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Sample records for pitangueira eugenia uniflora

  1. Potentiation of antibiotic activity by Eugenia uniflora and Eugenia jambolanum.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Henrique D M; Costa, José G M; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S; Siqueira-Júnior, José P; Lima, Edeltrudes O

    2010-08-01

    This is the first report about the modifying antibiotic activity of Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia jambolanum L. In this study the ethanol extract of E. uniflora and E. jambolanum was tested for their antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli. The growth of the two strains of E. coli bacteria tested was not inhibited in a clinically relevant form by the extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration was >or=1,024 microg/mL for both strains of E. coli assayed. Synergism between this extract and gentamicin was demonstrated. In the same extract synergism was observed between chlorpromazine and kanamycin and between amikacin and tobramycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. It is therefore suggested that extracts from E. uniflora L. and E. jambolanum L. could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with modifying antibiotic activity to gentamicin. PMID:20482280

  2. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Schapoval, E E; Silveira, S M; Miranda, M L; Alice, C B; Henriques, A T

    1994-12-01

    In view of the extensive use of Eugenia uniflora in folk medicine, different extracts of dried and fresh leaves of the plant were assayed to test its possible pharmacological activities. The infusion of fresh leaves had a highly significant anti-inflammatory effect when administered p.o. to rats 1 h before subplantar injection of carrageenin. The infusion increased the pentobarbital sleeping time and also had an effect on intestinal transit, and had no acute toxic effect. No analgesic or antimicrobial activities were observed with any of the extracts used. PMID:7898120

  3. EBV DNA polymerase inhibition of tannins from Eugenia uniflora.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Chiou, J F; Yen, K Y; Yang, L L

    2000-06-30

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the high population malignant tumors among Chinese in southern China and southeast Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human B lymphotropic herpes virus which is known to be closely associated with NPC. EBV DNA polymerase is a key enzyme during EBV replication and is measured by its radioactivity. The addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to Raji cell cultures led to a large increase in EBV DNA polymerase, which was purified by sequential DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose and DNA-cellulose column chromatography. Four tannins were isolated from the active fractions of Eugenia uniflora L., which were tested for the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase. The results showed the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of gallocatechin, oenothein B, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) were 26.5 62.3, 3.0 and 3.5 microM, respectively. Furthermore, when compared with the positive control (phosphonoacetic acid), an inhibitor of EBV replication, the IC(50) value was 16.4 microM. In view of the results, eugeniflorins D(1) and D(2) are the potency principles in the inhibition of EBV DNA polymerase from E. uniflora. PMID:10806300

  4. Antinociceptive and hypothermic evaluation of the leaf essential oil and isolated terpenoids from Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian Pitanga).

    PubMed

    Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Lima, Cleverton Kleiton F; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Miranda, Ana Luisa P; Rezende, Claudia M

    2009-10-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), known as Brazilian cherry tree, is a fruity tree spread all over Brazil used in popular medicine to treat inflammations, rheumatic pain and fever, as hypoglycemic, diuretic and has been widely used in the cosmetics industry. The present study discusses the chemical composition, the antinociceptive and hypothermic profile of the essential oil of pitangueira leaves. The chemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS and the main constituent of the oil was characterized, after isolation, as a mixture of atractylone (1) and 3-furanoeudesmene (2). The essential oil, its pentane fraction and the isolated mixture of sesquiterpenes (1 and 2), given orally, significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions, increased the latency time in hot plate test and showed a hypothermic effect. The results suggest that the responsible for the antinociceptive and hypothermic effect were the isolated furanosesquiterpenes. These findings provided additional pharmacological information and may contribute for the use of Brazilian cherry tree as a phytomedicine. PMID:19423309

  5. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and cytotoxic activities of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, being considered a public health problem. An alternative to combat this pathogen is the use of natural products isolated from fruits such as Eugenia uniflora, a plant used by traditional communities as food and medicine due to its antimicrobial and biological activities. Ethanolic extract from E. uniflora was used to evaluate in vitro anti-epimastigote and cytotoxic activity. This is the first record of anti-Trypanosoma activity of E. uniflora, demonstrating that a concentration presenting 50% of activity (EC(50)) was 62.76 μg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was ≤ 1024 μg/mL. Our results indicate that E. uniflora could be a source of plant-derived natural products with anti-epimastigote activity with low toxicity. PMID:22426246

  6. Release from herbivory does not confer invasion success for Eugenia uniflora in Florida.

    PubMed

    Bohl Stricker, Kerry; Stiling, Peter

    2014-03-01

    One of the most commonly cited hypotheses explaining invasion success is the enemy release hypothesis (ERH), which maintains that populations are regulated by coevolved natural enemies where they are native but are relieved of this pressure in the new range. However, the role of resident enemies in plant invasion remains unresolved. We conducted a field experiment to test predictions of the ERH empirically using a system of native, introduced invasive, and introduced non-invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida. Such experiments are rarely undertaken but are particularly informative in tests of the ERH, as they simultaneously identify factors allowing invasive species to replace natives and traits determining why most introduced species are unsuccessful invaders. We excluded insect herbivores from seedlings of Eugenia congeners where the native and invasive Eugenia co-occur, and compared how herbivore exclusion affected foliar damage, growth, and survival. We found no evidence to support the ERH in this system, instead finding that the invasive E. uniflora sustained significantly more damage than the native and introduced species. Interestingly, E. uniflora performed better than, or as well as, its congeners in terms of growth and survival, in spite of higher damage incidence. Further, although herbivore exclusion positively influenced Eugenia seedling survival, there were few differences among species and no patterns in regard to invasion status or origin. We conclude that the ability of E. uniflora to outperform its native and introduced non-invasive congeners, and not release from insect herbivores, contributes to its success as an invader in Florida. PMID:24141380

  7. Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Antimicrobial Drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karla K.A.; Matias, Edinardo F.F.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Souza, Celestina E.S.; Braga, Maria F.B.M.; Guedes, Gláucia M.M.; Costa, José G.M.; Menezes, Irwin R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity. PMID:23819641

  8. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity. PMID:23819641

  9. Essential oil of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L.: antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli; Perin, Gelson; Jacob, Raquel Guimarães; Alves, Diego; da Silva, Wladimir Padilha; da Motta, Amanda de Souza; Nascente, Patricia da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Brazilian cherry tree) was evaluated for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties. The acute toxicity of the EO administered by oral route was also evaluated in mice. The EO exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays and reduced lipid peroxidation in the kidney of mice. The EO also showed antimicrobial activity against two important pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and against two fungi of the Candida species, C. lipolytica and C. guilliermondii. Acute administration of the EO by the oral route did not cause lethality or toxicological effects in mice. These findings suggest that the EO of the leaves of E. uniflora may have the potential for use in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22583648

  10. Preliminary pharmacological studies on Eugenia uniflora leaves: xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Theoduloz, C; Franco, L; Ferro, E; de Arias, A R

    1987-11-01

    Eugenia uniflora is widely used in Paraguayan folk medicine. A hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves showed some central nervous system activity in hippocratic screening when given intraperitoneally, but little to no acute or subacute toxicity in doses up to 4200 mg/kg orally in BALB c mice. The LD50 of the extract was 220 mg/kg i.p. in mice. A decoction or infusion of the leaves is recommended for treating gout by native herbalists. The known flavonoids quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin and myricetin were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action of the plant extract. PMID:3437769

  11. Pharmacological basis for the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive.

    PubMed

    Consolini, A E; Baldini, O A; Amat, A G

    1999-07-01

    The rational basis for the use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) as antihypertensive in Northeastern Argentina was assessed in normotensive rats. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous crude extract (ACE) decreased blood pressure (BP) of normotensive rats dose-dependently until 47.1 +/- 8.2% of control. The effective-dose 50 was 3.1 +/- 0.4 mg dried leaves/kg (d.l./kg) (yielding of ACE: 17% w/w). To determine the origin of hypotensive activity. Alpha-adrenergic antagonistic and vasorelaxant ACE activities were tested. The dose-response curve for phenylephrine on BP was inhibited non-competitively until 80% of its maximal effect (at 8 mg d.l. ACE/kg). Perfusion pressure (PP) of rat hindquarters (previously vasoconstricted by high-K+) was decreased by ACE in a concentration-dependent manner until -32.3 +/- 11.5% of tonic contraction at 1.2 g d.l. ACE/100 ml. In addition, A.C.E demonstrated diuretic activity at a dose (120 mg d.l./kg) higher than the hypotensive one. It was almost as potent as amiloride, but while amiloride induced loss of Na+ and saving of K+, ACE induced decrease in Na+ excretion. The results suggest that the empirical use of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) is mostly due to a hypotensive effect mediated by a direct vasodilating activity, and to a weak diuretic effect that could be related to an increase in renal blood flow. PMID:10432205

  12. Activity of in vitro forms of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on cariogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jovito, Vanessa C; Freires, Irlan A; Almeida, Leopoldina F D; Moura, Douglas; Castro, Ricardo D; Paulo, Marçal Q; Leite-Cavalcanti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of dentifrices containing the hydroalcoholic extract of the ripe fruit of Eugenia uniflora L. (Surinam cherry) on Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 10557) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469). Five dentifrices were used: D1: containing hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D2: containing fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D3: containing triclosan and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L; D4: containing triclosan, fluoride and hydroalcoholic extract of Eugenia uniflora L.; D5: positive control (Colgate Total 12). To determine the antibacterial activity, the technique used was the minimum inhibitory concentration by the diffusion method in solid culture medium. At the concentration 0.05 g/mL, the best results were achieved with D1 (18 mm) and D4 (24 mm) on L.casei, and with D3 (19 mm) on S. oralis. The dentifrices D3 and D4 were found to have greater activity on the Streptococcus oralis, while D4 and D1 were found to have greater activity on Lactobaccilus casei. It is concluded that dentifrices with Eugenia uniflora L. have antimicrobial activity, suggesting that clinical trials should be conducted. PMID:22010405

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and cytotoxic action of fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: correlation with polyphenol and flavanoid content.

    PubMed

    Figueirôa, Evellyne de Oliveira; Nascimento da Silva, Luís Cláudio; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccensis L. It was observed that the polyphenol content was higher in ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions have high antioxidant potential. E. malaccensis L. seeds showed the largest DPPH radical scavenger capacity (EC50 = 22.62). The fractions of E. malaccensis L. leaves showed lower antioxidant capacity. The samples did not alter the profile of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release. The results indicate that species of the family Myrtaceae are rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, which can help reduce the inflammatory response. PMID:24089599

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Cytotoxic Action of Fractions from Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L.: Correlation with Polyphenol and Flavanoid Content

    PubMed Central

    Figueirôa, Evellyne de Oliveira; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Neves, Juliana Kelle de Andrade Lemoine; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of biological activities presented by medicinal plants has been investigated over the years, and they are used in the search for new substances with lower side effects. Eugenia uniflora L. and Eugenia malaccensis L. (Myrtaceae) have many folk uses in various countries. This current study was designed to quantify the polyphenols and flavonoids contents and evaluate the immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potentials of fractions from E. uniflora L. and E. malaccensis L. It was observed that the polyphenol content was higher in ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions have high antioxidant potential. E. malaccensis L. seeds showed the largest DPPH radical scavenger capacity (EC50 = 22.62). The fractions of E. malaccensis L. leaves showed lower antioxidant capacity. The samples did not alter the profile of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide release. The results indicate that species of the family Myrtaceae are rich in compounds with antioxidant capacity, which can help reduce the inflammatory response. PMID:24089599

  15. a-glucosidase Inhibitors From Paraguayan Natural Medicine, Ñangapiry, The Leaves Of Eugenia Uniflora.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, T; Kasai, M; Hayashi, T; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y; Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble extract from a Paraguayan natural medicine, Nangapiry, the leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae), which has been used as an antidiabetic agent, was found to show inhibitory activities on the increase of plasma glucose level in the sucrose tolerance test (STT) conducted with mice. The portion adsorbed on a cation exchange resin was also found to inhibit a-glucosidases. From the active portion, two new active compounds named uniflorines A ( 1 ) and B ( 2 ) and known (+)-(3a, 4a, 5ß)-1-methylpiperidine-3, 4, 5-triol ( 3 ) were isolated. The structures of uniflorines A and B were determined as (-)-(1S, 2R, 6S, 7R, 8R, 8aR)-1,2,6,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine and (+)-(1S, 2R, 5R, 7R, 8S, 8aS)-1,2,5,7,8-pentahydroxyindolizidine by spectral means, respectively. PMID:21214481

  16. Identification of MicroRNAs from Eugenia uniflora by High-Throughput Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Frank; Almerão, Mauricio P.; Körbes, Ana P.; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    Background microRNAs or miRNAs are small non-coding regulatory RNAs that play important functions in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting protein translation. Eugenia uniflora is a plant native to tropical America with pharmacological and ecological importance, and there have been no previous studies concerning its gene expression and regulation. To date, no miRNAs have been reported in Myrtaceae species. Results Small RNA and RNA-seq libraries were constructed to identify miRNAs and pre-miRNAs in Eugenia uniflora. Solexa technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library, and the data obtained were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. From 14,489,131 small RNA clean reads, we obtained 1,852,722 mature miRNA sequences representing 45 conserved families that have been identified in other plant species. Further analysis using contigs assembled from RNA-seq allowed the prediction of secondary structures of 25 known and 17 novel pre-miRNAs. The expression of twenty-seven identified miRNAs was also validated using RT-PCR assays. Potential targets were predicted for the most abundant mature miRNAs in the identified pre-miRNAs based on sequence homology. Conclusions This study is the first large scale identification of miRNAs and their potential targets from a species of the Myrtaceae family without genomic sequence resources. Our study provides more information about the evolutionary conservation of the regulatory network of miRNAs in plants and highlights species-specific miRNAs. PMID:23166775

  17. In-vitro evaluation of anti-trichomonal activities of Eugenia uniflora leaf.

    PubMed

    Ibikunle, Gabriel Femi; Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aladesanmi, Adetunji Joseph; Adewunmi, Clement Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E(2-5) had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 4.77 - 5.28, 18.49 - 25.00 and 4.53 - 5.18, 18.32 - 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E(2-5) led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 - 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent. PMID:22238499

  18. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on activated hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Denardin, Cristiane C; Parisi, Mariana M; Martins, Leo A M; Terra, Silvia R; Borojevic, Radovan; Vizzotto, Márcia; Perry, Marcos L S; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Guma, Fátima T C R

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phenolic compounds in fruit- and vegetable-rich diets has attracted researchers' attention due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of purple pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) extract on cell proliferation, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death and cell cycle in murine activated hepatic stellate cells (GRX). Cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was significantly decreased on cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga extract for 48 and 72 h, and the percentage of dead cell stained with 7-amino-actinomycin D was significantly higher in treated cells. The reduction of cell proliferation was dose dependent, and we also observed alterations on cell cycle progression. At all times studied, GRX cells treated with 50 and 100 µg ml(-1) of purple pitanga showed a significant reduction in cellular mitochondrial content as well as a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, our results indicated that purple pitanga extract induces early and late apoptosis/necrosis and necrotic death in GRX cells. This is the first report describing the antiproliferative, cytotoxic and apoptotic activity for E. uniflora fruits in hepatic stellate cells. The present study provides a foundation for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis, and more studies will be carried to elucidate this effect. PMID:23475531

  19. Pharmacological effects of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) aqueous crude extract on rat's heart.

    PubMed

    Consolini, Alicia E; Sarubbio, Marisol Gracía

    2002-06-01

    The effect of aqueous crude extract (ACE) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was studied on rat's perfused ventricles. This plant is used in South American traditional medicine as an antihypertensive and we already demonstrated previously its hypotensive properties. In this paper, maximal left intraventriclular pressure (P) of rat's hearts beating at 0.2 Hz firstly increased to 162.1+/-11.1% of basal value during 1-3 min of perfusing ACE 0.6%. Maximum rate of contraction (+P) also increased to duplicating +P/P ratio. Both types of effect were significantly decreased by either propranolol 0.35 microM, and pre-treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg), suggesting that they were caused by a compound that releases cathecolamines with beta-adrenergic action. Nevertheless, after 20 min of perfusing ACE, ventricles decreased P to about 50% of their basal value, suggesting a negative-inotropic compound present in the extract. The perfusion of 1.2% ACE decreased P in a pressure-[Ca](o) curve (0.5-2 mM) in a non-competitive manner, suggesting that an irreversible Ca-blocking compound is also present in the extract. In summary, E. uniflora ACE has a dual effect on the heart related to its hypotensive action and is probably responsible for the therapeutic or adverse effects in patients under cardiac risk. PMID:12020928

  20. Variation in the carotenoid composition of the lycopene-rich Brazilian fruit Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Ornella M; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2008-12-01

    The indigenous pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is now marketed and commercially processed in Brazil. In the present work, the carotenoids of the pitanga fruit from two states and at two stages of ripening, as well as of processed pitanga products (frozen pulp and juice, the brands being designated as A, B and C) commercialized in Campinas, São Paulo, were determined by HPLC. As compared to ripe pitanga from Medianeira, Paraná, those from Campinas had significantly higher (all-E)-lycopene (14.0 vs. 71.1 microg/g), (13Z)-lycopene (1.1 vs. 5.0 microg/g) and (all-E)-gamma-carotene (1.6 vs. 3.8 microg/g) levels. Significant increases in most of the carotenoids occurred from the partially ripe to the ripe fruits, with (all-E)-lycopene doubling its concentration in fruits from both states. Pitanga was found to be one of the richest fruit sources of carotenoids, particularly lycopene, but the processed products had much lower lycopene content. The mean (all-E)-lycopene concentration was 16.6 microg/g for frozen pulp brand A, 23.0 microg/g for bottled juice brand B and 25.6 microg/g for bottled juice brand C. Optimization of processing is therefore needed to guarantee better retention of this important carotenoid. PMID:18679799

  1. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rattmann, Yanna D; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Malquevicz-Paiva, Simone M; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu) obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration of HE-Bu reduced the late mortality rate by 30%, prevented neutrophil accumulation in lungs, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels, and markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by ileum cells. Chemical investigation showed myricetin and quercetin rhamnosides as the major components of this fraction. The results showed that HE-Bu protected mice from sepsis and indicated that this edible plant produces compounds that could be considered as potential adjuvants for sepsis treatment. PMID:23320032

  2. Improving effects of the extracts from Eugenia uniflora on hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, I; Amagaya, S; Komatsu, Y; Okada, M; Hayashi, T; Kasai, M; Arisawa, M; Momose, Y

    1999-12-15

    EtOH (70%) extracts from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora were separated into six fractions with different polarity and molecular size, i.e. NP-1-NP-6. In an oral glucose tolerance test, NP-1 and 4 inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. However, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, such an inhibitory effect was not seen. Thus, the effects of NP-1 and 4 were apparently due to the inhibition of glucose absorption from the intestine. In a sucrose tolerance test, all fractions inhibited the increase in plasma glucose level. In an oral corn oil tolerance test, NP-3 and 4 showed an inhibitory effect on the increase in plasma triglycerides level. On the other hand, NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 inhibited maltase and sucrase activities and all fractions except for NP-1 showed an inhibitory effect on lipase activity dose-dependently. The inhibition of the increase in plasma glucose level by NP-3, 4, 5 and 6 in the oral sucrose tolerance test and the inhibition of the increase in plasma triglycerides by NP-3 and 4 in the oral corn oil tolerance test were apparently due to the inhibition of the decomposition of carbohydrates and fats in the intestine, respectively. PMID:10624893

  3. Analysis of Flavonoids from Eugenia uniflora Leaves and Its Protective Effect against Murine Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Rattmann, Yanna D.; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Malquevicz-Paiva, Simone M.; Dartora, Nessana; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip A. J.; Iacomini, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, referred to as Pitanga cherry shrub, is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical America. This plant is cultivated in many countries and it is suitable for the production of juice, frozen pulp, and tea. Besides, it can be used as treatment for inflammatory diseases. We reported that a flavonoid-rich fraction (HE-Bu) obtained from leaves decreased the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The oral administration of HE-Bu reduced the late mortality rate by 30%, prevented neutrophil accumulation in lungs, decreased TNF-α and IL-1β serum levels, and markedly decreased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression by ileum cells. Chemical investigation showed myricetin and quercetin rhamnosides as the major components of this fraction. The results showed that HE-Bu protected mice from sepsis and indicated that this edible plant produces compounds that could be considered as potential adjuvants for sepsis treatment. PMID:23320032

  4. Comparison of the interfacial properties of Eugenia uniflora and Triticum vulgaris lectins.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S; Correia, Maria T S; de Melo, Celso P

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the interfacial and dielectric properties of EuniSL, a recently purified lectin obtained from seeds of Eugenia uniflora (EuniSL), through surface pressure (Pi) and surface potential (DeltaV) measurements of its floating monolayers at the 2.0

  5. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a. PMID:11000042

  6. De novo assembly of Eugenia uniflora L. transcriptome and identification of genes from the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Frank; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis, Rogerio

    2014-12-01

    Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is of particular interest due to its medicinal properties that are attributed to specialized metabolites with known biological activities. Among these molecules, terpenoids are the most abundant in essential oils that are found in the leaves and represent compounds with potential pharmacological benefits. The terpene diversity observed in Myrtaceae is determined by the activity of different members of the terpene synthase and oxidosqualene cyclase families. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transcripts from E. uniflora leaves and to annotation to identify the genes potentially involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway and terpene diversity. In total, 72,742 unigenes with a mean length of 1048bp were identified. Of these, 43,631 and 36,289 were annotated with the NCBI non-redundant protein and Swiss-Prot databases, respectively. The gene ontology categorized the sequences into 53 functional groups. A metabolic pathway analysis with KEGG revealed 8,625 unigenes assigned to 141 metabolic pathways and 40 unigenes predicted to be associated with the biosynthesis of terpenoids. Furthermore, we identified four putative full-length terpene synthase genes involved in sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes biosynthesis, and three putative full-length oxidosqualene cyclase genes involved in the triterpenes biosynthesis. The expression of these genes was validated in different E. uniflora tissues. PMID:25443850

  7. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

  8. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. PMID:18970765

  9. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species. PMID:23079985

  10. Liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.): characterization of aqueous dispersions and lyophilized formulations.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, P A; Yokota, D; Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A F; Pinho, S C

    2010-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves were produced by dry film hydration. Gas chromatography demonstrated the compounds found in the essential oil were effectively incorporated in the aqueous dispersions of liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the incorporation of the essential oil did not cause phase separation in the membrane structure; the gel-liquid crystalline transition temperature (main transition) remained the same despite the higher heterogeneity indicated by the transition peak broadening. Different cryoprotectors (sucrose and trehalose) were added to the liposomal formulations to be tested in their ability to protect the liposomal structure during the lyophilization. The morphological aspect of the lyophilized powders analysed by scanning electron microscopy showed significant differences among the samples with and without cryoprotectors. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the cryoprotectors interacted effectively with the polar heads of phospholipids in the bilayer. In terms of water absorption, trehalose was identified as a much more effective protector agent against it than sucrose. The cryoprotectors showed different degrees of effectiveness of preservation of the liposomal structure when the rehydration assays of lyophilized liposomes were carried out, as particle size measurements indicated a moderate process of fusion when the formulations with sucrose were rehydrated. PMID:20690790

  11. Chemical and biological evaluation of essential oils from two species of Myrtaceae - Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel.

    PubMed

    Lago, João Henrique G; Souza, Elisângela Dutra; Mariane, Bruna; Pascon, Renata; Vallim, Marcelo A; Martins, Roberto Carlos C; Baroli, Adriana A; Carvalho, Bianca A; Soares, Marisi G; dos Santos, Roberta T; Sartorelli, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from leaves of two Myrtaceae species-Eugenia uniflora L. and Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS as well as determination of Kovatz indexes indicated atractylone (26.78%) and curzerene (17.96%) as major constituents of E. uniflora oil and α-cadinol (19.15%), apiole (11.15%) and cubenol (5.43%) as main components in P. trunciflora oil. Both essential oils were tested for antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria. E. uniflora and P. trunciflora essential oils were active towards two Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus epidermis. In addition, biological activity of both essential oils was detected for pathogenic yeasts of the genus Candida and Cryptococcus. E. uniflora was active towards all yeast tested and exhibited interesting minimal inhibitory concentrations (0.11 to 3.75 mg/mL) across a broad spectrum of activity. PMID:22117172

  12. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil. PMID:20878009

  13. Transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides induced by oenothein B, a potential antifungal agent from the Brazilian Cerrado plant Eugenia uniflora

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The compound oenothein B (OenB), which is isolated from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian Cerrado plant, interferes with Paracoccidioides yeast cell morphology and inhibits 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation, which is involved in cell wall synthesis. In this work we examined the gene expression changes in Paracoccidioides yeast cells following OenB treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results We constructed differential gene expression libraries using Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) of Paracoccidioides yeast cells treated with OenB for 90 and 180 min. Treatment for 90 min resulted in the identification of 463 up-regulated expressed sequences tags (ESTs) and 104 down-regulated ESTs. For the 180 min treatment 301 up-regulated ESTs and 143 down-regulated were identified. Genes involved in the cell wall biosynthesis, such as GLN1, KRE6 and FKS1, were found to be regulated by OenB. Infection experiments in macrophages corroborated the in vitro results. Fluorescence microscopy showed increased levels of chitin in cells treated with OenB. The carbohydrate polymer content of the cell wall of the fungus was also evaluated, and the results corroborated with the transcriptional data. Several other genes, such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e., membrane maintenance, stress and virulence) were found to be up-regulated in response to OenB treatment. Conclusions The exposure of Paracoccidioides to OenB resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the changes may represent specific adaptive responses to this compound in this important pathogenic fungus. PMID:24119145

  14. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time. PMID:25228206

  15. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers. PMID:19321190

  16. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ-elemene (14.25%), and trans-β-elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04 μg·mL−1) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92 μg·mL−1) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400 μg·mL−1); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50 μg·mL−1. While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity. PMID:23533469

  17. Eugenia uniflora L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Leishmania Agent: Effects on Leishmania amazonensis and Possible Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; de Oliveira, Jamylla Mirck Guerra; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, Jose Guilherme Soares; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora L. is a member of the Myrtaceae family and is commonly known as Brazilian cherry tree. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition of Eugenia uniflora L. essential oil (EuEO) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and assessed its anti-Leishmania activity. We also explored the potential mechanisms of action and cytotoxicity of EuEO. Thirty-two compounds were identified, which constituted 92.65% of the total oil composition. The most abundant components were sesquiterpenes (91.92%), with curzerene (47.3%), γ -elemene (14.25%), and trans- β -elemenone (10.4%) being the major constituents. The bioactivity shown by EuEO against promastigotes (IC50, 3.04  μ g·mL(-1)) and amastigotes (IC50, 1.92  μ g·mL(-1)) suggested significant anti-Leishmania activity. In the cytotoxicity determination, EuEO was 20 times more toxic to amastigotes than to macrophages. Hemolytic activity was 63.22% at the highest concentration tested (400  μ g·mL(-1)); however, there appeared to be no toxicity at 50  μ g·mL(-1). While the data show that EuEO activity is not mediated by nitric oxide production, they do suggest that macrophage activation may be involved in EuEO anti-Leishmania activity, as evidenced by increases in both the phagocytic capacity and the lysosomal activity. More studies are needed to determine in vivo activity as well as additional mechanisms of the anti-Leishmania activity. PMID:23533469

  18. Analysis of the role of nitric oxide in the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora in the rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Wazlawik, E; Da Silva, M A; Peters, R R; Correia, J F; Farias, M R; Calixto, J B; Ribeiro-Do-Valle, R M

    1997-04-01

    This study has evaluated the possible role played by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the vasorelaxant action of the hydroalcoholic extract from Eugenia uniflora, and fractions from the extract, in rings of rat thoracic aorta. The addition of an increasing cumulative concentration of hydroalcoholic extract from E. uniflora (1-300 micrograms mL-1) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation response in intact endothelium-thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (30-100 nM). The IC50 value, with its respective confidence limit, and the maximum relaxation (Rmax) were 7.02 (4.77-10.00) micrograms mL-1 and 83.94 +/- 3.04%, respectively. The removal of the endothelium completely abolished these responses. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), inhibited the relaxation (Rmax) to -10.43 +/- 7.81% and -3.69 +/- 2.62%, respectively. In addition, L-arginine (1 mM), but not D-arginine (1 mM), completely reversed inhibition by L-NOARG. Methylene blue (30 microM), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the relaxation induced by the extract to 14.60 +/- 7.40%. These data indicate that in the rat thoracic aorta the hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, from the leaves of E. uniflora have graded and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects. PMID:9232544

  19. Sun-drying diminishes the antioxidative potentials of leaves of Eugenia uniflora against formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced in homogenates of rat brain and liver.

    PubMed

    Kade, Ige Joseph; Ibukun, Emmanuel Oluwafemi; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira

    2008-08-01

    Extracts from leaves of Pitanga cherry (Eugenia uniflora) are considered to be effective against many diseases, and are therefore used in popular traditional medicines. In the present study, the antioxidative effect of sun-dried (PCS) and air-dried (PCA) ethanolic extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves were investigated. The antioxidant effects were tested by measuring the ability of both PCS and PCA to inhibit the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) induced by prooxidant agents such as iron (II) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in rat brain and liver tissues. The results showed that while PCA significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited the formation of TBARS in both liver and brain tissues homogenates, PCS did not. Further investigation reveals that the phenolic content of the PCS was significantly (P<0.0001) lower compared to PCA. Since phenolics in plants largely contributed to the antioxidative potency of plants, we conclude that air-drying should be employed in the preparation of extracts of Pitanga cherry leaves before it is administered empirically as a traditional medicament, and hence this study serves a public awareness to traditional medical practitioners. PMID:18539016

  20. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment indexes of Eugenia uniflora L. in response to changes in light intensity and soil flooding.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Marcelo S; Schaffer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of changing light intensity and soil flooding on the photosynthetic performance of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) seedlings in containers were examined. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) the photosynthetic apparatus of shade-adapted leaves can be rapidly acclimated to high light after transfer from shade to full sun, and (ii) photosynthetic acclimation to changing light intensity may be influenced by soil flooding. Seedlings cultivated in a shade house (40% of full sun, approximately 12 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1)) for 6 months were transferred to full sun (20-40 mol m(-2) day(-1)) or shade (30% of full sun, approximately 8 mol m(-2) day(-1)) and subjected to soil flooding for 23 days or not flooded. Chlorophyll content index (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf weight per area (LWA), photosynthetic light-response curves and leaf reflectance indexes were measured during soil flooding and after plants were unflooded. The CCI values increased throughout the experiment in leaves of shaded plants and decreased in leaves of plants transferred to full sun. There were no significant interactions between light intensity and flooding treatments for most of the variables analyzed, with the exception of Fv/Fm 22 days after plants were flooded and 5 days after flooded plants were unflooded. The light environment significantly affected LWA, and light environment and soil flooding significantly affected the light-saturated gross CO(2) assimilation rate expressed on area and dry weight bases (A(max-area) and A(max-wt), respectively), stomatal conductance of water vapor (g(ssat)) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g(s)). Five days after flooded plants were unflooded, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI) were significantly higher in shade than in sun leaves. Thirty days after transferring plants from the shade house to the light treatment, LWA was 30% higher in sun than in shade leaves, and A

  1. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice)

    PubMed Central

    Simon Gonzalez Schumacher, Nayara; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Baú Betim Cazarin, Cinthia; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Molina Meletti, Laura Maria; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  2. Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice).

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Nayara Simon Gonzalez; Colomeu, Talita Cristina; de Figueiredo, Daniella; Carvalho, Virginia de Campos; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Meletti, Laura Maria Molina; Zollner, Ricardo de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. PMID:26783951

  3. Time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar (Eugenia uniflora L.) with different sweeteners: Sweetness and bitterness.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; de Lima Dutra, Mariana Borges; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-01-01

    Pitanga has been used by the Brazilian food industry mainly for juice production. This fruit shows good economic potential due to its high concentration of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the present work was to characterize the time-intensity profile of pitanga nectar sweetened with different sweeteners to verify differences on the perception of sweet and bitter tastes. The sweeteners used to replace sucrose were sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. Fifteen assessors were selected according to their discriminating capability and trained to participate in the time-intensity analysis for sweetness and bitterness. The samples prepared with sucralose and 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend presented a similar sweetness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose, and the samples prepared with sucralose and aspartame presented a similar bitterness profile to the sample prepared with sucrose. Thus, sucralose would be the most suitable sweetener to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar. PMID:25627677

  4. Antimicrobial Analysis of an Antiseptic Made from Ethanol Crude Extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora in Wistar Rats against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Thaís Honório Lins; Sales Santos Veríssimo, Regina Célia; Alvino, Valter; Silva Araujo, Maria Gabriella; Evangelista Pires dos Santos, Raíssa Fernanda; Maurício Viana, Max Denisson; de Assis Bastos, Maria Lysete; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical site infection remains a challenge for hospital infection control, especially when it relates to skin antisepsis in the surgical site. Objective. To analyze the antimicrobial activity in vivo of an antiseptic from ethanol crude extracts of P. granatum and E. uniflora against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Agar drilling and minimal inhibitory tests were conducted for in vitro evaluation. In the in vivo bioassay were used Wistar rats and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990). Statistical analysis was performed through variance analysis and Scott-Knott cluster test at 5% probability and significance level. Results. In the in vitro, ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum and Eugenia uniflora and their combination showed the best antimicrobial potential against S. epidermidis and S. aureus. In the in vivo bioassay against S. epidermidis, there was no statistically significant difference between the tested product and the patterns used after five minutes of applying the product. Conclusion. The results indicate that the originated product is an antiseptic alternative source against S. epidermidis compared to chlorhexidine gluconate. It is suggested that further researches are to be conducted in different concentrations of the test product, evaluating its effectiveness and operational costs. PMID:26146655

  5. Structure of anthocyanins from Eugenia jambolana fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-02-01

    The purple color of the ripe Eugenia jambolana fruit is attributed to anthocyanins, a class of plant pigments that has attracted immense attention due to the potential health benefits of these compounds. There is disagreement in the literature on whether E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins are found as 3,5- or 3-diglucosides. Therefore, we used a combination of HPLC-UV, tandem LC-MS, and NMR techniques to identify the structures of anthocyanins present in E. jambolana fruit collected in the U.S.A. and India. Our results indicate that the anthocyanins from both locations occur as 3,5-, but not 3-diglucosides, of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin. This is the first report to use a combination of spectrometric and spectroscopic methods to identify unequivocally the structures of E. jambolana fruit anthocyanins. PMID:19370926

  6. Studies of Malagasy Eugenia – IV: Seventeen new endemic species, a new combination, and three lectotypifications; with comments on distribution, ecological and evolutionary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Neil; Callmander, Martin; Phillipson, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen new endemic species of the genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae) are proposed from Madagascar, including: Eugenia andapae N. Snow, Eugenia barriei N. Snow, Eugenia bemangidiensis N. Snow, Eugenia calciscopulorum N. Snow, Eugenia delicatissima N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson, Eugenia echinulata N. Snow, Eugenia gandhii N. Snow, Eugenia hazonjia N. Snow, Eugenia iantarensis N. Snow, Eugenia malcomberi N. Snow, Eugenia manomboensis N. Snow, Eugenia obovatifolia N. Snow, Eugenia ranomafana N. Snow & D. Turk, Eugenia ravelonarivoi N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia razakamalalae N. Snow & Callm., Eugenia tiampoka N. Snow & Callm., and Eugenia wilsoniana N. Snow, and one new combination, Eugenia richardii (Blume) N. Snow, Callm. & Phillipson is provided. Detailed descriptions, information on distribution and ecology, distribution maps, vernacular names (where known), digital images of types, comparisons to morphologically similar species. Preliminary assessment of IUCN risk of extinction and conservation recommendations are provided, including Vulnerable (4 species), Endangered (2 species), and Critically Endangered (4 species). Lectotpyes are designated for Eugenia hovarum H. Perrier, Eugenia nompa H. Perrier, and Eugenia scottii H. Perrier respectively. PMID:25987885

  7. Antifungal activity of Eugenia umbelliflora against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Karina E; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruz, Rosana C B; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    2009-09-01

    Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL). PMID:19831024

  8. Asteroid 45 Eugenia - Lightcurves and the pole orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. C.; Birch, P. V.; Surdej, J.; Pospieszalska-Surdej, A.

