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Sample records for pittsburgh pennsylvania usa

  1. Acid precipitation in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area

    SciTech Connect

    Roffman, A.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on the pH of atmospheric precipitation are reviewed. The effects of acids in precipitation on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are summarized, with emphasis on the Pittsburgh area. Results of the pH content in the rain samples collected at the three stations in the Pittsburgh area between January 6, 1979 through February 18, 1979 are reported. Surprisingly, pH values of samples taken at Station 3, the rural, pollution-free station, were generally not higher, but rather frequently lower than those obtained in those stations considered polluted. The total mean of Station 1 was 4.3, the total mean of Station 2 was 4.2, and the total mean of Station 3 was 4.0. Wind data were obtained for the dates corresponding to the precipitation collection dates. On all of these dates, the maps show that the direction of the wind currents came from the Ohio River Valley Basin and blew in a northwest to southeast, west to east or a southwest to northeast direction. These winds could have carried pollution from this Basin and other areas in the Midwest into the southwestern Pennsylvania areas. Measurements show that all precipitation collection stations had a low pH at the time of the study. The industrial mills, along the Allegheny, Monogahela, and Ohio Rivers seem to have had a little or no effect on the low pH values measured at the closest station during the study period. The coal-burning power plants seem to have had an effect on the pH values of the precipitation samples collected at Station 3 during the course of the study.The data imply that pollution-carrying winds from the Ohio River Valley Basin contribute acidity to the three stations and Station 3 receives additional acidity from the surrounding coal-burning power plants.

  2. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Pittsburgh, PA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) conducted December 7--11, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PETC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PETC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site Survey activities at PETC. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the Plan's results will be incorporated into the PETC Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 64 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Abrahams, L.; Bradford, K.; Hegglin, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/ Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare datasets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.

  5. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Kathryn; Abrahams, Leslie; Hegglin, Miriam; Klima, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare data sets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought. PMID:26333158

  6. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS PITTSBURGH ENGINEER WAREHOUSE AND REPAIR STATION AND EMSWORTH LOCKS AND DAMS PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Pittsburgh Engineering Warehouse and Repair Station (PEWARS) and Emsworth Locks and Dams in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Reduction...

  7. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 77016, 12-31-2012). The... Production Activity, Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania On December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production...

  8. Lifestyle characteristics assessment of Japanese in Pittsburgh, USA.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Takedai, Teiichi; D'Amico, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle-related chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease are the greatest public health concerns. Evidence shows Japanese immigrants to a westernized environment have higher incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about lifestyle characteristics related to chronic diseases for Japanese in a westernized environment. This study is examining the gap in lifestyle by comparing the lifestyle prevalence for Japanese in the US with the Japanese National Data (the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, J-NHANS) as well as the Japan National Health Promotion in the twenty-first Century (HJ21) goals. Japanese adults were surveyed in Pittsburgh, USA, regarding their lifestyle (e.g., diet, exercise, smoking, stress, alcohol, and oral hygiene). The prevalence was compared with J-NHANS and HJ21 goals. Ninety-three responded (response rate; 97.9%). Japanese men (n = 38) and women (n = 55) in Pittsburgh smoke less than Japanese in Japan (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese in Pittsburgh perform less physical activity in daily life and have lower prevalence of walking more than 1 h per day (P < 0.001 for both genders). Japanese women in Pittsburgh have significantly higher prevalence of stress than in Japan (P = 0.004). Japanese men in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management, BMI, use of medicine or alcohol to sleep, and sleep quality. Japanese women in Pittsburgh do not reach HJ21 goal in weight management and sleep quality. In conclusion, healthy lifestyle promotion including exercise and physical activity intervention for Japanese living in a westernized environment is warranted. PMID:21874580

  9. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  10. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  11. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  12. Health hazard evaluation report No. HETA 90-010-2170, LTV Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Letts, D.

    1991-12-01

    In response to a request from the United Steelworkers of America, an investigation was made of possible causative agents for allergic contact dermatitis in workers who clean the coke oven gas inlets at the LTV Steel Company (SIC-3312), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The LTV Steel coke oven facility consists of five batteries, with a total of 315 by-product ovens. Almost 3 years ago a skin problem of potential occupational origin was identified among the heaters, helpers and patchers. A list of 26 workers with skin problems was developed by the union and management and provided to NIOSH investigators. The suspected causative agent was a condensate from coke oven underfiring gas which collected on gas nozzle seats in the gas heating pipes of specific batteries. The nine employees diagnosed as having occupational allergic contact dermatitis tested positive to at least one of the coke oven gas condensate fractions. Many compounds were identified in the condensate sample. The authors conclude that the dermatitis in some workers was probably caused by contact with the coke oven gas condensates. The authors recommend measures intended to prevent contact with the condensates.

  13. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  14. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NEW FRONTIERS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD AT PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA ON SEPTEMBER 15-18, 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proceedings of the International Conference on New Frontiers for Hazardous Waste Management held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 15-18, 1985. Papers presented by Symposium speakers were in the areas of: (1) Geologic hazards and the siting of hazardous waste facilities; (2)...

  15. 77 FR 77016 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33 - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Notification of Proposed Export Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Export Production Activity Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars) Pittsburgh, PA Tsudis Chocolate Company (Tsudis), an operator of FTZ 33, submitted a notification of proposed export production... production of chocolate confectionery bars for export (no shipments for U.S. consumption would occur)....

  16. 77 FR 34297 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... FR 20664), that the Pittsburgh Area has attained the 1997 annual PM 2.5 NAAQS by its applicable... concentrations (62 FR 36852). At that time, EPA also established a 24- hour standard of 65 g/m\\3\\. See 40 CFR 50... PM 2.5 NAAQS based upon air quality monitoring data for calendar years 2001-2003 (70 FR 944)....

  17. Prevalence and Duration of Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile Carriage among Healthy Subjects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Galdys, Alison L.; Nelson, Jemma S.; Shutt, Kathleen A.; Schlackman, Jessica L.; Pakstis, Diana L.; Pasculle, A. William; Marsh, Jane W.; Harrison, Lee H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that 7 to 15% of healthy adults are colonized with toxigenic Clostridium difficile. To investigate the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and duration of C. difficile colonization in asymptomatic persons, we recruited healthy adults from the general population in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Participants provided epidemiological and dietary intake data and submitted stool specimens. The presence of C. difficile in stool specimens was determined by anaerobic culture. Stool specimens yielding C. difficile underwent nucleic acid testing of the tcdA gene segment with a commercial assay; tcdC genotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates. Subjects positive for C. difficile by toxigenic anaerobic culture were asked to submit additional specimens. One hundred six (81%) of 130 subjects submitted specimens, and 7 (6.6%) of those subjects were colonized with C. difficile. Seven distinct tcdC genotypes were observed among the 7 C. difficile-colonized individuals, including tcdC genotype 20, which has been found in uncooked ground pork in this region. Two (33%) out of 6 C. difficile-colonized subjects who submitted additional specimens tested positive for identical C. difficile strains on successive occasions, 1 month apart. The prevalence of C. difficile carriage in this healthy cohort is concordant with prior estimates. C. difficile-colonized individuals may be important reservoirs for C. difficile and may falsely test positive for infections due to C. difficile when evaluated for community-acquired diarrhea caused by other enteric pathogens. PMID:24759727

  18. Prevalence and duration of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage among healthy subjects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Galdys, Alison L; Nelson, Jemma S; Shutt, Kathleen A; Schlackman, Jessica L; Pakstis, Diana L; Pasculle, A William; Marsh, Jane W; Harrison, Lee H; Curry, Scott R

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies suggested that 7 to 15% of healthy adults are colonized with toxigenic Clostridium difficile. To investigate the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and duration of C. difficile colonization in asymptomatic persons, we recruited healthy adults from the general population in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Participants provided epidemiological and dietary intake data and submitted stool specimens. The presence of C. difficile in stool specimens was determined by anaerobic culture. Stool specimens yielding C. difficile underwent nucleic acid testing of the tcdA gene segment with a commercial assay; tcdC genotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates. Subjects positive for C. difficile by toxigenic anaerobic culture were asked to submit additional specimens. One hundred six (81%) of 130 subjects submitted specimens, and 7 (6.6%) of those subjects were colonized with C. difficile. Seven distinct tcdC genotypes were observed among the 7 C. difficile-colonized individuals, including tcdC genotype 20, which has been found in uncooked ground pork in this region. Two (33%) out of 6 C. difficile-colonized subjects who submitted additional specimens tested positive for identical C. difficile strains on successive occasions, 1 month apart. The prevalence of C. difficile carriage in this healthy cohort is concordant with prior estimates. C. difficile-colonized individuals may be important reservoirs for C. difficile and may falsely test positive for infections due to C. difficile when evaluated for community-acquired diarrhea caused by other enteric pathogens. PMID:24759727

  19. A digital resource model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, Monongahela Group, northern Appalachian basin coal region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Bragg, L.J.; Wallack, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation's coal resources for the next few decades. The Pittsburgh coal bed is the first bed in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region to undergo a fully-digital assessment. The bed-specific assessment is being carried out in partnership with the state geologic surveys of West Virginia (WV), Pennsylvania (PA), Ohio (OH), and Maryland (MD). Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the Pittsburgh coal bed, and areal extent, mined areas, structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness maps of the bed have been released as United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Reports. The resulting resource model indicates that of the original 34 billion short tons (31 billion tonnes) of Pittsburgh coal, 16 billion short tons (14 billion tonnes) remain. Although most of the remaining coal is thinner, deeper, and higher in ash and sulfur (S) than the original resource, there are blocks of extensive thick (6-8 ft or 1.8-2.4 m) coal in southwestern PA and the northern panhandle of WV.The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation's coal resources for the next few decades. The Pittsburgh coal bed is the first bed in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region to undergo a fully-digital assessment. The bed-specific assessment is being carried out in partnership with the state geologic surveys of West Virginia (WV), Pennsylvania (PA), Ohio (OH), and Maryland (MD). Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the Pittsburgh coal bed, and areal extent, mined areas, structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness maps of the bed have been released as United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Reports. The resulting resource

  20. Evaluating the national air toxics assessment (NATA): Comparison of predicted and measured air toxics concentrations, risks, and sources in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Small, Mitchell J.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-01-01

    The National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is an ongoing modeling effort by the Environmental Protection Agency to predict air toxics concentrations, sources, and risks at the census tract level throughout the continental United States. To evaluate NATA, archived data collected at seven sites in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania were compared to 2002 NATA predictions. The sites represent 3 different source regimes (mobile dominated, industrial point source dominated, and background). The evaluation considered 49 air toxics (37 gas-phase organics, 10 metals, coke oven emissions and diesel particulate matter); NATA's performance was judged based on model-measurement comparisons of concentrations, health risks, and source contributions. On a concentration basis, NATA performance varied widely ranging from excellent for carbon tetrachloride to differences of more than a factor of 100 for low concentration chlorinated compounds. However, predicted concentrations were generally within a factor of 2 of measured values for air toxics that were estimated to be the primary cancer risk drivers; therefore NATA provided reasonable estimates of the additive cancer risks and risk ranking of air toxics. NATA performs better on average in Pittsburgh than nationwide. Comparison of source apportionment results indicates that NATA consistently underestimated concentrations of compounds emitted by large point sources as well as concentrations of chlorinated compounds, but overestimated the risks from mobile sources in Pittsburgh. Therefore, in Pittsburgh, NATA sufficiently prioritizes air toxics that drive potential cancer risks, but does not identify the sources of these priority air toxics.

  1. Re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil as a dominant source of atmospheric lead in Birmingham, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laidlaw, Mark A. S.; Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W.; Taylor, Mark P.; Filippelli, Gabriel M.

    2012-03-01

    Soils in older areas of cities are highly contaminated by lead, due largely to past use of lead additives in gasoline, the use of lead in exterior paints, and industrial lead sources. Soils are not passive repositories and periodic re-suspension of fine lead contaminated soil dust particulates (or aerosols) may create seasonal variations of lead exposure for urban dwellers. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosol data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) database were obtained for Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Detroit (Michigan), Chicago (Illinois), and Birmingham (Alabama), USA. In this study the temporal variations of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols in these four US cities were examined to determine whether re-suspended lead contaminated urban soil was the dominant source of atmospheric lead. Soil and lead-in-air concentrations were examined to ascertain whether lead aerosols follow seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. In addition, atmospheric soil and lead aerosol concentrations on weekends and Federal Government holidays were compared to weekdays to evaluate the possibility that automotive turbulence results in re-suspension of lead contaminated urban soil. The results show that the natural logs of atmospheric soil and lead aerosols were associated in Pittsburgh from April 2004 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.31, p < 0.01), Detroit from November 2003 to July 2005 (R2 = 0.49, p <0.01), Chicago from November 2003 to August 2005 (R2 = 0.32, p < 0.01), and Birmingham from May 2004 to December 2006 (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.01). Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols followed seasonal patterns with highest concentrations during the summer and/or autumn. Atmospheric soil and lead aerosols are 3.15 and 3.12 times higher, respectively, during weekdays than weekends and Federal Government holidays, suggesting that automotive traffic turbulence plays a significant role in re-suspension of contaminated roadside soils and

  2. 75 FR 6635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Subzone 33E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Authority, Subzone 33E--DNP IMS America Corporation (Thermal Transfer Ribbon Printer Rolls), Mount Pleasant... meters coating capacity) currently has authority for the manufacture of thermal transfer ribbon (TTR) (A... Drive, Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania. The current request involves the production of monochrome...

  3. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Poerschke, Andrew; Stecher, Dave

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, PA. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems—a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms—were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  4. Insights into the primary-secondary and regional-local contributions to organic aerosol and PM 2.5 mass in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, R.; Donahue, Neil M.; Bernardo-Bricker, Anna; Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Robinson, Allen L.

    This paper presents chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis of organic molecular marker data to investigate the sources of organic aerosol and PM 2.5 mass in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The model accounts for emissions from eight primary source classes, including major anthropogenic sources such as motor vehicles, cooking, and biomass combustion as well as some primary biogenic emissions (leaf abrasion products). We consider uncertainty associated with selection of source profiles, selection of fitting species, sampling artifacts, photochemical aging, and unknown sources. In the context of the overall organic carbon (OC) mass balance, the contributions of diesel, wood-smoke, vegetative detritus, road dust, and coke-oven emissions are all small and well constrained; however, estimates for the contributions of gasoline-vehicle and cooking emissions can vary by an order of magnitude. A best-estimate solution is presented that represents the vast majority of our CMB results; it indicates that primary OC only contributes 27±8% and 50±14% (average±standard deviation of daily estimates) of the ambient OC in the summer and winter, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of the primary OC is transported into Pittsburgh as part of the regional air mass. The ambient OC that is not apportioned by the CMB model is well correlated with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) estimates based on the EC-tracer method and ambient concentrations of organic species associated with SOA. Therefore, SOA appears to be the major component of OC, not only in summer, but potentially in all seasons. Primary OC dominates the OC mass balance on a small number of nonsummer days with high OC concentrations; these events are associated with specific meteorological conditions such as local inversions. Primary particulate emissions only contribute a small fraction of the ambient fine-particle mass, especially in the summer.

