10), c 5.533(2) A??, V951.6(6) A??3, a:b:c 0.2639:1:0.2167, Z=8. The true symmetry, supercell unit-cell parameters, and details regarding the crystal structure are unknown. The strongest nine lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(subcell hkl)] are: 5.413(30)(011), 4.063(80)(121), 3.201(50)(080), 3.023(50)(161), 2.983(60)(240), 2.858(30)(211), 2.765(50)(002), 2.518(100b)(091, 251) and 2.026(30)(242). The mineral is found in an isolated area measuring approximately 1 ?? 0.5 m in the lower level of the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas (type locality), as mm-sized anhedral dark orange to reddish orange crusts of variable thickness on calcite, and rarely as 0.5 mm-sized aggregates of crystals of the same color. It has also been identified at the McDermitt mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A., where it occurs with kleinite and calomel in silicified volcanic rocks and sediments. Terlinguacreekite is a secondary phase, most probably formed from the alteration of primary cinnabar or native mercury. At Terlingua, most crusts are thin, almost cryptocrystalline, with no discernable forms, and are resinous and translucent to opaque. Crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length, subhedral, acicular to prismatic, elongation [001], with a maximum length-to-width ratio of 4:1. They are vitreous, transparent, and some crystals have brightly reflecting faces, which may be {010} and {110}. The streak is yellow, and the mineral is brittle with an uneven fracture, no observable cleavage, and is soft, nonfluorescent under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light. D (calc.) is 9.899 g/cm3 (empirical formula). Material from the McDermitt mine is reversibly photosensitive, and turns from vivid orange to black in strong

  14. Environmental assessment for the expansion and operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed expansion and operation of an existing borrow pit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. A borrow pit is defined as an excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location. The proposed action would entail the areal enlargement, continued operation, and eventual close-out of the established facility known as the Central Shops Borrow Pit. Operations at SRS supporting waste site closure and the construction and maintenance of site facilities and infrastructure require readily available suitable soil for use as fill material. With the recent depletion of the other existing on-site sources for such material, DOE proposes to expand the existing facility. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

  15. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with

  16. Design review report: AN valve pit upgrades for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, K.A.

    1998-01-13

    This Design Review Report (DRR) documents the contractor design verification methodology and records associated with project W-314`s AN Valve Pit Upgrades design package. The DRR includes the documented comments and their respective dispositions for this design. Acceptance of the comment dispositions and closure of the review comments is indicated by the signatures of the participating reviewers. Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations, is a project within the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Retrieval Program. This project provides capital upgrades for the existing Hanford tank farms` waste transfer, instrumentation, ventilation, and electrical infrastructure systems. To support established TWRS programmatic objectives, the project is organized into two distinct phases. The initial focus of the project (i.e., Phase 1) is on waste transfer system upgrades needed to support the TWRS Privatization waste feed delivery system. Phase 2 of the project will provide upgrades to support resolution of regulatory compliance issues, improve tank infrastructure reliability, and reduce overall plant operating/maintenance costs. Within Phase 1 of the W-314 project, the waste transfer system upgrades are further broken down into six major packages which align with the project`s work breakdown structure. Each of these six sub-elements includes the design, procurement, and construction activities necessary to accomplish the specific tank farm upgrades contained within the package. The first package to be performed is the AN Valve Pit Upgrades package. The scope of the modifications includes new pit cover blocks, valve manifolds, leak detectors, transfer line connections (for future planned transfer lines), and special protective coating for the 241-AN-A and 241-AN-B valve pits.

  17. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    PubMed

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. PMID:27092420

  18. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    PubMed

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  19. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  20. Current Mined Geologic Disposal System concept of operations

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, R.B.; Teraoka, G.M.

    1998-07-01

    The concept of operations for the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) provides an integrated, conceptual description of the physical architecture and operating concept of the potential repository. The document facilitates a common understanding of the operations among system planners, developers and implementors by summarizing design solutions and operating concepts. During this past year, the MGDS Concept of Operations document was updated to reflect the Viability Assessment (VA) design and operating concept. Previously, this document reflected the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). This paper presents a description of the significant operational changes from ACD to VA design that are now captured in the concept of operations document.