    1988-01-01

    Three lightcurves obtained in 1969 and six from 1984 are presented for the 250-km U-type asteroid Eugenia. The asteroid's north pole is within + or - 10 deg of ecliptic longitude 106 deg and a latitude of +26 deg, in keeping with an amplitude-aspect pole analysis. While only one maximum and one minimum are present when observations are closest to both the north and south poles, there are two of each at other oppositions. It is suggested that this effect may be due to the surface albedo features of Eugenia.

  9. Euglobal-like compounds from the genus Eugenia.

    PubMed

    Faqueti, Larissa G; Petry, Christiane Maes; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Machado, Karima E; Cruz, Alexandre Belle; Garcia, Pablo A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; San Feliciano, Arturo; Monache, Franco Delle

    2013-01-01

    Two regioisomeric meroterpenoids, Eugenial A and B, have been isolated from the fruits of Eugenia multiflora and their structures established on the basis of NMR evidences. They possess a phloroglucinol-monoterpene structure similar to the euglobals occurring in the sister genus Eucaliptus. A simple method to distinguish between regioisomeric pairs was pointed. PMID:22304004

  10. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  11. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  12. α-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds.

    PubMed

    Omar, Raed; Li, Liya; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-08-24

    Three new hydrolyzable tannins including two gallotannins, jamutannins A (1) and B (2), and an ellagitannin, iso-oenothein C (3), along with eight known phenolic compounds were isolated from the seeds of Eugenia jambolana fruit. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory effects compared to the clinical drug acarbose. PMID:22867049

  13. Antidiarrhoeic effect of Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae) leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Galheigo, Maria Raquel Unterkircher; Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Mundin, Angélica Martins Moreira; Gomes, Dayane Olímpia; Chang, Roberto; Lima, Anna Monteiro Correia; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2016-05-01

    Essential oil from Eugenia dysenterica leaves was able to inhibit both the diarrhoea and enteropooling induced by castor oil; however, the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the intestine was not change. These data suggest that the antidiarrhoeic effect of the essential oil from E. dysenterica leaves is related to its ability to inhibit intestinal secretion and/or to increase intestinal absorption. PMID:26150261

  14. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

  15. Sensitivity of fungi isolated from onychomycosis to Eugenia cariophyllata essential oil and eugenol.

    PubMed

    Gayoso, C W; Lima, E O; Oliveira, V T; Pereira, F O; Souza, E L; Lima, I O; Navarro, D F

    2005-03-01

    The antifungal activity of Eugenia cariophyllata essential oil and eugenol, its major constituent, on fungal strains isolated from onychomycosis was evaluated. The natural products presented prominent antifungal action with MIC of 1% and 4%, respectively. PMID:15752642

  16. Emission of Methane by Eudrilus eugeniae and Other Earthworms from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Depkat-Jakob, Peter S.; Hunger, Sindy; Schulz, Kristin; Brown, George G.; Tsai, Siu M.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms emit denitrification-derived nitrous oxide and fermentation-derived molecular hydrogen. The present study demonstrated that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, obtained in Brazil, emitted methane. Other worms displayed a lesser or no capacity to emit methane. Gene and transcript analyses of mcrA (encoding the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase) in gut contents of E. eugeniae suggested that Methanosarcinaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae might be associated with this emission. PMID:22344639

  17. Impact of Parthenium weeds on earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) during vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Rajendran, Venckatesh

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of Parthenium-mediated compost on Eudrilus eugeniae during the process of vermicomposting. Nine different concentrations of Parthenium hysterophorus and cow dung mixtures were used to assess toxicity. The earthworms' growth, fecundity and antioxidant enzyme levels were analysed every 15 days. The antioxidant activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], considered as biomarkers, indicate the biochemical and oxidative stresses due to the toxin from Parthenium weeds. The earthworms' growth, biomass gain, cocoon production and antioxidant enzymes were in a low level in a high concentration of P. hysterophorus (without cow dung). The results clearly indicated that appropriate mixing of P. hysterophorus quantity is an essential factor for the survival of earthworms without causing any harm. PMID:24938809

  18. HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Inhibitory Phenolic Glycosides from Eugenia hyemalis

    PubMed Central

    Bokesch, Heidi R.; Wamiru, Antony; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.; Beutler, John A.; McKee, Tawnya C.; McMahon, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Three new galloyl arbutins, hyemalosides A–C (1–3), along with nine known compounds were isolated from the evergreen tree Eugenia hyemalis. The structures of compounds 1–3 were determined by analysis of NMR and MS data. Compounds 1–3 inhibited HIV-1 RNase H in vitro with IC50 values of 1.46, >18, and 1.19 μM, respectively. However, in a XTT-based cell viability assay using the human T-cell line CEM-SS infected with HIV-1RT, none of the compounds inhibited the cytopathic effect of HIV-1 infection at the highest dose tested (20 μg/mL). PMID:18763827

  19. The Leaf Essential Oil of Eugenia reinwardtiana Growing in Australia.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Joseph J; Clarkson, John R; Deseo, Myrna A; Ford, Andrew J; Lawes, Douglas J; Leach, David N

    2015-09-01

    The leaf essential oils of the two chemotypes of Eugenia reinwardtiana (Blume) DC growing in Australia have been investigated. Chemotype 1, isolated in 0.2% yield, w/w, dry weight, contained major amounts of α-pinene (10-26%), limonene (1-15%), β-caryophyllene (0.7-11%), α-humulene (0.9-16%) and bicyclogermacrene (1-23%). The second chemotype, found only on coastal dunes SW of Lockerbie Qld, and isolated in 0.4-0.6% (w/w, dry weight), contained α-pinene (tr-8.5%) β-caryophyllene (12-27%) and α-humulene (1-17%) as the major terpenes. This chemotype also contained the novel aliphatic diketone, 2-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-5-methoxycyclohex-5-en-1,3-dione (18-33%), whose structure determination is reported herein. PMID:26594771

  20. Searching for Orbits Around the Asteroid 45 Eugenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Antonio

    The present paper has the goal of searching and mapping orbits, with respect to the perturbations, for a spacecraft traveling around the asteroid 45 Eugenia. This asteroid is a triple system, which center of mass is in an elliptic orbit around the Sun. The perturbations considered in the present model are the ones due to the oblateness of the central body, the gravity field of the two satellite bodies, the Sun, the Moon and all the planets of the Solar System. This mapping is important, because it shows the relative importance of each force for a given orbit of the spacecraft, helping to make a decision about which forces needs to be included in the model for a given desired accuracy and nominal orbit. Another important application of this type of mapping is to find better orbits for a spacecraft travelling around this system, since it is expected that orbits that are less perturbed have good potential to require lower fuel consumption for station-keeping maneuvers. Simulations under different conditions are made in order to find those orbits. The main reason to study those trajectories is that, currently, there are several institutions in Brazil studying the possibility to make a mission to send a spacecraft to a triple asteroid (the so called ASTER mission), because there are many important scientific studies that can be performed in a system like that. This mission is still under study and the first choice for the target is the triple asteroid 2001SN263. A similar study that is performed here was made for this triple system recently (Prado, 2014), and the present paper has the goal of studying the system 45 Eugenia, in order to compare the orbits among those two systems with respect to the perturbations suffered by the orbits. The results will show this comparison and can be used if this second choice of target is considered. It is also useful to indicate the conditions of the orbits for a second future mission to a triple asteroid, which may be done in a more

  1. Cytotoxic, trypanocidal, and antifungal activities of Eugenia jambolana L.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Rolón, Miriam; Vega, Celeste; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is considered a public health problem. Nowadays, chemotherapy is the only available treatment for this disease, and the drugs currently used, nifurtimox and benzonidazole, present high toxicity levels. Alternatives for replacing these drugs are natural extracts from Eugenia jambolana, a plant used in traditional medicine because of its antimicrobial and biological activities. An ethanol extract from E. jambolana was prepared. To research in vitro anti-epimastigote activity, T. cruzi CL-B5 clone was used. Epimastigotes were inoculated at a concentration of 1×10(5)/mL in 200 μL of tryptose-liver infusion. For the cytotoxicity assay J774 macrophages were used. To examine antifungal activity, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei were used. This is the first record of trypanocide activity for E. jambolana. The effective concentration capable of killing 50% of the parasites was 56.42 μg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration was ≤1,024 μg/mL. Metronidazole showed a potentiation of its antifungal effect when combined with the ethanol extract of E. jambolana. Thus our results indicate that E. jambolana could be a source of plant-derived natural products with anti-epimastigote and antifungal modifying activity with moderate toxicity. PMID:21877946

  2. Microsensor Analysis of Oxygen in the Rhizosphere of the Aquatic Macrophyte Littorella uniflora (L.) Ascherson.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, P. B.; Revsbech, N. P.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen released by the roots of submerged plants may oxidize organic compounds from the roots and reduced substances continuously supplied by diffusion from the surrounding anoxic hydrosoil. We provide here the first visualization of this gradient environment obtained by microsensor analysis of oxygen in the rhizosphere of the freshwater plant Littorella uniflora (L.) Ascherson. The plants were rooted in an agar medium, in which amorphous FeS provided the main oxygen sink. The oxygen concentration at the root surface ranged from 20 to 450 [mu]M (atmospheric saturation = 280 [mu]M) between darkness and saturating light, and the oxic shell surrounding the roots varied from about 0.5 to 5 mm in thickness. The oxygen flux from the roots was a saturating function of the incident light intensity on the leaves, and the oxygen released was consumed mainly at the fluctuating oxic/anoxic interface. The oxic zones around individual roots are under dynamic control by light, root morphology, root density, and sediment reducing capacity, and, therefore, oxygen concentrations should be subject to substantial diurnal fluctuations in dense Littorella populations in nutrient-poor sediments. PMID:12232247

  3. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antioxidative compounds from the bark of Eugenia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Lelono, Raden Arthur Ario; Tachibana, Sanro

    2013-08-15

    Eugenia polyantha bark extracts were found to have potential antioxidative activities. This study is an effort to investigate the antioxidative compounds in E. polyantha. In vitro antioxidatve assay were used as guided tools for the isolation of antioxidative compounds. The methanol-water extracts showed the highest level of free radical-scavenging activity (ED50) = 180 microg mL(-1) and protection from beta-carotene bleaching (8.7 microg mL(-1)). The methanol-water (1:1) extracts exhibited strong DPPH scavenging activity and protection against beta carotene bleaching and was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography. The n-butanol, acetone and ethyl acetate solubles exhibited the highest antioxidative activities, derivatization was conducted to the isolated antioxidative compounds prior to identification. Catechin, gallic acid and rutin were isolated from those solubles as active compounds present in the Eugenia polyantha bark. PMID:24498834

  4. Extraction and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonols from Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents.

    PubMed

    Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro; Plata-Oviedo, Manuel Salvador Vicente; de Mattos, Gisely; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Branco, Ivanise Guilherme

    2014-10-01

    The recovery of phenolic compounds of Eugenia pyriformis using different solvents was investigated in this study. The compounds were identified and quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet-visible diode-array detector (RP-HPLC-DAD/UV-vis). Absolute methanol was the most effective extraction agent of phenolic acids and flavonols (588.31 mg/Kg) from Eugenia pyriformis, although similar results (p ≤ 0.05) were observed using methanol/water (1:1 ratio). Our results clearly showed that higher contents of phenolic compounds were not obtained either with the most or the least polar solvents used. Several phenolic compounds were identified in the samples whereas gallic acid and quercetin were the major compounds recovered. PMID:25328239

  5. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil. PMID:26413446

  6. Antioxidant, Antihyperlipidaemic and Antidiabetic Activity of Eugenia Floccosa Bedd Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jelastin, Kala S Mary; Tresina, P.S.; Mohan, V.R.

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa Bedd (Family: Myrtaceae) leaf was investigated for its antioxidant, antihyperlipidaemic and antidiabetic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p). The ethanol extracts of E. floccosa at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of E. floccosa leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C), high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C) and phospholipid (PL)] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], lipoprotein peroxidation (LPO) antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa leaf elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05), lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C and antioxidant enzymes. The extracts also caused significant increase in plasma insulin (P<0.05) in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa possesses significant antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24826030

  7. Biodegradation of Garden Waste, Market Waste Using Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugenia and Assessment of Manure Quality on Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. Mariraj

    2014-06-01

    Comparative study was performed to evaluate the vermicomposting efficiency of two earthworm species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugenia from the garden wastes, vegetable market wastes. Three different experimental works were conducted. For each experiment three plastic vermibins were used. Experiment (1) mentioned for control without earthworms. Experiment (2) bedded with Eudrilus eugenia, Experiment (3) comprised of bedding with Eisenia fetida. Pre composting was allowed for 10 days after that Eudrilus eugenia, Eisenia fetida were added in respective vermibins. The multiplication of earthworms in terms of number was calculated at the end of vermicomposting. The N, P, K value of the manure in each vermibin was estimated before and after the completion of the experiment. High N, P, K value was obtained in Experiment (2) and Experiment (3) compared to control. Among the solid wastes, the vegetable wastes were degraded quickly by Eudrilus eugenia and also it has the best quality of manure. Eudrilus eugenia was found to be efficient for quick degradation of both garden wastes and vegetable wastes. After manure production, field trials were conducted using different fertilizers to assess the manure quality in the growth and yield of tomato plants. Six types of experimental trial pots were prepared where one was kept as control and five others were treated with different category of fertilizers. The treatment pots (P3) showed better growth parameters (leaf numbers, stem diameter, plant height) than the rest of the trial.

  8. Chemical composition and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Eugenia platysema.

    PubMed

    Tenfen, Adrielli; Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; Mendes de Córdova, Caio Maurício; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition and evaluates the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Eugenia platysema leaves. Analysis by GC-FID and GC-MS allowed the identification of 22 compounds. Different from the other species of the Eugenia genus, the major compound found in the essential oil was the diterpene phytol (66.05%), being this the first report of the presence of this compound in the essential oils from Eugenia genus. The sesquiterpene elixene was the second most concentrated compound in the studied essential oil (9.16%). The essential oil from E. platysema was tested for its antibacterial activity against cell-walled bacteria and mollicute strains of clinical interest using the microdilution broth assay. The results showed that the essential oil of E. platysema was inactive until 1000 μg mL(-1) against tested bacteria. PMID:26595394

  9. Methanogenic food web in the gut contents of methane-emitting earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kristin; Hunger, Sindy; Brown, George G; Tsai, Siu M; Cerri, Carlos C; Conrad, Ralf; Drake, Harold L

    2015-08-01

    The anoxic saccharide-rich conditions of the earthworm gut provide an ideal transient habitat for ingested microbes capable of anaerobiosis. It was recently discovered that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil can emit methane (CH4) and that ingested methanogens might be associated with this emission. The objective of this study was to resolve trophic interactions of bacteria and methanogens in the methanogenic food web in the gut contents of E. eugeniae. RNA-based stable isotope probing of bacterial 16S rRNA as well as mcrA and mrtA (the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase and its isoenzyme, respectively) of methanogens was performed with [(13)C]-glucose as a model saccharide in the gut contents. Concomitant fermentations were augmented by the rapid consumption of glucose, yielding numerous products, including molecular hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), formate, acetate, ethanol, lactate, succinate and propionate. Aeromonadaceae-affiliated facultative aerobes, and obligate anaerobes affiliated to Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with the diverse fermentations. Methanogenesis was ongoing during incubations, and (13)C-labeling of CH4 verified that supplemental [(13)C]-glucose derived carbon was dissimilated to CH4. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens affiliated with Methanobacteriaceae and Methanoregulaceae were linked to methanogenesis, and acetogens related to Peptostreptoccocaceae were likewise found to be participants in the methanogenic food web. H2 rather than acetate stimulated methanogenesis in the methanogenic gut content enrichments, and acetogens appeared to dissimilate supplemental H2 to acetate in methanogenic enrichments. These findings provide insight on the processes and associated taxa potentially linked to methanogenesis and the turnover of organic carbon in the alimentary canal of methane-emitting E. eugeniae. PMID:25615437

  10. Methanogenic food web in the gut contents of methane-emitting earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Kristin; Hunger, Sindy; Brown, George G; Tsai, Siu M; Cerri, Carlos C; Conrad, Ralf; Drake, Harold L

    2015-01-01

    The anoxic saccharide-rich conditions of the earthworm gut provide an ideal transient habitat for ingested microbes capable of anaerobiosis. It was recently discovered that the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae from Brazil can emit methane (CH4) and that ingested methanogens might be associated with this emission. The objective of this study was to resolve trophic interactions of bacteria and methanogens in the methanogenic food web in the gut contents of E. eugeniae. RNA-based stable isotope probing of bacterial 16S rRNA as well as mcrA and mrtA (the alpha subunit of methyl-CoM reductase and its isoenzyme, respectively) of methanogens was performed with [13C]-glucose as a model saccharide in the gut contents. Concomitant fermentations were augmented by the rapid consumption of glucose, yielding numerous products, including molecular hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), formate, acetate, ethanol, lactate, succinate and propionate. Aeromonadaceae-affiliated facultative aerobes, and obligate anaerobes affiliated to Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with the diverse fermentations. Methanogenesis was ongoing during incubations, and 13C-labeling of CH4 verified that supplemental [13C]-glucose derived carbon was dissimilated to CH4. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens affiliated with Methanobacteriaceae and Methanoregulaceae were linked to methanogenesis, and acetogens related to Peptostreptoccocaceae were likewise found to be participants in the methanogenic food web. H2 rather than acetate stimulated methanogenesis in the methanogenic gut content enrichments, and acetogens appeared to dissimilate supplemental H2 to acetate in methanogenic enrichments. These findings provide insight on the processes and associated taxa potentially linked to methanogenesis and the turnover of organic carbon in the alimentary canal of methane-emitting E. eugeniae. PMID:25615437

  11. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity. PMID:21796701

  12. Structure, fluorescence quenching and antioxidant activity of a carbohydrate polymer from Eugenia jambolana.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ghosh, Debjani; Micard, Valérie; Sinha, Sharmistha; Chatterjee, Udipta R; Ray, Bimalendu

    2012-01-01

    Natural products provide an excellent source for novel antioxidants. Herein, we have studied the water-extracted carbohydrate polymer (WE) of Eugenia jambolana using chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. A 116 kDa arabinogalactan containing p-coumaric and ferulic acids in monomeric and dimeric forms has been isolated. Cellulase generated oligomeric fragments containing ester linked phenolic acids were also characterized. The antioxidant capacity of this carbohydrate polymer is comparable to butylated hydroxy anisole and butylated hydroxy toluene. Interaction of WE with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching measurement. Conformational change of BSA at high carbohydrate polymer concentration was indicated. PMID:22521621

  13. Vermicomposting of paper mill solid waste using epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Ponmani, S; Udayasoorian, C; Jayabalakrishnan, R M; Kumar, K Vinoth

    2014-07-01

    A 90 day study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic earthworm species (Eudrilus eugeniae) for decomposition of different types of organic substrates (mixed liquor suspended solids, cow dung and leaf litter) into valuable vermicompost. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and leaf litter (LL) were mixed with cow dung (CD) in eight different ratios with three replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH, organic carbon, C:N ratio and an increase in total nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Overall, earthworms could maximize decomposition and mineralization efficiency in bedding with lower proportions of MLSS. Maximum value for earth worm zoo mass and higher concentration of nutrient content was observed in CD + MLSS + LL in 1:1:2 ratios. Earthworm mortality tended to increase with increasing proportion of MLSS and maximum mortality in E. eugeniae was recorded for MLSS treatment alone. Results indicate that vermicomposting might be useful for managing the energy and nutrient of MLSS on a low-input basis. Products of this process can be used for sustainable land restoration practices. PMID:25004743

  14. Conserved lamin A protein expression in differentiated cells in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Kalidas, Ramamoorthy M; Raja, Subramanian Elaiya; Mydeen, Sheik Abdul Kader Nagoor Meeran; Samuel, Selvan Christyraj Johnson Retnaraj; Durairaj, Selvan Christyraj Jackson; Nino, Gopi D; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Vaithi, Arumugaswami; Sudhakar, Sivasubramaniam

    2015-09-01

    Lamin A is an intermediate filament protein found in most of the differentiated vertebrate cells but absent in stem cells. It shapes the skeletal frame structure beneath the inner nuclear membrane of the cell nucleus. As there are few studies of the expression of lamin A in invertebrates, in the present work, we have analyzed the sequence, immunochemical conservation and expression pattern of lamin A protein in the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, a model organism for tissue regeneration. The expression of lamin A has been confirmed in E. eugeniae by immunoblot. Its localization in the nuclear membrane has been observed by immunohistochemistry using two different rabbit anti-sera raised against human lamin A peptides, which are located at the C-terminus of the lamin A protein. These two antibodies detected 70 kDa lamin A protein in mice and a single 65 kDa protein in the earthworm. The Oct-4 positive undifferentiated blastemal tissues of regenerating earthworm do not express lamin A, while the Oct-4 negative differentiated cells express lamin A. This pattern was also confirmed in the earthworm prostate gland. The present study is the first evidence for the immunochemical identification of lamin A and Oct-4 in the earthworm. Along with the partial sequence obtained from the earthworm genome, the present results suggest that lamin A protein and its expression pattern is conserved from the earthworm to humans. PMID:25858151

  15. Maturation of Eugenia pyriformis seeds under different hydric and thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Lamarca, Edmir V; Prataviera, Juliana S; Borges, Igor F; Delgado, Liliana F; Teixeira, Carmen C; de Camargo, Marcelo B P; Faria, José M R; Barbedo, Claudio J

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the maturation and dispersal of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seeds produced in different years, and the influence of variation in thermal and hydric environment on seed physical and physiological characteristics at dispersal. Fruits at different developmental stages were harvested in the city of São Paulo between 2003 and 2010, as well as in the cities of Campinas and Lavras, in 2009 and 2010 and analyzed for size and color. The seeds were extracted from the fruits and their dry mass, water content, germination and vigor were assessed. Results showed that seed maturation is unsynchronized to the maturation of the fruit, taking 45 days on average (430 growing degree-days), longer in rainy times or lower temperatures. Seeds with higher physiological quality were produced in rainy years and when the temperature range was larger. We concluded therefore that hydric and thermal environmental variations during development influence the maturation of Eugenia pyriformis seeds and are able to determine the formation cycle and the final seed quality. PMID:23460438

  16. Multiple asteroid systems (45) Eugenia and (87) Sylvia: Sensitivity to external and internal perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.

    2014-10-01

    Satellites of asteroids are a widely used way to determine the masses and other dynamical parameters of their systems. We make such a determination here, using data from the two triple-asteroid systems, (45) Eugenia and (87) Sylvia, that come from the Hubble Space Telescope and adaptive optics on three 8-10 m class telescopes (Keck, VLT, Gemini North). First, we determined what set of parameters can be precisely derived from a limited number of observations. Next, we deduced constraints on the inner structure of the main body of the systems. To do this, we fit our dynamical model ODIN to simulated observations to determine at what confidence level we can constrain the dynamical parameters. We deduced that the mass of the satellites is too small to be fitted with confidence, while the polar oblateness J2 of the primary can be constrained. Then, ODIN was fitted to observations of the systems to obtain the values of the polar oblateness J2. The difference between the theoretical value of J2, and our estimate deduced from the motion of the satellites, suggests that Eugenia is differentiated. We explore the properties needed by a dense and spherical core, surrounded by a less dense layer, to explain this difference. The lack of agreement between the different dynamical studies of Sylvia prevents us from making any definitive conclusion, but the large range of possible solutions points to an interesting inner structure.

  17. Unique phenotypes in the sperm of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae for assessing radiation hazards.

    PubMed

    Yesudhason, Beryl Vedha; Jegathambigai, Jothipandi; Thangasamy, Pon Amutha; Lakshmanan, Durga Devi; Selvan Christyraj, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel; Sathya Balasingh Thangapandi, Emmanuel Joshua Jebasingh; Krishnan, Muthukalingan; Sivasubramaniam, Sudhakar

    2013-06-01

    The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae is a segmented worm. It has two pairs of testes whose cells are highly proliferative. It was found that the earthworm, which is irradiated with X-ray, shows the following phenotypic changes in its sperm: fragmented acrosome in the head, break in the tail, and the appearance of zigzag sperm tail. Sperm morphology can be used as a tool to study radiation hazards in local areas. These three phenotypes were not observed in the sperm of worms exposed to different concentration of toxic chemicals such as sodium arsenate, lead acetate, and mercuric chloride. In contrast, exposure of worms to ethidium bromide caused fragmented acrosome in the head of their sperm cells. PMID:23093367

  18. Identification of hydroxychavicol and its dimers, the lipase inhibitors contained in the Indonesian spice, Eugenia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eisuke; Nakagomi, Ryo; Gunawan-Puteri, Maria D P T; Kawabata, Jun

    2013-02-15

    Inhibition of pancreatic lipase is effective for a prevention of obesity. Eugenia polyantha is a tropical tree whose leaves are known as a spice and also as an ingredient for Jamu, the traditional medicine of Indonesia. We found inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase in the extract of E. polyantha leaves. Purification of the active principals resulted in isolation of hydroxychavicol, and two structurally new dimers. All of the isolated compounds showed inhibitory activity against the porcine pancreatic lipase and high content of hydroxychavicol (1.83 wt.%) indicated this compound to be responsible for the majority of inhibitory activity of E. polyantha extract. Furthermore, hydroxychavicol is reported to possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity which is related to traditional usage of this plant. These results offer this plant as an attractive material for treating various health problems including obesity. PMID:23194519

  19. Detection of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective activities of Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Pabline Marinho; Veronezi, Eduardo; Silva, Carolina R; Chen-Chen, Lee

    2012-06-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae), popularly known in Brazil as cagaiteira, is a widespread plant species in the Brazilian Cerrado. In folk medicine, the leaves of this plant are used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The fruits are used for fresh consumption and industrial purposes. Because of the use of this plant as a therapeutic resource and food, the present study evaluated the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. The genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of this extract were evaluated using the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, and the cytotoxicity and anticytotoxicity were assessed by the polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. According to our results, the lyophilized ethanolic leaf extract of E. dysenterica exhibited genotoxic and cytotoxic effects at the higher doses and protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxic and cytotoxic actions at all doses tested. PMID:22404573

  20. Development and characterization of new microsatellites for Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Telles, M P C; Silva, J B; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Chaves, L J; Soares, T N; Collevatti, R G

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for population genetic analyses of the Neotropical tree Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae), after construction of a shotgun genomic library for microsatellite discovery. Nine primers were designed, of which 5 yielded amplified product. These primers were polymorphic for 97 individuals collected in 3 distinct localities. The number of alleles per locus (primer) ranged from 3 to 11 and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.309 to 0.884. The probability of locus identity was ~1.88 x 10(-4) and the probability of paternity exclusion was ~0.9367. The 5 microsatellite primer pairs may be suitable for population genetic studies such as parentage and fine-scale genetic analyses of this species. PMID:23420405

  1. Characterization of anthocyanins from the fruits of baguaçu (Eugenia umbelliflora Berg).

    PubMed

    Kuskoski, E Marta; Vega, José M; Rios, José J; Fett, Roseane; Troncoso, Ana M; Asuero, Agustin G

    2003-08-27

    Anthocyanin pigments in the berries of baguaçu (Eugenia umbelliflora Berg), a tropical fruit from Brazil, were extracted with 0.1% HCl in ethanol, and the crude anthocyanin extract was purified by Amberlite XAD-7 open-column chromatography. Six major anthocyanins were isolated by preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (TLC, UV-vis, MS, and (1)H NMR). Delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, petunidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, pelargonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, and malvidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside were identified. On the basis of chromatographic data the total anthocyanin content was 342 mg/100 g of fresh baguaçu berries. Therefore, the concomitant presence of six anthocyanins in a single plant species makes this product promising as a new pigment source. PMID:12926896

  2. Efficacy of an essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata against Psoroptes cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Flamini, G; Giovanelli, F; Otranto, D; Perrucci, S

    2007-02-01

    The acaricidal activity of Eugenia caryophyllata essential oil was evaluated in vitro and in vivo on Psoroptes cuniculi, a mange mite. In vitro, different concentrations of the oil were tested and the observed mites mortality was compared with that observed in untreated and treated (Acacerulen R) controls. In vivo, six P. cuniculi infected rabbits were topically treated with the oil diluted at 2.5% and compared with untreated and treated control groups of six rabbits each. In vitro, up to the concentration of 0.10% the oil gave highly significant (P<0.01) percentages of mite mortality respect to the untreated controls, but only up to 0.16% it showed the same efficacy of Acacerulen R. In vivo, the treatment with the essential oil cured all infested rabbits and no statistical differences were observed respect to the treated control group. The untreated rabbits remained infested. PMID:16973163

  3. Voltammetric and spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant activity of Eugenia dysenterica DC leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Clementino, Silva Elton; Garcia, Rezende Stefani; Moreira, Béda Roanna C Clícia; Pagliarini, Balest Aiessa; Cabral, Reis Bruna; Dâmaris, Silveira; de Souza, Gil Eric

    2016-03-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC (cagaiteira) is a native tree from Cerrado biome. Cagaita fruits are known and consumed in natura, mainly by inhabitants from Cerrado. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of leaves of this plant. For this evaluation we used four methods, the reduction of phosphomolybdenum, scanning by hydrogen peroxide, DPPH radical scavenging assay and determination of electrochemical parameters by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that all extracts from leaves of this species have significant antioxidant potential, following the order: crude ethanol extract CEE) >crude aqueous extract (CAE) >crude hexane extract (CHE). The voltammetric approaches were also applied in order to evaluate the redox behavior of the hydrophilic extracts, as well as of their sub-extracts. Thus, the results suggest the presence of catechol-like polyphenols, which were confirmed by chromatography and phytochemical methods. Voltammetric analysis showed to be a reliable and fast method to determine redox behavior of E. dysenterica extracts. PMID:27087097

  4. Antimycoplasmic activity and seasonal variation of essential oil of Eugenia hiemalis Cambess. (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Gabriele Andressa; Zimath, Priscila; Tenfen, Adrielli; Mendes de Cordova, Caio Maurício; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi; Falkenberg, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the chemical composition and antimycoplasmic and anticholinesterase activities of the essential oil of Eugenia hiemalis leaves collected throughout the year. A total of 42 compounds were identified by CG, and are present in almost every seasons. Sesquiterpenes were dominant (86.01-91.48%), and non-functionalised sesquiterpenes comprised the major fraction, which increased in the summer; monoterpenes were not identified. The major components were spathulenol (5.36-16.06%), δ-cadinene (7.50-15.93%), bicyclogermacrene (5.70-14.24%) and β-caryophyllene (4.80-9.43%). The highest oil yield was obtained in summer and autumn. Essential oils presented activity against three evaluated Mycoplasma strains, but no activity was observed in the anticholinesterase assay. PMID:26428391

  5. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters.

    PubMed

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Latha, V

    2016-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) act as essential nutrients; however, they can be toxic at higher concentrations. In this study, earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was studied for its sensitivity to sublethal doses of Cr (8 ppm) and Zn (350 ppm) in terms of alterations occurred in oxidative stress indices and reproductive parameters in the testis. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the rate of food intake was observed on 7, 14 and 21 days of Cr toxicity; while increased rate was evident upon 7 days of Zn exposure. Changes evident in the rate of cocoon production (-39.54 and +38.63 %), hatchability (-77.85 and +30.0 %) highlight higher toxic potential of Cr than Zn, respectively. Moderate to severe vacuolization in spermatic follicles and higher incidence of tailless (+52.6 % in Cr and 20.8 % in Zn), and head bent (+18.8 % in Cr and 0 % in Zn) sperms were evident in Cr(VI) exposed worms emphasizing the higher vulnerability of E. eugeniae to Cr toxicity. A significant (p < 0.05) increase observed in catalase activity (+13.29 % in Zn and +20.88 % in Cr) and glutathione (+52.09 % in Zn and -7.70 % in Cr) suggests a higher compensatory antioxidant response in Zn-exposed worms than Cr. Variations observed in the activities of superoxide dismutase (-9.40 % in Zn and +24.0 % in Cr) and glutathione-s-transferase (-39.39 % in Zn and +1.29 % in Cr) emphasize the metal specific antioxidant responses in testis. Therefore, it can be implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate. PMID:26922588

  6. Phytochemical composition, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of clove flower bud (Eugenia caryophyllus) methanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, R; Nivetha, P; Mohanapriya, C; Sharmila, G; Muthukumaran, C; Gopinath, M

    2016-02-01

    Plant derived pharmacologically active compounds have gained importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study is to identify and study the antioxidant, antimicrobial properties of the phytochemicals present in the crude extract of Eugenia caryophyllus flower buds. The antioxidant activity of the methanol, acetone and chloroform extract was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The methanol extract showed better radical scavenging activity than other selected solvents. Preliminary screening of phytochemicals was carried out in methanol extract and total phenol content was found high. Antibacterial activity was determined by well diffusion assay and methanol extract was found effective against Klebsiella pneumonia. FTIR and GC-MS results indicate the presence of aromatic compounds and major constituents were found to be eugenol and eugenyl acetate. Results of this study implied that Eugenia caryophyllus flower bud extract could be considered as health nutriments in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27162398

  7. The chemical composition and biological activity of clove essential oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): a short review.

    PubMed

    Chaieb, Kamel; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Zmantar, Tarek; Kahla-Nakbi, Amel Ben; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Mahdouani, Kacem; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-06-01

    The essential oil extracted from the dried flower buds of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata L. Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae), is used as a topical application to relieve pain and to promote healing and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. The main constituents of the essential oil are phenylpropanoids such as carvacrol, thymol, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. The biological activity of Eugenia caryophyllata has been investigated on several microorganisms and parasites, including pathogenic bacteria, Herpes simplex and hepatitis C viruses. In addition to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal and antiviral activity, clove essential oil possesses antiinflammatory, cytotoxic, insect repellent and anaesthetic properties. This short review addresses the chemical composition and biological effects of clove essential oil, and includes new results from GC/MS analysis and a study of its antimicrobial activity against a large number of multi-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from dialysis biomaterials. PMID:17380552

  8. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e  = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e  = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m  = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m  - t s  = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev  = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals. PMID:26862083

  9. Efficacy of combination herbal product (Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolana) used for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sadia Saleem; Najam, Rahila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of a combination herbal product that is traditionally used for managing diabetes mellitus. Herbal drug contains Curcuma longa and Eugenia jambolanain the ratio of 1:1. It was orally administered at the dose of 1082 mg/70 kg twice a day for a period of 6 weeks to alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with glibenclamide (standard). The effects of drug were observed at intervals, with respect to random and fasting glucose levels. HbA1C was also monitored after the drug treatment to monitor the overall diabetic effect. Results revealed that the combination of two herbs significantly reduced fasting and random glucose levels with HbA1C of less than 6% (p<0.001) in comparison to diabetic control. The control of fasting blood glucose levels by herbal combination is similar to the standard drug, glibenclamide (p<0.05). Random glucose levels by herbal combination is better than standard drug after one week and six weeks of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) and similar after third week of treatment (p<0.05). Also, herbal drug combination showed HbA1C closer to the standard drug. It shows that this herbal combination can be of potential benefit in managing diabetes mellitus in future. PMID:26826833

  10. Hybrid nanomaterial for stabilizing the antibiofilm activity of Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil.