  5. Spatial diffusion of raccoon rabies in Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Moore, D A

    1999-05-14

    Identification of the geographic pattern of diffusion of a wildlife disease could lead to information regarding its control. The objective of this study was to model raccoon-rabies diffusion in Pennsylvania to identify geographic constraints on the diffusion pattern for potential use in bait-vaccination strategies. A trend-surface analysis (TSA) was used as a spatial filter for month to first report by county location. A cubic polynomial model was fitted (R2 = 0.80). Velocity vectors were calculated from the partial derivatives of the model and mapped to demonstrate the instantaneous speed of diffusion at each location. A main corridor of diffusion through the ridge and valley section of the state was evident early in the outbreak. Once the disease reached the northern counties, the disease moved west toward Ohio. I believe that TSA was useful in identifying the pattern of raccoon-rabies diffusion across the stage from the inherent noise of disease-reporting data. PMID:10343331

  6. Unconventional natural gas development and birth outcomes in Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Joan A.; Savitz, David A.; Rasmussen, Sara G.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; Pollak, Jonathan; Mercer, Dione G.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unconventional natural gas development has expanded rapidly. In Pennsylvania the number of producing wells increased from zero in 2005 to 3689 in 2013. To our knowledge, no prior publications have focused on unconventional natural gas development and birth outcomes. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data on 9384 mothers linked to 10946 neonates in the Geisinger Health System from January 2009-January 2013. We estimated cumulative exposure to unconventional natural gas development activity with an inverse-distance squared model that incorporated distance to the mother’s home; dates and durations of well pad development, drilling, and hydraulic fracturing; and production volume during the pregnancy. We used multilevel linear and logistic regression models to examine associations between activity index quartile and term birth weight, preterm birth, low 5 minute Apgar score and small size for gestational age, while controlling for potential confounding variables. Results In adjusted models, there was an association between unconventional natural gas development activity and preterm birth that increased across quartiles, with a fourth quartile odds ratio of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9). There were no associations of activity with Apgar score, small for gestational age, or term birth weight (after adjustment for year). In a post-hoc analysis, there was an association with physician-recorded high-risk pregnancy identified from the problem list (fourth vs. first quartile, 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1-1.7]). Conclusion Prenatal residential exposure to unconventional natural gas development activity was associated with two pregnancy outcomes, adding to evidence that unconventional natural gas development may impact health. PMID:26426945

  7. Particulate Air Pollution and the Rate of Hospitalization for Congestive Heart Failure among Medicare Beneficiaries in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bateson, Thomas F.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz., Joel

    2006-01-01

    We used a case-crossover approach to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and the rate of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) among Medicare recipients (age ≥ 65) residing in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh area), PA, during 1987–1999. We also explored effect modification by age, gender, and specific secondary diagnoses. During follow-up, there were 55,019 admissions with a primary diagnosis of CHF. We found that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide – but not ozone – were positively and significantly associated with the rate of admission on the same day in single-pollutant models. The strongest associations were observed with CO, NO2 and PM10. The associations with CO and NO2 were the most robust in two-pollutant models, remaining statistically significant even after adjusting for other pollutants. Patients with a recent myocardial infarction were at greater risk of particulate-related admission, but there was otherwise no significant effect modification by age, gender, or other secondary diagnoses. These results suggest that short-term elevations in air pollution from traffic-related sources may trigger acute cardiac decompensation of heart failure patients and that those with certain comorbid conditions may be more susceptible to these effects. PMID:15901623

  8. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Buckwalter, Theodore F.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pa. Water-quality samples and river-discharge measurements were collected from July to September 2001 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period), mixed-, and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 6-hour period) conditions at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers in Allegheny County. Water samples were collected weekly to establish baseline conditions and during successive days after three wet-weather events. Water samples were analyzed for fecal-indicator organisms including fecal-coliform (FC) bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Water samples were collected by the USGS and analyzed by the ACHD Laboratory. At each site, left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a composite sample (discharge-weighted sample representative of the channel cross section as a whole) at each site. Fecal-indicator bacteria reported in bank and composite samples were used to evaluate the distribution and mixing of bacteria-source streams in receiving waters such as the Three Rivers. Single-event concentrations of enterococci, E. coli, and FC during dry-weather events were greater than State and Federal water-quality standards (WQS) in 11, 28, and 28 percent of the samples, respectively; during mixed-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 28, 37, and 43 percent of the samples, respectively; and during wet-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 56, 71, and 81 percent of samples, respectively. Single-event, wet-weather concentrations exceeded those during dry-weather events for all sites except the Allegheny River at

  9. Design and Feasibility Assessment of a Retrospective Epidemiological Study of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in the Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Region

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Bilonick; Daniel Connell; Evelyn Talbott; Jeanne Zborowski; Myoung Kim

    2006-12-20

    Eighty-nine (89) percent of the electricity supplied in the 35-county Pittsburgh region (comprising parts of the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland) is generated by coal-fired power plants making this an ideal region in which to study the effects of the fine airborne particulates designated as PM{sub 2.5} emitted by the combustion of coal. This report demonstrates that during the period from 1999-2006 (1) sufficient and extensive exposure data, in particular samples of speciated PM{sub 2.5} components from 1999 to 2003, and including gaseous co-pollutants and weather have been collected, (2) sufficient and extensive mortality, morbidity, and related health outcomes data are readily available, and (3) the relationship between health effects and fine particulates can most likely be satisfactorily characterized using a combination of sophisticated statistical methodologies including latent variable modeling (LVM) and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GLARMA) time series analysis. This report provides detailed information on the available exposure data and the available health outcomes data for the construction of a comprehensive database suitable for analysis, illustrates the application of various statistical methods to characterize the relationship between health effects and exposure, and provides a road map for conducting the proposed study. In addition, a detailed work plan for conducting the study is provided and includes a list of tasks and an estimated budget. A substantial portion of the total study cost is attributed to the cost of analyzing a large number of archived PM{sub 2.5} filters. Analysis of a representative sample of the filters supports the reliability of this invaluable but as-yet untapped resource. These filters hold the key to having sufficient data on the components of PM{sub 2.5} but have a limited shelf life. If the archived filters are not analyzed promptly the important and costly information they

  10. Pittsburgh Adapts to Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    States, Deidre

    1985-01-01

    The Samuel F. B. Morse School, built in 1874 and closed in 1980, is a historic landmark in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Now the building serves as low-income housing for 70 elderly tenants and is praised as being an imaginative and creative use of an old school structure. (MLF)

  11. Art, Science & Visual Literacy: Selected Readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (24th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 30-October 4, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A., Ed.; And Others

    Following an introductory paper on Pittsburgh and the arts, 57 conference papers are presented under the following four major categories: (1) "Imagery, Science and the Arts," including discovery in art and science, technology and art, visual design of newspapers, multimedia science education, science learning and interactive videodisc technology,…

  12. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON IRON AND STEEL POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY FOR 1982. HELD AT PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA, ON NOVEMBER 16-18, 1982

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations at the Symposium on Iron and Steel Pollution Abatement Technology for 1982, the fourth in this series, held in Pittsburgh on November 16-18, 1982. It provided a forum for the exchange of information on technological problems related to multi...

  13. Comparison of recharge estimates at a small watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.; Gburek, W.J.; Folmar, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The common recommendation that recharge should be estimated from multiple methods is sound, but the inherent differences of the methods make it difficult to assess the accuracy of differing results. In this study, four methods for estimating groundwater recharge and two methods for estimating base flow (as a proxy for recharge) are compared at two hydrologic research sites in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Results from the multiple methods all provided reasonable estimates of groundwater recharge that differed considerably. The estimates of mean annual recharge for the period 1994-2001 ranged from 22.9 to 35.7 cm - about 45% of the mean of all estimates. For individual years, recharge estimates from the multiple methods ranged from 30 to 42% of the mean value during the dry years and 64 to 76% of the mean value during wet years. Comparison of multiple methods was found to be useful for determining the range of plausible recharge rates and highlighting the uncertainty of the estimates. ?? US Government 2008.

  14. Dynamics of stormflow generation - A hillslope-scale field study in east-central Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, M. S.; Gburek, W. J.; Hamlett, J. M.

    2002-02-01

    A 40 m × 20 m mowed, grass hillslope adjacent to a headwater stream within a 26-ha watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA, was instrumented to identify and map the extent and dynamics of surface saturation (areas with the water table at the surface) and surface runoff source areas. Rainfall, stream flow and surface runoff from the hillslope were recorded at 5-min intervals from 11 August to 22 November 1998, and 13 April to 12 November 1999. The dynamics of the water table (0 to 45 cm depth from the soil surface) and the occurrence of surface runoff source areas across the hillslope were recorded using specially designed subsurface saturation and surface runoff sensors, respectively. Detailed data analyses for two rainfall events that occurred in August (57·7 mm in 150 min) and September (83·6 mm in 1265 min) 1999, illustrated the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface saturation and surface runoff source areas. Temporal data analyses showed the necessity to measure the hillslope dynamics at time intervals comparable to that of rainfall measurements. Both infiltration excess surface runoff (runoff caused when rainfall intensity exceeds soil infiltration capacity) and saturation excess surface runoff (runoff caused when soil moisture storage capacity is exceeded) source areas were recorded during these rainfall events. The August rainfall event was primarily an infiltration excess surface runoff event, whereas the September rainfall event produced both infiltration excess and saturation excess surface runoff. Occurrence and disappearance of infiltration excess surface runoff source areas during the rainfall events appeared scattered across the hillslope. Analysis of surface saturation and surface runoff data showed that not all surface saturation areas produced surface runoff that reached the stream. Emergence of subsurface flow to the surface during the post-rainfall periods appeared to be a major flow process dominating the hillslope after the August

  15. Development of Natural Alkalinity in Appalachian Deep Coal Mine Discharges, Irwin Syncline, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, E. M.; Winters, W. R.; Winters, W. R.; Capo, R. C.

    2001-12-01

    Geochemical processes in flooded underground coal mine complexes are controlled by the relationship between overburden mineralogy and the hydrogeologic system, which is influenced by mining methodology and discharge location. Numerous large flow (over 2,000 L/min), historically acidic, deep mine discharges in Appalachian bituminous coal basins are now net alkaline, with circumneutral pH and high concentrations of dissolved iron (20-80 ppm) and sodium (100-500 ppm) [1]. Understanding natural alkalinity production offers alternative approaches for neutralizing acid mine drainage (AMD) and has implications for predictive models, mining regulations, mine discharge remediation, and resource recovery. To determine the subsurface processes involved in the generation of natural alkalinity, we focused on the Irwin syncline, a 240 sq.-km bituminous coal basin in southwestern Pennsylvania. All major streams that arise within or cross the syncline are affected by polluted mine drainage. The pollution ranges from highly acidic iron- and aluminum-contaminated discharges in the northern portion of the basin to highly alkaline, iron and sulfate-contaminated discharges in the southern portion. Underground mine barrier data were used to divide the basin into six hydraulically related sub-basins; mine waters were collected from nine discharges across the basin [2]. Sub-basin hydrology was integrated with infiltration, discharge, and overburden geochemistry and mineralogy. Modeling of Irwin syncline flows using a solute modeling program (PHREEQC 2.4.2; [3]) indicates that the spatial and temporal change in mine water chemistry involves processes other than simple carbonate dissolution or dilution with uncontaminated water. Results indicate that the acidic discharges in the northeastern end of the basin are the product of surface water modified by pyrite oxidation and dissolution of aluminosilicate minerals. Sodium concentrations in those flows are likely the result of minor halite

  16. Pittsburgh and the Arts or How My Eye Was Formed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschwalb, Susanne A.

    The way the author's experiences of the city of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) shaped her visual literacy are explored. Along with the imagery of the steel mills, she experienced some artistic opportunities that helped shape the foundation of her life in art. Although no American city was as extensively industrialized as Pittsburgh, it was the artistic…

  17. Impact of flood control reservoirs and pollution influx on the Sandy Creek Watershed, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Fred J.; Kanour, William; Weston, Bruce; Valerio, Gerald; Grayburn, Kenneth R.

    1986-03-01

    A study of the impact of two flood control reservoirs and pollution influx was conducted on two streams within the Sandy Creek Watershed, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, USA. Fecal coliforms were significantly reduced in the outflows without affecting water chemistry, thereby improving the overall water quality. The size and composition of the aquatic communities as well as stream metabolism varied seasonably among the different sampling stations. Pollution influx primarily from communities and agricultural drainage had a greater impact on the stream ecosystem than did impounding of the streams. Natural wetlands and riparian vegetation were important factors in reducing the pollution load in these streams. The reestablishment and maintenance of riparian vegetation should therefore be an integral part of the land-use plan for watersheds in order to improve water quality and wildlife habitats. In the future, the maintenance of riparian vegetation should be given prime consideration in the development of watershed projects.

  18. 78 FR 31592 - T-Mobile Usa, Inc., Core Fault Isolation Team, Engineering Division, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 1, 2013 (78 FR 19533). The... Employment and Training Administration T-Mobile Usa, Inc., Core Fault Isolation Team, Engineering Division... workers and former workers of T-Mobile USA, Inc., Core Fault Isolation Team, Engineering...

  19. Pittsburgh Building "Nation" of 9th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Bitter experience has shown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that if students are going to leave school, they are most likely to do it between the 8th and 9th grades. To combat that problem, the school district has launched a full-on campaign to get its rising freshmen into high school and keep them there. Two weeks before school opened, the district…

  20. Geographic and temporal prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Walter O; Heagy, Robin L; Johnson, Joshua B; Marcantuno, Richard; Nolan, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    In autumn of 2010 we collected fecal samples from the rectums of 89 trapped or road-killed Pennsylvania raccoons (Procyon lotor). Similar samples were collected in the summer and autumn of 2011 from 383 raccoons. Fecal samples were stored in 10% formalin until examined. Using saturated sugar flotation and a direct smear, we found Baylisascaris procyonis eggs in 38% of 2010 samples and 32.9% of 2011 samples. Prevalence in raccoons was greater in autumn than in summer and greater in juveniles than in adults; there was not a statistically significant difference between sexes. Infected raccoons were found in 54 of the 65 counties from which samples were recovered (a mean of 5.9 [range 1-12] raccoons were examined per county). The prevalences were similar in all regions of the state. PMID:25105813

  1. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  2. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  3. Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

    1988-03-01

    Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (<20 cm), and spring when food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

  4. Intestinal Helminths in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) from Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.A.; Franson, J.C.; Kinsella, J.M.; Hollmen, T.; Hansen, S.P.; Hollmen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined 115 hunter-killed mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) from 4 states (Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee, U.S.A.) in 1998 and 1999 to investigate geographical variation in the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections. Four intestinal helminth species were identified: Killigrewia delafondi, Ornithostrongylus crami, Ascaridia columbae, and Capillaria obsignata. The number of worms (all helminth species combined) per infected bird ranged from 1 to 166 (mean ± SE = 12.7 ± 7.45, median = 2.0). Filarids. Aproctella stoddardi, were found in 2 birds but were probably adhering to the outside of the intestine. Overall, 18% of the doves were infected with 1 or more species of helminths. The percentage of doves infected with at least 1 helminth species varied from 4% in Arizona to 27% in South Carolina. Mixed infections occurred in only 3 individuals (14% of infected birds). We found no significant differences in prevalence of infection among any of the 4 helminths by host age or sex, and prevalences were too low to test for differences among states. The intensity of O. crami was higher in males than in females but did not differ significantly among states. Intensities of the other 3 helminths did not differ by sex or state, and we found no differences in helminth intensity by age. Intestinal length was significantly greater in infected than in uninfected birds.

  5. Short-Term Bluff Recession Behavior Along Pennsylvania's Great Lakes Coastline, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.; Pluta, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal bluff retreat is a common problem along the world's unconsolidated coastlines. On the Great Lakes coast of Pennsylvania, Quaternary clay-rich glacial till, paleo-lake plain, and sandy strandplain sequences overlie Devonian bedrock. These Quaternary strata are subject to subaerial and lacustrine erosional processes that cause permanent coastal land loss at spatially variable rates, with the former (runoff, slumping, groundwater focusing, etc) dominating over the latter (wave and current scour, abrasion, etc). Land loss is of concern to environmental agencies because land-use planning should account for spatial and temporal variability in land-loss rates, and because bluff erosion contributes to a temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this study is to evaluate spatial variability in bluff retreat rates along a 20 km sector of Pennsylvania's short Great Lakes coast. High resolution LiDAR data covering a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) permit bluff-crest mapping on two comparable data sets that captures change within a timeframe similar to CZM planning intervals. Short-term recession data can be more useful, cost-effective, and accurate than long-term analyses that use lower-resolution field measurements, T-sheets, and historical aerial photography. Bluffs along the 20 km coastal study site consist of up to 26 m of unlithified Quaternary sediments overlying a 1-4 m ledge of sub-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone. Bluff slopes range from 20-90 degrees, beaches are narrow (<8 m wide) or absent, and the bluffs are seasonally shielded by ground-freeze and lake ice. DEMs, hillshades, and slope and contour maps were generated from bare-earth 1998 and 2007 LiDAR data, and checked against 2005 aerial ortho-photography. Maps were analyzed at a scale of 1:120 in ArcGIS and the bluff crest was identified primarily by the visual-break-in-slope method. Rates of bluff retreat derived using DSAS vary from unresolvable to as much as 2.2 m

  6. The relationship between methane migration and shale-gas well operations near Dimock, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Patrick A.

    2016-03-01

    Migration of stray methane gas near the town of Dimock, Pennsylvania, has been at the center of the debate on the safety of shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. The presented study relates temporal variations in molecular concentrations and stable isotope compositions of methane and ethane to shale-gas well activity (i.e., vertical/horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and remedial actions). This was accomplished by analyzing data collected, between 2008 and 2012, by state and federal agencies and the gas well operator. In some cases, methane migration started prior to hydraulic fracturing. Methane levels of contaminated water wells sampled were one to several orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations due to natural variation in water wells of the local area. Isotope analyses indicate that all samples had a thermogenic origin at varying maturity levels, but from formations above the hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale. The results from the initial water well samples were similar to annular gas values, but not those of production gases. This indicates that leakage by casing cement seals most likely caused the impacts, not breaks in the production casing walls. Remediation by squeeze cementing was partially effective in mitigating impacts of gas migration. In several cases where remediation caused a substantial reduction in methane levels, there were also substantial changes in the isotope values, providing evidence of two sources, one natural and the other man-induced. Sampling water wells while venting gas wells appears to be a cost-effective method for determining if methane migration has occurred.

  7. Seasonal 18O variations and groundwater recharge for three landscape types in central Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Driscoll, M. A.; DeWalle, D. R.; McGuire, K. J.; Gburek, W. J.