  1. Display for Mining-Machine Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Electronic display unit provides operator of longwall shearer with information needed to control machine. Unit samples sensors on shearer. Using sensor signals, executes mathematical calculations, performs decisionmaking routines and displays results to operator. Unit also logs data for later analysis.

  2. Radon Emission from Coal Mines of Kuzbass Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portola, V. A.; Torosyan, E. S.; Antufeyev, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    The article represents the results of a research in radionuclides concentration in coal and rocks of Kuzbass mines as well as radon concentration in operative mines and mined-out spaces. It is proved that radon concentration in mines is considerably higher than in the atmosphere and it rises drastically in the mined-out spaces. It is found out that radon is carried out from mines by ventilation flows and from open pits, generating anomalous concentrations over self-ignition areas.

  3. Mined Geologic Disposal System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, R.M.

    1995-06-08

    A Concept of Operations has been developed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The Concept of Operations has been developed to document a cormion understanding of how the repository is to be operated. It is based on the repository architecture identified in the Initial Summary Report for Repository/Waste Package Advanced Conceptual Design and describes the operation of the repository from the initial receipt of waste through repository closure. Also described are operations for waste retrieval.

  4. Open pit blasting in India

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, D.A.; Garg, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Open pit blasting in India uses two types of explosives. First there are bulk explosives for wet and dry holes, and there are packaged explosives. The Indian open pit coal mining is projected to use 190 thousand metric tons of explosives in 1995. This volume is projected to grow for the next ten years, whereas the underground coal mining will hold fairly constant. Bulk explosives started in about 1977 with watergels. In the late 1980s, bulk emulsions and heavy ANFOs were introduced. This system is still being expanded and is replacing packaged products in the larger mines. Packaged products are still popular where the annual consumption is less than 2,000 metric tons per year. Also, packaged products are used in small wet shots. Porous ammonium nitrate prill have recently become available but ANFO is not very common because of the high cost of the prill and the wet blasting conditions. As the market expands there will be a continuing demand for packaged products but an increasing demand for bulk waterproof products, particularly in the larger operations. Dynamites are produced at four plants in India. The annual production of about 45,000 metric tons per year is holding fairly constant, but is likely to decrease in the future. The future blasting in India will primarily use pumped emulsions and heavy ANFO on an increasing basis, but the packaged products will maintain their position.

  5. A data mining approach to intelligence operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Hicks, David L.; Harkiolakis, Nicholas

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we examine the latest thinking, approaches and methodologies in use for finding the nuggets of information and subliminal (and perhaps intentionally hidden) patterns and associations that are critical to identify criminal activity and suspects to private and government security agencies. An emphasis in the paper is placed on Social Network Analysis and Investigative Data Mining, and the use of these technologies in the counterterrorism domain. Tools and techniques from both areas are described, along with the important tasks for which they can be used to assist with the investigation and analysis of terrorist organizations. The process of collecting data about these organizations is also considered along with the inherent difficulties that are involved.

  6. Microcomputer applications for concurrent aggregate mine operation and reclamation planning

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, B.K.

    1990-02-01

    As ever increasing need exists for the planning of aggregate mine operations and reclamation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate microcomputer applications to assist in the development of a concurrent aggregate mine operation and reclamation plan. The thesis is divided into sections that encompassed three aspects. The first, Section 1 -- concurrent Aggregate Mine Operation and Reclamation Planning, examines the possibility of organizing the operation and reclamation of aggregate mining into a single plan or set of plans. The second section of the thesis, Section 2 -- Microcomputer Applications, describes the use of microcomputers within the mining industry and the landscape architecture profession. This section contains a review of the current types of programs and how they are used. The programs that were used for the case study and their applications and characteristics are also explored. The third and final section of the thesis, Section 3 -- Alden Quarry Case Study, applies the concepts of the first two sections to a practical situation. 35 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  8. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  9. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section 941.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  10. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  11. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  12. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  13. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  14. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section 941.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  15. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  16. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  17. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  18. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  19. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  20. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  1. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  2. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  3. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  4. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  5. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  6. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  7. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  8. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  9. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  10. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  11. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  12. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  13. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  14. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  15. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designatng Areas Unsuitable for...

  16. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  17. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designatng Areas Unsuitable for...