    PubMed

    Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Saviuc, Crina; Grumezescu, Valentina; Hristu, Radu; Mihaiescu, Dan Eduard; Stanciu, George A; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid core/shell nanostructures could be used as systems for stabilizing the Eugenia carryophyllata essential oil (EO) on catheter surface pellicles, in order to improve their resistance to fungal colonization. EO microwave assisted extraction was performed in a Neo-Clevenger (related) device and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Fe(3)O(4)/oleic acid-core/shell nanoparticles (NP) were obtained by a precipitation method under microwave condition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) was used as a primary characterization method. The NPs were processed to achieve a core/shell/EO coated-shell nanosystem further used for coating the inner surface of central venous catheter samples. The tested fungal strains have been recently isolated from different clinical specimens. The biofilm architecture was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Our results claim the usage of hybrid nanomaterial (core/shell/coated-shell) for the stabilization of E. carryophyllata EO, which prevented or inhibited the fungal biofilm development on the functionalized catheter, highlighting the opportunity of using these nanosystems to obtain improved, anti-biofilm coatings for biomedical applications. PMID:22949098

  11. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Jeromini, Tatiane S; Mussury, Rosilda M; Dresch, Daiane M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality and photosynthetic metabolism of "uvaia" seedlings (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess.) on different substrates and water regimes. The seeds were sown in tubes of 50 x 190 mm in the following substrates: Sand (S), Latosol + Sand (L + S) (1:1), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S1 + PL) ( 1:1:0.5), Latosol + Sand + Semi Decomposed Poultry Litter (L + S2 + PL) (1:2:0.5), Latosol + Bioplant® (L + B) (1:1), and the water levels assessed were 50, 75 and 100% of water retention capacity. At 60, 90, 120 and 150 days the seedlings were evaluated according to their chlorophyll index, leaf area (cm2) and Dickson Quality Index (DQI) and at 150 days their internal concentration of carbon (mol m-2 s-1), stomatal conductance (mol m-2 s-1), transpiration rate (mmol m-2 s-1), photosynthesis (µmol m-2 s-1) and efficiency of water use (µmol de CO2 / mmol de H2O). Until their 150th days, the seedlings had higher quality and photosynthetic metabolism when cultured with substrates containing latosol + sand + poultry litter on the two variations assessed and water retention capacity of 50%. PMID:25590738

  12. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms. PMID:23594212

  13. Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·−), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using α-amylase, α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·−) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 μg/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24078187

  14. Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of black plum (Eugenia jambolana lam.).

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Despite good understanding of the molecular basis of the disease and advances in treatment, globally cancer is still a major cause of death. Estimates are that it will surpass cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death, with higher incidences in the developing countries that have minimal resources. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the two most commonly used treatment modalities, are associated with untoward side effects. This has necessitated the search for alternatives that are effective, non toxic and easily affordable for patients and traditional medicinal plants are an ideal source. Eugenia jambolana Lam., commonly known as black plum or 'jamun' is an important medicinal plant in various traditional systems of medicine. It is effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea and preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties. Here, for the first time, the effects of jamun in treatment and prevention of cancer, and the mechanisms responsible for these effects are appraised. Additionally the drawbacks in existing knowledge are also stressed to emphasize the possible avenues that need to be investigated, so that maximum effects on both prevention and cure can be attained. PMID:21517226

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition by Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia jambolana ameliorates streptozotocin induced Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Madhunapantula, Subbarao V; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Dubala, Anil; Muthureddy Nataraj, Satish Kumar; Basavan, Duraiswamy

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by the loss of normal functions of brain cells and neuronal death, ultimately leading to memory loss. Recent accumulating evidences have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of anti-diabetic agents, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing opportunities to explore and test the DPP-4 inhibitors for treating this fatal disease. Prior studies determining the efficacy of Pterocarpus marsupium (PM, Fabaceae) and Eugenia jambolana (EJ, Myrtaceae) extracts for ameliorating type 2 diabetes have demonstrated the DPP-4 inhibitory properties indicating the possibility of using of these extracts even for the treating AD. Therefore, in the present study, the neuroprotective roles of PM and EJ for ameliorating the streptozotocin (STZ) induced AD have been tested in rat model. Experimentally, PM and EJ extracts, at a dose range of 200 and 400mg/kg, were administered orally to STZ induced AD Wistar rats and cognitive evaluation tests were performed using radial arm maze and hole-board apparatus. Following 30 days of treatment with the extracts, a dose- and time-dependent attenuation of AD pathology, as evidenced by decreasing amyloid beta 42, total tau, phosphorylated tau and neuro-inflammation with an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels was observed. Therefore, PM and EJ extracts contain cognitive enhancers as well as neuroprotective agents against STZ induced AD. PMID:24667360

  16. In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2012-06-20

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Eugenia jambolana seeds against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assay methods were used for antibacterial susceptibility testing. Kill-kinetics study was done to know the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography were performed by colour tests to characterize the putative compounds responsible for this antibacterial activity. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated on human erythrocytes by haemolytic assay method and acute oral toxicity study was done in mice. The plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against all the test isolates. Further, ethyl acetate fraction obtained from fractionation of most active ethanol extract showed maximum antibacterial effect against all the test isolates. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction revealed that phenolics were the major active phytoconstituents. Ethyl acetate fraction also demonstrated no haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and no gross behavioural changes as well as toxic symptoms were observed in mice at recommended dosage level. The results provide justification for the use of E. jambolana in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases and may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by these drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:22444436

  17. The traditional Ayuverdic medicine, Eugenia Jambolana (Jamun Fruit) decreases liver inflammation, injury, and fibrosis during cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Donepudi, Ajay C.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Seeram, Navindra P.; Slitt, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cholestasis is a common disease of the liver. Chronic cholestasis eventually leads to hepatic cirrhosis and fibrosis, and rodent chronic cholestasis models are used to study aspects of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Cholestasis-induced liver injury and fibrosis are associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Few pharmacological therapies exist for treatment of cholestasis or cirrhosis, but it is known that humans with better nutritional intake are less likely to develop certain types of cirrhosis. Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) is a tropical berry fruit rich in antioxidant anthocyanin compounds. Aim Because anthocyanins decrease cellular lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, it was hypothesized that Jamun fruit extract (JFE) administration could protect against cholestatic liver injury and inflammation in mice. Method Starting 24 h after sham or bile-duct ligation (BDL) surgery, male C57Bl/6 mice were administered vehicle or JFE (100 mg/kg, po) for ten days. Results Mice that underwent BDL had elevated serum ALT levels, which were reduced 60% by JFE treatment. Likewise, BDL caused hepatic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, fibrosis, and necrosis, all of which were largely improved by JFE. Interestingly, hepatoprotection was observed in JFE-treated BDL mice, despite suppressed transporter expression and increased hepatic bile acid concentrations. Conclusion Jamun fruit phytochemicals decreased hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress, and protected against hepatocellular injury in mice. Jamun warrants further investigation as a potential antioxidant/anti-inflammatory therapy to treat not only cholestasis, but also other liver diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:22212619

  18. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  19. In Vivo Effects of Cagaita (Eugenia dysenterica, DC.) Leaf Extracts on Diarrhea Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lima, T. B.; Silva, O. N.; Silva, L. P.; Rocha, T. L.; Grossi-de-Sá, M. F.; Franco, O. L.; Leonardecz, E.

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia dysenterica is a plant typically found in the Cerrado biome and commonly used in popular medicine due to its pharmacological properties, which include antidiarrheal, skin healing, and antimicrobial activities. The effects of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract and infusion of E. dysenterica leaves on intestinal motility and antidiarrheal activity were evaluated using ricin oil-induced diarrhea in rats. At doses of 400 and 800 mg·Kg−1, the ethanolic extract decreased intestinal motility while the other extracts showed no significant effects. Moreover, serum levels of chloride, magnesium, and phosphorus were also measured in rats. Histopathologic and enzymatic analyses were also performed to investigate any toxic effect. Animals treated with infusion, ethanolic extract, ricin oil, and loperamide presented morphological alterations in the small intestine, such as mucosa lesion, epithelial layer damage, and partial loss and/or morphological change of villi. Furthermore, the liver showed congestion and hydropic degeneration. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase increased significantly in all treatments, but none rose above reference values. In summary, our results suggest that compounds present in leaves of E. dysenterica may have therapeutic benefits on recovery from diarrhea despite their toxic effects. PMID:20953423

  20. Fine Analysis of 121 Hermione, 45 Eugenia, and 90 Antiope Binary Asteroid Systems With AO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Descamps, P.; Hestroffer, D.; Berthier, J.; de Pater, I.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a campaign of adaptive optics observations which focuses on 121 Hermione, 45 Eugenia, and 90 Antiope binary asteroids performed with ESO-VLT and Keck II telescopes in 2003-2004. A precessing Keplerian model was used to describe the motion of their companion. The orbital elements are determined accurately using data spanning more than 2 years. The satellite of 121 Hermione revolves at a= 775+/-14 km from the primary in P=2.5714+/-0.001 days with a low eccentricity (e=0.008+/-0.004) and retrograde orbit w.r.t. to the primary's equator (i=175+/-4 deg considering a pole solution (1.9,13.2) deg in ecliptic EQJ2000). The sense of revolution was unambiguously estimated from images separated by a few hours. Keck AO data taken in December 2003 revealed the bi-lobated shape of the primary. The nominal bulk density as derived from observed size of the primary and its 209 km IRAS diameter is 1.2+/-0.3 g/cm3 (Marchis et al., Icarus, 2004). Future observations with better angular resolution will allow us to see if 121 Hermione is a triple system. The orbit of Petit-Prince, moonlet of 45 Eugenia, was constrained using Feb. and Mar. 2004 AO data recorded at the VLT (a=1196+/-4 km, P= 4.7244+/-0.001 days, e=0, i=163+/-6 deg with a pole solution (133+/-3,-40+/-3 deg) in ecliptic B1950), leading to a bulk density of 1.17 g/cm3 considering its 215 km IRAS diameter. Both models predict successfully the positions reported for the discovery of Petit-Prince on Nov. 1998 and of S/2001 (121) 1 by Merline et al. (1999 and 2002). We will also present results on the same-size binary asteroid 90 Antiope, using the same analysis. Feb. and Mar. 2004 VLT-NACO data confirmed that both components are similar (with a Dm 2.4 and a diameter of 110+/-16 km). A preliminary analysis of Feb. and Mar. 2004 VLT data confirms that both components, separated by 170+/-1 km, with a revolution period P=16.5268 +- 0.0001h, are quasi-similar (with a Dm ˜ 2.4% and a diameter of 110+/-16 km) leading to

  1. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. Objective: To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast cells. Materials and Methods: Protective ability of flavonoid-enriched (FE) fraction of clove was studied against UV-B induced cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2 ARE) pathway. Results: FE fraction showed a significant antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of cells with FE fraction (10–40 μg/ml) reversed the effects of UV-B induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated for the first time that the FE fraction from clove could confer UV-B protection probably through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which included the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1. These findings suggested that the flavonoids from clove could potentially be considered as UV-B protectants and can be explored further for its topical application to the area of the skin requiring protection. SUMMARY Pretreatment of human dermal fibroblast with flavonoid-enriched fraction of Eugenia caryophylata attenuated effects of ultraviolet-B radiationsIt also conferred protection through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response pathway and increased tolerance of cells against oxidative stress

  2. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E. jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E. jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9 > CYP3A4 > CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05 µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85 ± 5.27 µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  3. Implant of polymer containing pentacyclic triterpenes from Eugenia punicifolia inhibits inflammation and activates skeletal muscle remodeling.

    PubMed

    Leite, Paulo Emílio C; Lima-Araújo, Katia G; França, Guilherme R; Lagrota-Candido, Jussara; Santos, Wilson C; Quirico-Santos, Thereza

    2014-12-01

    Sustained chronic inflammation induces activation of genes involved in cellular proliferation and apoptosis, thereby causing skeletal muscle degeneration. To investigate in vitro effects of isolated pentacyclic triterpenes from Eugenia punicifolia (Ep-CM) upon signaling pathways involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle cell line proliferation, and in vivo muscular tissue remodeling. C2C12 cells were seeded on eight-well plates and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, TUNEL assays, mitochondria viability, zymography for matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), Western blot analysis for MAPKinase signaling pathway, NFκB activation and HMGB1 production subsequently determined under basal conditions and after Ep-CM treatment. A polymer containing Ep-CM was implanted on the volar surface of gastrocnemius muscles subjected to acute injury induced by bupivacaine for local slow and gradual release of bioactive compounds, and mice killed 4 days after surgery. Ep-CM inhibited proliferation of C2C12 myoblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner, confirmed by reduction of [(3)H]-thymidine uptake without affecting cell viability or inducing apoptosis. The cytostatic effect of Ep-CM occurred mainly via inhibition of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) activation and DNA synthesis, possibly inhibiting the G1 phase of the cell cycle, since Ep-CM increased pAkt and p27(kip1) but reduced Cyclin D1. Ep-CM in vitro treatment increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 activities of C2C12 myoblast cells, but reduced in vivo MMP-9 activity and acute muscular inflammation. Besides cytostatic and anti-inflammatory effects, Ep-CM pentacyclic triterpenes also contributed to degradation of basement membrane components by activating mechanisms of skeletal muscle remodeling in response to local injury. PMID:24830560

  4. The gastroprotective effects of Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract: the possible role of condensed tannins.

    PubMed

    Prado, Ligia Carolina da Silva; Silva, Denise Brentan; de Oliveira-Silva, Grasielle Lopes; Hiraki, Karen Renata Nakamura; Canabrava, Hudson Armando Nunes; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz Borges

    2014-01-01

    We applied a taxonomic approach to select the Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) leaf extract, known in Brazil as "cagaita," and evaluated its gastroprotective effect. The ability of the extract or carbenoxolone to protect the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced lesions was evaluated in mice. The contributions of nitric oxide (NO), endogenous sulfhydryl (SH) groups and alterations in HCl production to the extract's gastroprotective effect were investigated. We also determined the antioxidant activity of the extract and the possible contribution of tannins to the cytoprotective effect. The extract and carbenoxolone protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol/HCl-induced ulcers, and the former also decreased HCl production. The blockage of SH groups but not the inhibition of NO synthesis abolished the gastroprotective action of the extract. Tannins are present in the extract, which was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI); the tannins identified by fragmentation pattern (MS/MS) were condensed type-B, coupled up to eleven flavan-3-ol units and were predominantly procyanidin and prodelphinidin units. Partial removal of tannins from the extract abolished the cytoprotective actions of the extract. The extract exhibits free-radical-scavenging activity in vitro, and the extract/FeCl3 sequence stained gastric surface epithelial cells dark-gray. Therefore, E. dysenterica leaf extract has gastroprotective effects that appear to be linked to the inhibition of HCl production, the antioxidant activity and the endogenous SH-containing compounds. These pleiotropic actions appear to be dependent on the condensed tannins contained in the extract, which bind to mucins in the gastric mucosa forming a protective coating against damaging agents. Our study highlights the biopharmaceutical potential of E. dysenterica. PMID:24789995

  5. Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic species of earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, R D; Datar, M T; Babookani, M Rabiei

    2011-01-01

    Majority of municipal (urban) solid waste (MSW) is disposed of in landfills (anaerobic composting). However, this disposal system is reported to produce hazardous environmental impacts and new policies are initiated to protect the environment from such impacts by discouraging the practice of disposal of solid waste in landfills. Eco-friendly disposal alternatives to landfills need to be explored. One of the technological options for treatment and disposal of organic solid wastes is vermicomposting. Commercial vermicomposting is reported to be practicable for treatment and disposal of many organic solids and byproducts in agricultural production and processing industries. However, this alternative has not been tried for MSW on large scale. This paper highlights the application of vermicomposting for treatment of organic solid waste, generated at urban residential area at Pune [organic component of this urban solid waste (MSW)]. Vermicomposting was tried on this segregated solid waste using exotic species of earthworm--Eudrilus eugeniae--commonly called 'African Night Crawler'. Bench scale reactor studies were carried out on organic solid waste under controlled optimum environmental conditions (moisture content: 48-52 percent, pH: 7.0-7.2, temperature: ambient), with variable vermi-loading [40-80 g of worms/kg of urban solid waste (MSW)]. Characteristics of solid waste were monitored through conventional parameters and additional environmental parameters like BOD5 and COD. The results of investigative studies are encouraging and indicate that organic solid waste can be treated in a reasonable period of 32-34 days through vermicomposting with around 60 percent reduction in the volume. PMID:22324158

  6. Involvement of serotoninergic and adrenergic systems on the antidepressant-like effect of E. uniflora L. leaves essential oil and further analysis of its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Francine Novack; de Siqueira Brahm, Arthur; Savegnago, Lucielli; Lenardão, Eder João

    2013-06-01

    In this work we evaluated antidepressant-like effect of E. uniflora leaves EO employing the tail suspension test. The involvement of serotonergic and adrenergic systems was appraised. EO was administered by oral route (p.o.) in mice and the doses of 10 and 50mg/kg exhibited antidepressant-like action in the TST. The effect of EO (10mg/kg) was prevented by the pretreatment of mice with ketanserin (5mg/kg, intraperitoneal), prazosin (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) and yohimbine (0.1mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, further analysis of the in vitro antioxidant effect of the EO was made against lipid oxidation. The results revealed that EO has a potent antioxidant activity and therapeutic potential for the development of phytomedicines with antidepressant and antioxidant properties. PMID:23583586

  7. Acute effect of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata on cognition and pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2012-06-01

    The essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (clove oil; Family: Myrtaceae) is used in dental care as an antiseptic and analgesic. The study aims to evaluate the effect of clove oil on experimental models of pain and cognition in mice. To observe the acute effects of clove oil at different doses, the elevated plus maze was used for the assessment of cognition, and the tail flick and formalin tests were used for the study of pain. The formalin test showed that clove oil (0.1 ml/kg, i.p.) demonstrated significantly reduced pain response in both the phases. The lower doses (0.025 and 0.05 ml/kg, i.p.) reduced the formalin-induced pain response significantly in the second phase only. The tail-flick test showed variable response. The dose 0.1 ml/kg, clove oil, significantly decreased the tail-flick latency at 30 min and this effect was reversed by naloxone (1 mg/kg). On the contrary, the dose 0.025 ml/kg of clove oil, at 30 and 60 min increased the mean tail-flick latency compared to control group, but this effect was not statistically significant. Yet naloxone significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the effect of clove oil 0.025 ml/kg at 30 min. Clove oil (0.025 and 0.05 ml/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced retention memory deficit induced by scopolamine, but clove oil (0.1 ml/kg, i.p.) significantly reversed both acquisition as well as retention deficits in elevated plus maze induced by the scopolamine. Clove oil exhibits reduced pain response by a predominantly peripheral action as evidenced by formalin test and the tail flick test showed the involvement of opioid receptors. Clove oil also significantly improved scopolamine-induced retention memory deficit at all doses. PMID:22453493

  8. Chemical and microbiological changes during vermicomposting of coffee pulp using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) species.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Kurian; Velmourougane, K

    2011-06-01

    Coffee pulp is the main solid residue from the wet processing of coffee berries. Due to presence of anti-physiological and anti-nutritional factors, coffee pulp is not considered as adequate substrate for bioconversion process by coffee farmers. Recent stringent measures by Pollution Control authorities, made it mandatory to treat all the solid and liquid waste emanating from the coffee farms. A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and a native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis) from coffee farm for decomposition of coffee pulp into valuable vermicompost. Exotic earthworms were found to degrade the coffee pulp faster (112 days) as compared to the native worms (165 days) and the vermicomposting efficiency (77.9%) and vermicompost yield (389 kg) were found to significantly higher with native worms. The multiplication rate of earthworms (280%) and worm yield (3.78 kg) recorded significantly higher with the exotic earthworms. The percentage of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium and magnesium in vermicompost was found to increase while C:N ratio, pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting. The plant nutrients, nitrogen (80.6%), phosphorus (292%) and potassium (550%) content found to increase significantly in the vermicompost produced using native earthworms as compared to the initial values, while the calcium (85.7%) and magnesium (210%) content found to increase significantly in compost produced utilizing exotic worms. Vermicompost and vermicasts from native earthworms recorded significantly higher functional microbial group's population as compared to the exotic worms. The study reveals that coffee pulp can be very well used as substrate for vermicomposting using exotic (Eudrilus eugeniae) and native earthworm (Perionyx ceylanesis). PMID:20922463

  9. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    PubMed

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay. PMID:17628885

  10. Stability of anthocyanins- and anthocyanidins-enriched extracts, and formulations of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana ('jamun').

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ram Jee; Gupta, Ramesh C; Singh, Saranjit; Bansal, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2016-01-01

    The fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (jamun) is a rich source of anthocyanins (ACs). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of various physical and chemical factors on the stability of ACs and anthocyanidins (ACdn) in the crude, anthocyanins-enriched extract (ACs-EEX), anthocyanins-enriched sephadex extract (ACs-EES) and anthocyanidins-enriched extract (ACdn-EEX). ACs and ACdn contents were analyzed using a stability indicating HPLC analytical method. The ACs content reduced to 86.4% (crude extract), 60.9% (ACs-EEX), 36.0% (ACs-EES), 64.8% (ACs-EEX tablet), and 71.7% (ACs-EEX capsules) after 1 year at 5 °C. The ACdn content reduced to 83.1% (ACdn-EEX), 90.1% (ACdn-EEX tablet) and 93.8% (ACdn-EEX capsules) after 1 year at 5 °C. ACs and ACdn showed lesser degradation at low pH and higher degradation at high H2O2 concentration. The thermal degradation products of ACs were identified and quantified. PMID:26213042

  11. Eugenia jambolana pretreatment prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence from biochemical, molecular, and histopathological studies.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Sharma, Suman Bala; Singh, Usha Rani; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maheshwari, Ankur; Misro, Manmohan; Dwivedi, Shridhar

    2014-02-01

    Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (HEEJ) on isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in rats were evaluated. Rats were pre-treated with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg bw) was administered on the 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 h. Ischemic control group exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress parameters, markers of inflammation, cardiac damage markers, and apoptotic markers. Oral pre-treatment with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw) provided cardioprotective activity by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde, cardiac markers (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, cardiac troponin I), and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha); and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. HEEJ (400 mg/kg bw) was found to exert significantly greater effects in comparison to HEEJ (100 and 200 mg/kg bw). Apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was increased, while Bax was decreased in pre-treated rats, which was further confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment with HEEJ attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis and improves cardiac architecture in ISP-induced rats and, hence, is cardioprotective. PMID:24325453

  12. Antihyperlipidemic effect of active principle isolated from seed of Eugenia jambolana on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suman B; Tanwar, Reenu S; Nasir, Afreena; Prabhu, Krishna M

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes is accompanied by lipid abnormalities, which contribute significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. We previously demonstrated the potent antihyperglycemic activity of the active principle (fraction II from Sephadex LH 20 chromatography [LH II]) isolated from ethanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana in diabetic rabbits. In the present study, the efficacy of LH II was evaluated for its hypolipidemic activity in alloxan-induced mildly diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) rabbits. Phytochemical investigation of LH II by various structural spectra showed the presence of saturated fatty acid, Δ(5) lipid, and sterol. Oral administration of LH II (10 mg/kg of body weight) for 21 days resulted in improved glycemic control in both MD and SD rabbits. After treatment with LH II, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significantly improved. LH II also resulted in significant (P < .001) improvement in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity and levels of total lipids and glycogen in both MD and SD rabbits. Thus, the present study demonstrates that LH II possesses potent hypolipidemic activity and efficacy in both MD and SD rabbits. PMID:21370965

  13. Protective effects of Eugenia jambolana extract versus N-acetyl cysteine against cisplatin-induced damage in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Anand, H; Misro, M M; Sharma, S B; Prakash, S

    2015-03-01

    To assess the protective effects of Eugenia jambolana extract (EJE) or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on testis, cisplatin (CIS, 5 mg kg(-1) bw, single dose) was administered either alone or along with EJE (25 mg kg(-1) bw, alternate day) or NAC (150 mg kg(-1) bw, Day 1 and 4) for 7 days. Significant alterations in serum LH, FSH and testosterone were observed in CIS group which were effectively modulated by EJE or NAC supplementation. Upregulation of 3β-HSD gene indicated the rise in functional Leydig cells. This was further confirmed from the identical improvement in hCG-stimulated testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells. Reduction in oxidative stress was associated with restoration of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels, and activation of antioxidant enzymes, SOD, catalase, glutathione s-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR). CIS-induced apoptosis of germ and Leydig cells was contained by both NAC and EJE intervention by effective modulation of apoptotic markers in the extrinsic, intrinsic and other pathways of metazoan apoptosis. Taken together, the study findings establish the potential of EJE as a therapeutically better antioxidant than NAC for use in curtailing the adverse effects of anticancer drugs on testicular function. PMID:24576220

  14. Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. as an adjuvant treatment for type-2 diabetes mellitus: a non-controlled, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sales, Débora Simone; Carmona, Fabio; de Azevedo, Bruna Cestari; Taleb-Contini, Silvia Helena; Bartolomeu, Ana Carolina Duó; Honorato, Fernando B; Martinez, Edson Z; Pereira, Ana Maria Soares

    2014-12-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent disease with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. However, there is no universally effective treatment, because response to different treatment regimens can vary widely among patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the use of the powdered dried leaves of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae) is effective as an adjuvant to the treatment of patients with type-2 DM. Fifteen patients were enrolled in a pilot, non-controlled study, and received E. punicifolia for 3 months. After treatment, we observed a significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There were no changes in fasting and postprandial glycemia. The compounds myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-xyloside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, phytol, gallic acid, and trans-caryophyllene present in the powdered dried leaves of E. punicifolia may be responsible for the therapeutic effect. In conclusion, the powdered leaves of E. punicifolia are promising as an adjuvant in the treatment of type-2 DM and deserve further investigation. PMID:25132112

  15. Eugenia jambolana Pretreatment Prevents Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Damage in Rats: Evidence from Biochemical, Molecular, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Usha Rani; Ahmad, Sayeed; Maheshwari, Ankur; Misro, Manmohan; Dwivedi, Shridhar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (HEEJ) on isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial damage in rats were evaluated. Rats were pre-treated with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg bw) was administered on the 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 h. Ischemic control group exhibited significant increases in oxidative stress parameters, markers of inflammation, cardiac damage markers, and apoptotic markers. Oral pre-treatment with HEEJ (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw) provided cardioprotective activity by decreasing levels of malondialdehyde, cardiac markers (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, cardiac troponin I), and markers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha); and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. HEEJ (400 mg/kg bw) was found to exert significantly greater effects in comparison to HEEJ (100 and 200 mg/kg bw). Apoptotic marker Bcl-2 was increased, while Bax was decreased in pre-treated rats, which was further confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The present study provides evidence that pre-treatment with HEEJ attenuates oxidative stress, apoptosis and improves cardiac architecture in ISP-induced rats and, hence, is cardioprotective. PMID:24325453

  16. Scavenger Activity Evaluation of the Clove Bud Essential Oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and Eugenol Derivatives Employing ABTS+• Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Merchán Arenas, Diego R.; Acevedo, Amner Muñoz; Vargas Méndez, Leonor Y.; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil (EO) of clove bud dried fruits from Eugenia caryophyllus was obtained by a conventional hydrodistillation process in an excellent yield (11.7 %). Its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS, identifying eugenol as a main constituent (60.5%). Four eugenol-like molecules, γ-diisoeugenol, hydroxymethyleugenol, dihydroeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were synthesized using eugenol or isoeugenol as initial precursors under green chemistry protocols. To evaluate the possible antioxidant capacity of eugenol compounds including the clove bud EO, the Trolox® Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity value, obtained by the ABTS+• radical-cation discoloration method, was employed. The methodology was performed in a UV-Vis reader of 96-well microplates (dilution methodology), using well-known antioxidant agents (BHA, BHT and vitamin E) as reference compounds. It was found that the prepared eugenol derivatives had a more potent free radical scavenger activity than the reference compounds. In particular, the most active molecules, γ-diisoeugenol and 1,3-dioxanylphenol, were ca. 3-fold more potent than vitamin E. PMID:22145105

  17. Antiapoptotic efficacy of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular germ cell in experimental diabetic rat: a genomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Pakhira, B P; Ghosh, D

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to focus the genetic regulation of diabetes-induced testicular hypofunction and its amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of seed of Eugenia jambolana. In this regard, we have assessed relevant biosensors such as biochemical, spermiological, histological and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, germ cell apoptosis and androgenic key enzymes along with in situ end labelling and DNA fragmentation study. After 60 days administration of said fraction, significant recovery in the glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, sperm viability, hypo-osmotic swelling and nuclear chromatin decondensation were noted in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. Besides this, a significant recovery in the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, catalase, peroxidase, ∆(5) , 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase genes was noted towards the control in ethyl acetate fraction-treated group. Testicular histology focused a significant recovery in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated group. In situ end labelling and DNA fragmentation study of testicular tissues also showed a significant recovery in fraction-treated group towards the control. These findings indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction showed outstanding antiapoptotic activity by neutralising oxidative stress as well as by the improvement in glycaemic sensors. PMID:26040298

  18. Evaluation of seasonal chemical composition, antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Diogo Alexandre; Tenfen, Adrielli; Yamanaka, Celina Noriko; de Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Alberton, Michele Debiasi

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the seasonal composition and the antibacterial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil from Eugenia brasiliensis leaves. Analysis by using GC allowed the identification of 40 compounds. It was observed that the monoterpenes varied more (42%) than the sesquiterpenes (14%), and that the monoterpene hydrocarbons suffered the greatest variation throughout the year (64%). Major compounds were spathulenol in the spring (16.02 ± 0.44%) and summer (18.17 ± 0.41%), τ-cadinol in the autumn (12.83 ± 0.03%) and α-pinene (15.94 ± 0.58%) in the winter. Essential oils were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the best result was obtained from the autumn oil, with MIC = 500 μg mL(- 1) against Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, lipid peroxidation and iron-reducing power assays, as well as the anticholinesterase activity. Both tests showed a weak performance of the essential oils. PMID:25219800

  19. On The Attitude Dynamics Of Central Bodies Of Triples Systems 87 Sylvia, 45 Eugenia And 2001sn263.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrin, Luiz Augusto; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2012-10-01

    The study of multiple asteroids is a great key for knowledge of our solar system past, since they are remaining objects of the formation of planets. Starting from that motivation, in a previous work on the system (87) Sylvia we studied the dynamics of Sylvia's satellites perturbed by the Sun and Jupiter. In that work it was shown that Romulus and Remus experience strong secular perturbations from the Sun and Jupiter, which could destabilize them. We also found out that the flatness (J2) of the central body is of extreme importance in the stability of the orbits of the satellites. From these results, we decided to do a study on the attitude motion of the main body of this kind of system and analyze its influence on the orbital motion of its satellites. The attitude motion of the central body of the triples systems 87 Sylvia, 45 Eugenia and 2001SN263 have been studied taking into account the torques from its satellites, the Sun and Jupiter. Analyzing the results through the temporal variation of the right ascension and declination of the central body's pole, we found that the satellites induce short period and low amplitude oscillations, and the Sun and Jupiter only provide large oscillations observed in long timescales. It was also observed a coupling between the orbital plane of the satellites and the equator plane of the central body, in such a way that the orbital plane always follows the equatorial plane of the central body, even with the latter experiencing great variations. Acknowledgements: CAPES, FAPESP and CNPq.

  20. Changes in fungal population of fly ash and vinasse mixture during vermicomposting by Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida: documentation of cellulase isozymes in vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-06-01

    Fly ash (FA) and vinasse (VN), two industrial wastes, are generated in huge amounts and cause serious hazards to the environment. In this experiment, different proportions of these two wastes were used as food for two epigeic earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) to standardize the recycling technique of these two wastes and to study their effect on fungal especially cellulolytic fungal population, cellulase activity and their isozyme pattern, chitin content and microbial biomass of waste mixture during vermicomposting. Increasing VN proportion from 25% to 50% or even higher, counts of both fungi and cellulolytic fungi in waste mixtures were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased during vermicomposting. Higher cellulase activity in treatments having 50% or more vinasse might be attributed to the significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher concentration of group I isozyme while concentrations of other isozymes (group II and III) of cellulase were statistically at par. Higher chitin content in vinasse-enriched treatments suggested that fungal biomass and fungi-to-microbial biomass ratio in these treatments were also increased due to vermicomposting. Results revealed that Eudrilus eugeniae and Eisenia fetida had comparable effect on FA and VN mixture during vermicomposting. Periodical analysis of above-mentioned biochemical and microbial properties and nutrient content of final vermicompost samples indicated that equal proportion (1:1, w/w) of FA and VN is probably the optimum composition to obtain best quality vermicompost. PMID:21277188

  1. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  2. Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf

    PubMed Central

    John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  3. Eugenol isolated from the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata induces a reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chae-Bin; Han, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyu-Seok; Ha, Joohun; Park, Hee-Juhn; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Kil, Uk-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-07-01

    Eugenol is a major component of essential oil isolated from the Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae), which has been widely used as a herbal drug. In this study, we investigated the effects of eugenol on the cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis, and the putative pathways of its actions in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) under the standard laboratory illumination. Eugenol-treated HL-60 cells displayed features of apoptosis including DNA fragmentation and formation of DNA ladders in agarose gel electrophoresis. We observed that eugenol transduced the apoptotic signal via ROS generation, thereby inducing mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), reducing anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 level, inducing cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that ROS plays a critical role in eugenol-induced apoptosis in HL-60, and this is the first report on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of eugenol. PMID:15922856

  4. Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thouaojam, Menaka C; Sankhari, Jayantha M; Jain, Mahendra; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present inventory evaluates anti-atherogenic potential of flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract (EJSE) against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, foam cell formation, and atherogenic (ATH) diet-induced experimental atherosclerosis in rats. EJSE was able to prevent in vitro LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Also, EJSE supplementation to ATH rats significantly minimized increment in serum markers of LDL oxidation. The ex vivo oxidation indices were also minimized in LDL of EJSE-treated animals. Microscopic evaluation of thoracic aorta of ATH + EJSE rats recorded minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, accumulation of lipid laden macrophages, calcium deposition, and expression of cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin). This is the first scientific report that demonstrates anti-atherogenic potential of EJSE and warrants further evaluation at clinical level. PMID:21863403

  5. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Shenawy, S M A

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana (E. Jamolana) on inflammation, gastric ulcer, anti-oxidants and hepatoprotective in rats. The acute inflammation was induced by intra-plantar injection of carrageenan (100 microl of 1 %) in the rat hind paw. Gastric ulcer was evoked by indomethacin (25 mg/kg) oral administration. Liver damage was induced by given CCL4 (2.5 ml/kg) orally. The median lethal (LD(50)) of the ethanol extract of both seeds and pericarp were determined and revealed that the investigated extracts of seeds and pericarp were non toxic up to 5 g/kg. The anti-inflammatory results showed that the oral administration of ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds (250, 500 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of oedema formation in dose-dependent manner by -27.86, -41.23, -44.73, -51.78 % and by -63.16, -37.77, -47.04, -55.36 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively. While the pericarp given at dose (500 mg/kg) exhibited significant inhibition of the oedema formation by -34.64, -21,8, 19.23 and -33.47 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively post carrageenan injection as compared with saline control group. E. Jamolana leaves fraction 1 given orally at dose of 25 mg/kg, induced non significant change on oedema, while the oedema response was significantly inhibited by -25.14, -33.4, -20.57 and -26.46 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively in group of rats that received leaves fraction 2 at the same dose. Rats were given leaves fraction 3 extract showed inhibition of oedema formation by -4.48 % at 1(st) h post- carrageenan injection, while at 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) h showed non significant change on oedema formation. The acute gastric mucosal lesions was significantly reduced by given ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds, pericarp (250, 500 mg/kg) and leaves fractions 1, 2 and 3 (25 mg/kg) respectively in dose dependent manner, as compared with indomethacin treated group (control group). All

  6. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals. PMID:12628400

  7. Antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and its antifungal activity against a large number of clinical Candida species.