    2005-03-01

    Seasonal 18O variations in precipitation, soil water, snowmelt, spring flow and stream baseflow were analyzed to characterize seasonal dynamics of groundwater recharge in three central Pennsylvania catchments. The catchments represented three common landscape types: Valley and Ridge-shale (Mahantango Creek), Valley and Ridge-carbonate (Buffalo Run), and Appalachian Plateau-sandstone (Benner Run). Samples were collected on a biweekly basis from May 18, 1999 to May 9, 2000. Precipitation, soil water, and baseflow isotopic composition data indicated that a seasonal recharge bias existed for these catchments, most recharge occurred in the fall, winter, and spring months. An altitude effect of -0.16 to -0.32‰/100 m change in elevation was discernible in precipitation, soil water, and stream baseflow isotopic compositions. Soils effectively damped seasonal variations of recharge 18O composition after depths of 1.62-2.85 m. The greatest damping of the annual isotopic composition signal occurred in the shallow soil layers (0-15 cm). In these and similar landscapes with thick soils the annual isotopic composition signal may be completely damped prior to reaching the stream as baseflow. Isotopic variations measured in stream baseflow are more likely to be caused by the shallow flowpath water relatively close to the streams. Baseflow stable isotope variations found on the basins studied suggested that residence times for subsurface waters to reach channels were much longer than the annual seasonal cycle of 18O in precipitation. Damping depths were similar for the three different catchments but it is not certain how spatially variable damping depths were within each catchment. This information would be useful in determining areas within catchments that contribute to short term isotopic composition fluctuations within streams ('new water'). Predictive models that determine isotopic damping depth from meteorological, soil and vegetation/land-use data can help develop a better

  8. Long-term climate impacts on breeding bird phenology in Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Molly E; DeGroote, Lucas W

    2016-10-01

    Climate change is influencing bird phenology worldwide, but we still lack information on how many species are responding over long temporal periods. We assessed how climate affected passerine reproductive timing and productivity at a constant effort mist-netting station in western Pennsylvania using a model comparison approach. Several lines of evidence point to the sensitivity of 21 breeding passerines to climate change over five decades. The trends for temperature and precipitation over 53 years were slightly positive due to intraseasonal variation, with the greatest temperature increases and precipitation declines in early spring. Regardless of broodedness, migration distance, or breeding season, 13 species hatched young earlier over time with most advancing >3 days per decade. Warm springs were associated with earlier captures of juveniles for 14 species, ranging from 1- to 3-day advancement for every 1 °C increase. This timing was less likely to be influenced by spring precipitation; nevertheless, higher rainfall was usually associated with later appearance of juveniles and breeding condition in females. Temperature and precipitation were positively related to productivity for seven and eleven species, respectively, with negative relations evident for six and eight species. We found that birds fledged young earlier with increasing spring temperatures, potentially benefiting some multibrooded species. Indeed, some extended the duration of breeding in these warm years. Yet, a few species fledged fewer juveniles in warmer and wetter seasons, indicating that expected future increases could be detrimental to locally breeding populations. Although there were no clear relationships between life history traits and breeding phenology, species-specific responses to climate found in our study provide novel insights into phenological flexibility in songbirds. Our research underscores the value of long-term monitoring studies and the importance of continuing constant

  9. Molecular analysis of benthic biofilms from acidic coal mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, D. B.; Jones, D. S.; Burgos, W. D.; Macalady, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common environmental problem in Pennsylvania that results from the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed at abandoned coal mines. In these systems, acidophilic microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of ferrous (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+), which precipitates as iron-hydroxide minerals. To develop and improve low-pH bioremediation strategies, characterization of the microbiology of AMD systems is essential. An acidic (pH 2-4) AMD spring known as ‘Lower Red Eyes’ in Gallitzan State Forest, PA, is fed by anoxic groundwater with ferrous iron concentrations above 550 mg/L. More than half of the total iron is removed after the springwater flows downstream over 80 m of stagnant pools and iron-oxide terraces. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA cloning to characterize the microbial communities from orange sediments and green benthic biofilms. 16S rDNA sequences were extracted from a green biofilm found in a pH 3.5 pool 10 m downstream of the emergence. Based on chloroplast 16S rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we found that Euglena mutabilis was the dominant eukaryotic organism from this location. Euglena mutabilis is a photosynthetic protozoan common in acidic and heavy metal affected environments, and likely contributes to the precipitation of iron oxides through the production of molecular oxygen. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were cloned from iron-oxide sediments with orange cauliflower morphology 27 m downstream from the spring emergence. More than 60% of bacterial sequences retrieved from the orange sediment sample are related to the iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacterium Ferrovum myxofaciens. Other bacterial sequences include relatives of iron-oxidizing genera in the Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. FISH analyses show that Betaproteobacteria-dominated communities are associated with Euglena in multiple upstream locations where pH is above 3.0. Using light microscopy

  10. Polyphosphate Accumulation in Benthic Biofilms in an Agricultural Watershed (Pennsylvania, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient loading has contributed to eutrophication in rivers and downstream systems throughout the mid-Atlantic region, USA. It is known that biofilms can be assessed to determine the amount of phosphorus (P) pollution in a system and the agricultural impacts it has on stream health. Polyphosphates are a storage system in algal cells and can be used to reflect the degree of nutrient loading to stream ecosystems. An ISES (in situ enrichment system) experiment was deployed in four flumes of a USDA maintained stream watershed for a 12-day period. In July-August of 2014, experimental vials of agar were enriched with six levels of P loading from 0.0 to 1,540.8 μg PO4-3/day under consistently N enriched conditions. At the end of this period natural growing biofilms were scraped off tiles established in each site and analyzed for chlorophyll, total P, and polyphosphate. While there were no significant differences found in biomass growth between each treatment (two-way ANOVA; F= 3.387, p>0.042), there were significant increases in P storage with increased P provided (F= 148.853, p<0.001). We measured consistent uptake patterns throughout the watershed, suggesting that uptake was a consistent feature of biofilms throughout the landscape (F= 4.172, p>0.05). A large percentage of total P was also stored as polyphosphate in the treatments with added P in relation to the ambient tiles collected. Given these findings, we propose that polyphosphate storage in stream biofilms are an important, early warning indicator for changing trophic status in streams compared with biomass metrics (e.g., chlorophyll); therefore, P storage in stream algae reflects loading from throughout the terrestrial landscape.

  11. Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site in southeastern Pennsylvania, which features an Fe smelter that was operational in the 18th and 19th centuries, is dominated by three slag piles. Pile 1 slag, from the Hopewell Furnace, and pile 2 slag, likely from the nearby Cornwall Furnace, were both produced in cold-blast charcoal-fired smelters. In contrast, pile 3 slag was produced in an anthracite furnace. Ore samples from the nearby Jones and Hopewell mines that fed the smelter are mainly magnetite-rich with some sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) and accessory silicates (quartz, garnet, feldspar, and clay minerals). Slag piles 1 and 2 are similar mineralogically containing predominantly skeletal and dendritic aluminian diopside and augite, skeletal forsteritic olivine, glass, rounded blebs of metallic Fe, and exotic quartz. Olivine is a major phase in all samples from pile 2, whereas it occurs in only a few samples from pile 1. Samples of the <2mm-size fraction of surface composite slag material or crushed slag from at depth in piles 1 and 2 are mineralogically similar to the large surface slag fragments from those piles with the addition of phases such as feldspars, Fe oxides, and clay minerals that are either secondary weathering products or entrained from the underlying bedrock. Pile 3 slag contains mostly skeletal forsteritic olivine and Ti-bearing aluminian diopside, dendritic or fine-grained subhedral melilite, glass, euhedral spinel, metallic Fe, alabandite-oldhamite solid solution, as well as a sparse Ti carbonitride phase. The bulk chemistry of the slag is dominated by Al 2O 3 (8.5-16.2wt.%), CaO (8.2-26.2wt.%), MgO (4.2-24.7wt.%), and SiO 2 (36.4-59.8wt.%), constituting between 81% and 97% of the mass of the samples. Piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar; pile 1 slag overall contains the highest Fe 2O 3, K 2O and MnO, and the lowest MgO concentrations. Pile 3 slag is high in Al 2O 3, CaO and S, and low in Fe 2O 3, K 2O and SiO 2 compared to the

  12. Cumberland and Pittsburgh 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS areas Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia: data report (abbreviated). National uranium resource evaluation program, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, W.M.

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes results of ground water, surface water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Cumberland and Pittsburgh 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1042 sites in the Cumberland quadrangle and 342 sites in the Pittsburgh quadrangle. Ground water samples were collected at 1240 sites in the Cumberland quadrangle and 467 sites in the Pittsburgh quadrangle. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, for uranium and 8 other elements in ground water, and for uranium and 9 other elements in surface water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps.

  13. The effect of antecedent moisture conditions on sediment and phosphorus loss during overland flow: Mahantango Creek catchment, Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N.

    2002-10-01

    The loss of P in overland flow from most cultivated soils is controlled by erosion, and in-turn soil moisture. We evaluated the effect of soil moisture on erosion and P transport in overland flow by applying rainfall (7 cm h-1) to packed soil boxes (1 m long and 0·15 m wide) and field plots (1 and 10 m long by 1 m wide) of silt loams in a central Pennsylvania (USA) catchment. Flow from packed soil boxes took longer to initiate as antecedent soil moisture decreased from field capacity (2 min) to air dried (8 to 9 min). Even in the more complex field plots (i.e. soil heterogeneity and topography), the wetter site (1 by 10 m plot; 70% field capacity) produced flow more quickly (3 min) and in greater volume (439 L) than the drier site (1 by 10 m plot; 40% field capacity, 15 min, and 214 L, respectively). However, less suspended sediment was transported from wetter soil boxes (1·6 to 2·5 g L-1) and field plots (0·9 g L-1) than drier boxes (2·9 to 4·2 g L-1) and plots (1·2 g L-1). Differences are attributed to their potential for soil aggregate breakdown, slaking and dispersion, which contribute to surface soil sealing and crusting, as dry soils are subject to rapid wetting (by rainfall). During flow, selective erosion and antecedent moisture conditions affected P transport. At field capacity, DRP and PP transport varied little during overland flow. Whereas P transport from previously dry soil decreased rapidly after the initiation of flow (6 to 1·5 mg TP L-1), owing to the greater slaking and dispersion of P-rich particles into flow at the beginning than end of the flow event. These results indicate that soil moisture fluctuations greatly effect erosion and P transport potential and that management to decrease the potential for loss should consider practices such as conservation tillage and cover crops, particularly on areas where high soil P and erosion coincide.

  14. Professors at U. of Pittsburgh Called Managers, Ruled Ineligible to Bargain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Full-time professors at the University of Pittsburgh enjoy "real managerial authority" and cannot bargain collectively under state law, a Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board examiner has ruled. The examiner said Pittsburgh's faculty members could not bargain because they enjoyed similar working conditions to professors at Yeshiva University. (MLW)

  15. Guide to Historic Hungarian Places in Greater Pittsburgh. Educational Curriculum Kit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros-Kazai, Andrew

    This booklet is a guide to buildings and other sites which have played a significant role in the history of the Hungarian community in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania). A brief summary of the significance or present use is provided for: (1) the Hungarian Nationality room at the University of Pittsburgh's Cathedral of Learning; (2) special collections of…

  16. 5. Photocopy of Photograph (from Art Work of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of Photograph (from Art Work of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh: W.H. Parish Publishing Co., 1893) SOUTH FRONT (AT LEFT) - Penn & Liberty Avenues (Commercial Buildings), Arbuthnot Building, 719-721 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. An Evaluation of the Pittsburgh Reading is FUNdamental Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldovici, John A.; And Others

    A study of one of the model "Reading is FUNdamental" (RIF) programs located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was made to determine the success of the program and to formulate suggestions for changes. RIF is a program in which free or inexpensive books are made available in a community through schools, libraries, and other local organizations in order…

  18. Hungarian Community Life in Greater Pittsburgh. Educational Curriculum Kit 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros-Kazai, Mary; Body, Paul

    This booklet is a guide to Hungarian American churches, organizations, and events in Pittsburgh and western Pennsylvania. In addition to listings of organizations and events, names of contact persons, their addresses and telephone numbers are provided. Information is furnished on: (1) Hungarian religious organizations; (2) social and cultural…

  19. Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the results of a continuous 4.5-day laboratory aeration experiment and the first year of passive, aerobic treatment of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) from a typical flooded underground anthracite mine in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. During 1991-2006, the AMD source, locally known as the Otto Discharge, had flows from 20 to 270 L/s (median 92 L/s) and water quality that was consistently suboxic (median 0.9 mg/L O2) and circumneutral (pH ??? 6.0; net alkalinity >10) with moderate concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese and low concentrations of dissolved aluminum (medians of 11, 2.2, and <0.2 mg/L, respectively). In 2001, the laboratory aeration experiment demonstrated rapid oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe 2+) without supplemental alkalinity; the initial Fe2+ concentration of 16.4 mg/L decreased to less than 0.5 mg/L within 24 h; pH values increased rapidly from 5.8 to 7.2, ultimately attaining a steady-state value of 7.5. The increased pH coincided with a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) from an initial value of 10 -1.1atm to a steady-state value of 10-3.1atm. From these results, a staged aerobic treatment system was conceptualized consisting of a 2 m deep pond with innovative aeration and recirculation to promote rapid oxidation of Fe2+, two 0.3 m deep wetlands to facilitate iron solids removal, and a supplemental oxic limestone drain for dissolved manganese and trace-metal removal. The system was constructed, but without the aeration mechanism, and began operation in June 2005. During the first 12 months of operation, estimated detention times in the treatment system ranged from 9 to 38 h. However, in contrast with 80-100% removal of Fe2+ over similar elapsed times during the laboratory aeration experiment, the treatment system typically removed less than 35% of the influent Fe2+. Although concentrations of dissolved CO2 decreased progressively within the treatment system, the PCO2 values for treated effluent

  20. 4. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2991: REAR ELEVATION OF NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS (1889 ADDITION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2990: GENERAL ELEVATION OF NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS (1889 ADDITION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 6. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2993: NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS GENERAL DETAILS (1889 ADDITION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Immunology in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Finn, Olivera J; Salter, Russell D

    2006-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine has a long tradition of excellence in immunology research and training. Faculty, students, and postdoctoral fellows walk through hallways that are pictorial reminders of the days when Dr. Jonas Salk worked here to develop the polio vaccine, or when Dr. Niels Jerne chaired the Microbiology Department and worked on perfecting the Jerne Plaque Assay for antibody-producing cells. Colleagues and postdoctoral fellows of Professor Salk are still on the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh Medical School as are graduate students of Professor Jerne. A modern research building, the 17 story high Biomedical Science Tower, is a vivid reminder of the day when Dr. Thomas Starzl arrived in Pittsburgh and started building the most prominent solid-organ-transplant program in the world. The immunology research that developed around the problem of graft rejection and tolerance induction trained numerous outstanding students and fellows. Almost 20 yr ago, the University of Pittsburgh founded the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) with the renowned immunologist Dr. Ronald Herberman at its helm. This started a number of new research initiatives in cancer immunology and immunotherapy. A large number of outstanding young investigators, as well as several well-established tumor immunologists, were recruited to Pittsburgh at that time. PMID:17337760

  4. A report from the American Academy of Neurology 2014 Annual Meeting (April 26-May 3 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2014-06-01

    Not far from the Liberty Bell Hall and the historical parks of old Philadelphia, the Pennsylvania Convention Center hosted this year's American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting for a full week of integrated science, symposium and general poster sessions. A great amount of research papers were presented and discussed during the meeting by attendees taking refuge from the downpour outside during at least 2 days. But the science was worth staying indoors to witness high-quality research, as summarized in this report. PMID:24983592

  5. Investigation of potential health effects associated with well water chemical contamination in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Logue, J N; Stroman, R M; Reid, D; Hayes, C W; Sivarajah, K

    1985-01-01

    A community health survey was conducted by the Pennsylvania Department of Health in Londonderry Township, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, in response to concerns about potential health effects associated with residential exposure to chemical contaminants in well water. The data indicate that there were no observable adverse health effects in the exposed group of residents, compared with the control group, which could be ascribed to long-term, low-level exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other volatile organic chemicals. Significantly more individuals in the exposed group than in the control group experienced eye irritation, diarrhea, and sleepiness during the 12-month period prior to the survey. This indicated the possibility of an association of contaminated water with the manifestation of symptoms. It is hypothesized that the increased rate of symptoms observed in the exposed group, when compared to the control group, may have been caused by one or more of the following factors: (1) effect of TCE at a threshold level higher than 28 ppb, (2) effect of a single chemical entity other than TCE, and (3) additive or synergistic effects of several chemicals. It is also possible that there are factors other than water contaminants associated with the recorded symptoms, e.g., stress, that may have had an important influence in the exposed group but not in the control group. PMID:4026385

  6. A method to mitigate acid-mine drainage in the Shamokin area, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Perry H.

    1992-01-01

    The three anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania occur in large synclinal basins surrounded by sandstone hogback ridges. The streams draining the coal regions are heavily contaminated by sulfuric acid due to the weathering of pyrite in the abandoned mines and culm. Dams could be built in the water gaps of the streams leaving the basins, forming huge reservoirs. For example, in the western part of the Middle Coal Field (Shamokin-Mt. Carmel area), the construction of four dams would form a reservoir that would inundate practically all the culm banks, abandoned mines, and environmentally abused lands in this coal field. The reservoir (at approximately 410 m elevation) would be approximately 140 sq km in area and could be the source of water for pumped-storage hydroelectricity generation. The water should have moderately good quality and could serve the recreational needs of a vast population of the Middle Atlantic states.