  18. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  19. THE HERMAN PIT AND ITS ROLE IN MERCURY TRANSPORT AT THE SULPHUR BANK MERCURY MINE SUPERFUND SITE, CLEAR LAKE, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) is an abandoned sulphur and cinnabar mine located on the eastern shore of the Oaks Arm of Clear Lake, Lake County, California. SBMM was one of the largest mercury producers in California and has been described as one of the most productive sh...

  20. Metal and metalloid contaminants in atmospheric aerosols from mining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csavina, Janae

    Mining operations, including crushing, grinding, smelting, refining, and tailings management, are a significant source of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants such as As, Pb, Cd and other potentially toxic elements. Dust particles emitted from mining operations can accumulate in surrounding soils, natural waters and vegetation at relatively high concentrations through wind and water transport. Human exposure to the dust can occur through inhalation and, especially in the case of children, incidental dust ingestion, particularly during the early years when children are likely to exhibit pica. Furthermore, smelting operations release metals and metalloids in the form of fumes and ultra-fine particulate matter, which disperses more readily than coarser soil dusts. Of specific concern, these fine particulates can be transported to the lungs, allowing contaminants to be transferred into the blood stream. The main aim of this research is to assess the role of atmospheric aerosol and dust in the transport of metal and metalloid contaminants from mining operations to assess the deleterious impacts of these emissions to ecology and human health. In a field campaign, ambient particulates from five mining sites and four reference sites were examined utilizing micro-orifice deposit impactors (MOUDI), total suspended particulate (TSP) collectors, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and Dusttrak optical particle counters for an understanding of the fate and transport of atmospheric aerosols. One of the major findings from size-resolved chemical characterization at three mining sites showed that the majority of the contaminant concentrations were found in the fine size fraction (<1 micrometer). Further, metal and metalloids (e.g. As, Cd, and Pb) around smelting activities are significantly enriched in both the coarse and fine size fraction when compared to reference sites. Additionally, with dust events being a growing concern because of predicted climate change and

  1. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining...

  2. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining...

  3. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining...

  4. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining...

  5. Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations.

    PubMed

    Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 μm aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 μm diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site. PMID:23441050

  6. Metal and Metalloid Contaminants in Atmospheric Aerosols from Mining Operations

    PubMed Central

    Csavina, Janae; Landázuri, Andrea; Wonaschütz, Anna; Rine, Kyle; Rheinheimer, Paul; Barbaris, Brian; Conant, William; Sáez, A. Eduardo; Betterton, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Mining operations are potential sources of airborne metal and metalloid contaminants through both direct smelter emissions and wind erosion of mine tailings. The warmer, drier conditions predicted for the Southwestern US by climate models may make contaminated atmospheric dust and aerosols increasingly important, with potential deleterious effects on human health and ecology. Fine particulates such as those resulting from smelting operations may disperse more readily into the environment than coarser tailings dust. Fine particles also penetrate more deeply into the human respiratory system, and may become more bioavailable due to their high specific surface area. In this work, we report the size-fractionated chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosols sampled over a period of a year near an active mining and smelting site in Arizona. Aerosols were characterized with a 10-stage (0.054 to 18 μm aerodynamic diameter) multiple orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a total suspended particulate (TSP) collector. The MOUDI results show that arsenic and lead concentrations follow a bimodal distribution, with maxima centered at approximately 0.3 and 7.0 μm diameter. We hypothesize that the sub-micron arsenic and lead are the product of condensation and coagulation of smelting vapors. In the coarse size, contaminants are thought to originate as aeolian dust from mine tailings and other sources. Observation of ultrafine particle number concentration (SMPS) show the highest readings when the wind comes from the general direction of the smelting operations site. PMID:23441050

  7. Design and operation of powered supports for longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.M. )

    1993-06-01

    Throughout the history of longwall mining, the design of the roof support system has been critical to the success of the mining operation. Early forms of longwall mining used wood props for face support and packwalls made from roof and floor rock to control caving of the immediate roof. These systems were replaced by powered roof supports that could be advanced easily while allowing the strata to cave behind them. The first powered roof supports were simple frame and chock structures. These designs were poor in their ability to resist horizontal displacements and moment loading caused by the strata dynamics during the caving process. They often experienced difficulty and failure. The shield greatly improved kinematic stability by providing a horizontal stiffness by mechanically connecting the canopy to the base in a truss-like fashion. The success of the shield support promoted the application of the longwall mining method in highly faulted and massive strata conditions where caving was difficult to control and where chock and frame supports were inadequate. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insights into optimizing shield design and utilization. Motivations for optimization are to minimize support costs and maximize shield life while providing effective ground control in all mining conditions.