    PubMed

    Chaieb, Kamel; Zmantar, Tarek; Ksouri, Riadh; Hajlaoui, Hafedh; Mahdouani, Kacem; Abdelly, Chedly; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2007-09-01

    Many essential oils are known to possess an antioxidant activity and antifungal properties and therefore they potentially act as antimycotic agents. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) was isolated by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant effect of the tested oil was evaluated by measuring its 2,2-diphenyl-l-1-picrylhydrazil radical scavenging ability and the antiradical dose required to cause a 50% inhibition (IC50) was recorded. The antifungal activity of essential oils was evaluated against 53 human pathogenic yeasts using a disc paper diffusion method. Our results show that the major components present in the clove bund oil were eugenol (88.6%), eugenyl acetate (5.6%), beta-caryophyllene (1.4%) and 2-heptanone (0.9%). The tested essential oil exhibited a very strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.2 microg ml-1) when compared with the synthetic antioxidant (tert-butylated hydroxytoluene, IC50 = 11.5 microg ml-1). On the other hand, this species displayed an important antifungal effect against the tested strains. It is clear that clove oil shows powerful antifungal activity; and it can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and in pharmaceutical applications. PMID:17714361

  8. Protective role of Brassica olerecea and Eugenia jambolana extracts against H₂O₂ induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells.

    PubMed

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Pandya, Apurv V; Shah, Nancy H

    2012-08-01

    This study assesses the efficacy of anthocyanin rich Brassica olerecea leaves (ARCE) and flavonoid rich Eugenia jambolana seed (EJSE) extracts as possible cardioprotective agents against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Presence of ARCE or EJSE resulted in a superior cell viability and cell integrity as revealed by cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase release assays and acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining of control and H(2)O(2) treated H9C2 cells. These extracts were also able to reduce the impact of H(2)O(2) induced lipid peroxidation and depletion of intracellular glutathione. Also, there was an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species following ARCE or EJSE treatments. These results suggest that ARCE and EJSE are capable of cardioprotective activity due to the high number of anthocyanins and flavonoids in them that are instrumental in lowering intracellular oxidative stress, preventing depletion of cellular antioxidants and improving cell viability. PMID:22592644

  9. Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

    2013-06-01

    With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs. PMID:23179216

  10. Corrective role of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: an approach through genomic and proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Ali, K M; De, D; Chatterjee, K; Ghosh, D

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanolic (40 : 60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in diabetic rats. In this respect, biomarkers of oxidative stress, genomics and proteomics in testicular tissue were assessed. Side by side, glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum, epididymal sperm count including reproductive organosomatic indices were evaluated. Results indicate that a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the levels of these parameters in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. A significant recovery was noted (P < 0.05) in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 gene towards the control after the treatment of said fraction. Histological study also focused a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated diabetic group. The said fraction treatment to diabetic rat can recover the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase significantly towards the control (P < 0.05). Finally, it may be concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana has a promiseable remedial effect on diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in male rat without inducing any metabolic toxicity. PMID:23521341

  11. Kinetic assessment and effect on developmental physiology of a trypsin inhibitor from Eugenia jambolana (Jambul) seeds on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Singh, Dushyant; Jamal, Farrukh; Pandey, Prabhash K

    2014-02-01

    A trypsin inhibitor was purified from the seeds of Eugenia jambolana (Jambul) with a fold purification of 14.28 and a yield recovery of 2.8%. Electrophoretic analysis of E. jambolana trypsin inhibitor (EjTI) revealed a molecular weight of approximately 17.4 kDa on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with or without reduction. EjTI exhibited high stability over a wide range of temperatures (4-80 °C for 30 min) and pH (3.0-10.0) and inhibited trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of fourth instar Helicoverpa armigera larvae by approximately 86%. Feeding assays containing 0.05, 0.15, and 0.45 (% w/w) EjTI on functionally important fourth-instar larvae indicated a dose-dependent downfall in the larval body weight as well as on extent of survival. The nutritional analysis suggests that EjTI exerts toxic effects on H. armigera. Dixon plot analysis revealed competitive inhibition of larval midgut proteinases by EjTI, with an inhibition constant (Ki ) of approximately 3.1 × 10(-9) M. However, inhibitor kinetics using double reciprocal plots for trypsin inhibition demonstrated a mixed inhibition pattern. These observations suggest the potential of E. jambolana trypsin inhibitor protein in insect pest management. PMID:24436204

  12. Identification of a napin-like peptide from Eugenia malaccensis L. seeds with inhibitory activity toward Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    da Silva Dantas, Claudenise Caldas; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Cardoso, Juscélio Donizete; de Lima, Loiane Alves; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Migliolo, Ludovico; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Magnani, Marciane

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to purify and characterize peptides from the seeds of Eugenia malaccensis, L. (jambo) with inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Enteritidis. Crude extract (CE), precipitate fraction 30-60 % and molecules between 3.5 and 10 kDa obtained from precipitate fraction 30-60 % (Em2) showed inhibitory activity against the tested bacterial strains. The highest antibacterial activity was observed for Em2 against S. aureus. The major peak eluted at approximately 30 % in an acetonitrile gradient in reverse-phase chromatography of Em2 (Em2-F1 to Em2-F19), and it showed the highest antibacterial activity, which was twofold higher against S. aureus than against S. Enteritidis. MALDI-ToF spectra of Em2-F18 revealed a molecular mass of 1,231.1 Da and the amino acid sequence showed high identity to the napin family. These findings report for the first time a napin-like peptide from E. malaccensis L. seeds with potential to be applied as a new anti-Staphylococcus molecule. PMID:25362256

  13. Metabolite Fingerprinting of Eugenia jambolana Fruit Pulp Extracts using NMR, HPLC-PDA-MS, GC-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS/MS Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ram Jee; Gupta, Ramesh C; Bansal, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2015-06-01

    Eugenia jambolana, commonly known as 'jamun' or Indian blackberry, is an important source of bioactive compounds. All parts of the plant like stem bark, leaves, flower, fruit pulp and seeds are traditionally used for many diseases. Metabolite profiling in medicinally important plants is critical to resolve the problems associated with standardization and quality control. Metabolite profiling of the fruit pulp of Jamun was performed by NMR, HPLC, MS, GC-MS and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These hyphenated techniques helped in the identification of 68 chemically-diverse metabolites of the fruit pulp. These include anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, sugars, phenolics and volatile compounds. Five extracts of fruit pulp were prepared i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and aqueous methanolic. Twenty-five metabolites identified and quantified in the n-butanol and aqueous-methanolic extracts of ripe jamun fruit by qNMR. LC-PDA-MS and MALDI-TOF spectrometry helped in deciphering thirty-nine metabolites out of which thirteen were quantified. PMID:26197529

  14. Attenuation of renal dysfunction by anti-hyperglycemic compound isolated from fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Reenu Singh; Sharma, Suman Bala; Singh, Usha Rani; Prabhu, Krishna Madhava

    2010-04-01

    The renal protective effect of an active principle isolated from the aqueous extract of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana was investigated in streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight)-induced severely diabetic rats (FBG > or = 300 mg/dl). For isolation of active principle, crude aqueous extract of E. jambolana fruit pulp was subjected to purification by ion-exchange column chromatography, which yielded a partially purified compound (FII), which on further purification by rechromatography gave a purified active compound (FIIc). Purity of FIIc was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatography. Detailed UV, NMR, IR spectra suggested that FIIc is a small aliphatic organic compound having molecular formula C4H7O4N. Oral administration of FIIc to diabetic rats (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg body weight per day for a period of 60 days) produced significant (P<0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG) in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FIIc (15 mg/kg body wt.) showed significant (P<0.001) improvement in body weight, blood urea, plasma creatinine levels, urinary volume, urinary sugar and microalbuminuria. Renal hypertrophy, assessed as the ratio of the weight of the two kidneys to total body weight was also significantly (P<0.05) improved after treatment with FIIc. The above results suggest that FIIc possesses significant nephroprotective activity. PMID:20521620

  15. RESPONSE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA TO LIQUID PROTEIN BAITS AND SYNTHETIC LURE FORMULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host list for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), includes nearly 100 fruit trees including citrus. In south Florida, it is primarily a pest of dooryard fruit trees including Surinam cherry, Eugenia uniflora; loquat, Eriobotrya japonica; and tropical almond, Terminalia catappa;...

  16. In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils obtained from officinal plants against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lima, E O; Gompertz, O F; Giesbrecht, A M; Paulo, M Q

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen essential oils were isolated from officinal plants and tested in vitro against dermatophyte strains isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Of the tested oils, those obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Eugenia uniflora and Alpinia speciosa were found to be the most active, inhibiting 80% of the dermatophyte strains tested and producing inhibition zones more than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:8015567

  17. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Walia, Suresh; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vanamala, Jairam K P

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p < 0.05) proliferation in HCT-116 cells and elevated (p < 0.05) apoptosis in both HCT-116 cells and colon CSCs. JPE also suppressed the stemness in colon CSCs as evaluated using colony formation assay. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer. PMID:26927179

  18. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

  19. Cytoprotective effects of fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana on H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat Leydig cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Anand, H; Misro, M M; Sharma, S B; Prakash, S

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the cytoprotective effect of the fruit pulp of Eugenia jambolana (50-250 μg ml(-1) ) against the damage induced by H 2 O 2 (100 μm) exposure to Leydig cells in vitro. Cell survival with extract was found comparable to similar effects by N-acetyl-l-cysteine. H 2 O 2 -induced rise in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance formation and decline in the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase were effectively checked. Cellular glutathione and total antioxidant capacity demonstrated significant improvement. The increase in expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase leading to NO production was successfully countered. Co-treatment of the extract helped in the down-regulation of caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase resulting in a significant reduction in Leydig cell apoptosis induced by H 2 O 2 . Upstream marker proteins of extrinsic (caspase-8, Fas, FasL) and intrinsic (caspase-9) pathway of metazoan apoptosis were identically down-regulated. The Bcl-2 family of proteins, though, remained unaffected. The extract also positively modulated the other marker proteins like c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase, p38, Akt, nuclear factor-κB, c-Fos, cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein, cyclooxygenase-2 and p53. Taken together, the above-mentioned findings establish the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic potency of the extract that ameliorates the H 2 O 2 -induced adverse effects on rat Leydig cells in vitro. PMID:22731239

  20. Cytotoxicity and modulation of cancer-related signaling by (Z)- and (E)-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene isolated from Eugenia rigida.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Mohamed A; Balachandran, Premalatha; Khan, Shabana; Wang, Mei; Mohammed, Rabab; Hetta, Mona H; Pasco, David S; Muhammad, Ilias

    2013-04-26

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaves of Eugenia rigida yielded three stilbenes, (Z)-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene (1), (E)-3,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene (2), and (E)-3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene (3). Their structures were determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and HRESIMS. The sterically hindered Z-stereoisomer 1, a new natural product, was prepared by time-dependent photoisomerization of the E-isomer (2) under UV irradiation at λ254 nm, while 2,3,5,7-tetramethoxyphenanthrene (5) was identified at λ365 nm by UHPLC/APCI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1-3 were tested against a panel of luciferase reporter gene assays that assess the activity of many cancer-related signaling pathways, and the Z-isomer (1) was found to be more potent than the E-isomer (2) in inhibiting the activation of Stat3, Smad3/4, myc, Ets, Notch, and Wnt signaling, with IC50 values between 40 and 80 μM. However, both compounds showed similar inhibition against Ap-1 and NF-κB signaling. In addition, 1 demonstrated cytotoxic activity toward human leukemia cells, solid tumor cells of epidermal, breast, and cervical carcinomas, and skin melanoma, with IC50 values between 3.6 and 4.3 μM, while 2 was weakly active against leukemia, cervical carcinoma, and skin melanoma cells. Interestingly, 2 showed antioxidant activity by inhibition of ROS generation to 50% at 33.3 μM in PMA-induced HL-60 cells, while 1 was inactive at 100 μM (vs Trolox 1.4 μM). PMID:23547843

  1. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Charepalli, Venkata; Reddivari, Lavanya; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Walia, Suresh; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Vanamala, Jairam K. P

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization predicts over a 70% increase in cancer incidents in developing nations over the next decade. Although these nations have limited access to novel therapeutics, they do have access to foods that contain chemopreventive bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, and as such, consumption of these foods can be encouraged to combat cancer. We and others have previously characterized the anti-colon cancer properties of dietary anthocyanins from different sources. Eugenia jambolana (Java plum) is a tropical medicinal fruit rich in anthocyanins, however, its anti-colon cancer properties are not well characterized. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that colon cancer stem cells (colon CSCs) promote resistance to chemotherapy, relapse of tumors and contribute to poor prognosis. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the anthocyanin profile of Java plum using HPLC-MS; and 2) determine the anti-proliferative (cell counting and MTT) and pro-apoptotic (TUNEL and caspase 3/7 glo assay) properties of Java plum fruit extract (JPE) using HCT-116 colon cancer cell line and colon CSCs (positive for CD 44, CD 133 and ALDH1b1 markers). HPLC-MS analysis showed that JPE contains a variety of anthocyanins including glucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. JPE anthocyanins suppressed (p < 0.05) proliferation in HCT-116 cells and elevated (p < 0.05) apoptosis in both HCT-116 cells and colon CSCs. JPE also suppressed the stemness in colon CSCs as evaluated using colony formation assay. These results warrant further assessment of the anti-cancer activity of JPE, and its molecular mechanisms using pre-clinical models of colon cancer. PMID:26927179

  2. Determination of carotenoids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh), an Amazonian fruit.

    PubMed

    Garzón, G Astrid; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kopec, Rachel E; Barry, Andrew M; Riedl, Kenneth M; Schwartz, Steven J

    2012-05-01

    The fruit of Arazá (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh) native to the Colombian Amazon is considered a potentially economically valuable fruit for the Andean economy due to its novel and unique taste. The fruit has an intense yellow color, but its chemical composition and properties have not been well studied. Here we report the identification and quantitation of carotenoids in the ripe fruit using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array detector (PDA) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APcI) mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The qualitative carotenoid profile of the fruit according to maturity stage was also observed. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of the peel and pulp were assessed using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, in addition to chemical indexes and total phenolic content. Multiple carotenoids were identified in the peel and pulp including four xanthophylls (free and esterified as their mono and diesters) and two carotenes. One of the xanthophylls was tentatively identified as zeinoxanthin, while the others were identified as lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenes included α-carotene and β-carotene. The total carotenoid content was significantly higher in the peel (2484 ± 421 μg/100 g FW) than in the pulp (806 ± 348 μg/100 g FW) with lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, and zeinoxanthin as the major carotenoid components. The unique carotenoid composition of this fruit can differentiate it from other carotenoid-rich fruits and perhaps be useful in authentication procedures. Overall, results from this study suggest that Colombian Arazá may be a good edible source of carotenoids important in retinal health as well as carotenoids with provitamin A activity. Therefore, Arazá fruit can be used as a nutraceutical ingredient and in production of functional foods in the Colombian diet. PMID:22519635

  3. Eugenia calycina Cambess extracts and their fractions: Their antimicrobial activity and the identification of major polar compounds using electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Morais, Sandra R; Bara, Maria T F; Conceição, Edemilson C; Paula, José R; Carvalho, Thays C; Vaz, Boniek G; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Rezende, Maria H

    2014-10-01

    Eugenia calycina, which is described as "red pitanga or pitanga cherry of cerrado," is widely distributed in the Cerrado area of Brazil. Its leaf and bark extracts are used in folk medicine for many applications. In this study, the compositions of the major polar compounds of the bark and leaf extracts and their fractions were obtained from a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water. They were then evaluated using electrospray ionization negative FT-ICR mass spectrometry (ESI(-) FT-ICR MS), which revealed a large number of oxygen-containing compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenes, tanins, steroids, and fat acids. The biological activity of these extracts towards several bacterial and fungal strains was then evaluated. The highest activity was found using aqueous fractions, in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed compounds with a high content of oxygen (e.g., glycosed flavonoids, tannins, and polyphenolic compounds) against Cryptococcus sp. D (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=15.62μg/mL). Strong activity was also found using the hexanic fractions-in which the ESI(-) FT-ICR MS analysis revealed that the compounds contained a decreased amount of oxygen (e.g., fat acids and steroids)-towards Cryptococcus gatti L48, Cryptococcus neoformans L3 (MIC=31.2μg/mL), and Cryptococcus sp. D (MIC=62.5μg/mL). Therefore, antimicrobial assays using the bark/leaf extracts of E. calycina present prospects for the research of active substances that may be used for the treatment of cryptococcosis, a disease that is common in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:25108373

  4. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  5. Eugenia jambolana Lam. berry extract inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human breast cancer but not non-tumorigenic breast cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-02-11

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives: (1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and (2) to investigate the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC(50) = 27 microg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC(50) = 40 microg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 microg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p

  6. Nutrient and enzymatic changes of hydrolysed tannery solid waste treated with epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae and phytotoxicity assessment on selected commercial crops.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Wong, J W C; Selvam, A; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) is the predominant proteinaceous solid waste generated during processing of leather and it is confronting disposal problems. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae to utilize and transform the fermented ANFL in the solid state (SSF) and submerged state (SmF) into a value added product along a low residence period (25 days). A total of six treatment units containing different waste mixture compositions were established. Fifty healthy and non-clitellated earthworms were introduced in three different treatment containers: control, SSF, and SmF (+worm). Another set of treatment mixtures (control, SSF, SmF) was established without earthworms (-worm) to compare the results. The products were characterized for physico-chemical, enzymatic analysis and seedling growth parameters to compare the differences in the process with and without earthworms. The changes observed in the analytical parameters were in the following order: SSF > SmF > control mixtures (p < 0.05). The vermicompost showed a significant reduction in heavy metals, total organic carbon and an increase in total Kjeldhal nitrogen as compared to the product untreated by earthworms. The maximum enzymatic activities were observed after 21 days of vermicomposting. The relative seed germination of vermicompost extracts were in the order of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) > green gram (Vigna radiata) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus) > bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) and showed no phytotoxicity effects. The results indicated that the combination of both ANFL hydrolysis through fermentation and vermicomposting is a good alternative to the management of this kind of waste. PMID:23818071

  7. Apoptosis induced in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethylchalcone isolated from Eugenia aquea Burm f. leaves

    PubMed Central

    SUBARNAS, ANAS; DIANTINI, AJENG; ABDULAH, RIZKY; ZUHROTUN, ADE; HADISAPUTRI, YUNI E.; PUSPITASARI, IRMA M.; YAMAZAKI, CHIHO; KUWANO, HIROYUKI; KOYAMA, HIROSHI

    2015-01-01

    During a previous study that aimed to identify anticancer agents within primate-consumed plants, the present group identified that Eugenia aquea (E. aquea) possessed potential as a source of anticancer agents. The ethanol extract of E. aquea leaves exhibited strong inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell line. The inhibition of proliferation was determined using an MTT assay. The present study was performed to isolate the active compound within the E. aquea leaves that generated the aforementioned activity, and resulted in the isolation of 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethylchalcone, which was identified through the analysis of spectroscopic data. This compound was examined for its inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 cell line using a MTT assay, and the ability of 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethylchalcone to induce apoptosis through the activation of the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein was also investigated. The results of the present study revealed that the isolated compound inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, possessed an IC50 of 74.5 µg/ml (250 µM) and promoted apoptosis via the activation of PARP. It was concluded that these results indicated a requirement for additional investigations into 2′,4′-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethylchalcone in order to provide a basis for the use of this compound in the management of cancer. PMID:26137061

  8. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

  9. Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.

    PubMed

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety. PMID:23973836

  10. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  11. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

  12. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae. PMID:21710038

  13. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  14. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  15. Indigenous traditional medicine: in vitro anti-giardial activity of plants used in the treatment of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Tasca, Tiana

    2009-06-01

    The ethnopharmacology for treatment of parasitic infections facilitates and directs the search for new chemical entities. In this direction, this study evaluated the cytotoxicity in vitro, against trophozoites of Giardia lamblia, of aqueous extracts of leaves Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., barks of Eugenia uniflora L., aerial parts of Foeniculum vulgare Miller, and barks of Psidium guajava L. These plants are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea by the indigenous population Mbyá-Guarani, located at the Lomba do Pinheiro, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The in vitro susceptibility qualitative analysis of G. lamblia to aqueous extracts was performed in serial dilutions from 2.5 to 0.02 mg/mL. Results revealed the minimal inhibitory concentrations: 0.313 mg/mL for A. satureioides and E. uniflora, 0.02 mg/mL for P. guajava, and F. vulgare did not present any cytotoxic effect. Quantitative assays of viable trophozoites, showed that A. satureioides presented the highest cytotoxic effect (93.5%), followed by P. guajava (82.2%), and E. uniflora (67.3%). Indigenous Guarani use mainly A. satureioides for the treatment of diarrhea, revealing the conformity with results obtained in vitro. Bioguided assays are necessary to identify the compounds responsible for the activity of the aqueous extract of A. satureioides. PMID:19153765

  16. Differential responses of C3 and CAM native Brazilian plant species to a SO2- and SPMFe-contaminated Restinga.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; Martinez, Carlos Alberto; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves; Oliva, Marco Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Aiming to evaluate responses in terms of growth rates, physiological parameters, and degree of sensitivity to SO2 and SPMFe in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae, a C3 species) and Clusia hilariana Schlecht (Clusiaceae, a CAM species); saplings were exposed to emissions from a pelletizing factory for 7 months. The species were distributed along a transect (200, 500, 800, 1400, and 1700 m away from the emission source), and analyses were performed after 71, 118, and 211 days of exposure to the pollutants. E. uniflora received higher superficial deposition of particulate iron. The highest total iron foliar contents were observed 200 m away from the emission source in both plant species, while the highest total sulfur foliar contents were observed 200 m away in C. hilariana and 800 m away in E. uniflora. E. uniflora presented decreased values of height growth rate, number of necrotic leaves, chlorophyll analysis (SPAD index) and transpiration, in relation to the distances from the emission source. C. hilariana showed decreased values of height growth rate, number of leaves, number of necrotic leaves, total ionic permeability, stomatal conductance, transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and total dry matter, in relation to distances from the emission source. In relation to the days of exposure, both species presented increased number of necrotic leaves and foliar phytotoxicity index, and decreased values in the chlorophyll analysis. The two native plant species, both of which occur in the Brazilian Restinga, showed damage when exposed to emissions from an iron ore pelletizing factory. C. hilariana was considered the most sensitive species due to the decreased values in a higher number of variables after exposition. PMID:25956514

  17. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata)

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, L.; Aquino, M. D’

    2012-01-01

    Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21° C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use PMID:24031950

  18. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae). The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC). PMID:12489401

  19. Microencapsulation of purple Brazilian cherry juice in xanthan, tara gums and xanthan-tara hydrogel matrixes.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Josiane K; Zambiazi, Rui C; Borges, Caroline D; Krumreich, Fernanda D; da Luz, Suzane R; Hartwig, Naralice; da Rosa, Cleonice G

    2013-11-01

    The purple Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice was encapsulated in xanthan, tara and xanthan-tara hydrogel matrixes. Encapsulation efficiency, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry, release profile, stability of carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. Encapsulation was confirmed. The highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained with xanthan gum and hydrogel was mostly indicated for the release of carotenoids in GFS and IFS medium. Phenolic compounds had the highest release rate but not in a gradually way, regardless of wall material and fluids under analysis. Stored microparticles at 4 and 25 °C, showed carotenoid degradation. Xanthan and hydrogel wall material provided the greatest stability to these compounds. The microparticles' anti-oxidant activity decreased during storage due to the degradation of carotenoids. PMID:24053801

  20. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  1. [Suitability of wild underexploited vegetables from the Argentine Chaco as a food resource].

    PubMed

    Freyre, M R; Baigorria, C M; Rozycki, V R; Bernardi, C M; Charpentier, M

    2000-12-01

    The nutritional value of wild underexploited vegetable samples collected in the Argentine Chaco was investigated. Leaves from Hipochaeris sp.-, Coronopus didimus and Portulaca olearacea; fruits from Zyziphus sativa, Brumelia obtusifolia and Eugenia uniflora; and roots of Canna coccinea were included in this work; several separate samples being taken at least during two consecutive harvesting seasons. Values for moisture, protein, total lipids, crude fiber, ash, reducing and total sugars, starch, total pectins and energy are given. Mineral micronutrient contents are reported for calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus, as well as vitamin values (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene). Higher concentrations of macronutrients were found in the leafy vegetables (32-50 Kcal/100 g) than in commercially exploited cultivars (14-30 Kcal/100 g), as shown by an increased energy value, the protein content of Portulaca olearacea (3.74 g/100 g) being highly remarkable. Unusually high micronutrient figures were also determined in Coronopus didimus, with 172.3; 3.98, and 46.7 mg/100 g, for calcium, iron and magnesium, respectively. In general, fruits also showed higher macronutrient contents, with the exception of proteins, with less but constant values (1.58 to 1.74 g/100 g), although contributing more energy than commercial cultivars (70 to 147 Kcal/100 g). Equally important proved to be the provitamin A content in Eugenia uniflora (11.98 mg/100 g). Roots of Canna coccinea revealed the lowest energy value (34 Kcal/100 g) but surprisingly, the highest content of phosphorus of all the species under study. PMID:11464672

  2. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C E; Karnikowski, M G; Foleto, R; Baldisserotto, B

    1995-12-01

    People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE) of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava), Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain), Polygonum punctatum (water smartweed), Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry) and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva) on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents. PMID:8734966

  3. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  4. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress 'Red Robin') or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. 'Etna Fire') adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters. PMID:27242846

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress ‘Red Robin’) or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. ‘Etna Fire’) adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters. PMID:27242846

  6. Studies on regeneration of central nervous system and social ability of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Gopi Daisy, Nino; Subramanian, Elaiya Raja; Selvan Christyraj, Jackson Durairaj; Sudalai Mani, Dinesh Kumar; Selvan Christyraj, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel; Ramamoorthy, Kalidas; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Sivasubramaniam, Sudhakar

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms are segmented invertebrates that belong to the phylum Annelida. The segments can be divided into the anterior, clitellar and posterior parts. If the anterior part of the earthworm, which includes the brain, is amputated, the worm would essentially survive even in the absence of the brain. In these brain amputee-derived worms, the nerve cord serves as the primary control center for neurological function. In this current work, we studied changes in the expression levels of anti-acetylated tubulin and serotonin as the indicators of neuro-regenerative processes. The data reveal that the blastemal tissues express the acetylated tubulin and serotonin from day four and that the worm amputated at the 7th segment takes 30 days to complete the regeneration of brain. The ability of self-assemblage is one of the specific functions of the earthworm's brain. The brain amputee restored the ability of self-assemblage on the eighth day. PMID:27279085

  7. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    PubMed

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  8. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids. PMID:22251652

  9. Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2007-11-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis. PMID:18033615

  10. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, G Coelho; Haas, A P S; von Poser, G L; Schapoval, E E S; Elisabetsky, E

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the species most commonly used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. A four-stage process of documentation and evaluation was conducted: (a). review of RS ethnobotanical studies; (b). analysis of traditional uses; (c). literature survey on phytochemical and pharmacological data; (d). microbiological screening of selected plants. From the 149 species initially identified, 49 were cited as being used for microbial associated conditions in at least two other regions in RS, and 18 were further selected for screening. The crude methanol extract of these 18 plants were evaluated against seven microorganisms using the diffusion agar test. Extracts from Chaptalia nutans, Cordia monosperma, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eugenia uniflora, Leonurus sibiricus, Luehea divaricata, Malva sylvestris, Ocotea odorifera, Parapiptadenia rigida, Pluchea sagittalis, Psidium cattleyanum and Senna neglecta were active against at least one microorganism. Although preliminary, these results are useful for rationalizing the use of medicinal plants in established systems of traditional medicine in primary health care. PMID:14698521

  11. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem. PMID:20411737

  12. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    PubMed Central

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  13. Antiviral activity of crude extracts of Eugenia jambolana Lam. against highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Sood, Richa; Swarup, D; Bhatia, S; Kulkarni, D D; Dey, S; Saini, M; Dubey, S C

    2012-03-01

    Crude extracts of leaves and bark of E. jambolana were tested for antiviral activity against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) by CPE reduction assay in three different layouts to elucidate virucidal, post-exposure and preexposure antiviral activity of the extracts. The cold and hot aqueous extracts of bark and hot aqueous extract of leaves of E. jambolana showed significant virucidal activity (100% inhibition) which was further confirmed in virus yield reduction assay (-98 to 99% reduction) and by egg based in ovo assay. The selective index (CC50/EC50) of hot aqueous extract (248) and cold aqueous extract (43.5) of bark of E. jambolana showed their antiviral potential against H5N1 virus. The significant virucidal activity of leaves and bark of E. jambolana merits further investigation as it may provide alternative antiviral agent for managing avian influenza infections in poultry farms and potential avian-human transmission. PMID:22439432

  14. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  15. Rapid Structural and Compositional Change in an Old-Growth Subtropical Forest: Using Plant Traits to Identify Probable Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A.; Grau, H. Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha−1 y−1) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m2 ha−1 y−1). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests. PMID:24069204

  16. In vitro antibacterial and chemical properties of essential oils including native plants from Brazil against pathogenic and resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella da Silva; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Albano, Mariana; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Doyama, Julio Toshimi; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobials products from plants have increased in importance due to the therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, we aimed to examine the chemical characterisation (GC-MS) of essential oils (EO) from seven plants and measure antibacterial activities against bacterial strains isolated from clinical human specimens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium) and foods (Salmonella Enteritidis). Assays were performed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90%) (mg/mL) by agar dilution and time kill curve methods (log CFU/mL) to aiming synergism between EO. EO chemical analysis showed a predominance of terpenes and its derivatives. The highest antibacterial activities were with Cinnamomun zeylanicum (0.25 mg/mL on almost bacteria tested) and Caryophyllus aromaticus EO (2.40 mg/mL on Salmonella Enteritidis), and the lowest activity was with Eugenia uniflora (from 50.80 mg/mL against MSSA to 92.40 mg/mL against both Salmonella sources and P. aeruginosa) EO. The time kill curve assays revealed the occurrence of bactericide synergism in combinations of C. aromaticus and C. zeylanicum with Rosmarinus. officinalis. Thus, the antibacterial activities of the EO were large and this can also be explained by complex chemical composition of the oils tested in this study and the synergistic effect of these EO, yet requires further investigation because these interactions between the various chemical compounds can increase or reduce (antagonism effect) the inhibitory effect of essential oils against bacterial strains. PMID:25757433

  17. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    PubMed

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests. PMID:24069204

  18. Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties.

    PubMed

    Adewunmi, C O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Adebajo, A C; Aladesanmi, A J; Murphy, N; Wando, J

    2001-09-01

    Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei bloodstream form parasites were propagated axenically in suitable standard media at 34 degrees C. The effects of 33 plant extracts, fractions and pure compounds were evaluated on two clones of T. brucei and drug-sensitive and multi-drug-resistant clones of T. congolense. The cytotoxic activity of the trypanocidal extracts was also evaluated on calf aorta endothelial cells in vitro. Of the extracts tested, 22% killed T. congolense IL 1180 at a concentration of 100 microg/ml while 18% killed 90-100% of T. brucei ILTat 1.4 at the same concentration. However, 6% of the active extracts killed 93% of a dyskinetoplastid form of T. brucei IL Tat 1.1, indicating that the intact kinetoplast is a target of some of the compounds tested. Of the 12 extracts that displayed activity against drug sensitive trypanosomes, 66.7% had trypanocidal activity on a multi-drug-resistant clone, T. congolense IL 3338. The extracts of Eugenia uniflora, Acacia artaxacantha, Terminalia ivorensis, T. superba and Alchornea cordifolia had median lethal concentrations of between 13 and 69 microg/ml on both the drug-sensitive, IL 1180 and multi-drug-resistant clone, IL 3338. The median lethal doses of the active plant extracts on the calf aorta endothelial cells varied between 112 and 13750 microg/ml while the calculated selective indices ranged between 0.71 and 246.8 indicating bright prospects for the development of some of these extracts as potential trypanocidal agents. PMID:11483373

  19. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    PubMed

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp. PMID:26394146

  20. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp. PMID:26394146

  1. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications. PMID:14503581

  2. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-01-01

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs. PMID:21365546

  3. Effects of herbivory by Diaprepes abbreviatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae on four woody ornamental plant species.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cliff G; Mannion, Catharine; Schaffer, Bruce

    2009-06-01

    The hypothesis that herbivory by Diaprepes root weevil larvae reduces leaf gas exchange and biomass was tested on buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.), Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.), mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.), and pond apple (Annona glabra L). For Surinam cherry, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration (collectively referred to as leaf gas exchange values), were 7-32% higher in noninfested than infested plants. For buttonwood, all four gas exchange values were 10-54% higher for noninfested than infested plants 3 h after infestation with large, seventh-instar larvae. However, by 4 wk after this infestation, net CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal conductance, but not internal CO2 concentration, were 11-37% higher for infested than for noninfested plants. For mahogany and pond apple, there were few or no significant differences in leaf gas exchange values between infested and noninfested plants. For all species, mean shoot and root fresh and dry weights were higher for noninfested than infested plants, with the differences most significant for buttonwood (37-85% higher), followed by Surinam cherry (37-143% higher), mahogany (49-84% higher), and pond apple (24-46% higher), which had no significant differences. There were significant differences among plant species in mean head capsule widths, thus larval instars, of larvae recovered from soil with the largest larvae from Surinam cherry (2.59 +/- 0.19 mm) and the smallest from mahogany (2.29 +/- 0.06 mm). Based on differences in leaf gas exchange and plant biomass between infested and noninfested plants of the four species tested, buttonwood and Surinam cherry are the most vulnerable to feeding by Diaprepes larvae followed by mahogany then pond apple. PMID:19610430

  4. Phenolic profiling of an extract from Eugenia jambos L. (Alston)--the structure of three flavonoid glycosides--antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Nawwar, M A; Hashem, A N; Hussein, S A; Swilam, N F; Becker, A; Haertel, B; Lindequist, U; El-Khatib, A; Linscheid, M W

    2016-03-01

    Phenolic metabolite profiling and identification using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to high resolution accurate mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) with detection of negative ions was used for assaying the complex mixture of phenolics of an aqueous ethanol leaf extract of Eugeniajambos L. (Myrtaceae). Eight known polyphenolics were tentatively identified, and, in addition, three hitherto unknown flavonol-O-glycosides were detected in the extract. These unknowns were taken as the targets and isolated by means of consecutive polyamide S6, MCI gel and repeated Sephadex LH-20 column fractionation. The isolation and purification were monitored by HPLC/ESI-MS. The isolates were subsequently identified as quercetin 3-O-xylosyl-(1"' --> 2")-O-xyloside, myricetin 7-methylether 3-O-xylosyl-(1"' --> 2")-rhamnoside and myricetin 3',5'-dimethyl ether 3-O-xylosyl-(1"'-->* 2")-O-rhamnoside. All known metabolites were also separated by applying the same chromatographic techniques. ESI-MS, ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectra were then recorded, completely interpreted and confirmed by HR-ESI-MS and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In order to get information about biological activities of E. jambos the extract was tested for radical scavenging activity by DPPH and ORAC assay. In addition, its cytotoxicity was assessed by the neutral red assay against non-tumorigenic HaCaT keratinocytes and the human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. PMID:27183713

  5. Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    PubMed

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sakthi-Bhagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The treated insects exhibited dose depended mortality. The mortality rate was significantly higher at the 1.0 and 1.5% Pb-CVO. The LC50 (Lethal concentration) were observed at 0.48% Pb-CVO. Larval and pupal durations increased in all treatment concentrations (0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) whereas, pupal weight decreased compared to control. Adult longevity of S. litura was reduced in all treatments but predominantly in the 0.4 and 0.5% Pb-CVO. Correspondingly, mean fecundity rate was reduced at all concentrations compared to control. Histological studies of larvae mid-gut profiles of S. litura were severely damaged in 1.0 and 1.5% and showed abnormalities in mid-gut cells with 0.25 and 0.5% Pb-CVO treatments. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 0.1% of chemical insecticides (monocrotophos and cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 0.5 and 1.0% Pb-CVO and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. These findings suggest that twenty essential compounds of betel leaf oil were significant inhibitors of the development and caused behavioral changes of S. litura. Treatment with betel leaf oil at these concentrations had no adverse effect on earthworm populations. PMID:27135695

  6. Fortification with iron chelate and substitution of sucrose by sucralose in light uvaia sherbet (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess): physical, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giarola, Tales Márcio de Oliveira; Pereira, Cristina Guimarães; de Resende, Jaime Vilela

    2015-09-01

    In this work, iron fortified light uvaia sherbet, with low sucrose content, was developed and its physical, chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The central composite rotational design (CCRD), applicable to the response surface methodology, was used to analyze the formulations. In the formulations, in addition of iron fortification (9 to 15 mg/100 g), the sucrose was substituted by micronized sucralose in a proportion of 66-94 %. The responses were analyzed with respect to changes in pH, total solids, ash, carbohydrates, proteins, calories, overrun, nucleation and thawing temperatures, rheological parameters and sensory attributes. Protein contents and acidity were similar in all formulations. There was a reduction of over 25 % in the caloric value. The rheological results showed pseudoplastic behavior and significant viscosity differences among the tested sherbets. In the overrun and thawing behavior results the sucrose concentration had a significant influence as the formulations with substitution by 28 g of sucralose/kg of sucrose showed greater air incorporation. In the flavor attribute there was not significance in relation to the iron fortification. Sherbets prepared with substitution of sucrose by sucralose and fortified with iron showed good acceptability, more stability and more resistant to thawing. PMID:26344966

  7. Cytotoxicity and modulation of cancer-related signaling by (Z)- and (E)- 3,4,3´,5´ tetramethoxystilbene isolated from Eugenia rigida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leaves of E. rigida DC (Myrtaceae) were collected from Puerto Rico in March, 2006. The sample was identified by Mr. F. Axelrod and a voucher specimen (3008783) was deposited at the Herbarium of Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. Air-dried powdered leaves (107 g) were soaked in n-hexane an...