  7. Pittsburgh School Gets Energized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Willliam W.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project designed to create an energy efficient high school in the diocese of Pittsburgh. The project will save over $850,000 in energy, operations, and maintenance costs over fifteen years. The design improves the physical premises as well by adding windows and eliminating fluorescent lighting. Offers tips for developing similar…

  8. Our Pittsburgh Constellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnshek, Diane

    2015-08-01

    Riding on the Pittsburgh mayor’s keen interest in astronomy and the ongoing change of 40,000 city lights from mercury and sodium vapor to shielded LEDs, we organized a series of city-wide celestial art projects to bring attention to the skies over Pittsburgh. Light pollution public talks were held at the University of Pittsburgh’s Allegheny Observatory and other colleges. Earth Hour celebrations kicked off an intensive year of astronomy outreach in the city. Lights went out on March 28, 2015 from 8:30 to 9:30 pm in over fifty buildings downtown and in Oakland (the “Eds and Meds” center, where many Pittsburgh universities and hospitals are located). Our art contest was announced at the De-Light Pittsburgh celebration at the Carnegie Science Center during Astronomy Weekend. “Our Pittsburgh Constellation” is an interactive Google map of all things astronomical in the city. Different colored stars mark locations of planetariums, star parties, classes, observatories, lecture series, museums, telescope manufacturers and participating art galleries. Contest entrants submitted artwork depicting their vision of the constellation figure that incorporates and connects all the “stars” in our custom city map. Throughout the year, over a dozen artists ran workshops on painting star clusters, galaxies, nebulae, comets, planets and aurorae with discussions of light pollution solutions and scientific explanations of what the patrons were painting, including demonstrations with emission tubes and diffraction grating glasses. We will display the celestial art created in this International Year of Light at an art gallery as part of the City’s Department of Innovation & Performance March 2016 Earth Hour gala. We are thankful for the Astronomical Footprint grant from the Heinz Endowments, which allowed us to bring the worlds of science and art together to enact social change.

  9. Landscape disturbance from unconventional and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial footprint of unconventional (hydraulic fracturing) and conventional oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale region of the State of Pennsylvania was digitized from high-resolution, ortho-rectified, digital aerial photography, from 2004 to 2010. We used these data to measure the spatial extent of oil and gas development and to assess the exposure of the extant natural resources across the landscape of the watersheds in the study area. We found that either form of development: (1) occurred in ~50% of the 930 watersheds that defined the study area; (2) was closer to streams than the recommended safe distance in ~50% of the watersheds; (3) was in some places closer to impaired streams and state-defined wildland trout streams than the recommended safe distance; (4) was within 10 upstream kilometers of surface drinking water intakes in ~45% of the watersheds that had surface drinking water intakes; (5) occurred in ~10% of state-defined exceptional value watersheds; (6) occurred in ~30% of the watersheds with resident populations defined as disproportionately exposed to pollutants; (7) tended to occur at interior forest locations; and (8) had >100 residents within 3 km for ~30% of the unconventional oil and gas development sites. Further, we found that exposure to the potential effects of landscape disturbance attributable to conventional oil and gas development was more prevalent than its unconventional counterpart.

  10. Spatial analysis of environment and population at risk of natural gas fracking in the state of Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingmin

    2015-05-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has been increasing exponentially across the United States, which holds the largest known shale gas reserves in the world. Studies have found that the high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing process (HVHFP) threatens water resources, harms air quality, changes landscapes, and damages ecosystems. However, there is minimal research focusing on the spatial study of environmental and human risks of HVHFP, which is necessary for state and federal governments to administer, regulate, and assess fracking. Integrating GIS and spatial kernel functions, we study the presently operating fracking wells across the state of Pennsylvania (PA), which is the main part of the current hottest Marcellus Shale in US. We geographically process the location data of hydraulic fracturing wells, 2010 census block data, urbanized region data, railway data, local road data, open water data, river data, and wetland data for the state of PA. From this we develop a distance based risk assessment in order to understand the environmental and urban risks. We generate the surface data of fracking well intensity and population intensity by integrating spatial dependence, semivariogram modeling, and a quadratic kernel function. The surface data of population risk generated by the division of fracking well intensity and population intensity provide a novel insight into the local and regional regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities in terms of environmental and health related risks due to the proximity of fracking wells. PMID:25727517

  11. Isolation and molecular characterization of newly emerging avian reovirus variants and novel strains in Pennsylvania, USA, 2011–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huaguang; Tang, Yi; Dunn, Patricia A.; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva A.; Lin, Lin; Knoll, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Avian reovirus (ARV) infections of broiler and turkey flocks have caused significant clinical disease and economic losses in Pennsylvania (PA) since 2011. Most of the ARV-infected birds suffered from severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis and depressed growth or runting-stunting syndrome (RSS). A high morbidity (up to 20% to 40%) was observed in ARV-affected flocks, and the flock mortality was occasionally as high as 10%. ARV infections in turkeys were diagnosed for the first time in PA in 2011. From 2011 to 2014, a total of 301 ARV isolations were made from affected PA poultry. The molecular characterization of the Sigma C gene of 114 field isolates, representing most ARV outbreaks, revealed that only 21.93% of the 114 sequenced ARV isolates were in the same genotyping cluster (cluster 1) as the ARV vaccine strains (S1133, 1733, and 2048), whereas 78.07% of the sequenced isolates were in genotyping clusters 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 (which were distinct from the vaccine strains) and represented newly emerging ARV variants. In particular, genotyping cluster 6 was a new ARV genotype that was identified for the first time in 10 novel PA ARV variants of field isolates. PMID:26469681

  12. Isotopic evidence of enhanced carbonate dissolution at a coal mine drainage site in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Shikha; Sack, Andrea; Adams, James P.; Vesper, Dorothy; J Capo, Rosemary C.; Hartsock, Angela; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes were used to determine the sources and fate of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) in the circumneutral pH drainage from an abandoned bituminous coal mine in western Pennsylvania. The C isotope signatures of DIC (δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}) were intermediate between local carbonate and organic C sources, but were higher than those of contemporaneous Pennsylvanian age groundwaters in the region. This suggests a significant contribution of C enriched in {sup 13}C due to enhanced carbonate dissolution associated with the release of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from pyrite oxidation. The Sr isotopic signature of the drainage was similar to other regional mine waters associated with the same coal seam and reflected contributions from limestone dissolution and cation exchange with clay minerals. The relatively high δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4} isotopic signatures of the mine drainage and the presence of presumptive SO{sub 4}-reducing bacteria suggest that SO{sub 4} reduction activity also contributes C depleted in {sup 13}C isotope to the total DIC pool. With distance downstream from the mine portal, C isotope signatures in the drainage increased, accompanied by decreased total DIC concentrations and increased pH. These data are consistent with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} dissolution of carbonate rocks, enhanced by cation exchange, and C release to the atmosphere via CO{sub 2} outgassing.

  13. Decade-scale coastal bluff retreat from LiDAR data: Lake Erie coast of Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Bluff retreat is a significant problem along many parts of the southern Great Lakes coastline of the United States. On the Pennsylvania coast of Lake Erie, where semi-consolidated clay-rich glacial till sequences overlie bedrock, erosion of the bluffs results in a permanent loss of fine-grained sediment from the coastal zone. Bluff retreat is of concern to coastal property owners and regulators because evaluating landslide hazards and developing regulations on coastal development must account for spatial and temporal variability in coastal retreat. Bluff retreat also contributes to temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this pilot study is to evaluate medium-term spatial variability in bluff retreat magnitudes and rates along a sector of the Pennsylvania coast. Newly available high resolution LiDAR data cover a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) and permit mapping of the bluff-crest position on two comparable, high-quality data sets. In contrast, long-term coastal change analyses typically involve comparison of a recent LiDAR data set with an older, lower-resolution data set developed from either field measurements, T-sheets, or aerial photography. While the older data can have much larger inherent errors than the LiDAR data, they become less significant over the longer time frames involved. The 6 km, geologically homogeneous, coastal bluff site is characterized by ~20 m of unlithified Pleistocene glacial tills and lake plain sediments overlying a 3-4 m ledge of near-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone bedrock. Bluff slopes range from 35-90 degrees, beaches are narrow to non-existent, and the coast is frequently protected by ground-freeze and a lake ice shelf during winter. DEMs, hillshades, and slope and contour maps were generated from the bare-earth 1998 and 2007 LiDAR data, and checked against 2005 aerial ortho-photography. Maps were analyzed at a scale of 1:120 in ArcGIS and the bluff crest was identified primarily by the visual

  14. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  15. Using a Merit-Based Scholarship Program to Increase Rates of College Enrollment in an Urban School District: The Case of the Pittsburgh Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozick, Robert; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Engberg, John

    2015-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Promise is a scholarship program that provides $5,000 per year toward college tuition for public high school graduates in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who earned a 2.5 GPA and a 90% attendance record. This study used a difference-in-difference design to assess whether the introduction of the Promise scholarship program directly…

  16. Proceedings of the Pittsburgh conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These abstracts represent the state-of-the-art in Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy and should be a valuable addition to your technical files. This volume is distributed only to the registrants of the 1991 Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition and therefore does not constitute a publication. This volume is not for sale nor does the Pittsburgh Conference permit abstraction of its contents.

  17. The Instructional Cabinet and Shared Decision Making in the Pittsburgh Public Schools: Theory, Practice and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Richard C., Jr.; And Others

    A significant body of research from business and industry has generally confirmed the contribution of participative decision-making to improved organizational effectiveness and employee morale. Following a literature review, this paper explores the implementation of shared decision-making in the Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Public Schools. The…

  18. Improving Special Education Services in the Pittsburgh Public Schools, Winter 2009-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) is the second-largest public school system in Pennsylvania. The state has only one other major big-city school system--Philadelphia's. The school district has made substantial gains in student achievement over the last several years, significantly increasing the numbers of students at the proficient level in…

  19. Processing the CONSOL Energy, Inc. Mine Maps and Records Collection at the University of Pittsburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rougeux, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of archivists and student assistants at the University of Pittsburgh's Archives Service Center to organize, describe, store, and provide timely and efficient access to over 8,000 maps of underground coal mines in southwestern Pennsylvania, as well the records that accompanied them, donated by CONSOL Energy, Inc.…

  20. Preparing for Local Adaptation: Understanding Flood Risk Perceptions in Pittsburgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.

  1. perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    perspective view of bell telephone of Pennsylvania from the northwest. This switching hall, built in 1890, was designed by Frederick j. osterling. Other Bell Telephone buildings on the block include the twenty-story headquarters building (1923, james t. windrim) on the left, and an eleven-story building (1905, alden & Harlow) on the right. - Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania Building, 416-420 Seventh Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  2. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Reynolds CF, 3. d.; Kupfer, D. J.; Buysse, D. J.; Coble, P. A.; Hayes, A. J.; Machen, M. A.; Petrie, S. R.; Ritenour, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Increasingly, there is a need in both research and clinical practice to document and quantify sleep and waking behaviors in a comprehensive manner. The Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD) is an instrument with separate components to be completed at bedtime and waketime. Bedtime components relate to the events of the day preceding the sleep, waketime components to the sleep period just completed. Two-week PghSD data is presented from 234 different subjects, comprising 96 healthy young middle-aged controls, 37 older men, 44 older women, 29 young adult controls and 28 sleep disorders patients in order to demonstrate the usefulness, validity and reliability of various measures from the instrument. Comparisons are made with polysomnographic and actigraphic sleep measures, as well as personality and circadian type questionnaires. The instrument was shown to have sensitivity in detecting differences due to weekends, age, gender, personality and circadian type, and validity in agreeing with actigraphic estimates of sleep timing and quality. Over a 12-31 month delay, PghSD measures of both sleep timing and sleep quality showed correlations between 0.56 and 0.81 (n = 39, P < 0.001).

  3. Using atmospheric chemistry and storm tracks to explain nitrate stable isotope variations in precipitation at a site in central Pennsylvania, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable isotopes of NO3- (delta15N-NO3- and delta18O-NO3-) were monitored in precipitation at a central Pennsylvania site during six storm events in 2005 to determine whether information on atmospheric oxidants (e.g. O3, NO2, and NOx), and storm-tracks were capable of explaining observed seasonal and...

  4. 5. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. DRAWING NO. 2992: NEW STEEL PORTALS AND REPAIRS: SCALE DETAILS LOWER PART OF POSTS (1889 ADDTION). - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. The Right to Strike for Pennsylvania's Public Employees--Its Scope, Limits and Ramifications for the Public Employer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Kurt H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the impact of private labor rulings on Pennsylvania's public employee laws, public sector strikes and their implications, and Pennsylvania's public employee laws and the right to strike. Available from Duquesne Law Review, 901 Rockwell Hall, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15219; sc $3.50. (Author/IRT)

  6. The Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale for Older Adults: Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Nancy W.; Santanasto, Adam J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Newman, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the development of the Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale (PFS) and establish its reliability and concurrent and convergent validity against performance measures. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS Scale development sample: 1,013 individuals aged 60 and older from two registries; validation sample: 483 adults aged 60 and older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). MEASUREMENTS The scale development sample and BLSA participants self-administered an initial 26-item perceived fatigability scale. BLSA participants also completed measures of performance fatigability (perceived exertion from a standard treadmill task and performance deterioration from a fast-paced long-distance corridor walk), a 6-m usual-paced corridor walk, and five timed chair stands. RESULTS Principal components analysis with varimax rotation reduced the 26-item scale to the 10-item PFS. The PFS showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.88) and excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation 0.86). In the validation sample, PFS scores, adjusted for age, sex, and race, were greater for those with high performance fatigability, slow gait speed, worse physical function, and lower fitness, with differences between high and low fatigability ranging from 3.2 to 5.1 points (P < .001). CONCLUSION The 10-item PFS physical fatigability score is a valid and reliable measure of perceived fatigability in older adults and can serve as an adjunct to performance- based fatigability measures for identifying older adults at risk of mobility limitation in clinical and research settings. PMID:25556993

  7. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  8. A vulnerability driven approach to identify adverse climate and land use change combinations for critical hydrologic indicator thresholds: Application to a watershed in Pennsylvania, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Wagener, T.; Crane, R.; Mann, M. E.; Ning, L.

    2014-04-01

    Large uncertainties in streamflow projections derived from downscaled climate projections of precipitation and temperature can render such simulations of limited value for decision making in the context of water resources management. New approaches are being sought to provide decision makers with robust information in the face of such large uncertainties. We present an alternative approach that starts with the stakeholder's definition of vulnerable ranges for relevant hydrologic indicators. Then the modeled system is analyzed to assess under what conditions these thresholds are exceeded. The space of possible climates and land use combinations for a watershed is explored to isolate subspaces that lead to vulnerability, while considering model parameter uncertainty in the analysis. We implement this concept using classification and regression trees (CART) that separate the input space of climate and land use change into those combinations that lead to vulnerability and those that do not. We test our method in a Pennsylvania watershed for nine ecological and water resources related streamflow indicators for which an increase in temperature between 3°C and 6°C and change in precipitation between -17% and 19% is projected. Our approach provides several new insights, for example, we show that even small decreases in precipitation (˜5%) combined with temperature increases greater than 2.5°C can push the mean annual runoff into a slightly vulnerable regime. Using this impact and stakeholder driven strategy, we explore the decision-relevant space more fully and provide information to the decision maker even if climate change projections are ambiguous.