  8. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  9. Occupational exposures among personnel working near combined burn pit and incinerator operations at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Blasch, Kyle; Kolivosky, John; Hill, Barry

    2016-04-01

    Occupational air samples were collected at Bagram Airfield Afghanistan for security forces (SF) stationed at the perimeter of the solid waste disposal facility that included a burn pit, air curtain destructors, and solid waste and medical waste incinerators. The objective of the investigation was to quantify inhalation exposures of workers near the disposal facility. Occupational air sample analytes included total particulates not otherwise specified (PNOS), respirable PNOS, acrolein and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Exposures were measured for four SF job specialties. Thirty 12-hour shifts were monitored from November 2011 to March 2012. The geometric means for respirable particulate matter and PAH for all job specialties were below the 12-hour adjusted American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value time weighted averages (TLV-TWA). The geometric mean of the respirable particulate matter 12-hour TWAs for the four job specialties ranged from 0.116 to 0.134 mg/m(3). One measurement collected at the tower (3.1 mg/m(3)) position exceeded the TLV-TWA. Naphthalene and pyrene were the only PAHs detected in multiple samples of the 18 PAHs analyzed. The geometric mean concentration for naphthalene was 9.39E-4 mg/m(3) and the maximum concentration was 0.0051 mg/m(3). The geometric mean of acrolein for the four job specialties ranged from 0.021 to 0.047 mg/m(3). There were four exceedances of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration 8-hour permissible exposure limit- time weighted average (PEL-TWA), respectively, ranging from 0.13 to 0.32 mg/m(3). PMID:27092584

  10. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  11. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  12. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  13. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  14. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  15. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.800 Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and... chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  16. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  17. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.800 Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and... chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  18. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks, bonds... employee may benefit from his or her holding in or salary from coal mining operation. Direct...

  19. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  1. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  2. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  3. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  4. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  5. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  6. Level, peculiarities and effects of coal mine noise on pit workers. [correlation between noise intensity and hearing impairment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlea, I. G.; Bitir, P.; Coculescu, M.

    1974-01-01

    There exists a correlation between noise intensity and spectrum and degree of hearing impairment in the different professional categories in the pit. Most affected are dross miners and drillers. In these, the first degree of hypoacusia sets in within the first five years of exposure. Deafness begins at a frequency of 4,000 Hz, but often enough (20%) at 2,000 Hz as well, progressively evolving through the classical stages if exposure to noise continues. In the coal bearing basins investigated, the noise level is, on the whole, 31.2%, but the conventional zone is not involved by more than 6.3%. Technological and medical measures are proposed for the purpose of avoiding these troubles in the future.

  7. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  8. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203 Section 57.22203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203 Section 57.22203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203 Section 57.22203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  11. Gorceixite from the Upper Cambrian Rocks of the podwiśniówka Mine Pit, Holy Cross Mountains (South-Central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M.; Starnawska, Ewa; Gałuszka, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a petrographical, mineralogical (SEM/EDS, XRD) and geochemical (XRF, CV-AAS, ICP-MS) study of gorceixite (barium aluminophosphate) from the abandoned Podwiśniówka mine pit. This site is highlighted by the presence of highly acidic pit pond whose chemistry is strongly affected by the exposed pyrite-bearing zone. The gorceixite occurs in the Upper Cambrian carbonaceous clayey shales, quartzites and tuffs in form of minute accumulations varying from about 0.5 to 100 μm in diameter. These accumulations infill voids, cavities, cracks and partly fissures in the rocks examined. The other minerals of the crandallite series, i.e. florencite and goyazite, can be found only in trace amounts. The gorceixite-bearing rocks, especially carbonaceous clayey shales, are characterized by the highest concentrations of REE reaching 455.09 mg·kg-1. In addition, these rocks are distinctly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), with the La/Yb ratio ranging from 24.44 through 36.30. Some of the examined gorceixite accumulations are paragenetically linked to the veined pyrite and nacrite. The latter mineral is indicative of crystallization temperatures of about 200 to 300°C. The coexistence of gorceixite with the veined nacrite or pyrite mineralization and the volcaniclastic rocks, as well as the microtextural features and high concentrations of REE in the gorceixite-bearing parent rocks suggest that this mineral formed as a result of both hydrothermal and volcanic activity in a shallow-marine basin during the late Cambrian.