  8. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from garlic (Allium sativum) and clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) oils against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2005-06-01

    Plant essential oils from 29 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe, using a fumigation bioassay. Responses varied with plant material, exposure time, and concentration. Good insecticidal activity against the Japanese termite was achived with essential oils of Melaleuca dissitiflora, Melaleuca uncinata, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus polybractea, Eucalyptus radiata, Eucalyptus dives, Eucalyptus globulus, Orixa japonica, Cinnamomum cassia, Allium cepa, Illicium verum, Evodia officinalis, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Cacalia roborowskii, Juniperus chinensis var. horizontalis, Juniperus chinensis var. kaizuka, clove bud, and garlic applied at 7.6 microL/L of air. Over 90% mortality after 3 days was achieved with O. japonica essential oil at 3.5 microL/L of air. E. citriodora, C. cassia, A. cepa, I. verum, S. tenuifolia, C. roborowskii, clove bud, and garlic oils at 3.5 microL/L of air were highly toxic 1 day after treatment. At 2.0 microL/L of air concentration, essential oils of I. verum, C. roborowskik, S. tenuifolia, A. cepa, clove bud, and garlic gave 100% mortality within 2 days of treatment. Clove bud and garlic oils showed the most potent antitermitic activity among the plant essential oils. Garlic and clove bud oils produced 100% mortality at 0.5 microL/L of air, but this decreased to 42 and 67% after 3 days of treatment at 0.25 microL/L of air, respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of three major compounds from garlic oil and two from clove bud oils. These five compounds from two essential oils were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against Japanese termites. Responses varied with compound and dose. Diallyl trisulfide was the most toxic, followed by diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for termite control. PMID:15913300

  9. Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A

    2002-08-01

    The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of

  10. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes. PMID:25994557

  11. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae) from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes

    PubMed Central

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Nee, Michael H.; Renner, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:22461731

  12. Description and molecular diagnosis of a new species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae) from the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes.

    PubMed

    Filipowicz, Natalia; Nee, Michael H; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-01-01

    Brunfelsia plowmaniana N.Filipowicz & M.Nee sp. nov., a species from humid and cloud forests of the Bolivian and Argentinean Andes, is described and provided with a molecular diagnosis, using provisions available in the recently approved International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Specimens belonging to the new species were previously placed in the polymorphic Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl) D.Don, which a molecular phylogeny revealed as polyphyletic. Revision of numerous collections revealed clear morphological differences between the new species and Brunfelsia uniflora, the type locality of which is in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:22461731

  13. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF TEN ORGANIC CHEMICALS TO FOUR EARTHWORM SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were t...

  14. Systematics of trigonochloa (poaceae, chloridoideae, chlorideae).

    PubMed

    Snow, Neil; Peterson, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    A systematic treatment including descriptions and a key for identification is provided for the two species of Trigonochloa, a genus recently segregated from the polyphyletic Leptochloa s.l. Trigonochloa ranges from southern Africa east to India and Sri Lanka, reflecting the widely ranging Trigonochloa uniflora. Trigonochloa rupestris has a more limited distribution from East Africa to Yemen. Trigonochloa is diagnosable from other chloridoid grasses based on its unusually flaccid and membranous leaves that have uniquely enlarged lateral cells in the parenchyma sheath surrounding the vascular bundles in Trigonochloa uniflora (unconfirmed for Trigonochloa rupestris given limited material), primary and secondary vascular bundles that do not project above or below in fresh material, XyMS+ leaf anatomy, narrow spicate primary inflorescence branches, spikelets with one (or rarely two) florets, thinly membranous to hyaline lemmas, and a trigonous caryopses that bear a narrow but deep sulcus on the hilar side. Lectotypes are designated for Agrostis montana and Cynodon gracilis. The synonym Leptochloa laurentii De Wild. is confirmed for Trigonochloa uniflora. PMID:22787425

  15. Effect of Lake Trophic Status and Rooted Macrophytes on Community Composition and Abundance of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Freshwater Sediments▿

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Martina; Saunders, Aaron M.; Schramm, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Communities of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in freshwater sediments and those in association with the root system of the macrophyte species Littorella uniflora, Juncus bulbosus, and Myriophyllum alterniflorum were compared for seven oligotrophic to mesotrophic softwater lakes and acidic heathland pools. Archaeal and bacterial ammonia monooxygenase alpha-subunit (amoA) gene diversity increased from oligotrophic to mesotrophic sites; the number of detected operational taxonomic units was positively correlated to ammonia availability and pH and negatively correlated to sediment C/N ratios. AOA communities could be grouped according to lake trophic status and pH; plant species-specific communities were not detected, and no grouping was apparent for AOB communities. Relative abundance, determined by quantitative PCR targeting amoA, was always low for AOB (<0.05% of all prokaryotes) and slightly higher for AOA in unvegetated sediment and AOA in association with M. alterniflorum (0.01 to 2%), while AOA accounted for up to 5% in the rhizospheres of L. uniflora and J. bulbosus. These results indicate that (i) AOA are at least as numerous as AOB in freshwater sediments, (ii) aquatic macrophytes with substantial release of oxygen and organic carbon into their rhizospheres, like L. uniflora and J. bulbosus, increase AOA abundance; and (iii) AOA community composition is generally determined by lake trophy, not by plant species-specific interactions. PMID:19304820

  16. Systematics of Trigonochloa (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Chlorideae)

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Neil; Peterson, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A systematic treatment including descriptions and a key for identification is provided for the two species of Trigonochloa, a genus recently segregated from the polyphyletic Leptochloa s.l. Trigonochloa ranges from southern Africa east to India and Sri Lanka, reflecting the widely ranging Trigonochloa uniflora. Trigonochloa rupestris has a more limited distribution from East Africa to Yemen. Trigonochloa is diagnosable from other chloridoid grasses based on its unusually flaccid and membranous leaves that have uniquely enlarged lateral cells in the parenchyma sheath surrounding the vascular bundles in Trigonochloa uniflora (unconfirmed for Trigonochloa rupestris given limited material), primary and secondary vascular bundles that do not project above or below in fresh material, XyMS+ leaf anatomy, narrow spicate primary inflorescence branches, spikelets with one (or rarely two) florets, thinly membranous to hyaline lemmas, and a trigonous caryopses that bear a narrow but deep sulcus on the hilar side. Lectotypes are designated for Agrostis montana and Cynodon gracilis. The synonym Leptochloa laurentii De Wild. is confirmed for Trigonochloa uniflora. PMID:22787425

  17. From Best Research to What Works: Background Knowledge & Reading Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a transcription of a forum held at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. on May 19, 2006 on background knowledge and reading proficiency. This topic goes to the heart of the education reform agenda, according to the first speaker, Eugenia Kemble, executive director of the Albert Shanker Institute, the sponsor of this…

  18. 75 FR 18232 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    .... mirabilis (no common name), chupacallos (Pleodendron macranthum), Vahl's boxwood or diablito de tres cuernos...), palo de nigua (Cornutia obovata), palo de Ram n (Banara vanderbiltii), uvillo (Eugenia haematocarpa... mature. B. Endangered means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a...

  19. On Conceptual Metaphor and the Flora and Fauna of Mind: Commentary on Brookes and Etkina; and Jeppsson, Haglund, and Amin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author presents his thoughts on two papers appearing in this special issue. The first, "The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes," by David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina (See: EJ1060728), and the second, "Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors Across Levels of…

  20. From Best Research to What Works: Performance-Based Compensation in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert Shanker Institute, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a transcript of a forum held in Washington, D.C. on June 6, 2006 on performance-based compensation in public education. The discussion was introduced by Eugenia Kemble, executive director of the Albert Shanker Institute, forum sponsor. The forum was moderated by Milton Goldberg and featured speakers Edward Lawler (director, Center…

  1. Potential of two epigeic and two anecic earthworm species in vermicomposting of water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2001-02-01

    The potential of two epigeic species (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg, and Perionyx excavatus Perrier) and two anecic species (Lampito mauritii Kinberg and Drawida willsi Michaelson) of earthworms was assessed in terms of efficiency and sustainability of vermicomposting water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solm.). In different vermireactors, each run in duplicate with one of the four species of earthworms, and 75 g of 6:1 water hyacinth:cowdung as feed, vermicasts were produced with steadily increasing output in all the reactors. E. eugeniae was by far the most efficient producer of vermicasts, followed by the other epigeic P. excavatus. The two anecics came next, with D. willsi being the least effective which could generate only about half the quantity of vermicasts achieved in a corresponding time by E. eugeniae. In all the reactors, the earthworms grew well, increasing their weights by more than 250%. The maximum net gain of weight (average 30.7 g) was by E. eugeniae, followed by P. excavatus, L. mauritii and D. willsi. This trend, which followed the efficiency of vermicast production, was also shown in terms of reproductive ability as measured by the number of offspring produced by the four species. PMID:11198167

  2. 21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (1996), pp. 104-105, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... as GRAS § 184.1257 Clove and its derivatives. (a) Cloves are the dried unopened flower buds and calyx tubes, harvested before the flowers have opened, of the clove tree Eugenia caryophyllata...

  3. Pole orientation, sidereal period, and sense of rotation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. C.; Gehrels, T.

    1986-01-01

    Pole orientations of asteroids were determined. The method, called photometric astrometry, takes precise epochs of lightcurves into account. Pole determination research on asteroids 532 Herculina, 45 Eugenia, and 3 Juno continues. Discrepancies between various pole determination techniques presently being used are analyzed. The study of asteroid shapes and creating a generalized master pole determination technique also continues which will incorporate the best features of several current methods.

  4. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·−, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits.

    PubMed

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; Alencar, Severino Matias de

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  6. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of leaf infusions of Myrtaceae species from Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna).

    PubMed

    Takao, L K; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable interest in identifying new antioxidants from plant materials. Several studies have emphasized the antioxidant activity of species belonging to the Myrtaceae family. However, there are few reports on these species from the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). In this study, the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of 12 native Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado were evaluated (Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Eugenia bimarginata, Eugenia dysenterica, Eugenia klotzschiana, Hexachlamys edulis, Myrcia bella, Myrcia lingua, Myrcia splendens, Myrcia tomentosa, Psidium australe, Psidium cinereum, and Psidium laruotteanum). Antioxidant potential was assessed using the antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the DPPH method and total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. There was a high correlation between TPC and AAI values. Psidium laruotteanum showed the highest TPC (576.56 mg GAE/g extract) and was the most potent antioxidant (AAI = 7.97, IC50 = 3.86 µg·mL-1), with activity close to that of pure quercetin (IC50 = 2.99 µg·mL-1). The extracts of nine species showed IC50 of 6.24-8.75 µg·mL-1. Most species showed TPC and AAI values similar to or higher than those for Camellia sinensis, a commonly consumed tea with strong antioxidant properties. The results reveal that the analyzed Myrtaceae species from the Cerrado possess high phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Thus, they are a potential source of new natural antioxidants. PMID:26675912

  7. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Paula Monteiro; Elias, Silvia Taveira; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; de Paula, José Elias; Gomes, Sueli Maria; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Silva, Elton Clementino; Silveira, Dâmaris; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05) tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC50 value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC50 value of 13.14 µg/mL). Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations. PMID:23173036

  8. Evidence for novel and specialized mycorrhizal parasitism: the orchid Gastrodia confusa gains carbon from saprotrophic Mycena

    PubMed Central

    Ogura-Tsujita, Yuki; Gebauer, Gerhard; Hashimoto, Toshimasa; Umata, Hidetaka; Yukawa, Tomohisa

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the physiological ecology of the Asian non-photosynthetic orchid Gastrodia confusa. We revealed its mycorrhizal partners by using molecular identification and identified its ultimate nutritional source by analysing carbon and nitrogen natural stable isotope abundances. Molecular identification using internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA sequences showed that G. confusa associates with several species of litter- and wood-decomposer Mycena fungi. The carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures of G. confusa were analysed together with photosynthetic plant reference samples and samples of the ectomycorrhizal epiparasite Monotropa uniflora. We found that G. confusa was highly enriched in 13C but not greatly in 15N, while M. uniflora was highly enriched in both 13C and 15N. The 13C and 15N signatures of G. confusa were the closest to those of the fruit bodies of saprotrophic fungi. Our results demonstrate for the first time using molecular and mass-spectrometric approaches that myco-heterotrophic plants gain carbon through parasitism of wood or litter decaying fungi. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, several otherwise free-living non-mycorrhizal, Mycena can be mycorrhizal partners of orchids. PMID:19004757

  9. Comparative analysis of plastid genomes of non-photosynthetic Ericaceae and their photosynthetic relatives

    PubMed Central

    Logacheva, Maria D.; Schelkunov, Mikhail I.; Shtratnikova, Victoria Y.; Matveeva, Maria V.; Penin, Aleksey A.

    2016-01-01

    Although plastid genomes of flowering plants are typically highly conserved regarding their size, gene content and order, there are some exceptions. Ericaceae, a large and diverse family of flowering plants, warrants special attention within the context of plastid genome evolution because it includes both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic species with rearranged plastomes and putative losses of “essential” genes. We characterized plastid genomes of three species of Ericaceae, non-photosynthetic Monotropa uniflora and Hypopitys monotropa and photosynthetic Pyrola rotundifolia, using high-throughput sequencing. As expected for non-photosynthetic plants, M. uniflora and H. monotropa have small plastid genomes (46 kb and 35 kb, respectively) lacking genes related to photosynthesis, whereas P. rotundifolia has a larger genome (169 kb) with a gene set similar to other photosynthetic plants. The examined genomes contain an unusually high number of repeats and translocations. Comparative analysis of the expanded set of Ericaceae plastomes suggests that the genes clpP and accD that are present in the plastid genomes of almost all plants have not been lost in this family (as was previously thought) but rather persist in these genomes in unusual forms. Also we found a new gene in P. rotundifolia that emerged as a result of duplication of rps4 gene. PMID:27452401

  10. Selective molecular sequestration with concurrent natural product functionalization and derivatization: from crude natural product extracts to a single natural product derivative in one step.

    PubMed

    Krchňák, Viktor; Zajíček, Jaroslav; Miller, Patricia A; Miller, Marvin J

    2011-12-16

    A resin-bound nitroso compound sequestered a single unexpected component from crude plant seed extracts. Several plants, including Piper nigrum, Eugenia caryophyllata, and Pimenta dioica, were extracted with organic solvent in the presence of a nitroso-containing resin. The nitroso resin selectively sequestered a single compound, β-caryophyllene, via a chemo- and regioselective ene reaction. The ene product was released from the resin, and proper selection of the solid-phase linker and cleavage cocktail allowed concomitant further transformation of the primary ene product to a novel functionalized polycycle. Preliminary studies indicate that the new hydroxylamine-containing natural product derivatives have antibiotic activity. PMID:22059469

  11. Selective Molecular Sequestration with Concurrent Natural Product Functionalization and Derivatization: From Crude Natural Product Extracts to a Single Natural Product Derivative in One Step

    PubMed Central

    Krchňák, Viktor; Zajíček, Jaroslav; Miller, Patricia A.; Miller, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    A resin-bound nitroso compound sequestered a single unexpected component from crude plant seed extracts. Several plants, including Piper nigrum, Eugenia caryophyllata, and Pimenta dioica, were extracted with organic solvent in the presence of a nitroso-containing resin. The nitroso resin selectively sequestered a single compound, β-caryophyllene, via a chemo and regioselective ene reaction. The ene product was released from the resin and proper selection of the solid-phase linker and cleavage cocktail allowed concomitant further transformation of the primary ene product to a novel functionalized polycycle. Preliminary studies indicate that the new hydroxylamine-containing natural product derivatives have antibiotic activity. PMID:22059469

  12. Mesoscale eddies in the NE Pacific tropical-subtropical zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurczyn, J. A.; Beier, E.; Lavín, M. F.; Chaigneau, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mesoscale eddy characteristics in the NE Pacific tropical-subtropical zone (16-30N) are analyzed using nearly 20 years of satellite altimetry maps and an automated eddy detection algorithm known as "the closed contours of sea-level anomaly (SLA)". The mean eddy characteristics of the study region are described based on the analysis of 1055 anticyclonic and 1097 cyclonic eddy trajectories. Eddies are preferentially formed near the coast in three main subregions: Punta Eugenia, Cabo San Lucas and Cabo Corrientes. The seasonally highest eddy generation occurs during spring in the three subregions, when surface winds are upwelling-favorable and strong upwelling events occur, thus promoting strong vertical shear between currents. Being highly non-linear and propagating toward the open ocean, mesoscale eddies can thus transport near-coastal seawater properties and plankton toward remote regions. In general, Punta Eugenia and Cabo San Lucas show the highest eddy occurrence. Long-lived eddies, having a life span greater than 16 weeks, are preferentially formed in Punta Eugenia. On average, eddy radii are larger than the Rossby internal radius of deformation, probably due to an up-scale energy cascade of geostrophic turbulence. Mean eddy propagation speeds in Cabo San Lucas and Punta Eugenia regions show higher values than the first baroclinic Rossby waves, while eddies south of ~19N travel slightly slower. The seasonal eddy generation and the eddy-prolific areas can be explained by the climatology of surface currents, where the eddy-prolific areas coincide with sites of strongest surface speeds, and the timing of the highest seasonal eddy generation corresponds with the strongest seasonal surface currents. Although relatively strong interannual variability is observed in terms of the local eddy activity index, no clear correlation is observed between eddy-generation events and large-scale climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index or the Multivariate

  13. [Lethal effect of Cuban Myrtaceae on Aedes aegypti (Diptera Cuilicidae)].

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Lucita; Navarro, Agustín; Tacoronte, Juan E; Leyva, Maureen; Marquetti, María C

    2003-01-01

    The biological activity of the essential foliar oils from 2 Cuban endemic Myrtaceae: Eugenia melanadenia and Psidium rotundatum on A. aegypti larvae was evaluated for the first time at the laboratory level. The probit-log analysis of the results showed the larvicidal effect of both oils with values of CL50 = 0.0085% and CL95 = 0.0104% for E. melanadenia and CL50 = 0.0063% and CL95 = 0.0071% for O. rotundatum. Besides, the diagnostic concentration for both essential oils are given and the possible implications of these findings on field populations of A. aegypti are suggessted. PMID:15849965

  14. Microbial diversity and digestive enzyme activities in the gut of earthworms found in sawmill industries in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Julius A; Idowu, Adewunmi B; Ademolu, Kehinde O; Atayese, Adijat O

    2014-09-01

    The growing demand for wood has resulted in large volumes of wood wastes that are daily released to the soil from the activities of sawmills in South-Western Nigeria. In an attempt to setup a bioremediation model for sawdust, this study therefore aimed at evaluating microbial diversity, and the level of digestive enzymes in the gut of earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae, Libyodrilus violaceous and Hyperiodrilus africanus) of sawmill origin. Four major sawmills located in Abeokuta (7°9'12" N- 3°19'35" E), namely Lafenwa, Sapon, Isale-Ake and Kotopo sawmills were used for this study. The arboretum of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta was used as control. Gut microbial analysis was carried out using the pour-plate method while digestive enzyme activities in the earthworm guts were done by the spectrophotometric method. Higher microbial counts (28.5 ± 0.1 x 10(3)-97.0 ± 0.1 x 10(3) cfu for bacteria and 7.0 ± 0.1x 10(3)-96.0 ± 0.1 x 10(3) cfu for fungi) and microbial diversity were recorded in the gut of earthworms of the sawmill locations than those of the control site (17.5 ± 0.1 x10(3) cfu for bacteria and 4.5 ± 0.1 x 10(3) cfu for fungi). Streptococcus mutans and Proteus spp. were common in the gut of E. eugeniae, and L. violaceous from the study sawmills, while Streptococcus mutans were also identified in H. africanus, but absent in the gut of E. eugeniae from the control site. Cellulase (48.67 ± 0.02 mg/g) and lipase (1.81 ± 0.01 mg/g) activities were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the gut of earthworms from the control site than those of the study sawmills. Furthermore, amylase (α and β) activity was highest in the gut of earthworms from the sawmills. Variations observed in the gut microbial and digestive enzyme activities of earthworms from the study sawmills as compared to the control site suggests that earthworms, especially E. eugeniae, could be a better organism for use as bioremediator of wood wastes. PMID:25412548

  15. Vicariance and dispersal across Baja California in disjunct marine fish populations.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Findley, Lloyd; Rocha-Olivares, Axayacatl

    2003-07-01

    Population disjunctions, as a first step toward complete allopatry, present an interesting situation to study incipient speciation. The geological formation of the Baja California Peninsula currently divides 19 species of fish into disjunct populations that are found on its Pacific Coast and in the northern part of the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez), but are absent from the Cape (Cabo San Lucas) region. We studied the genetic makeup of disjunct populations for 12 of these 19 fish species. Phylogeographic patterns for the 12 species can be separated into two major classes: a first group (eight species) showed reciprocal monophyly and high genetic divergence between disjunct populations. A second group (four species) displayed what appeared to be panmictic populations. Population structure between Pacific Coast populations, across the Punta Eugenia biogeographic boundary, was also evaluated. While dispersal potential (inferred by pelagic larval duration) was a poor predictor of population structure between Gulf of California and Pacific populations, we found that population genetic subdivision along the Pacific Coast at Punta Eugenia was always positively correlated with differentiation between Pacific and Gulf of California populations. Vicariant events, ongoing gene flow, and ecological characteristics played essential roles in shaping the population structures observed in this study. PMID:12940364

  16. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  17. Autofluorescence in BrdU-positive cells and augmentation of regeneration kinetics by riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Johnson Retnaraj Samuel, Selvan Christyraj; Elaiya Raja, Subramanian; Beryl Vedha, Yesudhason; Edith Arul Jane, Ambrose; Amutha, Kuppusamy; Dinesh, Sudalai Mani; Jackson Durairaj, Selvan Christyraj; Kalidas, Ramamoorthy M; Tharmaraj, Vairaperumal; Pitchumani, Kasi; Sudhakar, Sivassubramaniam

    2012-07-20

    The earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae, has a prodigious ability to regenerate lost segments. The skin of the worm has an outermost epidermal layer followed by a thick circular muscle layer and an innermost thin longitudinal cell layer. During the process of regeneration, the circular muscle layer decreased in thickness, and longitudinal cell layer increased. The histological analysis of the regenerated worm shows that the longitudinal cell layer forms the regeneration blastema. BrdU-labeling retention assay confirmed that the circular muscle and longitudinal cell layers have BrdU-positive cells, which migrate from the adjacent segments to the regeneration blastema. In addition, it was noted that the cells of the earthworm, E. eugeniae, have the property of autofluorescence. Autofluorescence was found in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. It has been also found that the major source for autofluorescence is riboflavin. Further, it was also demonstrated that supplementation with riboflavin increases the rate of regeneration, while regeneration was hampered by reduced levels of riboflavin. The importance of riboflavin in regeneration was also confirmed by rescue assay. In addition, it was also identified that BrdU-positive cells are highly fluorescent compared to the surrounding cells. PMID:22150027

  18. Inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by plant extracts from the Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Souza, Paula Monteiro de; Sales, Paloma Michelle de; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Elton Clementino; Silveira, Dâmaris; Magalhães, Pérola de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common disease in the world. One therapeutic approach for treating diabetes is inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels. In vitro tests showed that several plant extracts from Brazilian cerrado species can inhibit the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The extracts of Eugenia dysenterica, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Pouteria caimito, Pouteria ramiflora, and Pouteria torta showed strong α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Eugenia dysenterica, P. caimito, P. ramiflora, and P. torta aqueous extracts exerted the highest activity against α-amylase (IC₅₀) values of 14.93, 13.6, 7.08, and 5.67 µg/mL, respectively) and α-glucosidase (IC₅₀ values of 0.46, 2.58, 0.35, and 0.22 µg/mL, respectively). Stryphnodendron adstringens ethanol extract also exhibited inhibitory activity against both enzymes (IC₅₀) 1.86 µg/mL against α-amylase and 0.61 µg/mL against α-glucosidase). The results suggest that the activity of these cerrado plants on α-amylase and α-glucosidase represents a potential tool for development of new strategies for treatment of diabetes. PMID:22134849

  19. Pharmacological potentials of Syzygium cumini: a review.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Chandra, Deepak

    2013-07-01

    In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine, and these drugs are gaining popularity in both developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and lesser side effects. Syzygium cumini (syn. Eugenia jambolana, Syzygium jambolana, Eugenia cumini, Syzygium jambos), commonly known as jamun in India, is an evergreen tree distributed throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and East Africa. It is mainly utilised as a fruit producer and for its timber. Medicinally, the fruit is reported to have antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic, antioxidant, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, antiallergic, antiarthritic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, antipyretic, antiplaque, radioprotective, neuropsychopharmacological, nephroprotective and antidiarrhoeal activities. Among these beneficial physiological effects, the antidiabetic property of S. cumini has the most promising nutraceutical value. The health-beneficial effects of S. cumini are mainly attributed to various phytoconstituents such as tannins, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, fatty acids, phenols, minerals, carbohydrates and vitamins present in the fruit. This review paper presents an overview of experimental evidence for the pharmacological potential of S. cumini. PMID:23460190

  20. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  1. Exploring the Anti-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Activity of Essential Oils: A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lo Nostro, Antonella; Calonico, Carmela; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Mengoni, Alessio; Vannacci, Alfredo; Bilia, Anna Rita; Gori, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this work we have checked the ability of the essential oils extracted from six different medicinal plants (Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris) to inhibit the growth of 18 bacterial type strains belonging to the 18 known species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). These bacteria are opportunistic human pathogens that can cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients, especially those affected by cystic fibrosis (CF), and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. The analysis of the aromatograms produced by the six oils revealed that, in spite of their different chemical composition, all of them were able to contrast the growth of Bcc members. However, three of them (i.e., Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum vulgare, and Thymus vulgaris) were particularly active versus the Bcc strains, including those exhibiting a high degree or resistance to ciprofloxacin, one of the most used antibiotics to treat Bcc infections. These three oils are also active toward both environmental and clinical strains (isolated from CF patients), suggesting that they might be used in the future to fight B. cepacia complex infections. PMID:24701243

  2. Prediction of stellar occultations by satellite of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, J.; Marchis, F.; Descamps, P.; Hestroffer, D.

    2004-11-01

    Our group is working on the orbit determination of asteroid satellites on the last four years gathering data recorded with several AO systems. Based upon our observations, we focused specifically on models for (22) Kalliope, (121) Hermione, (45) Eugenia and (90) Antiope systems characterizing accurately their dynamical and physical properties (Marchis et al., 2003, 2004a, 2004b). These models will be regularly improved with new observations. This work allow us to predict the position of the secondary during stellar occultations. A successful observation will give us direct measurements of the size and shape of the moonlet which is usually too small to be resolved by any available AO systems. These parameters are important to better constrain the mass of the system, its density, and consequently the internal structure of the primary. We will predict the Earth track path of the secondary and primary events for the next years stellar occultations happening under good observing conditions and involving the satellites of (22) Kalliope, (121) Hermione, (45) Eugenia and the same-size binary asteroid (90) Antiope. A regularly updated web page http://stellarocc.imcce.fr/ contains the list of the events. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics, and is based partly on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile.

  3. Implementation of bio-fungicides and seed treatment in organic rice cv. KDML 105 farming.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the several chemical compounds of relatively composite structure with antifungal activity from Thai local medical plants. The antifungal activity of Stemona curtisii HK. f., Stemona tuberose L., Acorus calamus L., Eugenia caryophyllus, Memmea siamensis Kost. and an eugenol active compound were studied in vitro. Four pathogenic seed borne fungi, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Rhizoctonia solani were used as target organisms. The agar overlay technique and spore inhibition techniques were applied for the determination of their essential oil and active compound antifungal activity at various concentration; 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) and untreated as control (0% v/v). Eugenol active compound showed the strongest antifungal activity on all species of tested fungal species. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of those bio-fungicides was lined up into a series from strong to low, as follows: Eugenia caryophyllus > Acorus calamus Linn. > Stemona tuberosa L. > Stemona curtisii Hk.f, while Mammea siamensis Kost. could not control any fungal species. Moreover, after eugenol application, lysis of spore and inhibition of mycelium growth were detected. Microscopic analysis exhibited complete lysis of spores after 24 h at a concentration of 1.00% v/v. Moreover, at the same concentration and 96 h incubation the mycelia growth was completely inhibited. PMID:19899322

  4. Seasonality of the transitional region of the California Current System off Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durazo, Reginaldo

    2015-02-01

    Hydrographic data collected over the period 1997-2013 are analyzed to investigate the seasonality of hydrographic features and associated geostrophic flows off the Baja California peninsula. The upper ocean in the region was found to be homogeneous in winter and spring but subdivided into two regions in the summer and autumn. In the first case, the system typically shows relatively low-temperature and salinity waters, which give it a subarctic character. In the second, only the region north of Punta Eugenia (28°N) maintains subarctic characteristics, while the southern region receives an inflow of tropical and subtropical waters that results from the weakening of northwesterly winds, which allows the poleward advection of surface waters. Also during this period, a positive wind stress curl promotes the zonal advection of North Pacific's eastern edge waters into the coast and to the north as a surface coastal flow. Average seasonal patterns of geostrophic flow at 200 dbar revealed that the differentiation into provinces is also evident at that depth, with two clearly defined cyclonic structures in summer and autumn, both separated at the latitude of Punta Eugenia. The analyses conducted also showed a clear continuity of the California undercurrent along the shelf break, with more diffuse currents in the winter. Poleward flows were observed throughout the water column, especially in summer and autumn, although the origin of the surface flow does not necessarily involve a surfacing of the California Undercurrent.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of vermicompost for determination of nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Subhash Kumar, M; Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2015-01-25

    Spectroscopic analysis has been carried out to examine the compost quality, maturity and nutritional levels of vermicompost and compost of Eichhornia. 50% Eichhorniacrassipes and 50% cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) and collected on different days' time intervals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra reveal the presence of humic substance from compost and vermicompost, which improves the soil fertility. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis shows maximum level of Benzene propanoic acid (95.98%) and by 2-Propanone, 1-Phenyl-, OXIM (10.10%) from vermicompost through earthworms activity. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) results reported high level of micronutrient from Eichhornia mediated compost and vermicompost. PMID:25068838

  6. Direct, rapid and sustainable vermicomposting of the leaf litter of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    PubMed

    Nayeem-Shah, M; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed concept of high rate vermicomposting was successfully used to enable direct vermicomoposting of neem leaves-without any pre-composting or cow dung supplementation as previously reported processes had necessitated. All the three epigeic species of earthworms that were explored, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, provided efficient vermicast production with no mortality, persistent gain in body mass and good fecundity over the 16 months long period of reactor operation. In this period, all reactors were pulse-fed at the solid retention time of 20 days and were operated in the pseudo discretized continuous operation protocol developed earlier by the authors. With this, it was possible to almost completely dampen the influence of natural biodegradation of the feed or grazing by the earthworm born in the vermireactors. The findings, thus, conclusively prove that, all-through, the brisk vermicomposting was caused almost entirely by the action of the 'parent' earthworms on fresh feed. PMID:25344437

  7. Spectroscopic analysis of vermicompost for determination of nutritional quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subhash Kumar, M.; Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis has been carried out to examine the compost quality, maturity and nutritional levels of vermicompost and compost of Eichhornia. 50% Eichhorniacrassipes and 50% cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) and collected on different days' time intervals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra reveal the presence of humic substance from compost and vermicompost, which improves the soil fertility. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis shows maximum level of Benzene propanoic acid (95.98%) and by 2-Propanone, 1-Phenyl-, OXIM (10.10%) from vermicompost through earthworms activity. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) results reported high level of micronutrient from Eichhornia mediated compost and vermicompost.

  8. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: Reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajiv, P.; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung.