  9. Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Sibrell, P.L.; Belkin, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Armoring of limestone is a common cause of failure in limestone-based acid-mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems. Limestone is the least expensive material available for acid neutralization, but is not typically recommended for highly acidic, Fe-rich waters due to armoring with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings. A new AMD treatment technology that uses CO2 in a pulsed limestone bed reactor minimizes armor formation and enhances limestone reaction with AMD. Limestone was characterized before and after treatment with constant flow and with the new pulsed limestone bed process using AMD from an inactive coal mine in Pennsylvania (pH = 2.9, Fe = 150 mg/l, acidity = 1000 mg/l CaCO3). In constant flow experiments, limestone is completely armored with reddish-colored ochre within 48 h of contact in a fluidized bed reactor. Effluent pH initially increased from the inflow pH of 2.9 to over 7, but then decreased to 6 during operation. Limestone removed from a pulsed bed pilot plant is a mixture of unarmored, rounded and etched limestone grains and partially armored limestone and refractory mineral grains (dolomite, pyrite). The ???30% of the residual grains in the pulsed flow reactor that are armored have thicker (50- to 100-??m), more aluminous coatings and lack the gypsum rind that develops in the constant flow experiment. Aluminium-rich zones developed in the interior parts of armor rims in both the constant flow and pulsed limestone bed experiments in response to pH changes at the solid/solution interface. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 9. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 1993: RECONSTRUCTION OF PORTALS, GENERAL PLAN & ELEVATION. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF PITTSBURGH HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW FROM NORTHWEST OF PITTSBURGH HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE CREATIVE AND PERFORMING ARTS, BUILT 2003 BY THE FIRM OF MACLACHLAN CORNELIUS AND FILONI. - Pittsburgh High School for the Creative & Performing Arts, 111 Ninth Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Igneous Structures, Magma Transport, and Crystallization in Simple and Complex Plumbing Systems of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srogi, L.; Martinson, P.; Willis, K. V.; Kulp, R.; Pollock, M.; Lutz, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies showing the importance of sills and sheets in crustal magmatic plumbing at rifted continental margins prompt re-examination of the Mesozoic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, eastern North America. The Newark-Gettysburg Basins in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, contain Jurassic diabase (dolerite) intrusions and lava flows. Most intrusions are considered a single sheet or saucer sill. However, at the W end of the Newark Basin the Jacksonwald Syncline (JS) includes small plutons, sills, dikes, and a lava flow; and the Morgantown Pluton (MP) is a connected network of sills and inclined sheets with the 250-m-wide Birdsboro Dike forming the E side. After crystallization most intrusions were tilted or folded and dip/plunge toward the NW border faults. In the SE part of the MP, small magmatic pipes (originally vertical) and modal layering were tilted 20 degrees NNW, similar to plunge of the JS. If tilting was due to movement along the border faults then the basins expose cross-sections of a few kms from shallower (N/NW) to deeper (S/SE) crustal levels. There is a difference of 3.5-6 km in paleo-depth between basal S/SE units and upper N/NW units within JS, MP, and York Haven Sheet, consistent with estimated thicknesses of Triassic sedimentary rocks. Basal cumulus and upper Fe-rich and granophyric zones occur in most Newark-Gettysburg Basin intrusions implying similar magma transport and crystallization processes regardless of plumbing geometry. MELTS modeling of early orthopyroxene crystallization at high P suggests that opx-rich diabase marks magma feeder locations; at least 2 feeders at different emplacement levels occur in the MP. Modally-layered opx cumulus in the MP basal sill accumulated from dozens of m-scale magma pulses with lateral migration of most liquid. Distributions of distinctive phenocrysts provide insights into magma transport and crystal sorting. MP and JS chilled margins and lava flows have almost identical REE and other

  13. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  14. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and <0.1 wt%, respectively, and the dolomitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 60.3 and 40.2 wt%, were used to construct a downflow treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a

  15. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the

  16. A Bridge to the Future: A Pennsylvania District's "Lifelong" Community Learning Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaul, Samuel A.; Ganster, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Influencing and mentoring underachieving students is one mission of the Ambridge Area Community Learning Center in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Operating with a 3-year, $90,000 grant from Pittsburgh's Grable Foundation, the "lifelong" learning center offers classes, workshops, and services to all ages. (MLH)

  17. Laboratory and field evaluation of a flushable oxic limestone drain for treatment of net-acidic drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of dissolution-rate data obtained in the laboratory to indicate the potential quality of effluent from a field-scale oxic limestone drain (OLD) treatment system for neutralization of dilute acidic mine drainage (AMD). Effluent from the Reevesdale Mine South Dip Tunnel, a large source of AMD and base flow to the Wabash Creek and Little Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield of east-central Pennsylvania, is representative of AMD with low concentrations but high loadings of dissolved Fe, Al and other metals because of a high flow rate. In January 2003, rapid neutralization of the AMD from the Reevesdale Mine was achieved in laboratory tests of its reaction rate with crushed limestone in closed, collapsible containers (Cubitainers). The tests showed that net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with retention times greater than 3 h and that effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for Fe(OH)3-coated and uncoated limestone. On the basis of the laboratory results, a flushable OLD containing 1450 metric tons of high-purity calcitic limestone followed by two 0.7-m deep wetlands were constructed at the Reevesdale Mine. During the first year of operation, monthly data at the inflow, outflow and intermediate points within the treatment system were collected (April 2006-2007). The inflow to the treatment system ranged from 6.8 to 27.4 L/s, with median pH of 4.7, net acidity of 9.1 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of 1.0, 1.9 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The corresponding effluent from the OLD had computed void-volume retention times of 4.5-18 h, with median pH of 6.6, net acidity of -93.2 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of <0.1, 0.08 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively. The wetlands below the OLD were effective for retaining metal-rich solids flushed at monthly or more frequent intervals from the OLD, but otherwise had little effect on the effluent quality

  18. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  19. Projected Climate Change Impacts on Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Shortle, J.; Abler, D.; Blumsack, S.; Crane, R.; Kaufman, Z.; McDill, M.; Ready, R.; Rydzik, M.; Wagener, T.; Wardrop, D.; Wilson, T.

    2009-05-01

    We present an assessment of the potential impacts of human-induced climate change on the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. We first assess a suite of 21 global climate models for the state, rating them based on their ability to simulate the climate of Pennsylvania on time scales ranging from submonthly to interannual. The multi-model mean is superior to any individual model. Median projections by late century are 2-4 degrees C warming and 5-10 percent precipitation increases (B1 and A2 scenarios), with larger precipitation increases in winter and spring. Impacts on the commonwealth's aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources, agriculture, forests, energy, outdoor recreation, tourism, and human health, are evaluated. We also examine barriers and opportunities for Pennsylvania created by climate change mitigation. This assessment was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection which, pursuant to the Pennsylvania Climate Change Act, Act 70 of 2008, is required to develop a report on the potential scientific and economic impacts of climate change to Pennsylvania.

  20. Reclaim Northside: An Environmental Justice Approach to Address Vacant Land in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Samantha; Sing, Evaine

    2016-01-01

    Urban decline, disinvestment, and blight have not traditionally been addressed by the environmental conservation movement. In this article, we describe an environmental justice-focused intervention located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that aimed to increase community empowerment to address urban environmental injustices by training residents to reclaim vacant land. We use a case study approach to illustrate resident perceptions of the impact of vacant land and urban decay. The results suggest that these residents viewed vacancy as an important indicator of community well-being and social inequality. We use a social and environmental justice framework to describe results and implications for practitioners and researchers. PMID:27214676

  1. Acid aerosols in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, Thomas; Zelenka, Michael P.; Lawrence, Philip M.; Houston, Robert M.; Burton, Robert

    This article presents data on ambient concentrations of selected acidic aerosols at four existing monitoring sites in the Pittsburgh PA metropolitan area. The data were collected by staff of the Allegheny County Health Department, Division of Air Quality during the summer and fall of 1993. The sampling protocol was focused on obtaining 24 h-average ammonia, ammonium, acidic sulfates, and particle strong acids data on a 2 to 3 day cycle. The data were obtained using Harvard University School of Public Health's "Short-HEADS" annular denuder sampling train. The Pittsburgh area is of interest because it is downwind of a major regional source of sulfur and nitrogen emissions from coal-burning power plants: the Ohio River Valley. The data presented here indicate that ground-level concentrations of acidic aerosols in Pittsburgh are highly correlated spatially and that many pollutants are higher on days when ground-level wind direction vectors indicate that wind is coming from the southwest rather than from the Pittsburgh source area itself. The monitoring site that is most upwind of the Pittsburgh source area - South Fayette - has particle strong acid levels about twice those of sites closer in to the Pittsburgh central business district.

  2. Fulfilling The Pittsburgh Promise[R]: Early Progress of Pittsburgh's Postsecondary Scholarship Program. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gabriella C.; Bozick, Robert; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah; Phillips, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a detailed assessment of the extent to which "The Pittsburgh Promise"--a postsecondary education scholarship intended to remedy the area's population decline, foster high school completion and college readiness among Pittsburgh district students, and prepare a capable and energetic workforce for the city--has met its goals to…

  3. [Proceedings of the] International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (3rd, Pittsburgh, PA, July 11-13, 2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d., Ed.; Merceron, Agathe, Ed.; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Data Mining (EDM 2010) was held in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. It follows the second conference at the University of Cordoba, Spain, on July 1-3, 2009 and the first edition of the conference held in Montreal in 2008, and a series of workshops within the AAAI, AIED, EC-TEL, ICALT, ITS, and UM conferences. EDM 2011…

  4. Imported Lassa Fever, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Adam; McConnell, Ryan; Patel, Ami; Dillon, Katherine E.; Hamilton, Keith; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Campbell, Shelley; Knust, Barbara; Cannon, Deborah; Miller, David; Manning, Craig; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of Lassa fever in a US traveler who visited rural Liberia, became ill while in country, sought medical care upon return to the United States, and subsequently had his illness laboratory confirmed. The patient recovered with supportive therapy. No secondary cases occurred. PMID:20875288

  5. Imported Lassa fever, Pennsylvania, USA, 2010.

    PubMed

    Amorosa, Valerianna; MacNeil, Adam; McConnell, Ryan; Patel, Ami; Dillon, Katherine E; Hamilton, Keith; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Campbell, Shelley; Knust, Barbara; Cannon, Deborah; Miller, David; Manning, Craig; Rollin, Pierre E; Nichol, Stuart T

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of Lassa fever in a US traveler who visited rural Liberia, became ill while in country, sought medical care upon return to the United States, and subsequently had his illness laboratory confirmed. The patient recovered with supportive therapy. No secondary cases occurred. PMID:20875288

  6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST WITH OPEN HEARTH TO THE LEFT, PITTSBURGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST WITH OPEN HEARTH TO THE LEFT, PITTSBURGH & LAKE ERIE RAILROAD TRACKS CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. 75 FR 71721 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee to submit their application for membership, to the...-7324. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority Section 102 of the Maritime Transportation Security...

  8. Have a Pennsylvania Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Describes a social studies unit on Pennsylvania for third graders. As a final activity, students hold a Pennsylvania party at which they use pictures of famous people from the state with other state symbols as decorations, and serve foods grown in the state for refreshments. (AM)

  9. 13. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 2000: ORNAMENTAL IRON & BRONZE DETAILS, UPPER PART OF PORTALS. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 11. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 1998: ORNAMENTAL IRON & BRONZE DETAILS, LOWER PART OF PORTALS. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 14. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 2001: ORNAMENTAL IRON & BRONZE, REAR ELEVATION OF PORTALS AND DETAILS. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 12. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 1999: ORNAMENTAL IRON & BRONZE DETAILS, UPPER PART OF PORTALS. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 15. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 2002: ORNAMENTAL IRON & BRONZE, LOCATION PLAN AND BRONZE TABLETS. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of original drawing belonging to the Pittsburgh Department of Public Works, (n.d.). DRAWING NO. 1963: STRESS AND SECTION SHEET FOR 531' STEEL SPANS. - North Side Point Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Point of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 75 FR 56866 - Special Local Regulation; Monongahela River, Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... special local regulation is needed to safeguard participants of the Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival from... because immediate action is needed to safeguard participants during the Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival... immediate action is needed to safeguard participants during the Pittsburgh Dragon Boat Festival from...

  16. 78 FR 17634 - Foreign-Trade Zone 35-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Application for Subzone; Teva Pharmaceuticals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; North Wales, Chalfont, Kutztown and Sellersville, Pennsylvania An application has been... of FTZ 35, requesting special-purpose subzone status for the facilities of Teva Pharmaceuticals...

  17. The Impact of Commercially Treated Oil and Gas Produced Water Discharges on Bromide Concentrations and Modeled Brominated Trihalomethane Disinfection Byproducts at two Downstream Municipal Drinking Water Plants in the Upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species were observed in finished water at several Western Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in br...

  18. Training in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo R.

    1983-01-01

    A train trip through Pennsylvania is an education in the history and current activities and industries of the state. One can observe the old railroad depots, landscapes, railroad work crews, strip mines, and Amish communities. (KC)

  19. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  20. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  1. Investigation of Nucleation Bursts During the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanier, C. O.; Khlystov, A. Y.; Wittig, B.; Pandis, S. N.; Zhou, Y.; Bein, K.; Wexler, A. S.; Misra, C.; Sioutas, C.

    2002-12-01

    Homogeneous nucleation is one of the major sources of atmospheric particles on a global scale. Understanding nucleation is important for quantifying its role in shaping the ambient aerosol distribution and its effects on cloud properties and the planetary energy balance. Over 100 days with nucleation events were investigated during a sampling campaign sampling continental aerosols in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Over 90,000 size distributions were collected over 12 months using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers (SMPS) at three locations, including both urban and rural sites. Particle size distributions were measured down to 3 nm at the main site and to 10 nm at the other sites. The frequency of nucleation events was surprising. Approximately 50% of the study days were characterized by nucleation events. These events appear to occur over a large area and are not directly related to the emissions from the urban area. Some nucleation events occurred near simultaneously at samplers 500 km apart. Theories under investigation for the nucleation mechanism include sulfuric acid-water, sulfuric acid-water-ammonia, and secondary organic nucleation. The chemistry of the freshly nucleated and growing particles was investigated by collecting over 20,000 single particle mass spectra using Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometry on particles as small as 20 nm. Results of TDMA and hygroscopic growth measurements of nuclei mode particles will also be presented. A large number of high-frequency gas, particle, and meteorological measurements were taken with collocated instruments. Data will be analyzed to elucidate possible cause-effect relationships and the dataset will be compared to theoretical estimates of nucleation rates for a number of mechanisms.

  2. Pennsylvania Dutch Crafts and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Many people hold two common misconceptions about the Pennsylvania Dutch: first, that these people live exclusively in the state of Pennsylvania; second, that their ancestors came from Holland. However, neither assumption is correct. One can find large Pennsylvania Dutch communities in Mary land, West Virginia, Virginia, the Carolinas, Ohio,…

  3. ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.

    This curriculum guide was prepared as a tool for teaching students the purpose and function of the ACCESS PENNSYLVANIA database in the total concept of information literacy. The database on compact laser disc contains information about the holdings of hundreds of school, public, academic, and special use libraries. The database can be searched at…

  4. The Pennsylvania State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Philip J.; Dowhower, Andrea L.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1855 as the Farmer's High School, the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) began as a small college in Centre County providing agricultural education to young men from regional farm families. Penn State became a land-grant university in 1863 following passage of the Morrill Act. Today, Penn State enrolls more than 83,000 students…

  5. Application of Computer Assisted Energy Analysis Seminar (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 12-14, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The intent of this seminar presentation was to demonstrate that with proper care in selecting and managing energy analysis programs, or in choosing commercial services to accomplish the same purposes, universities and colleges may derive significant benefits from efficient and economical use and management of their facilities. The workbook begins…

  6. Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens Isolates in Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Area Soils and Home Kitchens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Sayeed, Sameera; McClane, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    In the United States and Europe, food poisoning due to Clostridium perfringens type A is predominantly caused by C. perfringens isolates carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin gene (cpe). Neither the reservoir for these isolates nor the point in the food chain where these bacteria contaminate foods is currently understood. Therefore, the current study investigated whether type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene are present in two potential reservoirs, i.e., soil and home kitchen surfaces. No C. perfringens isolates were recovered from home kitchen surfaces, but most surveyed soil samples contained C. perfringens. The recovered soil isolates were predominantly type A, but some type C, D, and E soil isolates were also identified. All cpe-positive isolates recovered from soil were genotyped as type A, with their cpe genes on cpe plasmids rather than the chromosome. However, two cpe-positive soil isolates did not carry a classical cpe plasmid. Both of those atypical cpe-positive soil isolates were sporulation capable yet failed to produce C. perfringens enterotoxin, possibly because of differences in their upstream promoter regions. Collectively these results suggest that neither soil nor home kitchen surfaces represent major reservoirs for type A isolates with chromosomal cpe that cause food poisoning, although soil does appear to be a reservoir for cpe-positive isolates causing non-food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:17905877

  7. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: S&A Homes, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with IBACOS to design urban infill HERS-51 homes with compact duct layout in conditioned space, foam insulated precast concrete foundations, high-efficiency HVAC, and tankless water heaters

  8. Marketing Education National Research Conference Report (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 15-17, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmieri, Frank, Ed.

    These proceedings contain eight presentations related to research in the areas of marketing and distributive education: "Desired Student Preparation in the Job Application Process as Perceived by the Business Community" (Thomas Allen, Jr.); "Effective Marketing Techniques for Collegiate Business Education Programs" (Ralph Wray); "Alabama Marketing…

  9. Adult Literacy & Technology National Conference (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 27-31, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Inst. for the Study of Adult Literacy.

    This document provides advance information on the symposia, workshops, and presentations of a conference the purpose of which was to teach about new techniques and methodologies for applying technology as a solution to adult illiteracy. Brief summaries are provided of the content of the symposia, workshops, and presentations. Representative topics…

  10. Teaching Economics Conference (5th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, February 10-12, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Bobby G., Ed.

    This collection of 21 papers delivered by university professors and other representatives from throughout the United States focuses on economics teaching in the classroom from a variety of perspectives. The papers include: (1) "Internationalizing the Curriculum: The United States in a Global Economy: International Issues for the Beginning Student"…

  11. 77 FR 62147 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... standard''), based on a 3-year average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations (62 FR 38652, July 18, 1997... annual PM 2.5 NAAQS based upon air quality monitoring data for calendar years 2001-2003 (70 FR 944... implement the 1997 annual PM 2.5 NAAQS (72 FR 20586, April 25, 2007). On June 11, 2012 (77 FR 34297),...