  12. Underground coal operators install several new longwall mining systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Several new names appear in the annual US Longwall Census, but the population remains the same: 52 although the number of longwall mines dropped from 40 to 47. CONSOL Energy remains the leader with 12 faces. Robert E. Murray owns 8 longwall mines followed by Arch Coal with 5 and Foundation Coal with 3. West Virginia has 13 longwalls followed by 9 in Pennsylvania, 7 in Utah and 6 in Alabama. The article describes CONSOL Energy's operations. A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). 2 tabs.

  13. Using a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes coupled with hydrogeochemistry, limnometrics and meteorological data in hydrological research of complex underground mine-pit lake systems: The case of Cueva de la Mora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-España, J.; Diez Ercilla, M.; Pérez Cerdán, F.; Yusta, I.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a combination of radiogenic and stable isotopes (3H, 2H and 18O on pit lake water, and 34S on dissolved sulfate) coupled with bathymetric, meteorological and limnometric investigations, and detailed hydrogeochemical studies to decipher the flooding history and hydrological dynamics of a meromictic and deeply stratified pit lake in SW Spain. The application of these combined techniques has been specially succesful considering the complexity of the studied system, which includes a substantial number of horizontal galleries, shafts and large rooms physically connected to the pit lake. Specific conductance and temperature profiles have depicted a physical structure of the water body which includes four monimolimnetic layers of increasing density with depth. This internal configuration includes m-scale layers separated by sharp transional zones and is rarely observed in natural, fresh water bodies and most other pit lakes. The tritium abundance of the different layers indicate that the deepest water consists in strongly acidified and metal-laden meteoric water infiltrated in the mine system soon after the mine closure in 1971-72. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios of the different layers reflect a sharp stratification with increasing evaporative influence towards the lake surface. The combination of tritium data with the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of the different layers suggests a model of pit lake formation with an initial stage of flooding (with entrance of highly metal- and sulfate-loaded mine drainage from the underlying mine galleries) that deeply determined the physical structure and meromictic nature of the lake. After reaching the present water level and morphology, the stagnant, anoxic part of pit lake seems to have remained chemically and isotopically unmodified during its 40 year-old history. Although the pit lake receives significant water input during autumn and winter (which in turn provoke significant volumetric increases

  14. 43 CFR 3823.4 - Withdrawal from operation of the mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withdrawal from operation of the mining... MINING LAWS Prospecting, Mineral Locations, and Mineral Patents Within National Forest Wilderness § 3823.4 Withdrawal from operation of the mining laws. Effective at midnight, December 31, 1983, subject...

  15. 43 CFR 9263.1 - Operations conducted under the 1872 Mining Law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operations conducted under the 1872 Mining... Minerals Management § 9263.1 Operations conducted under the 1872 Mining Law. See subpart 3809 of this title... Mining Law....

  16. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA...

  17. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA...

  18. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  20. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining and... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL....12 Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to...

  1. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  2. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  3. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  5. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  6. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  8. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  9. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  11. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  12. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  13. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  14. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  16. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  18. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  19. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (a)(1) In connection with an...

  20. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and mining operations. 216.4 Section 216.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.4 Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (a)(1)...

  1. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  2. 43 CFR 3823.4 - Withdrawal from operation of the mining laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withdrawal from operation of the mining... MINING LAWS Prospecting, Mineral Locations, and Mineral Patents Within National Forest Wilderness § 3823.4 Withdrawal from operation of the mining laws. Effective at midnight, December 31, 1983, subject...

  3. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  4. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO §...

  5. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  6. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  7. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO §...

  8. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal...

  9. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  10. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...