  9. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114

  10. Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim; Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  11. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found. PMID:25842910

  12. New combinations for Pacific endemic species: Marquesan Poaceae, and Micronesian Myrtaceae.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Michael W; Wagner, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    As part of the preparation for a comprehensive online flora of Pacific oceanic islands, numerous taxonomic changes have been necessary, primarily due to a new wealth of global molecular phylogenetic studies on genera that include Pacific islands species. In order to compile an accurate checklist of the Pacific island flora with up-to-date taxonomies, we are moving several species to their currently accepted genera. Two Marquesan Pennisetum Rich. are transferred to Cenchrus L. with the new combinations Cenchrus articularis (Trin.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner, and Cenchrus henryanus (F. Br.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner. A key to Marquesas Cenchrus is also provided to differentiate the two species. Additionally, one species of Eugenia L. is transferred to Syzygium Gaertn. with the new combination Syzygium stelechanthoides (Kaneh.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner in accord with the aforementioned studies. PMID:24399889

  13. Tree species as a potential source of bio-herbicides for controlling Parthenium hysterophorus L.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Muhammad Ehsan; Tanveer, Asif; Khaliq, Abdul; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Ahmad, Salman

    2013-01-01

    To assess the herbicidal potential of Eugenia jambolana Lam., Ricinus communis L., Ziziphus jujuba L. and Ziziphus mauritiana L. against noxious weed Parthenium hysterophorus L., germination bioassay using their 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% (w/v) and seedling growth bioassay using their 5% (w/v) (on dry weight basis) aqueous leaf extracts (ALE) were conducted. ALE of R. communis showed maximum reductions in germination percentage (79%), germination index (89%) and seedling biomass (88%) as well as maximum delays in mean germination time (211%) and time to 50% germination (265%) of parthenium whereas maximum reductions in its seedling length (47%) and seedling vigour index (97%) were shown by Z. mauritiana. Reciprocal dose-response relationship by probit regression analysis revealed that LC50 values of R. communis and Z. mauritiana are 1.04% and 1.44%, respectively. Therefore, R. communis and Z. mauritiana are potential sources of bio-herbicides against this weed. PMID:23957713

  14. New combinations for Pacific endemic species: Marquesan Poaceae, and Micronesian Myrtaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tornabene, Michael W.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As part of the preparation for a comprehensive online flora of Pacific oceanic islands, numerous taxonomic changes have been necessary, primarily due to a new wealth of global molecular phylogenetic studies on genera that include Pacific islands species. In order to compile an accurate checklist of the Pacific island flora with up-to-date taxonomies, we are moving several species to their currently accepted genera. Two Marquesan Pennisetum Rich. are transferred to Cenchrus L. with the new combinations Cenchrus articularis (Trin.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner, and Cenchrus henryanus (F. Br.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner. A key to Marquesas Cenchrus is also provided to differentiate the two species. Additionally, one species of Eugenia L. is transferred to Syzygium Gaertn. with the new combination Syzygium stelechanthoides (Kaneh.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner in accord with the aforementioned studies. PMID:24399889

  15. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of clove leaf essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Stoilova, Ivanka; Stoyanova, Albena; Krastanov, Albert; Schmidt, Erich

    2006-08-23

    The antioxidant activity of a commercial rectified clove leaf essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllus) and its main constituent eugenol was tested. This essential oil comprises in total 23 identified constituents, among them eugenol (76.8%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (17.4%), alpha-humulene (2.1%), and eugenyl acetate (1.2%) as the main components. The essential oil from clove demonstrated scavenging activity against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydracyl (DPPH) radical at concentrations lower than the concentrations of eugenol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This essential oil also showed a significant inhibitory effect against hydroxyl radicals and acted as an iron chelator. With respect to the lipid peroxidation, the inhibitory activity of clove oil determined using a linoleic acid emulsion system indicated a higher antioxidant activity than the standard BHT. PMID:16910723

  16. Influence of microbial diversity and plant growth hormones in compost and vermicompost from fermented tannery waste.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Balasubramani; Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Sekaran, Ganesan

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (with and without addition) to transform solid state fermented (SSF) and submerged (SmF) state fermented TFL mixed with cow dung and leaf litter into value added products in compost and vermicompost bioreactors respectively. The significant role of microbes was identified during compost and vermicompost process. In addition, three important phytohormones (Indole 3-acetic acid, Gibberellic acid, Kinetin) were also detected in the compost and vermicompost products. The results revealed that the maximum amount of plant hormones were available in the vermicompost products which may be due to the joint action of earthworm and microorganisms. The overall results confirmed that the vermicomposting process produced a greater value added product. PMID:27013190

  17. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  18. Anti-elastase, anti-tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activity of earthworm extracts as potential new anti-aging agent

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nurhazirah; Hashim, Puziah; Hashim, Dzulkifly M; Halimoon, Normala; Majid, Nik Muhamad Nik

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether earthworms of Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Eudrilus eugeniae extracts have elastase, tyrosinase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity. Methods The earthworms extract was screened for elastase, tyrosinase and MMP-1 inhibitory activity and compared with the positive controls. It was also evaluated for whitening and anti-wrinkle capacity. Results The extract showed significantly (P<0.05) good elastase and tyrosinase inhibition and excellent MMP-1 inhibition compared to N-Isobutyl-N-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonyl)-glycylhydroxamic acid. Conclusions Earthworms extract showed effective inhibition of tyrosinase, elastase and MMP-1 activities. Therefore, this experiment further rationalizes the traditional use of this worm extracts which may be useful as an anti-wrinkle agent. PMID:25183109

  19. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy: reliable techniques for analysis of Parthenium mediated vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Rajiv, P; Rajeshwari, Sivaraj; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been carried out to investigate the chemical composition of Parthenium mediated vermicompost. Four different concentrations of Parthenium and cow dung mixtures were vermicomposted using the earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae). FT-IR spectra reveal the absence of Parthenin toxin (sesquiterpene lactone) and phenols in vermicompost which was obtained from high concentration of cow dung mixed treatments. GC-MS analysis shows no phenolic compounds and predominant level of intermediate metabolites such as 4,8,12,16-Tetramethylheptadecan-4-olide (7.61%), 2-Pentadecanone, 6,10,14-trimethyl- (5.29%) and Methyl 16-methyl-heptadecanoate (4.69%) during the vermicomposting process. Spectral results indicated that Parthenin toxin and phenols can be eradicated via vermicomposting if mixed with appropriate quantity of cow dung. PMID:23998948

  20. [Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza, China and Chinese medicine, 1928-1943].

    PubMed

    Roland, Maria Inês de França; Gianini, Reinaldo José

    2013-01-01

    This essay is on the writings of sanitary doctor Geraldo Horácio de Paula Souza in Eugenia e Imigração (1928) and, after an official trip to the Orient, in Digressões sobre a medicina chinesa clássica (1942) and A sabedoria chinesa diante da ciência ocidental e a Escola Médica de Pequim (1943). The documents, analyzed according to the conceptual approach of Carlo Ginzburg, indicate a change in his view of the Chinese. Trained according to the Rockefeller Foundation's model of experimental medicine, Geraldo de Paula Souza was guided in his work by scientific rigor and record imagery. In his youth he was of the opinion that the Chinese civilization was stagnated, but this view changed after his visit, when he perceived the Chinese republic's capacity to modernize. PMID:24141921

  1. Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Talbert, R; Wall, R

    2012-10-01

    The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

  2. Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Allana K. L.; Costa, José G. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Cansanção, Isaac F.; Santos, Karla K. A.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants’ ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. Results: All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Conclusions: Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated. PMID:21120039

  3. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi. PMID:26466874

  4. Dynamical configurations of celestial systems comprised of multiple irregular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n - 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple-asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and analyzed.

  5. Sustainable reuse of rice residues as feedstocks in vermicomposting for organic fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Shak, Katrina Pui Yee; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Su Lin; Lee, Chieh Ai

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rice (Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima) cultivation has increased in many rice-growing countries due to the increasing export demand and population growth and led to a copious amount of rice residues, consisting mainly of rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH), being generated during and after harvesting. In this study, Eudrilus eugeniae was used to decompose rice residues alone and rice residues amended with cow dung (CD) for bio-transformation of wastes into organic fertilizer. Generally, the final vermicomposts showed increases in macronutrients, namely, calcium (11.4-34.2%), magnesium (1.3-40.8%), phosphorus (1.2-57.3%), and potassium (1.1-345.6%) and a decrease in C/N ratio (26.8-80.0%) as well as increases in heavy metal content for iron (17-108%), copper (14-120%), and manganese (6-60%) after 60 days of vermicomposting. RS as a feedstock was observed to support healthier growth and reproduction of earthworms as compared to RH, with maximum adult worm biomass of 0.66 g/worm (RS) at 60 days, 31 cocoons (1RS:2CD), and 23 hatchlings (1RS:1CD). Vermicomposting of RS yielded better results than RH among all of the treatments investigated. RS that was mixed with two parts of CD (1RS:2CD) showed the best combination of nutrient results as well as the growth of E. eugeniae. In conclusion, vermicomposting could be used as a green technology to bio-convert rice residues into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers if the residues are mixed with CD in the appropriate ratio. PMID:23900949

  6. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested. PMID:21882663

  7. Selective and cost-effective protocol to separate bioactive triterpene acids from plant matrices using alkalinized ethanol: Application to leaves of Myrtaceae species

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adélia M. Belem; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Nakamura, Marcos Jun; D’Avila, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Triterpenes as betulinic (BA), oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acids (UA) have increasingly gained therapeutic relevance due to their wide scope of pharmacological activities. To fit large-scale demands, exploitable sources of these compounds have to be found and simple, cost-effective methods to extract them developed. Leaf material represents the best plant sustainable raw material. To obtain triterpene acid-rich extracts from leaves of Eugenia, Psidium and Syzygium species (Myrtaceae) by directly treating the dry plant material with alkalinized hydrated ethanol. This procedure was adapted from earlier methods to effect depolymerization of the leaf cutin. Materials and Methods: Extracts were prepared by shaking the milled dry leaves in freshly prepared 2% NaOH in 95% EtOH solution (1:4 w/v) at room temperature for 6 h. Working up the product in acidic aqueous medium led to clear precipitates in which BA, OA and UA were quantified by gas chromatography. Results: Pigment-free and low-polyphenol content extracts (1.2–2.8%) containing 6–50% of total triterpene acids were obtained for the six species assayed. UA (7–20%) predominated in most extracts, but BA preponderated in Eugenia florida (39%). Carried out in parallel, n-hexane defatted leaves led to up to 9% enhancement of total acids in the extracts. The hydroalcoholate treatment of Myrtaceae species dry leaves proved to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method to obtain triterpene acids, providing them be resistant to alkaline medium. These combined techniques might be applicable to other plant species and tissues. PMID:26246721

  8. Characteristics of Known Triple Asteroid Systems in the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Berthier, J.; Burns, K. J.; Descamps, P.; Durech, J.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Lainey, V.; Reiss, A. E.; Vachier, F.

    2010-10-01

    Since the discovery of "Sylvia Remus II” [1], around the binary asteroid (87) Sylvia [2] using the VLT/NACO instrument, the number of known triple systems increased significantly. Using the same instrument, a second moonlet was discovered around the binary (45) Eugenia [3] in 2007 [4]. Using an improved W.M. Keck II AO system, [5] announced the discovery of two 3 & 5-km moons orbiting the M-type asteroid (216) Kleopatra and more recently, [6] revealed the presence of two tiny 4-km moons around the C-type (93) Minerva. 3749 Balam is a different triple asteroid system whose existence was suggested by combining lightcurves and AO observations [7]. The properties of these triple systems have been derived individually and published recently [1, 8,9,10]. We will review and contrast their characteristics, including the orbital parameters of the satellite orbits, the size and shape of the primary and the satellites, their taxonomic classes, their bulk densities, and their ages. The goal of this study is to uncover clues concerning the formation and evolution of these mini-planetary systems. The National Science Foundation supported this research under award number AAG-0807468. 1. Marchis et al. Nature 2005 2. Brown et al., IAU 7588, 2001 3. Merline et al. Nature 401, 1999 4. Marchis et al. IAU 1073, 2007 5. Marchis et al. IAU 8980, 2008 6. Marchis et al., IAU 9069, 2009 7. Marchis et al., IAU 8928, 2008 8. Marchis et al., A Dynamical Solution of the Triple Asteroid System (45) Eugenia , Icarus in press, 2010 9. Descamps et al, Triplicity and Physical Characteristics of Asteroid 216 Kleopatra Icarus, in revision, 2010 10. Marchis et al., Triplicity and Physical Characteristics of the main-belt Asteroid (93) Minerva, Icarus submitted 2010

  9. Orbital Stability of Spacecraft Exploring Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Keaton; Marchis, F.; Bellerose, J.

    2011-05-01

    Space missions to study the composition and formation histories of multiple asteroid systems require the identification of safe orbits for the observing spacecraft. To identify regions of orbital stability, we developed an n-body simulation and Monte Carlo scheme to test a large selection of orbits around the components of multiple asteroid systems. Our n-body program integrates the equations of motion of the spacecraft, asteroid system components, and the sun for 20 days, taking into account solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft and modeling asteroids as systems of rigid points when their shape model is known. We utilized a Monte Carlo scheme to test the stability of polar and retrograde orbits from uniformly distributed starting positions with normally distributed tangential velocities around each component. We present preliminary results of simulations testing hundreds of thousands of polar and retrograde orbits around the components of the 2001 SN263 near-earth triple asteroid system, and the (90) Antiope doublet and (45) Eugenia triple systems in the main-belt. These systems are potential targets for several space mission concepts, including: the Amor mission to visit and land on the components of 2001 SN263, Jones et al. (LPSC 42, #2695, 2011), the Diversity mission to explore several asteroid systems including (45) Eugenia and (90) Antiope, Marchis et al. (LPSC 42, #2062, 2011), and the ASTER mission to visit a NEA multiple asteroid, Sukhanov et al. (Cosmic Research 48-5, p. 443-450, 2010). Analysis of stable regions in position and velocity may assist in planning scientific orbits and instrumental specifications for such missions.

  10. Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mainoo, Nana O K; Barrington, Suzelle; Whalen, Joann K; Sampedro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over 20 weeks. In a second experiment, a 1:1 mixture of pineapple peels and pulp (w/w) was fed to triplicate pilot-scale vermicomposters and control boxes during a 20 week period. One month after feeding ended, the vermicompost and composted (control) waste was air dried and analyzed. During the first experiment, the vermicomposted pineapple pulp and peels lost 99% and 87% of their wet mass, respectively, indicating the potential for vermicomposting. Fresh pineapple waste exhibited an initial pH of 4.4, but after 24 weeks, the vermicompost and compost had acquired a neutral to alkaline pH of 7.2-9.2. The vermicompost contained as much as 0.4% total N, 0.4% total P and 0.9% total K, and had a C:N ratio of 9-10. A reduction of 31-70% in the Escherichia coli plus Salmonella loads and 78-88% in the Aspergillus load was observed during vermicomposting. The rapid breakdown of pineapple wastes by E. eugeniae demonstrated the viability of vermicomposting as a simple and low cost technology recycling this waste into a soil amendment that could be used by the 2500 vegetable producers of Accra and its surrounding areas. PMID:19620003

  11. Palynology of cushion bogs of the Cordillera Pelada, Province of Valdivia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, Calvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Fossil pollen identified in the earliest sediments of three cushion bogs in the Cordillera Pelada (40°10'S, 73°30'W) dated 10,425 14C yr B.P. includes the subantarctic species Dacrydium fonckii, Tetroncium magellanicum, Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis, Donatia fascicularis, and Drosera uniflora. All grow today in the Cordillera Pelada and range poleward to the southernmost Province of Magallanes; one species, Drapetes muscosa, included with the pollen of these plants in the earliest record, is no longer a constituent of the flora but is limited only to subantarctic Chile. Available evidence indicates that plants survived the last glaciation north of the glacial border with the course of postglacial migration southward following the wastage of the glacier complex. Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in the Cordillera Pelada are interpreted in the context of regional reconstructions which show maximum warmth about 9000 yr ago with a pronounced dry period lasting from 9000 to 6500 yr B.P. Maximum precipitation was later reached around 4000 yr ago but has decreased overall since then. The regional decline of the endemic gymnosperm Fitzroya cupressoides, which today is extensively destroyed in the Cordillera Pelada, follows this decrease in precipitation. These climatic data suggest a net south ward shift in the zone of westerly winds that bring rainfall to the region over the past 4000 yr.

  12. Effects of acidification on macrophyte growth in the HUMEX Lake Skjervatjern, with special emphasis on Sphagnum auriculatum

    SciTech Connect

    Brandrud, T.E.; Johansen, S.W. )

    1994-01-01

    Transplantation experiments for the study of aquatic macrophyte growth and vitality were carried out in the HUMEX Lake Skjervatjern. Plants (preferentially indigenous) were transplanted to plastic pots in the acid-treated (A) basin and the control (B) basin. During the first phase of the experiments in 1991-1992, shortly after start of acidification treatment, the following trends were apparent: (1) The isoetic plants (Isoetes lacustris, Littorella uniflora, and Lobelia dortmanna) showed similar growth and vitality responses in the two Skjervatjern basins. (2) The elodeid species showed a slightly different response in the two basins. Juncus bulbosus exhibited a slightly higher growth rate in the acidified A basin. Myriophyllum alterniflorum died out after less than a growing season in the treated basin A, while a few shoots survived in basin B. (3) The transplanted shoots of submerged Sphagnum auriculatum showed a decreased growth in the acidified basin less than a year after start of treatment. This contrasts the results of other lake acidification studies where submerged Sphagnum mats were found to increase. The decreased growth of Sphagnum auriculatum after treatment seems most probably to be due to the increased SO[sub 4] concentrations, or to increased competition with epiphytic green algae. 43 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Laboratory experiment to determine phosphate release rates from sediments of a formerly oligotrophic lake (Silbersee, Cuxhaven)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmarami, Hatem; Greskowiak, Janek; Hamann, Enrico; Massmann, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    The Silbersee is a small, formerly oligotrophic lake in northwestern Germany which still contains rare character species for oligotrophic lakes (Isoëtes lacustris, Littorella uniflora) threatened by eutrophication. It was suspected that the lake sediments and the redox conditions in the hypolimnon play an important role with regard to eutrophication, potentially releasing phosphorus (P) into the water column. This was the motivation to conduct experiments to estimate the release rate of phosphorus into the lake. It had been noted that the P concentrations in the bottom water were higher during summer in the stagnation phase, when conditions turned sulfidic. Eight sediment cores were taken with a Mondsee-corer (manufactured by UWITEC) at different sites of the lake. The thickness of the sediment within the cores ranged from 15cm to 35 cm and were overlying by approximately 40cm of lake water water. The headspace was approximately 10cm. The cores were stored in a fridge first under oxic, then under anoxic conditions as observed in the lake bottom water in the different seasons. Redox conditions were maintained by bubbling with oxygen and nitrogen gas during the respective time periods. During the experiment, the temperature was held constant to match the water temperature measured at the bottom of the lake (~ 7±1°C). Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP), iron (Fe) and dissolved oxygen (DO) as well as pH were measured under oxic and anoxic conditions in the water column. The results showed that TP, DP and Fe concentrations were higher under anoxic conditions than under oxic conditions. The observed increase of phosporous in the water column during the anoxic phase was presumably a result of (i) reductive Fe-oxides dissolution and the corresponding loss of sorption sites and (ii) desorption of phosphorous via surface complexation reactions due to pH changes during the experiment.

  14. Wetland vegetation responses to liming an Adirondack watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Mackun, I.R.

    1993-01-01

    Watershed liming as a long-term mitigation strategy to neutralize lake acidity, from increasing acid deposition, was initiated in North America at Woods Lake in the west central Adirondack region of New York. In October 1989, a dose of 10 MT lime (83.5% CaCO[sub 3]) ha[sup [minus]1] was aerially applied to 48% of the watershed. The wetlands adjacent to Woods Lake showed two distinct community types: one dominated by Chamaedaphne calyculata, and one dominated by graminoids and other herbaceous species. Within two years, liming did not alter the structure of either community type, and changed the cover or frequency of only 6 of 64 individual taxa. Most of these changes occurred in the herbaceous community type. The only strong positive response to liming was a nearly threefold increase in cover of the rhizomatous sedge Cladium mariscoides. The cover of Carex interior and Sphagnum spp. benefited from lime addition, while cover of Drosera intermedia and Muhlenbergia uniflora, and frequency of Hypericum canadense responded negatively to lime. Liming influenced the competitive release of only three taxa, all forbs with small growth forms. The tissue chemistry of foliage and twigs of Myrica gale, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Carex stricta in the Chamaedaphne calyculata community type clearly illustrated species-specific patterns of nutrient accumulation and allocation both before and after liming. Concentrations of 17 of 20 elements responded to liming, although the responses varied among species and plant parts. Carex foliage was least responsive to liming, and Chamaedaphne twigs were most responsive. Elemental changes in plant tissues will be reflected in litter and many influence long-term nutrient dynamics in the wetland community.

  15. Asteroid encounters suitable for mass determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galád, A.; Gray, B.

    2002-09-01

    As in a previous paper (Galád \\cite{gal}), the search for effective perturbers among asteroids is done using the same method and during the same time period. The only difference is in the number of asteroids that were processed - 24 599 instead of 9511. Special attention is paid to comparison between perturbations due to (2) Pallas and (10) Hygiea. It is confirmed that the latter has a larger effect on the motion of main belt asteroids, perhaps by a factor of three. This is a reason to include its mass in asteroid orbit determinations. In addition to the Big Four main belt asteroids - (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas, (4) Vesta, (10) Hygiea - the masses of many other large asteroids, such as (11) Parthenope, (13) Egeria, (15) Eunomia, (16) Psyche, (24) Themis, (29) Amphitrite, (39) Laetitia, (45) Eugenia, (52) Europa, (65) Cybele, (121) Hermione, (451) Patientia, and (511) Davida, could be achieved by the end of this decade using astrometric data. In general, over the next decade small asteroids (with much higher numbers than above) will be used more thoroughly for mass determination of large asteroids.

  16. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status. PMID:24372356

  17. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  18. Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. ); Neuhauser, E.F. )

    1994-02-01

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

  19. Analysis of genetic diversity in earthworms using DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshul; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Gupta, Navneet K; Singh, Nagendra K; Sharma, Tilak R

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are one of the most important and beneficial macrofauna, and are used extensively in organic farming. Earthworms mediate soil biological regulation systems, and produce biogenic structures. They help to maintain soil structure, water infiltration, and regulate the availability of nutrients assimilated by plants. The objectives of this study were to perform morphological and molecular characterizations of 24 earthworm individuals collected from geographically diverse locations to assess the level of genetic variation. For molecular analysis, the effectiveness of RAPD, ISSR, and Universal rice primers (URPs) markers was investigated to identify polymorphism among 24 isolates of earthworms. A total of 62 molecular markers were used for amplification of genomic DNA of earthworms. Of these, 10 RAPD, 10 ISSR, and 10 URPs markers were used for characterization, which showed 95.7%, 96.7% and 98.3% polymorphism, respectively. The dendrogram, generated from the DNA markers by the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages, grouped all the isolates into two main clusters. All Eisenia fetida isolates were clustered in group A, whereas group B included three isolates belonging to Eudrilus eugeniae. Molecular markers allowed a rapid assessment of genetic variation among these closely related isolates of earthworms. These results suggest that molecular markers are a good choice for diversity analysis of earthworm individuals. PMID:21186943

  20. Vermicomposting of the leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis): possible roles of reactor geometry, polyphenols, and lignin.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, P Sankar; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2009-03-01

    Vermicomposting of the pre-composted leaf litter of acacia (Acacia auriculiformis) was studied in reactors of identical volume but with surface area: height ratios varying from 4 to 250. In separate sets of experiments with these reactors, epigeic earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and anecic earthworm species Lampito mauritii were employed at densities of 75 and 150 adult animals per litre of reactor volume. The results reveal that greater the surface area: volume ratio of the reactor, higher is the vermicast output in terms of vermicast output per animal; the more densely populated reactors were comparatively under-productive. Even as the vermicast production remained consistently high in all the reactors, there was significant earthworm mortality throughout the course of the experiments and the worms who survived, steadily lost weight with time. A detailed investigation of the possible causes revealed that, whereas the C:N ratio of acacia compost was comparable with that of other substrates; the polyphenols and lignin content were much higher. Studies by other authors on leaf litter consumption by earthworms in natural or man-made forests have indicated that leaf litter rich in polyphenols and lignin are not preferred by most species of earthworm. This may perhaps be the reason for the high rate of mortality and weight loss in earthworms forced to feed upon acacia in the experiments conducted by the authors. PMID:19026533

  1. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms - Kampala case study.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies. PMID:25728090

  2. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2004-01-01

    The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Denny, Carina; Benso, Bruna; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide. PMID:25911964

  4. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  5. Retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity in Thai herbs and spices: screening with Moloney murine leukemia viral enzyme.

    PubMed

    Suthienkul, O; Miyazaki, O; Chulasiri, M; Kositanont, U; Oishi, K

    1993-12-01

    Fifty-seven Thai herbs and spices were examined for their retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity. All herbs and spices were extracted with hot-water and methanol. Reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity of the extracts was determined by using Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus reverse transcriptase (M-MuLV-RT) reacted with 3H-dTTP and radioactivity measured with a scintillation counter. Eighty-one per cent (46/57) of hot-water extracts and 54% (31/57) of methanol extracts showed inhibitory activities. At a concentration of 125 micrograms/ml, 13% (6/46) of hot-water extracts, namely Eugenia caryophyllus Bullock et Harrison, Phyllanthus urinaria Linn., Terminalia belerica Roxb., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Psidium guajava Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn., had a relative inhibitory ratio (IR) over 50%. They showed ratios of 100%, 91%, 75%, 74%, 61% and 60%, respectively. For methanol extracts, only 10% (3/31) had IR values over 50%. They were T. belerica, E. caryophyllus and N. nucifera which exhibited IR values of 83%, 54% and 54%, respectively. PMID:7524165

  6. Zoogeography of the San Andreas Fault system: Great Pacific Fracture Zones correspond with spatially concordant phylogeographic boundaries in western North America.

    PubMed

    Gottscho, Andrew D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an ultimate tectonic explanation for several well-studied zoogeographic boundaries along the west coast of North America, specifically, along the boundary of the North American and Pacific plates (the San Andreas Fault system). By reviewing 177 references from the plate tectonics and zoogeography literature, I demonstrate that four Great Pacific Fracture Zones (GPFZs) in the Pacific plate correspond with distributional limits and spatially concordant phylogeographic breaks for a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals, including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These boundaries are: (1) Cape Mendocino and the North Coast Divide, (2) Point Conception and the Transverse Ranges, (3) Punta Eugenia and the Vizcaíno Desert, and (4) Cabo Corrientes and the Sierra Transvolcanica. However, discussion of the GPFZs is mostly absent from the zoogeography and phylogeography literature likely due to a disconnect between biologists and geologists. I argue that the four zoogeographic boundaries reviewed here ultimately originated via the same geological process (triple junction evolution). Finally, I suggest how a comparative phylogeographic approach can be used to test the hypothesis presented here. PMID:25521005

  7. Synergistic interaction of eugenol with antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hemaiswarya, S; Doble, M

    2009-11-01

    Eugenol, the principal chemical component of clove oil from Eugenia aromatica has been long known for its analgesic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The interaction of the eugenol with ten different hydrophobic and hydrophilic antibiotics was studied against five different Gram negative bacteria. The MIC of the combination was found to decrease by a factor of 5-1000 with respect to their individual MIC. This synergy is because of the membrane damaging nature of eugenol, where 1mM of its concentration is able to damage nearly 50% of the bacterial membrane. Eugenol was also able to enhance the activities of lysozyme, Triton X-100 and SDS in damaging the bacterial cell membrane. The hydrophilic antibiotics such as vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics which have a marginal activity on these gram negative bacteria exhibit an enhanced antibacterial activity when pretreated with eugenol. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to slow down the onset of antibiotic resistance as well as decrease its toxicity. Experiments performed with human blood cells indicated that the concentration of eugenol used for the combination studies were below its cytotoxic values. Pharmacodynamic studies of the combinations need to be performed to decide on the effective dosage. PMID:19540744

  8. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage. PMID:19899320

  9. Eugenol--from the remote Maluku Islands to the international market place: a review of a remarkable and versatile molecule.

    PubMed

    Kamatou, Guy P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2012-01-01

    Eugenol is a major volatile constituent of clove essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation of mainly Eugenia caryophyllata (=Syzygium aromaticum) buds and leaves. It is a remarkably versatile molecule incorporated as a functional ingredient in numerous products and has found application in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, fragrance, flavour, cosmetic and various other industries. Its vast range of pharmacological activities has been well-researched and includes antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-oxidant and anticancer activities, amongst others. In addition, it is widely used in agricultural applications to protect foods from micro-organisms during storage, which might have an effect on human health, and as a pesticide and fumigant. As a functional ingredient, it is included in many dental preparations and it has also been shown to enhance skin permeation of various drugs. Eugenol is considered safe as a food additive but due to the wide range of different applications, extensive use and availability of clove oil, it is pertinent to discuss the general toxicity with special reference to contact dermatitis. This review summarises the pharmacological, agricultural and other applications of eugenol with specific emphasis on mechanism of action as well as toxicity data. PMID:22728369

  10. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil against 9 strains of H. ducreyi using the agar dilution method. We also determined the minimum lethal concentration for each oil by subculturing from the MIC plates onto fresh agar without essential oil. For both tests, we used a 2-way ANOVA to evaluate whether antibiotic-resistant strains had a different sensitivity to the oils relative to non-resistant strains. Results All 3 oils demonstrated excellent activity against H. ducreyi, with MICs of 0.05 to 0.52 mg/mL and MLCs of 0.1-0.5 mg/mL. Antibiotic-resistant strains of H. ducreyi were equally susceptible to these 3 essential oils relative to non-resistant strains (p = 0.409). Conclusion E. caryophyllus, C. verum and T. satureioides oils are promising alternatives to antibiotic treatment for chancroid. PMID:24885682

  11. A novel sample preparation and on-line HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-BCD analysis for rapid screening and characterization of specific enzyme inhibitors in herbal extracts: case study of α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Li, D Q; Zhao, J; Xie, J; Li, S P

    2014-01-01

    Drug discovery from complex mixture like Chinese herbs is a challenge and extensive false positives make the obtainment of specific bioactive compounds difficult. In the present study, a novel sample preparation method was proposed to rapidly reveal the specific bioactive compounds from complex mixtures using α-glucosidase as a case. Firstly, aqueous and methanol extracts of 500 traditional Chinese medicines were carried out with the aim of finding new sources of α-glucosidase inhibitors. As a result, the extracts of fruit of Terminalia chebula (FTC), flowers of Rosa rugosa (FRR) and Eugenia caryophyllata (FEC) as well as husk of Punica granatum (HPG) showed high inhibition on α-glucosidase. On-line liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry and biochemical detection (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-BCD) was performed to rapidly screen and characterize α-glucosidase inhibitors in these four extracts. After tentative identification, most of compounds with inhibitory activity in the investigated crude extracts were found to be tannins commonly recognized as non-specific enzyme inhibitors in vitro. Subsequently, the four extracts were treated with gelatin to improve specificity of the on-line system. Finally, two compounds with specific α-glucosidase inhibition were identified as corilagin and ellagic acid. The developed method could discover specific α-glucosidase inhibitors in complex mixtures such as plant extracts, which could also be used for discovery of specific inhibitors of other enzymes. PMID:24055848

  12. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: a review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses.

    PubMed

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan

    2012-03-01

    Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases in particular diabetes. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on botany, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological actions of S. cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan). Electronic database search was conducted with the search terms of Eugenia jambolana, S. cumini, jambolan, common plum and java plum. The plant has been viewed as an antidiabetic plant since it became commercially available several decades ago. During last four decades, numerous folk medicine and scientific reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The vast number of literatures found in the database revealed that the extracts of different parts of jambolan showed significant pharmacological actions. We suggest that there is a need for further investigation to isolate active principles which confer the pharmacological action. Hence identification of such active compounds is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes. PMID:23569906

  13. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C. PMID:24031644

  14. Effect of Trimeric Myricetin Rhamnoside (TMR) in Carrageenan-induced Inflammation and Caecal Ligation and Puncture-induced Lung Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    PubMed

    Latief, Najeeb; Anand, Shikha; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Balaganur, Venkanna; Pathak, Nitya Nand; Kalra, Jaspreet; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhadoria, Brijesh K; Tandan, Surendra Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The Eugenia jambolana is used in folklore medicine. Leaves of E. jambolana contain flavonoids as their active constituents which possess in vitro antiinflammatory, antioxidant and the antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects of a flavonoid glucoside, trimeric myricetin rhamnoside (TMR) isolated from leaves of E. jambolana. TMR was studied for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema and antioxidant activity in lung by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. Results of the present study indicated that TMR significantly attenuated the oedema, myeloperoxidase (MPO), cytokines and prostaglandin levels in the paw after 5 h of carrageenan injection as compared to vehicle control. It also reduced the lung MPO, lipid peroxides, and serum nitrite plus nitrate levels and increased lung reduced glutathione levels 20 h of CLP as compared to vehicle control. Thus the results of this study concluded that the TMR appears to have potential benefits in diseases that are mediated by both inflammation and oxidative stress and support the pharmacological basis of use of E. jambolana plant as traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:26343251

  15. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits.