  12. University-Urban Interface Program. Pittsburgh Goals: Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehnevajsa, Jiri

    The Pittsburgh Goals Study about which this speech centers is SO 004 019. Issues identified by the leaders questioned which seem particularly crucial for the next five years in the development of Pittsburgh are: pollution control; public welfare system; drug problem; health services; low cost housing; rapid transit. Two more issues, Metropolitan…

  13. PORTAL ELEVATION, LOOKING SE. SINGLE BRIDGE IS PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTAL ELEVATION, LOOKING SE. SINGLE BRIDGE IS PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY; PAIR OF BRIDGES ARE ABANDONED LAKE SHORE AND MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD (HAER No. IL-161). - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. 7. PORTAL ELEVATION, LOOKING SE. SINGLE BRIDGE IS PITTSBURGH, FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PORTAL ELEVATION, LOOKING SE. SINGLE BRIDGE IS PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY; PAIR OF BRIDGES ARE ABANDONED LAKE SHORE AND MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD (HAER No. IL-161). - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. Value-Added Models for the Pittsburgh Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Bruch, Julie

    2012-01-01

    At the request of Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) and the Pittsburgh Federation of Teachers (PFT), Mathematica has developed value-added models (VAMs) that aim to estimate the contributions of individual teachers, teams of teachers, and schools to the achievement growth of their students. The authors' work in estimating value-added in Pittsburgh…

  16. 75 FR 24961 - Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Pittsburgh Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to... Security Act (MTSA) of 2002 (Pub. L. 107-295) added section 70112 to Title 46 of the U.S. Code,...

  17. CORNPLANTER ROADLESS AREA, PENNSYLVANIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Welsh, Robert A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The Cornplanter Roadless Area is on the west shore of Allegheny Reservoir, Pennsylvania, in an area containing flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Devonian and Mississippian age. Based on mineral-resource studies, these rocks have a substantiated potential for natural gas and a probable potential for oil in the roadless area. Other identified mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, conglomeratic sandstone suitable for high silica uses, and shale suitable for production of clay products.

  18. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA.

    PubMed

    Landis, Matthew S; Kamal, Ali S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; Croghan, Carry; Norris, Gary A; Bergdale, Amy

    2016-01-15

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species was observed in finished water at several Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in bromide (Br(-)) concentrations in the Allegheny River was implicated to be the cause of the elevated water disinfection byproducts. This study focused on quantifying the contribution of Br(-) from a commercial wastewater treatment facility (CWTF) that solely treats wastes from oil and gas producers and discharges into the upper reaches of the Allegheny River, and impacts on two downstream PDWs. In 2012, automated daily integrated samples were collected on the Allegheny River at six sites during three seasonal two-week sampling campaigns to characterize Br(-) concentrations and river dispersion characteristics during periods of high and low river discharges. The CWTF discharges resulted in significant increases in Br(-) compared to upstream baseline values in PDW raw drinking water intakes during periods of low river discharge. During high river discharge, the assimilative dilution capacity of the river resulted in lower absolute halide concentrations, but significant elevations Br(-) concentrations were still observed at the nearest downstream PDW intake over baseline river levels. On days with active CWTF effluent discharge the magnitude of bromide impact increased by 39 ppb (53%) and 7 ppb (22%) for low and high river discharge campaigns, respectively. Despite a declining trend in Allegheny River Br(-) (2009-2014), significant impacts from CWTF and coal-fired power plant discharges to Br(-) concentrations during the low river discharge regime at downstream PDW intakes was observed, resulting in small modeled increases in total THM (3%), and estimated positive shifts (41-47%) to more toxic brominated THM analogs. The lack of available coincident measurements of THM, precursors, and physical parameters

  19. 76 FR 47993 - Safety Zone; Allegheny River; Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... that will occur in the city of Pittsburgh, PA on August 6, 2011 (rain date August 7, 2011). Under 5 U.S... occur in the city of Pittsburgh, PA on August 6, 2011 (rain date August 7, 2011). Basis and Purpose The.... on August 6, 2011, with a rain date of August 7, 2011 from 9:30 p.m. to 11 p.m. The Captain of...

  20. Longwall - USA: International exhibition & conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Longwall-USA International Exhibition and Conference was held June 4-6, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA. Seventeen papers are included in the proceedings that covered such topics as health and safety, development of gate roads, telemetry monitoring systems, fires, longwall miners, roof support technologies, dust control, moving car bunker systems, reducing longwall noise, vibration of longwall equipment, and the USBM`s strategic structures testing laboratory. A separate abstract with indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Pennsylvania Public Employe Labor Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrush, John D.

    This volume is intended to help public administrators and attorneys deal with the legal problems in Pennsylvania public sector labor relations. In it, the Pennsylvania Labor Relations Board is discussed and public sector labor relations court decisions are cited. The volume is intended to be a reference book and to reveal inconsistencies in…

  2. Pennsylvania Migratory Labor Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, Harrisburg, PA.

    Operating for the 18th year, the Pennsylvania Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, which is charged with coordinating and bringing into focus the activities of various governmental and nongovernmental agencies relating to Pennsylvania's migrant workers, submits the present document as an annual report. Some specific areas reported on by…

  3. A geostatistical approach to predicting sulfur content in the Pittsburgh coal bed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, W.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Bragg, L.J.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a national assessment of coal resources in the five top coal-producing regions in the US. Point-located data provide measurements on coal thickness and sulfur content. The sample data and their geologic interpretation represent the most regionally complete and up-to-date assessment of what is known about top-producing US coal beds. The sample data are analyzed using a combination of geologic and Geographic Information System (GIS) models to estimate tonnages and qualities of the coal beds. Traditionally, GIS practitioners use contouring to represent geographical patterns of "similar" data values. The tonnage and grade of coal resources are then assessed by using the contour lines as references for interpolation. An assessment taken to this point is only indicative of resource quantity and quality. Data users may benefit from a statistical approach that would allow them to better understand the uncertainty and limitations of the sample data. To develop a quantitative approach, geostatistics were applied to the data on coal sulfur content from samples taken in the Pittsburgh coal bed (located in the eastern US, in the southwestern part of the state of Pennsylvania, and in adjoining areas in the states of Ohio and West Virginia). Geostatistical methods that account for regional and local trends were applied to blocks 2.7 mi (4.3 km) on a side. The data and geostatistics support conclusions concerning the average sulfur content and its degree of reliability at regional- and economic-block scale over the large, contiguous part of the Pittsburgh outcrop, but not to a mine scale. To validate the method, a comparison was made with the sulfur contents in sample data taken from 53 coal mines located in the study area. The comparison showed a high degree of similarity between the sulfur content in the mine samples and the sulfur content represented by the geostatistically derived contours. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Description of interview data regarding Pittsburgh and confluence toxic chemical accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1990-11-01

    Evacuation is the protective action most often recommended in response to chemical releases in the United States. The appropriateness of a decision to evacuate depends on whether the affected areas can be cleared of residents before it is contaminated by the chemical release. In determining whether an evacuation can be completed in time, emergency officials must consider both technical and behavioral aspects. The technical components can be readily conceived and quantified. In contrast, the behavioral components are much more abstract and more difficult to estimate. This report summarizes the univariate analysis of responses to surveys conducted in two communities where evacuation was recommended following train derailments involving hazardous chemicals. The surveys were designed to identify the actions taken by residents upon receiving the emergency warning; determine when people received the warning, decided to take action, and implemented the action; and ascertain factors that might explain the nature and timing of their actions. The surveys were conducted in the Bloomfield section of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in the town of Confluence, Pennsylvania. The study confirms that compliance with an emergency warning to evacuate varies and that potentially dangerous delays can be expected. Significant differences were noted, however, in the rate and speed of compliance in the two communities. The surveys provide information on several factors that may be useful in determining the reasons for differences in the responses from the two communities as well as differences among individual respondents. Such factors include the time of day when the accident occurred, where the respondent was at the time, whether the family was together, previous disaster experience, pet ownership, the content of the warning message, and demographic characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Social Contact Networks and Mixing among Students in K-12 Schools in Pittsburgh, PA.

    PubMed

    Guclu, Hasan; Read, Jonathan; Vukotich, Charles J; Galloway, David D; Gao, Hongjiang; Rainey, Jeanette J; Uzicanin, Amra; Zimmer, Shanta M; Cummings, Derek A T

    2016-01-01

    Students attending schools play an important role in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we present a social network analysis of contacts among 1,828 students in eight different schools in urban and suburban areas in and near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, including elementary, elementary-middle, middle, and high schools. We collected social contact information of students who wore wireless sensor devices that regularly recorded other devices if they are within a distance of 3 meters. We analyzed these networks to identify patterns of proximal student interactions in different classes and grades, to describe community structure within the schools, and to assess the impact of the physical environment of schools on proximal contacts. In the elementary and middle schools, we observed a high number of intra-grade and intra-classroom contacts and a relatively low number of inter-grade contacts. However, in high schools, contact networks were well connected and mixed across grades. High modularity of lower grades suggests that assumptions of homogeneous mixing in epidemic models may be inappropriate; whereas lower modularity in high schools suggests that homogenous mixing assumptions may be more acceptable in these settings. The results suggest that interventions targeting subsets of classrooms may work better in elementary schools than high schools. Our work presents quantitative measures of age-specific, school-based contacts that can be used as the basis for constructing models of the transmission of infections in schools. PMID:26978780

  6. Social Contact Networks and Mixing among Students in K-12 Schools in Pittsburgh, PA

    PubMed Central

    Guclu, Hasan; Read, Jonathan; Vukotich, Charles J.; Galloway, David D.; Gao, Hongjiang; Rainey, Jeanette J.; Uzicanin, Amra; Zimmer, Shanta M.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Students attending schools play an important role in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we present a social network analysis of contacts among 1,828 students in eight different schools in urban and suburban areas in and near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, including elementary, elementary-middle, middle, and high schools. We collected social contact information of students who wore wireless sensor devices that regularly recorded other devices if they are within a distance of 3 meters. We analyzed these networks to identify patterns of proximal student interactions in different classes and grades, to describe community structure within the schools, and to assess the impact of the physical environment of schools on proximal contacts. In the elementary and middle schools, we observed a high number of intra-grade and intra-classroom contacts and a relatively low number of inter-grade contacts. However, in high schools, contact networks were well connected and mixed across grades. High modularity of lower grades suggests that assumptions of homogeneous mixing in epidemic models may be inappropriate; whereas lower modularity in high schools suggests that homogenous mixing assumptions may be more acceptable in these settings. The results suggest that interventions targeting subsets of classrooms may work better in elementary schools than high schools. Our work presents quantitative measures of age-specific, school-based contacts that can be used as the basis for constructing models of the transmission of infections in schools. PMID:26978780

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS - PITTSBURGH ENGINEER WAREHOUSE AND REPAIR STATION AND EMSWORTH LOCKS DAMS, PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works facilities, including a navigation lock and dam, flood control project, and warehouse and a district repair station. ecommended...

  8. Thumbprints and Thoughtprints: Every Learner Unique. Proceedings of the Annual Pittsburgh Conference on Reading and Writing (32nd, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Shirley A., Ed.; And Others

    The 13 articles in this book are designed to help teachers develop the reading and writing potential of students through individualized instruction. Topics discussed in the articles are (1) child development problems faced by both parents and teachers, (2) reading difficulties that exist at all grade levels, (3) strategy-based reading instruction,…

  9. The Pittsburgh Project - Part I: Community Growth and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jerome

    This paper presents a summary of the first part of the Pittsburgh Project. It deals with white racialism. "Racialism" is a term that is used differently, explained differently, and deployed differently to account for a heterogeneous range of social phenomena. Not uncommonly, assumptions are made that racialism is a unitary rather than a…

  10. 75 FR 9867 - University of Pittsburgh, et al

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    .... Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: JEOL, Ltd., Japan. Intended Use: See notice at 75 FR 3895...: JEM-1400 Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: JEOL Ltd., Japan. Intended Use: See notice at 75 FR 3895... International Trade Administration University of Pittsburgh, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision...

  11. 75 FR 81469 - Safety Zone; Allegheny River, Pittsburgh, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...-2010-1082 and are available online by going to http://www.regulations.gov , inserting USCG-2010-1082 in.... 2064; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. 0 2. Add Sec. 165.T08-1082 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T08-1082 Safety Zone; Allegheny River, Pittsburgh, PA. (a) Location. The following...

  12. The Pittsburgh Girls Study: Overview and Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community-based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current article, we summarize the…

  13. The "Pittsburgh Courier's" Double V Campaign in 1942.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Pat

    In February 1942, a letter to the editor of the Pittsburgh "Courier," the nation's largest black owned newspaper, started the "Double V" (for victory at home and victory abroad) campaign, which stressed the right of blacks to have equality in the United States since they were fighting inequality abroad. As the "Courier" devoted a great deal of…

  14. The Pittsburgh Promise: A Community's Commitment to Its Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghubril, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The nonprofit community-based organization Pittsburgh Promise aims to help revitalize Pittsburgh and its public school system by offering college scholarships to any Pittsburgh Public School graduate who meets the academic requirements. Executive director Saleem Ghubril spoke with "Voices in Urban Education" guest editor Jacob Mishook…

  15. Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. Bettis-Pittsburgh Site environmental summary report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    This summary report provides a description of the nature and environmental aspects of work and facilities at the Bettis-Pittsburgh site, an historical perspective of Bettis-Pittsburgh operations that is not provided by the annual reports, and background information pertinent to understanding the environmental aspects of Bettis-Pittsburgh operations.

  16. The Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College

    SciTech Connect

    Meville, Jeff; Wilson, Jack; Manz, John; Gannett, Kirk; Smith, Franzennia

    2010-01-01

    A look into some of the remarkable work being done in the Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College. Penn College's program has served as the model for six other training centers in Pennsylvania alone.

  17. The Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College

    ScienceCinema

    Meville, Jeff; Wilson, Jack; Manz, John; Gannett, Kirk; Smith, Franzennia;

    2013-05-29

    A look into some of the remarkable work being done in the Weatherization Training program at Pennsylvania College. Penn College's program has served as the model for six other training centers in Pennsylvania alone.

  18. 77 FR 25874 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... (47 FR 33050). You can also find later actions concerning Pennsylvania's program and program... required amendment was imposed on the Pennsylvania program on December 30, 1992, Federal Register (57 FR... Register (65 FR 79582). Nevertheless, Pennsylvania has demonstrated that it interprets the term...

  19. Pennsylvania Farm Labor Service Annual Report, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Labor and Industry, Harrisburg.

    A delineation of the results of an effort to satisfy the needs of the Pennsylvania farmer and to procure gainful employment for migrant workers is the stated purpose of this 1970 annual report by the Rural Services Section of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Employment Security. The report divides Pennsylvania into 7 crop-reporting areas, in which…

  20. Atmospheric Impacts of Marcellus Shale Gas Activities in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, A. A.; Lipsky, E. M.; Saleh, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Pittsburgh and the surrounding regions of southwestern Pennsylvania are subject to intensive natural gas exploration, drilling, and extraction associated with the Marcellus Shale formation. Gas extraction from the shale formation uses techniques of horizontal drilling followed by hydraulic fracturing. There are significant concerns about air pollutant emissions from the development and production of shale gas, especially methane emissions. We have deployed a mobile monitoring unit to investigate the atmospheric impacts of Marcellus Shale gas activities. The mobile sampling platform is a van with an on-board generator, a high-resolution GPS unit, cameras, and instrumentation for measuring methane, criteria gases (SO2, NOx, CO, O3), PM size distributions (scanning mobility particle sizer), black carbon mass (multi-angle absorption photometer), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection), and meteorological data. A major advantage of the mobile sampling unit over traditional, stationary monitors is that it allows us to rapidly visit a variety of sites. Sampling at multiple sites allows us to characterize the spatial variability of pollutant concentrations related to Marcellus activity, particularly methane. Data collected from the mobile sampling unit are combined with GIS techniques and dispersion models to map pollutants related to Marcellus Shale operations. The Marcellus Shale gas activities are a major and variable source of methane. The background methane concentration in Pittsburgh is 2.1 +/- 0.2 ppm. However, two southwestern Pennsylvania counties with the highest density of Marcellus Shale wells, Washington and Greene Counties, have many areas of elevated methane concentration. Approximately 11% of the sampled sites in Washington County and nearly 50% of the sampled sites in Greene County have elevated (>2.3 ppm) methane concentrations, compared to 1.5% of sites with elevated

  1. Adult Literacy in Rural Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askov, Eunice N.

    The rural work force has lower basic skills to supply labor for new jobs with higher literacy demands. At all levels of education the rural population is at a disadvantage compared with the urban population. One out of five rural adults in Pennsylvania has not continued education past the eighth grade. Among the costs to businesses from employee…

  2. Industrial Arts in Pennsylvania: Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    Intended to facilitate the improvement of industrial arts education in Pennsylvania, the guidelines for planning and development emphasize an interdisciplinary approach. They are aimed at professional personnel and are divided into general provisions which are applied (with changes in specific content where appropriate) to elementary, middle…

  3. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, John Y., Ed.; And Others

    Safety education information is provided in this guide designed for Pennsylvania industrial arts teachers. Twelve sections and section topics include the following: introduction (policy statement on safety); responsibility (school board and superintendent, principal and/or department head, the teacher); emergency action (primary concerns,…

  4. Switchgrass for biomass in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicium virgatum L.) is a perennial, long lived (greater than 20 years) grass that grows primarily during the warm part of the summer and is native to Pennsylvania. It produces well compared to cool-season grasses during the hot and dry weather of July and August, and on soils with lo...

  5. Availability of coal in the Hackett 7.5-minute quadrangle, Washington County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, L.J.; Neubaum, J.C.

    1996-09-01

    Coal has been extensively mined in Pennsylvania and elsewhere in the Appalachian Basin over the last 100 years. In an attempt to better define what coal is left, a new approach to quantifying resources, rooted in modern environmental and technological constraints, was needed. The Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, embarked in 1993 upon a series of six quadrangle studies for Pennsylvania to provide information about coal resources still accessible to mining. Using our data residing on the United States Geological Survey`s National Coal Resources Data System computer to compute resources for the Hackett 7.5-minute quadrangle, the available coal for the four principally mined seams in the area (the Pittsburgh, Redstone, Waynesburg, and Waynesburg A coals) could be determined by subtracting out mined-out areas from in-place coal to give remaining coal, and then subtracting land-use and technological restrictions to mining, such as wetlands, and subsidence waivers, respectively, from the remaining coal. Results of the study found that the amount of coal available for mining varied from 26 to 70 percent. it is felt by the authors that this quadrangle is typical of the mature nature of this mining region for this part of the geologic section, and that similar results might be expected for the other quadrangles to be studied in southwestern Pennsylvania.

  6. Lung parasites of shrews from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Haukisalmi, V; Merritt, J F

    1997-04-01

    We examined lung parasites of three species of soricids, Sorex cinereus (n = 58), Sorex fumeus (n = 23) and Blarina brevicauda (n = 45) collected from Pennsylvania (USA), from 1990 to 1995. Yeast-like cells of Hisfoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum were found in lung sections stained with Grocott's modification of Gomori's methenamine silver, periodic acid-Schiff, Giemsa, and hematoxylin-eosin in two (3%) S. cinereus, eight (35%) S. fumeus and two (4%) B. brevicauda. The number of spores of H. capsulatum in the lungs was low and no inflammatory reaction was evident. The infection was not disseminated to other organs. This is the first report of H. capsulatum infection in any species of shrews of the genus Sorex and the prevalence in S. fumeus was remarkably high compared to those reported for other wild mammals. A nematode, possibly Angiostrongylus michiganensis, was found in the lungs of one S. fumeus on necropsy and in a stained lung section of one S. cinereus. In both cases the host was also infected with the fungus. Pneumocystis carinii, which is the most common lung parasite in Sorex araneus (the numerically dominant Eurasian species of shrew), was not found in any of the North American species of shrew examined in this study. PMID:9131560

  7. An overview of Pennsylvania`s experience with NORM

    SciTech Connect

    Yusko, J.G.

    1997-02-01

    Although Pennsylvania may be thought of as the state who brought you indoor radon, courtesy of a discovery of a residence with radon concentrations in excess of a few thousand picocuries per liter, this is not the states only claim to NORM fame. In the early years of the twentieth century, Pennsylvania was the largest producer of radium, utilizing its industrial base to produce large quantities of this {open_quotes}miracle cure{close_quotes} from ores mined in the West, and transported to a separation and purification facility in Western Pennsylvania. The company successfully held off foreign and political pressure, and generated large quantities of uranium tailings as well, until a fire one New Year`s Eve destroyed the separation plant, and the company faded from view. The tailings were remediated as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings, Remedial Action Project, on the only site east of the Mississippi River. This article goes on to discuss the states experiences with NORM in various projects, coming in contact with human populations from different sources.

  8. Pennsylvania's contribution to petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    John F. Carll of the Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania laid the foundations of both petroleum geology and reservoir engineering. J. P. Lesley, director of the Second Survey, had introduced structure contours when he was working in the anthracite fields. He pointed out that the great oil fields of Pennsylvania were in the only part of the state where there were no anticlines. I. C. White, another geologist with the Second Survey, emphasized the anticlinal theory adopted as a method of prospecting until the discovery of the Cushing field in Oklahoma in 1912. George Ashley, state geologist of Pennsylvanian in the 1930s and 1940s, said that after the gas companies had drilled all the anticlines there would still be the synclines. David White in 1915 noticed the relation between the metamorphosis (rank) of coal and the occurrence of oil and gas. This method (vitrinite reflectance) is now widely applied in the evaluation of basins. In the late 1930s, the resurvey of the Pennsylvania oil regions showed that the reservoirs were shoreline sands, probably barrier islands. In the 1950s the AAPG recommended a study of the recent sediments of the Mississippi delta by Scripps Institute of Oceanography. The ability to recognize depositional environments has caused a revolution in petroleum geology, and recently has been recognized by petroleum engineers as the key to reservoir characterization.

  9. Literacy Instruction: Practices, Problems, Promises. Proceedings of the Annual Conference and Course on Literacy (37th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Caryn M., Comp.; Bean, Rita M., Comp.

    This conference proceedings document contains 18 papers focusing on ideas and strategies for effective literacy instruction. Following opening remarks by Rita M. Bean, are four keynote addresses: "Toward Uncommon Sense Literacy Learning; Integrating Reading and Writing" (John Mayher); "Literacy Learning in At-Risk First Graders" (Diane DeFord);…

  10. MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL CONVENTION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA ASSOCIATION OF JUNIOR COLLEGES (25TH, PITTSBURGH, OCTOBER 13-14, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Association of Junior Colleges, Altoona.

    THE KEYNOTE ADDRESS OF THIS CONVENTION DEALT WITH THE PROBLEM OF CURRICULAR OBSOLESCENCE AND HOW TO AVOID IT BY KEEPING THE PROGRAMS RELEVANT, ADVENTUROUS, ADAPTABLE, AND FLEXIBLE. THERE THEN FOLLOWED WORKSHOPS OR DISCUSSION GROUPS ON THE FOLLOWING TOPICS--(1) MODERN METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH, (2) SOCIAL SCIENCE (FACTORS OF OBSOLESCENCE AND…

  11. Computers in Education: Realizing the Potential. Chairmen's Report of a Research Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, November 20-24, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesgold, Alan; Reif, Frederick

    The future of computers in education and the research needed to realize the computer's potential are discussed in this report, which presents a summary and the conclusions from an invitational conference involving 40 computer scientists, psychologists, educational researchers, teachers, school administrators, and parents. The summary stresses the…

  12. Ground penetrating radar coal measurements demonstration at the U.S. Bureau of Mines Research Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.; Guerrier, J.; Martinez, M.

    1994-01-04

    In situ and near real-time measurements of coal seam thickness have been identified by industry as a highly desirable component of robotic mining systems. With it, a continuous mining machine can be guided close to the varying boundary of the seam while the cutting operation is underway. This provides the mining operation the ability to leave behind the high-sulfur, high-particulate coal which is concentrated near the seam boundary. The result is near total recovery of high quality coal resources, an increase in mining efficiency, and opportunities for improved safety through reduction in personnel in the most hazardous coal cutting areas. In situ, real-time coal seam measurements using the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology were shown feasible by a demonstration in a Utah coal mine on April 21, 1994. This report describes the October 18, 1994 in situ GPR measurements of coal seam thickness at the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) robotic mining testing laboratory. In this report, an overview of the measurements at the USBM Laboratory is given. It is followed by a description of the technical aspects of the STL frequency modulated-continuous wave (FM-CW) GPR system. Section 4 provides a detailed description of the USBM Laboratory measurements and the conditions under which they were taken. Section 5 offers conclusions and possibilities for future communications.

  13. Literacy through Literature. Proceedings of the Annual Conference and Course on Literacy (38th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koebler, Saundra, Comp.; And Others

    This conference proceedings is the result of a week-long conference and course focusing on the use of literature programs in the development of literacy skills and the attainment of broader educational outcomes. The proceedings includes speeches by keynote speakers, session presentations, graduate student papers, and middle school student papers.…

  14. Computers in Education: Realizing the Potential. Report of a Research Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, November 20-24, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesgold, Alan M., Ed.; Reif, Frederick, Ed.

    The full proceedings are provided here of a conference of 40 teachers, educational researchers, and scientists from both the public and private sectors that centered on the future of computers in education and the research required to realize the computer's educational potential. A summary of the research issues considered and suggested means for…

  15. PROCEEDINGS, 1967 INTERNATIONAL CONVOCATION ON CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES (PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA, FEBRUARY 24-26, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEWCOMB, DANIEL L., ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS FROM THE 1967 INTERNATIONAL CONVOCATION ON LEARNING DISABILITIES INCLUDE ARTICLES IN THREE AREAS--23 ON ETIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION, 14 ON EDUCATION, HABILITATION, AND REMEDIATION, AND 11 ON REHABILITATION AND INNOVATION. TOPICS INCLUDE LANGUAGE, READING AND COMMUNICATION DISABILITIES, BHEAVIOR, AUDITORY AND VISUAL PERCEPTION,…

  16. The Council for Programs in Technical and Scientific Communication Proceedings (9th, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 15-16, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Patrick M., Ed.; And Others

    Articles in these proceedings of a conference of the Council for Programs in Technical and Scientific Communication represent the views of professional communicators and academicians who share a concern for providing breadth and quality of preparation for present and future technical communicators. Among the topics discussed in the 17 articles are…

  17. Abstracts of Papers Presented at the 2005 Pittsburgh Conference

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Peter B.

    2005-01-01

    To attend or not to attend, that is the question. The Pittsburgh Conference continues to pose this conundrum to conferees and exhibitors alike. This year's conference was the first to be presented without a set of paper abstracts—a good thing some would say but this old codger always used the paper abstracts to select papers of interest to our readership and to seek a full publication. The exhibit took its usual format but it seemed that there were less manufacturers present. The information presented to the attendees was also lacking and many companies' details were missing from the final program book, an omission no doubt on their behalf—my company was one of these—however I feel sure that past Pittcon organizers would have been more persistent in getting the required details for the audience. As is now the norm, many of the presentations take the form of posters displayed within the exhibition area. Without a driver to get the audience there, the traffic was slow, to say the least. Lecture presentations were also attended in a mixed fashion. So the Pittsburgh Conference show moves on, and again next year it will be held in Orlando from 12 March to 17 March 2006. No doubt I will be there making it a straight 31 in a row; in Pittsburgh Conference terms I am just a beginner with many of the attendees making more shows in a run than that. Selected abstracts dealing with topics of interest to the readers of this journal follow—hopefully many of these groups will be willing to publish their work either within this journal or elsewhere. PMID:18924631

  18. Geothermal investigations in Ohio and Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstein, Y.; Heimlich, R.A.; Palmer, D.F.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    New values of heat flow were determined for the Appalachian Plateau in eastern Ohio and northwestern Pennsylvania. Corrected values for wells in Washington and Summit Counties, Ohio, are 1.36 and 1.37 heat-flow units (HFU), respectively. Those of 1.84 and 2.00 HFU define a previously unknown heat-flow high in Venango and Clarion counties, Pennsylvania. Thermal conductivity was measured for core samples from 12 wells in Ohio and 6 wells in Pennsylvania. Heat production was determined for 34 core and outcrop samples from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.

  19. Clinical event monitoring at the University of Pittsburgh.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M. M.; Pankaskie, M.; Hogan, W.; Tsui, F. C.; Eisenstadt, S. A.; Rodriguez, E.; Vries, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Although the literature on event monitoring is extensive, it does not cover all issues that we encountered while developing an event monitor at our institution. We had to resolve issues related to event detection, scalability, what topics were suitable for asynchronous decision support, and overlap of efforts of other groups at the institution attempting to improve quality and lower cost of care. In this paper, we describe our experience deploying CLEM, the clinical event monitor at the University of Pittsburgh with emphasis on these topics. PMID:9357614

  20. Preliminary results from the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandis, S. N.; Davidson, C. I.; Robinson, A. L.; Khlystov, A. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) is a collaborative effort among 20 research groups, and is part of the EPA Supersite Program. In collaboration with several other Supersites around the country, PAQS is also one component of an intensive experiment conducted in July 2001. The PAQS study includes monitoring for aerosol number, surface, and volume distributions, PM mass in several size ranges, single particle chemical composition, continuous aerosol sulfate, nitrate, and carbon mass, bioaerosols, hygroscopic aerosol growth, and filter-based aerosol chemical composition including trace metals, anions/cations, elemental and organic carbon, and various organic compounds. Meteorological data and concentrations of several trace gases are obtained simultaneously. The results will be used to test a variety of hypothesis on atmospheric aerosols. Examples include our ability to account for aerosol mass by summing contributions of individual chemical species, the extent to which single particle chemical composition data can be used to determine bulk chemical concentrations, our ability to predict natural and anthropogenic sources of aerosols, and the extent to which aerosols contribute to increased morbidity and mortality in Pittsburgh. This paper summarizes a few of the interesting results obtained during the study, such as closure of the aerosol mass balance, frequent new particle formation, aerosol water content and artifacts when sampling carbonaceous aerosol.

  1. 77 FR 40836 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (``OSM''), Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

  2. 75 FR 34960 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

  3. 75 FR 34962 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You... environment from the adverse effects of surface coal mining operations.'' Section 503(a)(1) of SMCRA requires... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory...

  4. Inside Rural Pennsylvania: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Graphs, data tables, maps, and written descriptions give a statistical overview of rural Pennsylvania. A section on rural demographics covers population changes, racial and ethnic makeup, age cohorts, and families and income. Pennsylvania's rural population, the nation's largest, has increased more than its urban population since 1950, with the…

  5. 50 CFR 32.57 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pennsylvania. 32.57 Section 32.57 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM HUNTING AND FISHING Refuge-Specific Regulations for Hunting and Fishing § 32.57 Pennsylvania. The following...

  6. Pennsylvania Library Association, Membership Survey, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obringer, Dave

    This report contains the results of a survey sent to 2,883 librarians throughout Pennsylvania, both members and nonmembers of the Pennsylvania Library Association (PLA). The nonmembers of PLA were members of the American Library Association (ALA), however. The total response rate was 21% (n=620). There were recurring themes in the responses from…

  7. 78 FR 13002 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... definitions and revisions to Pennsylvania's regulations on the use of the Coal Refuse Disposal Control Fund... approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also... approved, require permit application fees submitted under the Coal Refuse and Disposal Act to be used...

  8. Rural Women of Pennsylvania: A Demographic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Gretchen T.; Thorsen, Jenny S.

    Data from the 1980, 1970, and 1960 censuses were used to describe Pennsylvania's rural women and to compare them with urban women and, in some instances, men. In Pennsylvania in 1980, just 1 rural woman in 25 lived on a farm. These women were more educated, more active in the labor force, and somewhat better paid than their counterparts in 1960…

  9. PENNSYLVANIA GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM LIBRARY: STATE GAMELAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pennsylvania Geographic Information System (GIS) Library provides a data set of state gameland boundaries digitized from 1:24,000 USGS topographic maps and verified from Pennsylvania Fish and Game Department information. Coverage is incomplete, certain areas are not mapped when ...

  10. 76 FR 6587 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... conditions of approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You..., (75 FR 48526) and codified in the Federal Regulations at 30 CFR 938.16(h). The revised required... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory...

  11. 76 FR 16714 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Proposed...

  12. Psychometric Analysis of the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale among University Population of Poor Sleepers in India

    PubMed Central

    Veqar, Zubia; Moiz, Jamal Ali; Hussain, Mohammed Ejaz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale is a 65 item self administered open source questionnaire. The scale is widely used in clinical practice but its psychometric properties are not well established. Therefore keeping in mind this lacuna the current study was designed for university population of poor sleepers in India. Aims: The purpose of this study was to establish the Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index test- retest reliability, validity and internal consistency of Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale. Materials and Methods: Twenty five subjects were randomly chosen from the screened population of poor sleepers. Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index and Insomnia severity index were administered on test day. Retest was administered after one week. Results: Eight males and seventeen females with mean age 24 + 7.04 were recruited. The test retest reliability for Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale total score showed excellent reliability (ICC2,1-0.93). The results also show that the total score is moderately correlated with Pittsburgh sleep Quality Index (r-0.31) and moderately correlated with Insomnia severity index (r-0.49). Internal consistency for the test was excellent (Cronbach's alpha- 0.930) Conclusion: The study findings suggest that Pittsburgh insomnia rating scale has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability and good validity for university population of poor sleepers in India. It is an important first line of assessment scale for screening of sleep problems. PMID:24843848

  13. Equal Employment Opportunity on Campus: A Case Study of the University of Pittsburgh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Edward J.

    In November 1970, the University of Pittsburgh submitted an affirmative action plan to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The plan was modified and expanded the following year and, with HEW urging, it became a model program adopted by many colleges. However, in the next several years the University of Pittsburgh learned, as many…

  14. Improving School Leadership through Support, Evaluation, and Incentives: The Pittsburgh Principal Incentive Program. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Engberg, John; Steiner, Elizabeth D.; Nelson, Catherine Awsumb; Yuan, Kun

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the Pittsburgh Public Schools (PPS) received funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) program to implement the Pittsburgh Urban Leadership System for Excellence (PULSE), a set of reforms designed to improve the quality of school leadership throughout the district. A major component of PULSE is the…

  15. 75 FR 38146 - Pittsburgh Coatings, Inc., Ambridge, PA; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Register on May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28301). The workers were engaged in employment related to the production of... Employment and Training Administration Pittsburgh Coatings, Inc., Ambridge, PA; Notice of Revised... facts obtained on reconsideration, I determine that workers of Pittsburgh Coatings, Inc.,...

  16. The Impact of The University of Pittsburgh on the Local Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. University Urban Interface Program.