    PubMed

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2008-08-15

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC(50), ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml). PMID:21340048

  16. Quantitative analysis of eugenol in clove extract by a validated HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Yun, So-Mi; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kwang-Jick; Ku, Hyun-Ok; Son, Seong-Wan; Joo, Yi-Seok

    2010-01-01

    Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) is a well-known medicinal plant used for diarrhea, digestive disorders, or in antiseptics in Korea. Eugenol is the main active ingredient of clove and has been chosen as a marker compound for the chemical evaluation or QC of clove. This paper reports the development and validation of an HPLC-diode array detection (DAD) method for the determination of eugenol in clove. HPLC separation was accomplished on an XTerra RP18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm) with an isocratic mobile phase of 60% methanol and DAD at 280 nm. Calibration graphs were linear with very good correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.9999) from 12.5 to 1000 ng/mL. The LOD was 0.81 and the LOQ was 2.47 ng/mL. The method showed good intraday precision (%RSD 0.08-0.27%) and interday precision (%RSD 0.32-1.19%). The method was applied to the analysis of eugenol from clove cultivated in various countries (Indonesia, Singapore, and China). Quantitative analysis of the 15 clove samples showed that the content of eugenol varied significantly, ranging from 163 to 1049 ppb. The method of determination of eugenol by HPLC is accurate to evaluate the quality and safety assurance of clove, based on the results of this study. PMID:21313806

  17. Identification of E. dysenterica laxative peptide: a novel strategy in the treatment of chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lima, T B; Silva, O N; Oliveira, J T A; Vasconcelos, I M; Scalabrin, F B; Rocha, T L; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Silva, L P; Guadagnin, R V; Quirino, B F; Castro, C F S; Leonardecz, E; Franco, O L

    2010-08-01

    Plants have contributed over the years to the discovery of various pharmacological products. Amongst the enormous diversity of herbs with remarkable medicinal use and further pharmacological potential, here in this report we evaluated pulp extracts from Eugenia dysenterica fruits and further identified the active principle involved in such laxative activity in rats. For protein isolation, fruits were macerated with an extraction solution following precipitation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) (100%). After dialysis, the peptide was applied onto a reversed-phase semi-preparative HPLC column, and the major fraction was eluted with 26% and 66% acetonitrile. The evaluation of molecular masses by MALDI-TOF and Tris/Tricine SDS-PAGE of HPLC fractions showed the presence of a major peptide with approximately 7 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid peptide sequence was determined and showed no similarity to other proteins deposited in the Data Bank. Peptide from E. dysenterica was able to enhance rats' intestinal motility by approximately 20.8%, probably being responsible for laxative activity. Moreover, these proteins were non-toxic to mammals, as observed in histopathology and hemolytic analyses. In conclusion, results here reported indicate that, in the near future, proteins synthesized by E. dysenterica fruits could be utilized in the development of novel biotechnological pharmaceutics with laxative properties for use in chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome treatment. PMID:20580653

  18. Sources of antioxidant activity in Australian native fruits. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Netzel, Michael; Netzel, Gabriele; Tian, Qingguo; Schwartz, Steven; Konczak, Izabela

    2006-12-27

    Selected native Australian fruits, muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Tasmanian pepper berry (Tasmanian lanceolata R. Br., Winteraceae), Illawarra plum (Podocarpus elatus R. Br. ex Endl., Podocarpaceae), Burdekin plum (Pleiogynium timorense DC. Leenh, Anacardiaceae), Cedar Bay cherry (Eugenia carissoides F. Muell., Myrtaceae), Davidson's plum (Davidsonia pruriens F. Muell. var. pruriens, Davidsoniaceae), and Molucca raspberry (Rubus moluccanus var. austropacificus van Royen, Rosaceae), were evaluated as sources of antioxidants by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays and compared with blueberry (Vaccinum spp. cv. Biloxi). The total reducing capacity of five fruits was 3.5-5.4-fold higher than that of blueberry, and the radical scavenging activities of muntries and Burdekin plum were 1.5- and 2.6-fold higher, respectively. The total phenolic level by Folin-Ciocalteu assay highly correlated with the antioxidant activity. Therefore, systematic research was undertaken to identify and characterize phenolic complexes. In the present study we report on the levels and composition of anthocyanins. The HPLC-DAD and HPLC/ESI-MS-MS (ESI = electrospray ionization) analyses revealed simple anthocyanin profiles of one to four individual pigments, with cyanidin as the dominating type. This is the first evaluation of selected native Australian fruits aiming at their utilization for the development of novel functional food products. PMID:17177507

  19. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Yang, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Basile, Margaret J.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Many species of Myrtaceae are cultivated in home gardens throughout the tropics for their edible fruit, and have been used in traditional medicine to treat several inflammatory conditions. Fruit phenolics are important dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents. We have investigated the antiradical activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of 14 underutilized Myrtaceae fruits, namely Eugenia aggregata, E. brasiliensis, E. luschnathiana, E. reinwardtiana, Myrciaria cauliflora, M. dubia, M. vexator, Syzygium cumini, S. curranii, S. jambos, S. javanicum, S. malaccense, S. samarangense, and S. samarangense var. Taiwan pink. An HPLC-PDA method was developed to quantify the amounts of cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), delphinidin 3-glucoside (2), ellagic acid (3), kaempferol (4), myricetin (5), quercetin (6), quercitrin (7), and rutin (8) present in MeOH extracts of the fruit. TPC ranged from 3.57 to 101 mg/g, TAC ranged from undetectable to 12.1 mg/g, and antiradical activity, measured as DPPH˙ IC50, ranged from very active (19.4 μg/ml) to inactive (389 μg/ml). PMID:21340048

  20. Rearing conditions and habitat use of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) in the northeastern Pacific based on otolith isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Curiel, Alfonsina E.; Herzka, Sharon Z.; Sepulveda, Chugey A.; Pérez-Brunius, Paula; Aalbers, Scott A.

    2016-03-01

    White seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, is an important coastal resource throughout both California and Baja California, but whether this species comprises a single or multiple subpopulations in the northeastern Pacific is not known. The aim of this study was to infer larval rearing habitats and population structure of white seabass by sampling adults from three regions spanning a latitudinal temperature gradient and a distance of over 1000 km, and analyzing the isotopic composition (δ18O and δ13C) of otolith aragonite corresponding to the larval, juvenile and adult stages. Otolith cores revealed high isotopic variability and no significant differences among regions, suggesting overlapping rearing conditions during the larval stage, the potential for long distance dispersal or migration or selective mortality of larvae at higher temperatures. Back-calculated temperatures of aragonite precipitation derived using regional salinity-δw relationships and local salinity estimates also did not differ significantly. However, there were significant differences between the δ18O values of the first seasonal growth ring of age 0 fish as well as back-calculated aragonite precipitation temperatures, suggesting the presence of two potentially discrete subpopulations divided by Punta Eugenia (27°N) along the central Baja California peninsula. These findings are consistent with regional oceanographic patterns and are critical for understanding white seabass population structure, and provide information needed for the implementation of appropriate management strategies.

  1. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  2. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  3. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    PubMed Central

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva, Jéferson Junior; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  5. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

  6. Enhanced chemical and biological activities of a newly biosynthesized eugenol glycoconjugate, eugenol α-D-glucopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Erli; Xiao, Min; Chen, Chang; Xu, Weijian

    2013-02-01

    Eugenol, the essential component (over 90 %) of clove oil from Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. (Myrtaceae), is a phenolic compound well known for its versatile pharmacological actions, including analgesic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, and hair-growing effects. However, the application of eugenol is greatly limited mainly because of its unwanted physicochemical properties, such as low solubility, liability to sublimation, and pungent odor. Since glycosylation has been suggested to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of the parental compound, we have previously developed a novel and efficient way to biosynthesize highly purified eugenol α-D-glucopyranoside (α-EG). In light of the widely acknowledged importance of pure eugenol and the potential superiority of the glycosylation, it is crucial to further explore and compare the physicochemical and biological properties of these two phenolic compounds. In this study, we demonstrate that glucosylation is a promising method for modification of phenolic compound, and that α-EG is superior over its parent eugenol, in all of the tested aspects, including physicochemical properties, antioxidation activity, and antimicrobial and antitumor activities. These results strongly suggest that α-EG, as a novel prodrug, may serve as a useful probe and potential therapeutic drug in both fundamental research and clinical application in the coming future. PMID:22923067

  7. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  8. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  9. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  10. Vaginal gel adsorption and retention by human vaginal cells: visual analysis by means of inorganic and organic markers.

    PubMed

    Braga, Pier Carlo; Dal Sasso, Monica; Spallino, Alessandra; Sturla, Carla; Culici, Maria

    2009-05-21

    To improve efficiency and prolong protection, modern gynecological preparations frequently incorporate polymeric molecules that add a certain degree of viscosity in order to increase adhesion with vaginal cells and prolong local delivery of active molecules. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of visualising the ability of a commercial medicated gynecological gel to bind to and be retained by human vaginal cells. The gel formulation included the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia cariophylla, which contain active molecules such as thymol and eugenol that are known to have useful antibacterial and antimycotic activities. The adherence of different dilutions of the gel to human vaginal cells was visualised by means of Nomarski interference contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy using ferric oxide particles and Escherichia coli as inorganic and organic markers, both of which made it possible to visualise the binding of the thin transparent layer of gel and the retaining effect, which was proportional to the degree of dilution. PMID:19429283

  11. Asteroidal companions in the visible: HST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, Alex; Vilas, Faith; Landis, Rob; Gaffey, Michael J.; Makhoul, Khaldoun; Davis, MIke; Richmond, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We present a reanalysis of HST images of five asteroids with known companions (45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 107 Camilla, 121 Hermione). It is remarkable that all of these companion bodies are much redder in the visible region than their primary bodies. Storrs et al. (2009, BAAS vol. 41, no. 4, p 189) attributed this to space weathering, however, all of these bodies belong to dark C- or X-type groups. Current modeling of space weathering effects are limited to bright asteroids (e.g. Cloutis et al., Icarus 252, pp. 39-82, 2015) and show little change on the scale reported here. We suggest that the interaction of dark, possibly organic-rich surfaces with the solar wind produces reddening on a much greater scale than is observed in bright, silica-rich surfaces, and that this effect is easily reset by collisions. Thus, while both the parent and companion object accumulate the effects, the parent is much more likely to be "reset" by small collisions than the companion, due to the differences in their cross-sections.

  12. Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Manisha; Dixit, Priyanjali; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Paul A. Devasagayam, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included. PMID:18398493

  13. An economic approach to assessing import policies designed to prevent the arrival of invasive species: the case of Puccinia psidii in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, Kimberly; D'Evelyn, Sean; Loope, Lloyd; Wada, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its first documented introduction to Hawai‘i in 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii has already severely damaged Syzygium jambos (Indian rose apple) trees and the federally endangered Eugenia koolauensis (nioi). Fortunately, the particular strain has yet to cause serious damage to Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ōhi‘a), which comprises roughly 80% of the state's native forests and covers 400,000 ha. Although the rust has affected less than 5% of Hawaii's ‘ōhi‘a trees thus far, the introduction of more virulent strains and the genetic evolution of the current strain are still possible. Since the primary pathway of introduction is Myrtaceae plant material imported from outside the state, potential damage to ‘ōhi‘a can be minimized by regulating those high-risk imports. We discuss the economic impact on the state's florist, nursery, landscaping, and forest plantation industries of a proposed rule that would ban the import of non-seed Myrtaceae plant material and require a 1-year quarantine of seeds. Our analysis suggests that the benefits to the forest plantation industry of a complete ban on non-seed material would likely outweigh the costs to other affected sectors, even without considering the reduction in risk to ‘ōhi‘a. Incorporating the value of ‘ōhi‘a protection would further increase the benefit–cost ratio in favor of an import ban.

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    PubMed

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  15. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. PMID:25764982

  16. High-rate composting-vermicomposting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms).

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2002-07-01

    In an attempt to develop a system with which the aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms) can be economically processed to generate vermicompost in large quantities, the weed was first composted by a 'high-rate' method and then subjected to vermicomposting in reactors operating at much larger densities of earthworm than recommended hitherto: 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, 100, 112.5, 125, 137.5, and 150 adults of Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg per litre of digester volume. The composting step was accomplished in 20 days and the composted weed was found to be vermicomposted three times as rapidly as uncomposted water hyacinth [Bioresource Technology 76 (2001) 177]. The studies substantiated the feasibility of high-rate composting-vermicomposting systems, as all reactors yielded consistent vermicast output during seven months of operation. There was no earthworm mortality during the first four months in spite of the high animal densities in the reactors. In the subsequent three months a total of 79 worms died out of 1650, representing less than 1.6% mortality per month. The results also indicated that an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio of the reactors might further improve their efficiency. PMID:12094800

  17. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses

    PubMed Central

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan

    2012-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases in particular diabetes. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on botany, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological actions of S. cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan). Electronic database search was conducted with the search terms of Eugenia jambolana, S. cumini, jambolan, common plum and java plum. The plant has been viewed as an antidiabetic plant since it became commercially available several decades ago. During last four decades, numerous folk medicine and scientific reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The vast number of literatures found in the database revealed that the extracts of different parts of jambolan showed significant pharmacological actions. We suggest that there is a need for further investigation to isolate active principles which confer the pharmacological action. Hence identification of such active compounds is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes. PMID:23569906

  18. Economic analysis of the proposed rule to prevent arrival of new genetic strains of the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Hawai?i.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnett, Kimberly; D'Evelyn, Sean; Loope, Lloyd; Wada, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its first documented introduction to Hawai‘i in 2005, the rust fungus P. psidii has already severely damaged Syzygium jambos (Indian rose apple) trees and the federally endangered Eugenia koolauensis (nioi). Fortunately, the particular strain has yet to cause serious damage to ‘ōhi‘a, which comprises roughly 80% of the state’s native forests and covers 400,000 ha. Although the rust has affected less than 5% of Hawaii’s ‘ōhi‘a trees thus far, the introduction of more virulent strains and the genetic evolution of the current strain are still possible. Since the primary pathway of introduction is Myrtaceae plant material imported from outside the state, potential damage to ‘ohi‘a can be minimized by regulating those high-risk imports. We discuss the economic impact on the state’s florist, nursery, landscaping, and forest plantation industries of a proposed rule that would ban the import of non-seed Myrtaceae plant material and require a one-year quarantine of seeds. Our analysis suggests that the benefits to the forest plantation industry of a complete ban on non-seed material would likely outweigh the costs to other affected sectors, even without considering the reduction in risk to ‘ōhi‘a. Incorporating the value of ‘ōhi‘a protection would further increase the benefit-cost ratio in favor of an import ban.

  19. Screening of ethnic medicinal plants of South India against influenza (H1N1) and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Maria John, K M; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jin, Kijoun; Yeon, Jin Bong; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza was studied using ethnic medicinal plants of South India. Results revealed that Wrightia tinctoria (2.25 μg/ml) was one of the best antidotes against H1N1 virus in terms of inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) whereas the control drug Oseltamivir showed 6.44 μg/ml. Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus and Cayratia pedata showed low cytotoxicity (>100) to the MDCK (Malin darby canine kidney) cells by cytotoxicity concentration of 50% (CC50) and possessed antiviral activity suggesting that these plants can be used as herbal capsules for H1N1 virus. W. tinctoria and S. minor showed high therapeutic indexes (TI) such as 12.67 and 21.97 suggesting that those plants can be used for anti-viral drug development. The CC50 values of Eugenia singampattiana (0.3 μg/ml), Vitex altissima (42 μg/ml), Salacia oblonga (7.32 μg/ml) and Salacia reticulata (7.36 μg/ml) resulted in cytotoxicity of the MDCK cells, due to their high phenolic content. Findings from this study state that the plant W. tinctoria can be a potent source for third generation anti-viral drug development against H1N1. PMID:25737652

  20. Antimicrobial effects of selected plant essential oils on the growth of a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from meat.

    PubMed

    Oussalah, Mounia; Caillet, Stéphane; Saucier, Linda; Lacroix, Monique

    2006-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of 60 different essential oils was evaluated on a Pseudomonas putida strain of meat origin, associated with meat spoilage. Essential oils were tested at concentrations from 0.003 to 0.8% (wt/vol) to determine minimum inhibitory and maximal tolerated concentrations (MIC and MTC, respectively) using an agar medium culture. Of the 60 samples tested, Corydothymus capitatus essential oil was the most active showing a MIC of 0.025% and a MTC of 0.06%. Seven essential oils (Cinnamomum cassia, Origanum compactum, Origanum heracleoticum, Satureja hortensis, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris carvacroliferum, Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum) have shown a strong antimicrobial activity against P. putida with a MIC of 0.05% and a MTC ranging from 0.013% to 0.025%. Ten other oils (Cinnamomum verum (leaf and bark), Eugenia caryophyllus, Cymbopogon martinii var. motia, Cymbopogon nardus, Melaleuca linariifolia, Origanum majorana, Pimenta dioica, Thymus satureoides, Thymus serpyllum) showed a high antimicrobial activity showing a MIC ranging from 0.1% to 0.4%, while the remaining were less active showing a MIC⩾0.8%. PMID:22062294

  1. Biomagnification of mercury and its antagonistic interaction with selenium in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the trophic web of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Rosíles-Martínez, Rene; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in muscle of 37 yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured aboard of Mexican purse-seiners boats off western coast of Baja California Sur, between Punta Eugenia and Cabo Falso, from October to December 2006. Also, its prey (mainly, jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planipes) were analyzed from the stomach contents. All the mercury values obtained were lower that mercury content recommended by standard legal limits for seafood adopted by Mexican norms (typically 0.5-1.0μg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations vary between 0.06 and 0.51μg g(-1) in yellowfin tuna, and from 0.01 to 0.20μg g(-1) in its prey, suggesting that mercury can accumulate in prey tissues and that of their predator. Biomagnification factors (BMF) between predator-prey associations were calculated. The BMFs were >1, indicating that mercury biomagnifies along the food web of yellowfin tuna. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium/mercury molar ratios was for pufferfish (42.62)> diamond squid (15.09)>yellowfin tuna (10.29)>pelagic red crab (10.05)>panama lightfish (9.54)> jumbo squid (8.91). The selenium health benefit value (Se-HBV) was calculated to have an improved understanding of the health benefits and risk of fish consumption. PMID:23059106

  2. Exhaustive search for conservation networks of populations representing genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Filho, J A F; Diniz, J V B P L; Telles, M P C

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies routinely use optimization methods to identify the smallest number of units required to represent a set of features that need to be conserved, including biomes, species, and populations. In this study, we provide R scripts to facilitate exhaustive search for solutions that represent all of the alleles in networks with the smallest possible number of populations. The script also allows other variables to be added to describe the populations, thereby providing the basis for multi-objective optimization and the construction of Pareto curves by averaging the values in the solutions. We applied this algorithm to an empirical dataset that comprised 23 populations of Eugenia dysenterica, which is a tree species with a widespread distribution in the Cerrado biome. We observed that 15 populations would be necessary to represent all 249 alleles based on 11 microsatellite loci, and that the likelihood of representing all of the alleles with random networks is less than 0.0001. We selected the solution (from two with the smallest number of populations) obtained for the populations with a higher level of climatic stability as the best strategy for in situ conservation of genetic diversity of E. dysenterica. The scripts provided in this study are a simple and efficient alternative to more complex optimization methods, especially when the number of populations is relatively small (i.e., <25 populations). PMID:26909939

  3. Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ya, Wang; Chun-Meng, Zhao; Tao, Guo; Yi-Lin, Zhu; Ping, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    In order to find new tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidant materials, we investigated 44 plants, which were evaluated for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were conducted to evaluate these activities. Among all tested plant extracts, Morus alba L. (positive control), Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Momordica charantia L., Cuminum cyminum L. et al. exhibit higher tyrosinase inhibition. Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Rosa rugosa Thunb. and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. perform the highest antioxidant activity, similar to vitamin C (the positive control). A low positive correlation is found in the DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Considering these factors, the extracts of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Alpinia officinarum Hance and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. exhibit high anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities and could be used in the cosmetic industry. Further studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties of these plant extracts. PMID:26408894

  4. Transfer of ²¹⁰Po, ²¹⁰Pb and ²³⁸U from some medicinal plants to their essential oils.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Amin, Y; Ibrahim, S; Nassri, M

    2015-03-01

    Essential oils were extracted from 35 medicinal plants used by Syrians, organic compounds were determined in these oils and concentrations of (210)Po (210)Pb and (238)U were determined in the original plants and in the essential oils. The results showed that the highest activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb were found in leaves with large surfaces and in Sage were as high as 73.5 Bq kg(-1) and 73.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentration of (238)U was as high as 4.26 Bq kg(-1) in Aloe. On the other hand, activity concentrations of (210)Po ranged between 0.2 and 71.1 Bq kg(-1) in extracted essential oils for Rosemary and False yellowhead, respectively. The activity concentration of (210)Pb reached 63.7 Bq kg(-1) in Aloe oil. The activity concentrations of (238)U were very low in all extracted oils; the highest value was 0.31 Bq kg(-1) in peel of Orange oil. The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb from plant to its oil was the highest for Eugenia; 7.1% and 5.5% for (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively. A linear relationship was found between the transfer factor of radionuclides from plant to its essential oil and the chemical content of this oil. PMID:25531268

  5. Use of essential oils and extracts from spices in meat protection.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ochoa, L; Aguirre-Prieto, Y B; Nevárez-Moorillón, G V; Gutierrez-Mendez, N; Salas-Muñoz, E

    2014-05-01

    The hydro distillation method was used in this study to get essential oils (EOs) from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), clove (Eugenia caryohyllata) and Elecampane (Inula helenium L.) and the co-hydro distillation method (addition of fatty acid ethyl esters as extraction cosolvents) to get functional extracts (EFs). The MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and the MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) were determined on five pathogenic strains (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Toxoplasma Gondi). The results showed that essential oils of cumin and clove and their functional extracts are effective on concentrations from 500 mg/L to 750 mg/L. The essential oils with functional extracts were used on meat samples at three different concentrations: 750, 1,500 and 2,250 μL. The cumin essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 750 μL, the clove essential oil produced a reduction of 3.78 log UFC/g with the application of 2,250 μL and the cumin and clove functional extracts got a reduction of 3.6 log UFC/g. By chromatography, eugenol was identified in the clove oil, cuminaldehyde in the cumin oil and the isoalactolactones and alactolactones in the elecampane oil as main compounds on the chemical composition of the essential oils and functional extracts obtained. PMID:24803704

  6. Value added product recovery from sludge generated during gum arabic refining process by vermicomposting.

    PubMed

    Das, Veena; Satyanarayan, Sanjeev; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-09-01

    Gum arabic is multifunctional and used in food products, pharmaceutical, confectionery, cosmetic, printing and textile industry. Gum arabic has an excellent market and its production is being increased to meet the market demand. In the process, huge quantity of solid waste is generated during its refining process. An attempt has been made to vermicompost this organic waste using Eudrilus eugeniae. This research work is first of its kind. Literature on this substrate has not been reported anywhere else for vermicomposting. Results were excellent with volatile solid reduction of 51.34 %; C/N ratio reduced to 16.31 % indicating efficient loss of carbon as carbon dioxide during vermicomposting period. Manurial value, i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the range, required for the plants also increased. Porosity of 67.74 % and water holding capacity of 65.75 % were observed. The maturity of the vermicompost was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy wherein the complete conversion of large raw material particles into finer particles forming a uniform matrix with more surface area was observed indicating its efficient conversion. Microbial quality of vermicompost was also studied. The final vermicompost is free of fungal cells and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27535403

  7. Screening of ethnic medicinal plants of South India against influenza (H1N1) and their antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Maria John, K.M.; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jin, Kijoun; Yeon, Jin Bong; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza was studied using ethnic medicinal plants of South India. Results revealed that Wrightia tinctoria (2.25 μg/ml) was one of the best antidotes against H1N1 virus in terms of inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) whereas the control drug Oseltamivir showed 6.44 μg/ml. Strychnos minor, Diotacanthus albiflorus and Cayratia pedata showed low cytotoxicity (>100) to the MDCK (Malin darby canine kidney) cells by cytotoxicity concentration of 50% (CC50) and possessed antiviral activity suggesting that these plants can be used as herbal capsules for H1N1 virus. W. tinctoria and S. minor showed high therapeutic indexes (TI) such as 12.67 and 21.97 suggesting that those plants can be used for anti-viral drug development. The CC50 values of Eugenia singampattiana (0.3 μg/ml), Vitex altissima (42 μg/ml), Salacia oblonga (7.32 μg/ml) and Salacia reticulata (7.36 μg/ml) resulted in cytotoxicity of the MDCK cells, due to their high phenolic content. Findings from this study state that the plant W. tinctoria can be a potent source for third generation anti-viral drug development against H1N1. PMID:25737652

  8. Lake Store Finnsjøen - a key for understanding Lateglacial/early Holocene vegetation and ice sheet dynamics in the central Scandes Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Aage; Boessenkool, Sanne; Brochmann, Christian; Epp, Laura Saskia; Fabel, Derek; Haflidason, Haflidi; Linge, Henriette

    2015-08-01

    The Lateglacial (LG) deglaciation and vegetation development in the Scandes Mountains has been debated for a century. Here we present new evidence from microfossils, radiocarbon dated plant macrofossils and sedimentary ancient DNA from laminated sediments in Lake Store Finnsjøen (1260 m a.s.l.) at Dovre, Central Norway. Combined with previous results from three other Dovre lakes, this allows for new interpretations of events during and immediately after the LG deglaciation. The Finnsjøen sediments present the first uninterrupted record of local vegetation development in the Scandes Mountains from the late Younger Dryas (YD), ca 12,000 cal years BP, to the early Holocene around 9700 cal years BP. The local vegetation in late YD/early Holocene was extremely sparse with pioneer herbs (e.g. Artemisia norvegica, Beckwithia, Campanula cf. uniflora, Koenigia, Oxyria, Papaver, Saxifraga spp.) and dwarf-shrubs (Betula nana, Salix including Salix polaris). From 11,300 cal years BP, local vegetation rapidly closed with dominant Dryas, Saxifraga spp., and Silene acaulis. From ca 10,700 cal years BP, open birch-forests with juniper, Empetrum nigrum and other dwarf-shrubs developed. Pine forests established within the area from 10,300 cal years BP. We identified the cold Preboreal Oscillation (PBO), not earlier described from pollen data in South Norway, around 11,400 cal years BP by a regional pollen signal. Distinct local vegetation changes were not detected until the post-PBO warming around 11,300 cal years BP. Apparently, the earlier warming at the YD/Holocene transition at 11,650 cal years BP was too weak and short-lived for vegetation closure at high altitudes at Dovre. For the first time, we demonstrate a regional glacier readvance and local ice cap formations during the YD in the Scandes Mountains. In two of the deep lakes with small catchments, YD glaciation blocked sedimentation without removing old sediments and caused a hiatus separating sediments of the ice

  9. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow. PMID:27353234

  10. Atmospheric dispersion, environmental effects and potential health hazard associated with the low-altitude gas plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, P.; Stix, J.; Baxter, P.; Garcia-Alvarez, J.; Barquero, J.

    2002-09-01

    Masaya volcano (560 m a.s.l.), Nicaragua, resumed its degassing activity in mid-1993 with the continuous emission of SO2 at rates increasing from 600 metric tons (t) day-1 (7.0 kg s-1) in 1995 to 1800 t day-1 (21.0 kg s-1) in 1999. The low-altitude gas plume is typically blown westward by the prevailing wind across the Masaya caldera and Las Sierras highlands, which are at a higher elevation than the gas vent. In this study, the areal distribution of atmospheric SO2 concentrations was monitored within 44 km of the vent with a network of passive samplers. Measured SO2 air concentrations ranged from <2 to 90 ppbv in 1998 and from <2 to 230 ppbv in 1999. The data suggest that the volcanic emissions influenced air quality across a 1,250-km2 area downwind. Local topography exerts a strong control on plume dispersal, and hilltops are particularly prone to fumigation and thus, to high ambient SO2 levels. In a zone 22 km2 in size located within 15 km of the source, the response of vegetation to sustained exposure to high atmospheric dose of volcanic SO2 and HF resulted in a strong reduction in the number of plant communities. A transition zone of somewhat indefinite boundary surrounds the devastated zones and exhibits vegetation damage in the form of leaf injury. In addition to the environmental impacts of the volcanic emissions, both short- and long-term public health hazards may exist in areas most exposed to the plume. The harmful effects of the volcanic emissions on cultivated vegetation could be diminished by using windbreaks made of gas-tolerant trees and shrubs such as Eugenia jambos, Brosimum utile and Clusia rosea. The current gas crisis at Masaya volcano provides an unique opportunity for investigating the atmospheric, environmental and medical impacts of volcanic gases and aerosols.

  11. β-Caryophyllene oxide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 pathways and ROS-mediated MAPKs activation.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ran; Nam, Dongwoo; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Lee, Seok-Geun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2011-12-22

    Both PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells. In the present report, we investigated the effects of β-caryophyllene oxide (CPO), a sesquiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava (Psidium guajava), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.) clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 and MAPK activation pathways in human prostate and breast cancer cells. We found that CPO not only inhibited the constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR/S6K1 signaling cascade; but also caused the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in tumor cells. CPO induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from mitochondria, which is associated with the induction of apoptosis as characterized by positive Annexin V binding and TUNEL staining, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, and cleavage of PARP. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly prevented CPO-induced apoptosis. Subsequently, CPO also down-regulated the expression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, survivin, IAP-1, and IAP-2), metastasis (COX-2), angiogenesis (VEGF), and increased the expression of p53 and p21. Interestingly, we also observed that CPO can significantly potentiate the apoptotic effects of various pharmacological PI3K/AKT inhibitors when employed in combination in tumor cells. Overall, these findings suggest that CPO can interfere with multiple signaling cascades involved in tumorigenesis and used as a potential therapeutic candidate for both the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:21924548

  12. Efficacy of spray formulations containing binary mixtures of clove and eucalyptus oils against susceptible and pyrethroid/ malathion-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Han-Young; Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-05-01

    The control efficacy of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata, and eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, essential oils and 15 formulations containing these essential oils alone (8, 12, and 15% sprays) and their binary mixtures (7:3, 5:5, and 3:7 by weight) against adult females of insecticide-susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer), was examined by using contact plus fumigant and human hair wig (placed over the head of mannequin) mortality bioassays. In contact plus fumigant mortality bioassay, essential oils from eucalyptus (0.225 mg/cm2) and clove (1.149 mg/cm2) were less effective than either d-phenothrin (0.0029 mg/cm2) or pyrethrum (0.0025 mg/cm2) based on 6-h median lethal concentration values. However, the efficacies of eucalyptus and clove oils were almost identical against females fromn both strains, despite high levels of resistance of the BR-HL females to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio, 667) and pyrethrum (resistance ratio, 754). In human hair wig mortality bioassay, eucalyptus oil spray treatment gave better control efficacy than either spray treatment with clove oil alone or their binary mixtures. Thus, eucalyptus applied as 8% sprays (15 or 20 ml) appears to provide effective protection against pediculosis even to insecticide-resistant head louse populations. Once the safety issues resolved, covering the treated hair and scalp with bath shower cap or hat would ensure the fumigant action of the essential oil. PMID:20496586

  13. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  14. Clove oil reverses learning and memory deficits in scopolamine-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish Krishan; Kar, Rajarshi; Mustafa, Mohammad; Mediratta, Pramod Kumari; Sharma, Krishna Kishore

    2011-05-01

    The present study was performed to examine the effect of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) on learning and memory, and also evaluate whether it can modulate oxidative stress in mice. Passive avoidance step-down task and elevated plus-maze were used to assess learning and memory in scopolamine-treated mice. Oxidative stress parameters were also assessed in brain samples by estimating the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels at the end of the study. Scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, i. p.) produced impairment of acquisition memory as evidenced by a decrease in step-down latency and an increase in transfer latency on day 1, and also impairment of retention of memory on day 2. Pretreatment with clove oil (0.05 mL/kg and 0.1 mL/kg) for 3 weeks significantly reversed the increase in acquisition latency and all the doses (0.025, 0.05, 0.1 mL/kg, i. p.) reversed the increase in retention latency induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, i. p.) in elevated plus-maze. However, 0.05 mL/kg clove oil attenuated memory deficits in the passive avoidance step-down task. Brain samples showed a significant decrease in MDA levels in the group treated with clove oil (0.05 and 0.025 mL/kg). GSH levels were also increased in clove oil-treated mice though the results were not significant. Thus, it can be concluded that clove oil can reverse the short-term and long-term memory deficits induced by scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg, i. p.) and this effect can, to some extent, be attributed to decreased oxidative stress. PMID:21157682

  15. In vitro indications for favourable non-additive effects on ruminal methane mitigation between high-phenolic and high-quality forages.

    PubMed

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Marquardt, Svenja; Wina, Elizabeth; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-28

    Feeding plants containing elevated levels of polyphenols may reduce ruminal CH₄ emissions, but at the expense of nutrient utilisation. There might, however, be non-additive effects when combining high-phenolic plants with well-digestible, high-nutrient feeds. To test whether non-additive effects exist, the leaves of Carica papaya (high in dietary quality, low in polyphenols), Clidemia hirta (high in hydrolysable tannins), Swietenia mahagoni (high in condensed tannins) and Eugenia aquea (high in non-tannin phenolics) were tested alone and in all possible mixtures (n 15 treatments). An amount of 200 mg DM of samples was incubated in vitro (24 h; 39°C) with buffered rumen fluid using the Hohenheim gas test apparatus. After the incubation, total gas production, CH₄ concentration and fermentation profiles were determined. The levels of absolute CH₄, and CH₄:SCFA and CH₄:total gas ratios were lower (P< 0·05) when incubating a combination of C. papaya and any high-phenolic plants (C. hirta, S. mahagoni and E. aquea) than when incubating C. papaya alone. Additionally, mixtures resulted in non-additive effects for all CH₄-related parameters of the order of 2-15 % deviation from the expected value (P< 0·01). This means that, by combining these plants, CH₄ in relation to the fermentative capacity was lower than that predicted when assuming the linearity of the effects. Similar non-additive effects of combining C. papaya with the other plants were found for NH₃ concentrations but not for SCFA concentrations. In conclusion, using mixtures of high-quality plants and high-phenolic plants could be one approach to CH₄ mitigation; however, this awaits in vivo confirmation. PMID:22630827

  16. [Preparative isolation and purification of five non-volatile compounds from Fructus caryophylli and Flos caryophylli by high-speed counter-current chromatography].

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong

    2011-11-01

    A high-speed counter-current chromatographic (HSCCC) method was successfully developed for the isolation of three non-volatile compounds from Fructus Caryophylli and two chromone compounds from Flos Caryophylli. The optimum separation solution systems included system A (n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:8:6: 13, v/v/v/v) and system B (n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5: 8: 9: 10, v/v/v/v). The upper phase of the system A was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phases of the systems A and B as the mobile phases were operated at a flow of 1.2 mL/min, while the apparatus rotated at 880 r/min. The 12.3 mg of ellagic acid, 9.6 mg of rhamnetin, 17.2 mg of quercetin were successfully purified from 70 mg of the crude extract of Fructus Caryophylli by a two-step separation. In the same way, 10.2 mg of 5,7-dimethoxy-2-methylchromone, 8.6 mg of 5,7-dimethoxy-2,6-dimethyl-chromone were purified from 50 mg of the crude extract of Flos Caryophylli. The purities of the compounds were all over 96% as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The five compounds were indentified by mass spectrometry (MS), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR. The results indicate that HSCCC is a powerful technique for the purification of non-volatile compounds from different parts of Eugenia caryophylla Thunb. PMID:22393701

  17. Relationships between the litter colonization by saprotrophic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with depth in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Posada, Raúl Hernando; Madriñan, Santiago; Rivera, Emma-Lucía

    2012-07-01

    Fungal colonization of litter has been described mostly in terms of fructification succession in the decomposition process or the process of fungal ligninolysis. No studies have been conducted on litter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their relationship with the presence of saprotrophic fungi. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationships that exist in simultaneous leaf litter colonization by AMF and saprotrophic fungi and the relationships between rates of litter and associated root colonization by AMF at different soil depths. We selected Eugenia sp. and Syzygium sp. in a riparian tropical forest, with an abundant production of litter (O horizon), we evaluated litter and root colonization at different depths, its C:N ratios, and the edaphic physico-chemical parameters of the A horizon immediately below the litter layer. Litter colonization by saprotrophic fungi and AMF increased with depth, but the saprotrophic fungal colonization of some litter fragments decreased in the lowermost level of the litter while AMF litter colonization continued to increase. Plant roots were present only in the middle and bottom layers, but their mycorrhizal colonization did not correlate with litter colonization. The external hyphae length of AMF is abundant (ca. 20 m g(-1) sample) and, in common with sample humidity, remained constant with increasing depth. We conclude that in zones of riparian tropical forest with abundant sufficient litter accumulation and abundant AMF external hyphae, the increase in litter colonization by AMF with depth correlates to the colonization by saprotrophic fungi, but their presence in the deepest layers is independent of both litter colonization by saprotrophic fungi and root colonization by AMF. PMID:22749161

  18. Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 μg/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 μg/mL; 63 μM) and UA (IC50=9.0 μg/mL; 39 μM) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

  19. Essential Oils from the Medicinal Herbs Upregulate Dopamine Transporter in Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Sun; Choi, Bang-sub; Kim, Sang Heon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Jang, Chul Ho; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Dong-il; Jeon, Songhee; Koo, Byung-Soo

    2015-10-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) protein, a component of the dopamine system, undergoes adaptive neurobiological changes from drug abuse. Prevention of relapse and reduction of withdrawal symptoms are still the major limitations in the current pharmacological treatments of drug addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of essential oils extracted from Elsholtzia ciliata, Shinchim, Angelicae gigantis Radix, and Eugenia caryophyllata, well-known traditional Korean medicines for addiction, on the modulation of dopamine system in amphetamine-treated cells and to explore the possible mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect. The potential cytotoxic effect of essential oils was evaluated in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells using cell viability assays. Quantification of DAT, p-CREB, p-MAPK, and p-Akt was done by immunoblotting. DAT was significantly reduced in cells treated with 50 μM of amphetamine in a time-dependent manner. No significant toxicity of essential oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Shinchim was observed at doses of 10, 25, and 50 μg/mL. However, essential oils from A. gigantis Radix at a dose of 100 μg/mL and E. caryophyllata at doses of 50 and 100 μg/mL showed cytotoxicity. Treatment with GBR 12909, a highly selective DAT inhibitor, significantly increased DAT expression compared with that of amphetamine only by enhancing phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and Akt. In addition, essential oils effectively induced hyperphosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), MAPK, and Akt, which resulted in DAT upregulation. Our study implies that the essential oils may rehabilitate brain dopamine function through increased DAT availability in abstinent former drug users. PMID:26295793

  20. The Potential of Extreme Adaptive Optics Systems for Asteroid Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Vega, D.

    2014-12-01

    New Adaptive optics (AO) systems, called Extreme AO systemsare becoming available this year on two 8m-class telescopes. Both the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) on the Gemini South Telescope and SPHERE on the Very Large Telescope provide an almost perfect correction of the atmospheric turbulences and are equipped with low-resolution integral field spectrograph and a polarimeter. We will present the analysis of observations of (2) Pallas which was observed with GPI in direct imaging (without coronagraph) on March 22 2014 in Y, J, H, and K1 filters (from 0.95 to 2.19 μm) spectroscopically with a resolution varying from 34 to 70. The 540-km asteroid is well resolved and irregular. An ellipse of 540±9 mas and 470±9 mas fits its silhouette. The surface of the asteroid is mostly featureless but small differences of colors is currently being analyzed. No moons with a diameter larger than 0.5 km and at less than 1.2" were detected on these observations. We will discuss the future contributions of these Extreme AO systems, including SPHERE most recent observations, for the study of large main-belt asteroids addressing the number of targets that can be observed and comparing their on-sky efficiency with previous AO systems. Key scientific questions such as the possible differentiation of the primary of multiple asteroids (e.g. 45 Eugenia by Beauvalet and Marchis, Icarus, 2014 or 87 Sylvia in Berthier et al., Icarus, 2014), and the origin of these systems by comparison of the color of the moons and the primary (e.g. Marchis et al., AGU 2013) could be answered through intensive surveys conducted with these new AO systems.

  1. Mutual Orbits, Bulk Densities, Formation and Evolution of Multiple Visualized Main-Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, Franck; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Hestroffer, D.; Vachier, F.; Baek, M.

    2007-10-01

    The advent of high angular resolution imaging, provided by high angular resolution instruments such as Adaptive Optics (AO) or Hubble Space Telescope, permitted the visual discovery of more than fifty multiple asteroid systems over the last twelve years, including two triple main-belt asteroid systems, 45 Eugenia and 87 Sylvia, discovered by our team. Over the past few years, we have focused our attention on the multiple systems located in the main-belt. We initiated an intensive campaign of observations in 2003 that combines the AO high-resolution capabilities of various 8m-10m class telescopes (UT4 of the Very Large Telescope, W.M. Keck-II and Gemini-North) in order to resolve them and study their characteristics (orbits, mass, density, and shape). We recently published a complete analysis of the orbit, size and shape of 90 Antiope, which is a similar-sized doublet system (Descamps et al., Icarus, 2007). We performed the same analysis on the asteroids with small (a few km) satellite, and published a complete analysis of 12 binary systems (Marchis et al., Nature, 2005; Icarus, submitted, 2007ab). Our work revealed a large diversity in their mutual orbits, suggesting a different origin and evolution. Their bulk density is quite variable depending on their taxonomic classes, and in the most case, they have a significant macro-porosity (>30%) that suggests a rubble-pile interior. We will also present a synthesis of these multiple asteroid system properties, including additional studies in progress (lightcurve of mutual events) and future ideas (comparative spectroscopy), which will help to get insights on the formation process of these systems. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center for Adaptive Optics (No. AST-9876783) and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration issue through the Science Mission Directorate Research and Analysis Programs number NNG05GF09G.

  2. HST/FGS High Angular Resolution Observations of Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, Daniel; Tanga, P.; Cellino, A.; Kaasalainen, M.; Torppa, J.; Marchis, F.; Richardson, D. C.; Elankumaran, P.; Berthier, J.; Colas, F.; Lounis, S.

    2006-09-01

    Binary or multiple asteroids are important bodies that provide insight into the physical properties of asteroids in general. The knowledge of the components orbit in a binary provides the total mass with high accuracy and generally permits a rough bulk-density estimate [1,2]. We have observed 10 selected binary or multiple asteroids (22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 90 Antiope, 107 Camilla, 121 Hermione, 283 Emma, 379 Huenna, 617 Patroclus, 762 Pulcova) with the HST/FGS interferometer in order to obtain high resolution data on the size and shape of their primaries (HST proposal ID 10614). All these systems except the Jupiter Trojan 617 Patroclus are located in the main-belt of asteroids. Combining these HST/FGS data to topographic models obtained from lightcurve inversion [3,4] yields the volume and hence the bulk density of these bodies with unprecedented accuracy [5]. This work will allow us to obtain important information on their internal structure, and insight into the possible gravitational re-accumulation process after a catastrophic disruptive collision [e.g. 6,7,8].In particular, one can see whether or not the surfaces of theses bodies closely follow an effective equipotential surface, and under what circumstances such a correspondence is or is not attained . We will present the preliminary results for the data reduction and the size and bulk density determination. [1] Merline et al. (2003). In: Asteroids III, pp 289. [2] Marchis et al. (2005) ACM 2005, Buzios, Brazil. [3] Kaasalainen et al. (2002) Icarus 159, 359. [4] Torppa et al. (2003) Icarus 164, 346. [5] Hestroffer et al. (2003) ACM 2002, ESA-SP 500, 493. [6] Michel et al. (2004) P&SS 52, 1109. [7] Durda et al. (2004) Icarus 167, 342. [8] Paolicchi et al. (1993) Cel. Mech., 57, 49.

  3. Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated grey water for urban poor.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Amare T; Andrianisa, Harinaivo A; Konate, Yacouba; Ndiaye, Awa; Maiga, Amadou H

    2015-01-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted for 10 months with sand and fine sawdust vermifilters and a control unit to treat concentrated grey water generated from a poor urban household in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Each of the filters was made up of cylindrical DN200-PVC pipes and filled with 10 cm of gravel at the bottom. On top of the gravel layer, filter 1 (fully sand, F1) was completed with 40 cm of sand and 10 cm of fine sawdust, filter 2 (partially sand, F2) with 20 cm of sand and 30 cm of fine sawdust, respectively, and filter 3 (fully sawdust, F3) and 4 (control, F4) with 50 cm of fine sawdust only. Two hundred Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms were inoculated in each of the vermifilters. The vermifiltration system was supplied with grey water four times per day at a hydraulic loading rate of 64 L/m(2)/day on a batch basis. The removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (dCOD) by the vermifilters were 25-30% higher than the control, but little differences were observed in terms of total suspended solids and coliform removal efficiencies. Though there was no significant difference in the performance of the three vermifilters (p > 0.05), except for dCOD removal efficiency, the lifespan of F2 and F3 was longer than that of F1. Therefore, fine sawdust can substitute sand as a filter medium in vermifilters. PMID:25926275

  4. Recovery of methane-rich gas from solid-feed anaerobic digestion of ipomoea (Ipomoea carnea).

    PubMed

    Sankar Ganesh, P; Sanjeevi, R; Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2008-03-01

    Studies are presented on new types of anaerobic digesters in which chopped or dry crushed Ipomoea carnea was fed without any other pretreatment, in an attempt to develop commercially viable means of utilizing the otherwise very harmful plant. Two types of solid-feed anaerobic digesters (SFADs) were studied. The first type had a single vessel in which the bottom 35% portion was separated from the top portion by a perforated PVC disk. The weed was charged from the top and inoculated with anaerobically digested cowdung-water slurry. The fermentation of the weed in the reactor led to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) plus some biogas. The leachate, rich in the VFAs, was passed through the perforated PVC sheet and collected in the lower portion of the vessel. The other type of reactors had two vessels, the first one was fully charged with the weed and the second received the VFA leachate. With both types were attached upflow anaerobic filters (UAFs) which converted the leachate into combustible biogas consisting of approximately 70% methane. All SFADs developed very consistent performance in terms of biogas yield within 17 weeks of start. The two-compartment reactors yielded significantly more biogas than the single-compartment reactors of corresponding total volume, and the reactors with which anaerobic filters (AF) were attached yielded more biogas than the ones without AF. The best performing units generated 2.41m(3) of biogas per m(3) of digester volume, as compared to 0.1-0.2m(3) of biogas, m(-3)d(-1), obtainable with conventional digesters. This indicates the viability of this technology. The spent weed can be vermicomposted directly to obtain good soil-conditioner cum fertilizer; earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae produced 540mg vermicast per animal every day, achieving near total conversion of feed to vermicast in 20 days. The proposed systems, thus, makes it possible to accomplish total utilization of ipomoea. PMID:17368892

  5. Dietary flexibility of the brown howler monkey throughout its geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Oscar M; César Bicca-Marques, Júlio

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation constrain the survival of most forest-living mammals, particularly strictly arboreal primates. Because fragment size directly affects food availability, primate survival in small fragments may depend on dietary flexibility. Here, we review the literature on the diet of 29 wild groups of Alouatta guariba clamitans inhabiting forest fragments in Brazil and Argentina. We identify general feeding patterns and analyze the influence of fragment size and latitude on diet composition. Brown howlers presented a diet composed of 402 plant species belonging to 227 genera and 80 families. Rarefaction curves suggest that the richness of top food species is similar among groups living in larger (>100 ha), medium (11-100 ha) or small (1-10 ha) fragments. On average, only 12% of the plant species used as food sources by a given group was also consumed by groups from other sites. The shorter the distance between sites, the higher the diet similarity among groups. Despite their diet flexibility, brown howlers spent >80% of the total feeding records on 6-24 species belonging to genera such as Ficus, Zanthoxylum, and Eugenia. Leaves and fruits were the plant items most consumed (65% and 22% of the total feeding records, respectively). Leaf consumption was not affected by fragment size, but it was inversely related to latitude, which may be linked to an increase in the concentration of secondary metabolites in leaves at higher latitudes. We suggest that the ability of brown howlers to exploit a large number of plant food species, including native and exotic trees, shrubs, vines, and lianas, is an important trait that contributes to their survival in highly fragmented habitats along the Atlantic forest. Similar meta-analyses of data from other howler species are necessary to test whether such dietary flexibility is a genus-wide pattern. PMID:22972605

  6. Evolution of subsidence styles in forearc basin: example from Cretaceous of southern Vizcaino Peninsula, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Busby-Spera, C.J.; Boles, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous arc magmatism is represented by volcaniclastic rocks of the Eugenia Formation in the northern Vizcaino Peninsula and by the metamorphosed Cedros-San Andres volcanoplutonic complex, with a dismembered ophiolitic basement, in the southern peninsula. The Vizcaino Peninsula became the site of forearc sedimentation by the Aptian-Albian (late Early Cretaceous), when arc magmatism moved abruptly eastward to the present-day Peninsular Range. On the southern Vizcaino Peninsula, a conformable stratigraphic section, complicated by later faulting, records a gradual transition from a ridged forearc, broken by basement uplifts and grabens (the Aptian-Albian Asunction Formation), to a broadly subsiding, deep marine forearc basin (the Cenomanian Valle Formation). The basal contact of the Asunction formation has irregular relief caused by brecciated basement rocks and talus accumulated along fault zones. An upward-fining sequence several hundred meters thick records abrupt uplift and gradual denudation of adjacent metamorphic basement. Contemporaneous andesite arc volcanism to the east supplied ash and fresh volcanic detritus to the grabens. Angular sand to boulder-size detritus of the Asunction Formation was derived locally, and includes basic to intermediate meta-igneous rock fragments, with epidote, actinolite, and chlorite, as well as serpentine. Abundant calcareous fossils are commonly unbroken, suggesting local sources for these as well. Angular to subrounded, sand to cobble-sized, intermediate to mafic volcanic rock fragments were derived from a more distant island arc to the east, which occasionally provided intermediate to felsic tuffs to the basin. This source is probably represented by the Aptian-Albian Alisitos Group, which forms much of the western wall of the Late Cretaceous Peninsular Range batholith.

  7. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Niero, Rivaldo; Bolda Mariano, Luisa Nathália; Gomes do Nascimento, Fabiana; Vicente Farias, Ingrid; Gazoni, Vanessa Fátima; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Giménez, Alberto; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Salamanca, Efrain; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23840252

  8. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24562451

  9. Novel Evolutionary Lineages Revealed in the Chaetothyriales (Fungi) Based on Multigene Phylogenetic Analyses and Comparison of ITS Secondary Structure

    PubMed Central

    Réblová, Martina; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Réblová, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Cyphellophora and Phialophora (Chaetothyriales, Pezizomycota) comprise species known from skin infections of humans and animals and from a variety of environmental sources. These fungi were studied based on the comparison of cultural and morphological features and phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear loci, i.e., internal transcribed spacer rDNA operon (ITS), large and small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuc28S rDNA, nuc18S rDNA), β-tubulin, DNA replication licensing factor (mcm7) and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). Phylogenetic results were supported by comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structure of representatives of the Chaetothyriales and the identification of substitutions among the taxa analyzed. Base pairs with non-conserved, co-evolving nucleotides that maintain base pairing in the RNA transcript and unique evolutionary motifs in the ITS2 that characterize whole clades or individual taxa were mapped on predicted secondary structure models. Morphological characteristics, structural data and phylogenetic analyses of three datasets, i.e., ITS, ITS-β-tubulin and 28S-18S-rpb2-mcm7, define a robust clade containing eight species of Cyphellophora (including the type) and six species of Phialophora. These taxa are now accommodated in the Cyphellophoraceae, a novel evolutionary lineage within the Chaetothyriales. Cyphellophora is emended and expanded to encompass species with both septate and nonseptate conidia formed on discrete, intercalary, terminal or lateral phialides. Six new combinations in Cyphellophora are proposed and a dichotomous key to species accepted in the genus is provided. Cyphellophora eugeniae and C. hylomeconis, which grouped in the Chaetothyriaceae, represent another novel lineage and are introduced as the type species of separate genera. PMID:23723988

  10. Evaluation of antileishmanial activity of selected brazilian plants and identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Niero, Rivaldo; Bolda Mariano, Luisa Nathália; Gomes do Nascimento, Fabiana; Vicente Farias, Ingrid; Gazoni, Vanessa Fátima; Dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Giménez, Alberto; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Salamanca, Efrain; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0  μ g/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04  μ g/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7  μ g/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4  μ g/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1  μ g/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5  μ g/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1  μ g/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23840252

  11. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of clove oil in mice

    PubMed Central

    Taher, Yousef A.; Samud, Awatef M.; El-Taher, Fathy E.; ben-Hussin, Ghazala; Elmezogi, Jamal S.; Al-Mehdawi, Badryia F.; Salem, Hanan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods Analgesic activity was examined using acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions and the hot plate test. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's-yeast-induced pyrexia were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity and the antipyretic effects, respectively. The oil was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 33 mg/kg body weight and the effects were compared with reference drugs. Results In the antinociceptive test, mice treated with clove oil exhibited significantly decreased acetic-acid-induced writhing movements by a maximum of 87.7% (p<0.01) compared with a decrease of 77.7% (p<0.01) in response to aspirin injection (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.). Similarly, in the hot plate test, clove oil significantly increased the reaction latency to pain after 60 min by 82.3% (p<0.05) compared with morphine value of 91.7% (p<0.01). In addition, clove oil and indomethacin produced anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by respectively 50.6% (p<0.05) and 70.4% (p<0.01) inhibition of mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan. Furthermore, clove oil significantly attenuated the hyperthermia induced by yeast at ΔT-max by 2.7°C (p<0.001), and time of peak effects was 30–180 min compared with a paracetamol value ΔT-max of 3.2°C (p<0.001). The estimated i.p. LD50 of clove oil was 161.9 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the oil showed the presence of eugenol. Conclusion The present findings demonstrate the potential pharmacological properties of clove oil and provide further a support for its reported use in folk medicine. PMID:26333873

  12. Pharmacological study of anti-allergic activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels.

    PubMed

    Brito, F A; Lima, L A; Ramos, M F S; Nakamura, M J; Cavalher-Machado, S C; Siani, A C; Henriques, M G M O; Sampaio, A L F

    2007-01-01

    Myrtaceae is a plant family widely used in folk medicine and Syzygium and Eugenia are among the most important genera. We investigated the anti-allergic properties of an aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (SC). HPLC analysis revealed that hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids are the major components of the extract. Oral administration of SC (25-100 mg/kg) in Swiss mice (20-25 g; N = 7/group) inhibited paw edema induced by compound 48/80 (50% inhibition, 100 mg/kg; P

  13. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 < 100 μg/mL. Under this parameter, the following active plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low

  14. Earthworm-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: A potent tool against hepatocellular carcinoma, Plasmodium falciparum parasites and malaria mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Anitha; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The development of parasites and pathogens resistant to synthetic drugs highlighted the needing of novel, eco-friendly and effective control approaches. Recently, metal nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective tools towards cancer cells and Plasmodium parasites. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (EW-AgNP) using Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms as reducing and stabilizing agents. EW-AgNP showed plasmon resonance reduction in UV-vis spectrophotometry, the functional groups involved in the reduction were studied by FTIR spectroscopy, while particle size and shape was analyzed by FESEM. The effect of EW-AgNP on in vitro HepG2 cell proliferation was measured using MTT assays. Apoptosis assessed by flow cytometry showed diminished endurance of HepG2 cells and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. EW-AgNP were toxic to Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae, LC(50) were 4.8 ppm (I), 5.8 ppm (II), 6.9 ppm (III), 8.5 ppm (IV), and 15.5 ppm (pupae). The antiplasmodial activity of EW-AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. EW-AgNP IC(50) were 49.3 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 55.5 μg/ml (CQ-r), while chloroquine IC(50) were 81.5 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 86.5 μg/ml (CQ-r). EW-AgNP showed a valuable antibiotic potential against important pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Concerning non-target effects of EW-AgNP against mosquito natural enemies, the predation efficiency of the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis towards the II and II instar larvae of A. stephensi was 68.50% (II) and 47.00% (III), respectively. In EW-AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was boosted to 89.25% (II) and 70.75% (III), respectively. Overall, this research highlighted the EW-AgNP potential against hepatocellular carcinoma, Plasmodium parasites and mosquito vectors, with little detrimental effects on mosquito natural enemies. PMID:26873539

  15. Shape, size and multiplicity of main-belt asteroids. I. Keck Adaptive Optics survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchis, F.; Kaasalainen, M.; Hom, E. F. Y.; Berthier, J.; Enriquez, J.; Hestroffer, D.; Le Mignant, D.; de Pater, I.

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents results from a high spatial resolution survey of 33 main-belt asteroids with diameters >40 km using the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) facility. Five of these (45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 107 Camilla, 121 Hermione, 130 Elektra) were confirmed to have satellite. Assuming the same albedo as the primary, these moonlets are relatively small (˜5% of the primary size) suggesting that they are fragments captured after a disruptive collision of a parent body or captured ejecta due to an impact. For each asteroid, we have estimated the minimum size of a moonlet that can positively detected within the Hill sphere of the system by estimating and modeling a 2- σ detection profile: in average on the data set, a moonlet located at 2/100×R ( 1/4×R) with a diameter larger than 6 km (4 km) would have been unambiguously seen. The apparent size and shape of each asteroid was estimated after deconvolution using a new algorithm called AIDA. The mean diameter for the majority of asteroids is in good agreement with IRAS radiometric measurements, though for asteroids with a D<200 km, it is underestimated on average by 6-8%. Most asteroids had a size ratio that was very close to those determined by lightcurve measurements. One observation of 104 Klymene suggests it has a bifurcated shape. The bi-lobed shape of 121 Hermione described in Marchis et al. [Marchis, F., Hestroffer, D., Descamps, P., Berthier, J., Laver, C., de Pater, I., 2005c. Icarus 178, 450-464] was confirmed after deconvolution. The ratio of contact binaries in our survey, which is limited to asteroids larger than 40 km, is surprisingly high (˜6%), suggesting that a non-single configuration is common in the main-belt. Several asteroids have been analyzed with lightcurve inversions. We compared lightcurve inversion models for plane-of-sky predictions with the observed images (9 Metis, 52 Europa, 87 Sylvia, 130 Elektra, 192 Nausikaa, and 423 Diotima, 511 Davida). The AO images allowed us to determine a unique

  16. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  17. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P

  18. Assortment of the plants in the Medieval diet in Czech countries (based on archaeobotanical finds).

    PubMed

    Culíková, V

    2000-01-01

    be said that they formed a common part of the diet. Among imported fruit and spices from the peak period of the Middle Ages we succeeded in finding a date-tree (Phoenix dactylifera), nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) and, by means of pollen analysis, maybe a clove tree (Eugenia caryophyllata). PMID:15828207

  19. Zinc and Liming Effects on the Development of Cerrado Forest Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and

  20. New reflectance spectra of 40 asteroids: A comparison with the previous results and an interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses selected reflectance spectra of 40 Main Belt asteroids. The spectra have been obtained by the author in the Crimean Laboratory of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (2003-2009). The aim is to search for new spectral features that characterize the composition of the asteroids' material. The results are compared with earlier findings to reveal substantial irregularities in the distribution of the chemical-mineralogical compositions of the surface material of a number of minor planets (10 Hygiea, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 21 Lutetia, 45 Eugenia, 51 Nemausa, 55 Pandora, 64 Angelina, 69 Hesperia, 80 Sappho, 83 Beatrix, 92 Undina, 129 Antigone, 135 Hertha, and 785 Zwetana), which are manifest at different rotation phases. The vast majority of the analyzed high-temperature asteroids demonstrate subtle spectral features of an atypical hydrated and/or carbonaceous chondrite material (in the form of impurities or separate units), which are likely associated with the peculiarities of the formation of these bodies and the subsequent dynamic and impact processes, which lead, inter alia, to the delivery of atypical materials. Studies of 4 Vesta aboard NASA's Dawn spacecraft have found that asteroids of similar types can form their own phyllosilicate generations provided that their surface material contains buried icy or hydrated fragments of impacting bodies. The first evidence has been obtained of a spectral phase effect (SPE) at small phase angles (≤4°) for 10 Hygiea, 21 Lutetia, and, possibly, 4 Vesta. The SPE manifests itself in an increasing spectral coefficient of brightness in the visible range with decreasing wavelength. This effect is present in the reflectance spectrum of CM2 carbonaceous material at a phase angle of 10° and absent at larger angles (Cloutis et al., 2011a). The shape of Hygeia's reflectance spectra at low phase angles appears to be controlled by the SPE during the most part of its rotation period, which may indicate a

  1. Shape, size and multiplicity of main-belt asteroids I. Keck Adaptive Optics survey

    PubMed Central

    Marchis, F.; Kaasalainen, M.; Hom, E.F.Y.; Berthier, J.; Enriquez, J.; Hestroffer, D.; Le Mignant, D.; de Pater, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from a high spatial resolution survey of 33 main-belt asteroids with diameters >40 km using the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) facility. Five of these (45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 107 Camilla, 121 Hermione, 130 Elektra) were confirmed to have satellite. Assuming the same albedo as the primary, these moonlets are relatively small (∼5% of the primary size) suggesting that they are fragments captured after a disruptive collision of a parent body or captured ejecta due to an impact. For each asteroid, we have estimated the minimum size of a moonlet that can positively detected within the Hill sphere of the system by estimating and modeling a 2-σ detection profile: in average on the data set, a moonlet located at 2/100 × RHill (1/4 × RHill) with a diameter larger than 6 km (4 km) would have been unambiguously seen. The apparent size and shape of each asteroid was estimated after deconvolution using a new algorithm called AIDA. The mean diameter for the majority of asteroids is in good agreement with IRAS radiometric measurements, though for asteroids with a D < 200 km, it is underestimated on average by 6–8%. Most asteroids had a size ratio that was very close to those determined by lightcurve measurements. One observation of 104 Klymene suggests it has a bifurcated shape. The bi-lobed shape of 121 Hermione described in Marchis et al. [Marchis, F., Hestroffer, D., Descamps, P., Berthier, J., Laver, C., de Pater, I., 2005c. Icarus 178, 450–464] was confirmed after deconvolution. The ratio of contact binaries in our survey, which is limited to asteroids larger than 40 km, is surprisingly high (∼6%), suggesting that a non-single configuration is common in the main-belt. Several asteroids have been analyzed with lightcurve inversions. We compared lightcurve inversion models for plane-of-sky predictions with the observed images (9 Metis, 52 Europa, 87 Sylvia, 130 Elektra, 192 Nausikaa, and 423 Diotima, 511 Davida). The AO images allowed us to

  2. Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02) by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    PubMed Central

    Ladva, Bhakti J.; Mahida, Vijay M.; Kantaria, Urmi D.; Gokani, Rina H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preparation of highly standardized herbal products with respect to chemical composition and biological activity is considered to be a valuable approach in this field. SJT-DI-02 polyherbal formulation was successfully developed at our institute and filed for patent at Mumbai patent office. Objective: The present work was marker based standardization of patented, novel and efficacious polyherbal formulation namely SJT-DI-02 for the treatment of diabetes. The SJT-DI-02 was comprised of dried extracts of rhizomes of Acorus calamus, leaves of Aegle marmelose, fruits of Benincasa hispida, roots of Chlorophytum arendinaceum, seeds of Eugenia jambolana, leaves of Ocimum sanctum, pericarp of Punica granatum, seeds of Tamarindus indica. Selected plants were collected, dried and extracted with suitable solvents. The formulation was prepared by mixing different fractions of extracts. Materials and Methods: For successful and best standardization, first of all selection and procurement was carried out. Selection is done on the basis of therapeutic efficacy and amount of the marker present in the particular plant part. At the time of procurement side by side phytochemical screening and estimation of phytoconstituents was carried out. After completion of preliminary screening using characterized markers, we tried to develop best TLC systems using selected solvent composition. Finally well-developed TLC systems were applied in HPTLC. In the present study polyherbal formulation was standardized by using different four markers. TLC Densitometric methods were developed using HPTLC for the quantification of these marker compounds. Solvent systems were optimized to achieve best resolution of the marker compounds from other components of the sample extract. The identity of the bands in the sample extracts were confirmed by comparing the Rf and the absorption spectra by overlaying their UV absorption spectra with those of their respective standards. The purity of the bands

  3. 8th Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and 7th Clinical Engineering Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, Gustavo Javier; Ballarin, Virginia L.

    2011-12-01

    Juan ¬- CONICET Bioing Luciano Gentile Universidad Favaloro Mg María Eugenia Gómez Universidad Nacional de San Juan Dr Claudio González Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Mg Esteban González Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dra Mariela A Gonzalez Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dr Juan Pablo Graffigna Universidad Nacional de San Juan Dra Myriam Herrera Universidad Nacional de Tucumán - CONICET Dr Roberto Hidalgo Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Roberto Isoardi Fundación Escuela de Medicina Nuclear de Mendoza - CNEA Dra Susana Jerez Universidad Nacional de Tucumán Dr Eric Laciar Universidad Nacional de San Juan - CONICET Bioing Roberto Leonarduzzi Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos Mg Norberto Lerendegui Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires Dra Natalia López Universidad Nacional de San Juan - CONICET Dra Rossana Madrid Universidad Nacional de Tucuman - CONICET Ing Florencia Montini Ballarin Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra Emilce Moler Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Jorge Castiñieira Moreira Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Silvia Murialdo Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CIC Dr Juan Manuel Olivera Universidad Nacional de Tucumán Dra Lucia Isabel Passoni Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Dr Juan Ignacio Pastore Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - CONICET Dra María Elisa Pérez Universidad Nacional de San Juan Mg Franco M Pessana Universidad Favaloro Dr Julio Politti Universidad Nacional de Tucumán Dr Marcelo Risk Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires - CONICET Ing Raúl Rivera Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Mg Luis Rocha Universidad Nacional de Tucumán - SIPROSA Dra Silvia Rodrigo Universidad Nacional de San Juan Dra Viviana Rotger Universidad Nacional de Tucumán Dr Leonardo Rufiner Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios - CONICET Dra Estela Ruiz Universidad Nacional de Tucumán Dr Martín Santiago Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires Dra

  4. 8th Argentinean Bioengineering Society Conference (SABI 2011) and 7th Clinical Engineering Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, Gustavo Javier; Ballarin, Virginia L.

    2011-12-01

    Juan ¬- CONICET Bioing Luciano Gentile Universidad Favaloro Mg María Eugenia Gómez Universida

  5. Verochka Zingan or recollections from the Physics Department of the Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    . Laufer, Yu. El'nitskii, Gh. Nemtoi, Yu. Oprunenko, N.N. Semenov, Varun Sahni, A.A. Starobinskii, Liusea Burca, Serge Rollet, Tatyana Davydova, Zinaida Uglichina (Khafizova), T.Filippova, V.S. Filippov, Vera Zingan (Stefanovici), B.A. Gaina, E.F. Gaina, Valeri Gaina, A. Kirnitskii, M. Kavalerchik, Margarita Kavalerchik, Mark Rainis, L.I. Sedov, D. Mangeron, S. Taltu (Coanda), Z. Sali(Chitoroaga, Kitoroage), Raisa M. Gorbachova, Maria Bulgaru, S. Pavlichenko, Nadezhda Shishkan, A.N. Matveev, N.Ya. Tyapunina, D.F. Kiselev, V.A. Petukhov, N.Ch. Krutitskaya, G.N. Medvedev, A.A. Shishkin,I.A. Shishmarev,A.G. Sveshnikov, A.B. Vasil'eva, A.G. Yagola, I.I. Ol'hovskii, V.V. Kravtsov, V.V.Petkevich, V.I. Grigor'ev, V.S. Rostovskii, V.V. Balashov, B.I. Spasskii, V.D. Krivchenkov, M.B. Menskii, V.Ya. Fainberg, V.G. Kadyshevskii, B.K. Kerimov, V.A. Matveev, I.A. Kvasnikov, D.V. Gal'tsov, V.R. Khalilov, G.A. Chizhov,I.A. Obukhov, V.N. Melnikov, A.A. Logunov, A.N. Tavkhelidze,Yu.S. Vladimirov, N.F. Florea (Floria), B.A. Lysov, V.D. Kukin, 601-academic group (1977), A.R. Khokhlov, P.L. Kapitza, S.P. Kapitza, Ion C. Inculet, Ion I. Inculet,W. Bittner, Nikolay Florea (Floria), M.M. Heraskov, N.V. Sklifosovskii, N.N. Bantysh-Kamenskii, N.D. Zelinskii, Olga Crusevan (Krushevan), Eugenia Crusevan (Krushevan),L.S. Berg, I. Buzdugan (Buzdyga),S.G. Lazo, M.K. Grebenchya (Grebencea), V.T. Kondurar (Conduraru), E.A. Grebenikov, K.F. Teodorchik, V.A. Albitzky, M.V. Nazarov, Tatiana Nazarova, V. P. Oleinikov, O.V. Bolshakov, D.M. Nikolaev, V. Afanas'ev, Olga Tatarinskaya, Yu.V. Karaganchou, B.A. Volkov, V.K. Turta, S. Varzar, C. Sochichiu, V.B. Braginsky, V.S. Fursov, L.I. Brezhnev, V.I. Sobolev (INP MSU), V.A. Smirnov (INP MSU), L.D. Landau, M.A. Leontovich, A.G. Loskutova, Yu.M. Loskutov, N.S. Akulov, V.B. Gostev, A.R. Frenkin, N.N. Kolesnikov, A. Vasil'ev, V.N. Tsytovich, Ya.A. Frenkel, N.V. Mitskievich, E.A. Grebenikov, A.N. Prokopenya, A. Einstein, L.I. Sedov, A.N. Kolmogorov, V.I. Arnold, G

  6. Verochka Zingan or recollections from the Physics Department of the Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    . Laufer, Yu. El'nitskii, Gh. Nemtoi, Yu. Oprunenko, N.N. Semenov, Varun Sahni, A.A. Starobinskii, Liusea Burca, Serge Rollet, Tatyana Davydova, Zinaida Uglichina (Khafizova), T.Filippova, V.S. Filippov, Vera Zingan (Stefanovici), B.A. Gaina, E.F. Gaina, Valeri Gaina, A. Kirnitskii, M. Kavalerchik, Margarita Kavalerchik, Mark Rainis, L.I. Sedov, D. Mangeron, S. Taltu (Coanda), Z. Sali(Chitoroaga, Kitoroage), Raisa M. Gorbachova, Maria Bulgaru, S. Pavlichenko, Nadezhda Shishkan, A.N. Matveev, N.Ya. Tyapunina, D.F. Kiselev, V.A. Petukhov, N.Ch. Krutitskaya, G.N. Medvedev, A.A. Shishkin,I.A. Shishmarev,A.G. Sveshnikov, A.B. Vasil'eva, A.G. Yagola, I.I. Ol'hovskii, V.V. Kravtsov, V.V.Petkevich, V.I. Grigor'ev, V.S. Rostovskii, V.V. Balashov, B.I. Spasskii, V.D. Krivchenkov, M.B. Menskii, V.Ya. Fainberg, V.G. Kadyshevskii, B.K. Kerimov, V.A. Matveev, I.A. Kvasnikov, D.V. Gal'tsov, V.R. Khalilov, G.A. Chizhov,I.A. Obukhov, V.N. Melnikov, A.A. Logunov, A.N. Tavkhelidze,Yu.S. Vladimirov, N.F. Florea (Floria), B.A. Lysov, V.D. Kukin, 601-academic group (1977), A.R. Khokhlov, P.L. Kapitza, S.P. Kapitza, Ion C. Inculet, Ion I. Inculet,W. Bittner, Nikolay Florea (Floria), M.M. Heraskov, N.V. Sklifosovskii, N.N. Bantysh-Kamenskii, N.D. Zelinskii, Olga Crusevan (Krushevan), Eugenia Crusevan (Krushevan),L.S. Berg, I. Buzdugan (Buzdyga),S.G. Lazo, M.K. Grebenchya (Grebencea), V.T. Kondurar (Conduraru), E.A. Grebenikov, K.F. Teodorchik, V.A. Albitzky, M.V. Nazarov, Tatiana Nazarova, V. P. Oleinikov, O.V. Bolshakov, D.M. Nikolaev, V. Afanas'ev, Olga Tatarinskaya, Yu.V. Karaganchou, B.A. Volkov, V.K. Turta, S. Varzar, C. Sochichiu, V.B. Braginsky, V.S. Fursov, L.I. Brezhnev, V.I. Sobolev (INP MSU), V.A. Smirnov (INP MSU), L.D. Landau, M.A. Leontovich, A.G. Loskutova, Yu.M. Loskutov, N.S. Akulov, V.B. Gostev, A.R. Frenkin, N.N. Kolesnikov, A. Vasil'ev, V.N. Tsytovich, Ya.A. Frenkel, N.V. Mitskievich, E.A. Grebenikov, A.N. Prokopenya, A. Einstein, L.I. Sedov, A.N. Kolmogorov, V.I. Arnold, G