    One of the projects selected for the University Urban Interface Program at the University of Pittsburgh was that of studying the impact of the university on the city of Pittsburgh. In pursuing this goal, studies were made of university-related local business volume; value of local business property committed to university-related business; credit…

  17. Demonstration program for wood/coal cofiring in western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1998-12-31

    National interest in the combustion of wood and wood/coal mixtures is growing rapidly in response to the world-wide concern for global warming, the US concern for SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions, and regional interest in expanding the utilization of forest products and byproducts. Throughout the forest product sector, combustion of wood and wood byproducts is widely practiced. Numerous small combustors for use by the homeowner to burn seasoned firewood are on the market. Lumber and paper mills produce large amounts of raw wood wastes, which many of them combust in industrial boilers to provide process heat and mechanical energy for their operations. In the case of both small and large combustors, the feed systems, burners, thermal recovery systems and flues have been specially designed for 100% wood use. Within the industrial and utility coal-fired boiler sector, furnaces are designed for 100% coal combustion and there is very little experience with wood/coal cofiring in these systems. Moreover, what experience is out there has not been documented in the open literature. Thus, it is proving very difficult for operators of coal-fired boilers to join quickly the national effort to increase wood firing. To provide assistance in this direction, the Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry Program of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service has initiated a program with the University of Pittsburgh to demonstrate wood/coal cofiring into stoker and fluid-bed boilers in the western Pennsylvania region. The first project under this program was a demonstration at the traveling-grate stoker boiler of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. The program staff at the University is currently working on several new projects: initiating commercial wood/coal cofiring at the brewery, organizing a demonstration at the underfed stoker boiler plant at a state-owned facility, conceptualizing projects for a spreader stoker boiler at a federally-owned facility and a fluid-bed boiler

  18. 77 FR 38271 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33B Verosol USA, Inc. Kennedy Township, Allegheny...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Subzone 33B at the Verosol USA, Inc., plant in Kennedy Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (Board Order 416, 54 FR 164, 1/4/89); Whereas, the Regional Industrial Development Corporation of Southwestern... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 33B Verosol USA, Inc....

  19. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburgh Zoo occupies approximately 52 acres in the City`s Highland Park. Thirty structures serve as animal holding facilities, public display buildings, classrooms, food service facilities, offices, warehouses, a veterinary hospital, and gift shops. The cost of energy for heating, cooling, lighting, pumping, food service, etc. is approximately $280,000 a year. Of this, about 79 percent, or $220,000, is spent for electricity. About 20 percent ($44,000) of that electricity cost is spent directly on lighting. In mid-1992 a series of retrofits to the lighting systems in the Zoo`s buildings was begun. These were completed in mid-1994. These improvements cost $127,690, and they are expected to reduce electricity costs by $24,500 a year. The most interesting projects were carried out in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aqua Zoo, and the Niches of the World Building.

  20. Aging and space flight: findings from the University of Pittsburgh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Sleep and Chronobiology Center (SCC) at the University of Pittsburgh has received funding from the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in order to study the sleep and circadian rhythms of healthy older people, as well as the sleep and circadian rhythms of astronauts and cosmonauts. We have always been struck by the strong synergism between the two endeavors. What happens to the sleep and circadian rhythms of people removed from the terrestrial time cues of Earth is in many ways similar to what happens to people who are advancing in years. Most obviously, sleep is shorter and sleep depth is reduced, but there are also more subtle similarities between the two situations, both in circadian rhythms and in sleep, and in the adaptive strategies needed to enhance 24h zeitgebers.

  1. The Pittsburgh Girls Studies: Overview and Initial Findings

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Chung, Tammy; Stepp, Stephanie; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf; McTigue, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal, community–based study of 2,451 girls who were initially recruited when they were between the ages of 5 and 8 years. The primary aim of the study was testing developmental models of conduct disorder (CD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and their co-occurrence in girls. In the current paper, we summarize the published findings from the past 5 years of the PGS and place those results in the context of what it known to date about developmental psychopathology in girls. Key results suggest that DSM-IV mental disorders tend to have an insidious onset often beginning with sub-syndromal symptom manifestation and that there appear to be shared and unique developmental precursors to disorder in subgroups of girls based on race and poverty. PMID:20589562

  2. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of ``culture``; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  3. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture''; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  4. Pneumonia caused by Pittsburgh pneumonia agent: radiologic manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Muder, R.R.; Reddy, S.C.; Yu, V.L.; Kroboth, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    Using an objective scoring system, chest radiographs were reviewed in 23 cases of pneumonia due to the Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (PPA, Tatlockia micdadei, Legionella micdadei), including six cases of pneumonia with simultaneous isolation of PPA and L pneumophila (Legionnaires' disease). Infiltrates were typically segmental to lobar; nodular infiltrates were noted in three cases. Spread to additional lobes after presentation occurred in four of 17 PPA infections. Pneumonia caused by both PPA and L pneumophila was unusually severe, with involvement of all lobes occurring in four of six cases, compared with one of 17 cases of PPA infection (p>0.02). Radiographic severity did not correlate with underlying disease, immune status, or outcome. The majority of patients receiving erythromycin demonstrated objective radiologic improvement. In a patients, population that included nonimmunosuppressed patient, nodule formation and rapid radiologic progression were not found to be characteristic of PPA pneumonia.

  5. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-06-01

    Energy bills for the Pittsburgh Zoo typically total $280,000 a year, of which about $220,000 are spent on electricity. Until recently, lighting accounted for 20 percent of this electricity use. This translated into an annual cost of $44,000. Recent advances in lighting technology have made it possible to perform lighting retrofits in Zoo facilities that reduce energy costs while also providing improved light quality and better lit and more natural looking exhibits and animal holding areas. Through an investment of $127,690 in these projects from mid-1992 through mid-1994, the Zoo expects to realize an annual savings in electricity costs of $24,500 and further savings from a reduction in maintenance and plant replacement costs. Retrofits to the lighting systems in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aquarium, and the Niches of the World Building were the most interesting and are described in detail. Providing a sufficient amount of ultraviolet light to maintain the health of reptiles was a particular challenge in the Niches of the World Building. Lack of separate meters and additions to the Zoo have made the determination of the actual performance of these retrofit projects impossible. A similar retrofit project at the Pittsburgh Aviary (now the National Aviary) in 1989 through 1990 provides savings figures that should be comparable to those expected at the Zoo, however. This project cost $100,000 and saved $21,008 in electricity costs during the first year of operation. Maintenance costs were reduced by approximately $5000 a year.

  6. Indoor air sampling for fine particulate matter and black carbon in industrial communities in Pittsburgh.

    PubMed

    Tunno, Brett J; Naumoff Shields, Kyra; Cambal, Leah; Tripathy, Sheila; Holguin, Fernando; Lioy, Paul; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and coke works, respectively, and the population experiences elevated rates of childhood asthma. Twenty-one homes were selected for 1-week indoor sampling for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) during summer 2011 and winter 2012. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine contributions from both outdoor concentrations and indoor sources. In the models, an outdoor infiltration component explained 10 to 39% of variability in indoor air pollution for PM2.5, and 33 to 42% for BC. For both PM2.5 models and the summer BC model, smoking was a stronger predictor than outdoor pollution, as greater pollutant concentration increases were identified. For winter BC, the model was explained by outdoor pollution and an open windows modifier. In both seasons, indoor concentrations for both PM2.5 and BC were consistently higher than residence-specific outdoor concentration estimates. Mean indoor PM2.5 was higher, on average, during summer (25.8±22.7 μg/m3) than winter (18.9±13.2 μg/m3). Contrary to the study's hypothesis, outdoor concentrations accounted for only little to moderate variability (10 to 42%) in indoor concentrations; a much greater proportion of PM2.5 was explained by cigarette smoking. Outdoor infiltration was a stronger predictor for BC compared to PM2.5, especially in winter. Our results suggest that, even in industrial communities of high outdoor pollution concentrations, indoor activities--particularly cigarette smoking--may play a larger

  7. Historic Pennsylvania Leaflets No. 1-41. 1960-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg.

    This series of 41 pamphlets on selected Pennsylvania history topics includes: (1) "The Pennsylvania Canals"; (2) "Anthony Wayne: Man of Action"; (3) "Stephen Foster: Maker of American Songs"; (4) "The Pennsylvania Rifle"; (5) "The Conestoga Wagon"; (6) "The Fight for Free Schools in Pennsylvania"; (7) "Thaddeus Stevens: Champion of Freedom"; (8)…

  8. The Pennsylvania defoliation application pilot test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite imagery for the State of Pennsylvania was digitally mosaicked to provide the seed data base for monitoring defoliation of hardwood trees by the gypsy moth. Two separate mosaics for the state were prepared, one before defoliation and one after defoliation, to determine the extent, direction, and impact of gypsy moth activity in the state. The digital mosaic technology used to construct the data base was transferred to Pennsylvania State University to permit periodic updates to the data base and to assist in planning and abatement activities. Participating agencies or institutions included Goddard Space Flight Center and the Pennsylvania State University Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources.

  9. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00059 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.... Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  10. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2002-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002-03 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,415. The total was comprised of 12,377 males and 12,038 females. This was an increase of 512 students from the 2001-02 total of 23,903. Except for 2001-02, the total for Pennsylvania home education students has increased every year since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  11. The ORSER LANDSAT Data Base of Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A mosaicked LANDSAT data base for Pennsylvania, installed at the computation center of the Pennsylvania State University is described. Initially constructed by Penn State's Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) for the purpose of assisting in state-wide mapping of gypsy moth defoliation, the data base will be available to a variety of potential users. It will provide geometrically correct LANDSAT data accessible by political, jurisdictional, or arbitrary boundaries.

  12. Calculations from compliance emissions of long- and short-term SO/sub 2/ concentrations in the southwest Pennsylvania air quality control region. Final report 1979-80

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This report describes the results of dispersion-model calculations of maximum annual, 24-hour and 3-hour average ground-level SO2 concentrations for selected areas in the Southwest Pennsylvania Air Quality Control Region (AQCR). The primary purpose of the model calculations was to assist EPA Region III and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources in determining the attainment or non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for SO2 in the Beaver Valley and Monongahela Valley Air Basins exclusive of Allegheny County. All of the dispersion-model calculations were made using the LONGZ and SHORTZ dispersion models with 1980 compliance emissions inventories containing 492 major SO2 sources located within the Southwest Pennsylvania AQCR and in Ohio and West Virginia near the western border of the AQCR. The only calculated maximum that exceeds the NAAQS for SO2 is the maximum annual average concentration at an isolated grid point located on high terrain about 1 kilometer north of the Monessen Plant of Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel. The model calculations also indicate contributions of major SO2 sources located along the Ohio River in Ohio and West Virginia to the air quality in the Southwest Pennsylvania AQCR.

  13. SWITCHGRASS BIOFUELS RESEARCH WITH NATIVE GRASSES AT THE USDA-ARS PASTURE SYSTEMS AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT RESEARCH UNIT, UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a biomass energy crop is conducted at several USDA-ARS facilities across the USA. At the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit in University Park, Pennsylvania, research on biomass energy focuses on cropping systems, environm...

  14. Challenges in establishing LLW disposal capacity: Pennsylvania`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, W.P.; Saraka, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    Even though Pennsylvania is host state for the Compact, state implementing legislation was non-existent until early 1988. In February of 1998 Governor Casey signed the Los-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Act) into law. The Act incorporates three years of Departmental work and interaction with the legislature, a Public Advisory Committee on Low-Level Waste, many interest groups and the general public. It is a comprehensive Act that: provides the Department with broad powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program; requires development phase; and establishes benefits and guarantees for communities affected by the establishment and operation of a low-level waste site. The Department considers that its powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program begins with interpreting the provisions established by the Act. Interpretation will establish how the Department intends to implement its authority. The Department is communicating interpretations through various methods such as regulation, policy, and written or verbal guidance. Interpretations typically require a mix of technical, policy, and social solutions to clarify concepts established by law. This paper identifies select items established by law that require technical solutions. Its purpose is to share some creative approaches for solving unmanageable legislature requirements.

  15. IDENTIFYING A SUSCEPTIBLE SUBGROUP: EFFECTS OF THE PITTSBURGH AIR POLLUTION EPISODE UPON SCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary function test results on 224 parochial schoolchildren collected during and after the Pittsburgh air pollution episode of November 1975 were reanalyzed to determine whether a small subgroup of susceptible children could be defined. Individual regressions of three-quarter...

  16. Survey of antibodies to Leishmania spp. in wild canids from Pennsylvania and Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Alexander, Andrew; Byrd, Darrica; Weaver, Melanie; Stewart, Richard; Gerhold, Richard; Houston, Allan; Van Why, Kyle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2013-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Infections with the Leishmania donovani complex, including Leishmania infantum, cause the VL. Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir host for human VL, and wild canids are also susceptible. In the United States, infections with L. infantum are common in the foxhound dog breed. Little information is available regarding L. infantum in wild canids in the Unites States. Sera from 11 foxes and 256 coyotes originating in Pennsylvania and Tennessee (USA) were tested for antibodies to visceralizing Leishmania spp. with rapid immunochromatographic dipstick assays, which utilize recombinant antigen K39. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were found in 5 of 267 (1.9%) of wild canids from Pennsylvania, including four coyotes and one red fox. These results suggest that wild canids are exposed to Leishmania spp. at a low level in the United States. PMID:24450086

  17. Smoky ol' town: the significance of Pittsburgh in U.S. air pollution history

    SciTech Connect

    James Longhurst

    2007-06-15

    Pittsburgh came to be - and came to be dirtybecause of location, location, and location. Two navigable rivers met in the middle of a forest, and combined to form a third river. This was an irresistible meeting point for settlement, trade, and industry. It was an added bonus that this meeting point was at the center of the 'Pittsburgh seam' of coal. While the natural advantages of geography and geology initiated development, Pittsburgh's growth soon attracted man-made transportation networks to import resources from its hinterland and spread finished materials through the Midwest. As the city boomed into an industrial metropolis - the Iron City, the Steel City - through the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the smoke only became worse, and Pittsburgh became known, nationally and even internationally, for its dirt, grime, and filth. For many of the city's workers and businessmen, smoke was a sign of progress and economic success. From small-scale iron production, to the process of refining coal into 'coke,' to the Bessemer steel process, to J.P. Morgan and Andrew Carnegie's creation of the vertically-integrated U.S. Steel corporation, to the pioneering use of 'byproduct' coke ovens, Pittsburgh was home to successive technologies for transforming raw materials into finished or refined goods. Pittsburgh is both singular and representative; its story is at the forefront of pollution history, but the forces, trends, and events the city witnessed were the same in many cities across the nation. So while it is true that A&WMA's headquarters are in Pittsburgh for a reason, it is also true that its membership is spread across the nation and the world. That membership will most likely find something in these four themes from Pittsburgh's history that is representative of their own study. 7 refs., 3 photos.

  18. 76 FR 68381 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... systems statement provisions. Pennsylvania submitted its Clean Vehicle Program (adopted in 1998) as an... approve that Pennsylvania Clean Vehicle Program SIP revision on December 28, 1999 (64 FR 72564). The...

  19. Validation of the Pittsburgh Cardiac Arrest Category illness severity score

    PubMed Central

    Coppler, Patrick J.; Elmer, Jonathan; Calderon, Luis; Sabedra, Alexa; Doshi, Ankur A.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Dezfulian, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of an early post-cardiac arrest illness severity classification to predict patient outcomes. Methods The Pittsburgh Cardiac Arrest Category (PCAC) is a 4-level illness severity score that was found to be strongly predictive of outcomes in the initial derivation study. We assigned PCAC scores to consecutive in and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest subjects treated at two tertiary care centers between January 2011 and September 2013. We made assignments prospectively at Site 1 and retrospectively at Site 2. Our primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Inter-rater reliability of retrospective PCAC assessments was assessed. Secondary outcomes were favorable discharge disposition (home or acute rehabilitation), Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge. We tested the association of PCAC with each outcome using unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression. Results We included 607 cardiac arrest patients during the study (393 at Site 1 and 214 at Site 2). Site populations differed in age, arrest location, rhythm, use of hypothermia and distribution of PCAC. Inter-rater reliability of retrospective PCAC assignments was excellent (κ=0.81). PCAC was associated with survival (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for Site 1: 0.33 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.41)) Site 2: 0.32 (95%CI 0.24–0.43)) even after adjustment for other clinical variables (adjusted OR Site 1: 0.32 (95%CI 0.25–0.41)) Site 2: 0.31 (95%CI 0.22–0.44)). PCAC was predictive of secondary outcomes. Conclusions Our results confirm that PCAC is strongly predictive of survival and good functional outcome after cardiac arrest. PMID:25636896

  20. 75 FR 51281 - Accreditation and Approval of Intertek USA, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... perform may be directed to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection by calling (202) 344-1060. The inquiry..._support/labs_scientific_svcs/commercial_gaugers/ . DATES: The accreditation and approval of Intertek USA..., Laboratories and Scientific Services, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW.,...

  1. 76 FR 4711 - Accreditation and Approval of Intertek USA, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... be directed to the U.S. Customs and Border Protection by calling (202) 344-1060. The inquiry may also.../labs_scientific_svcs/commercial_gaugers/ . DATES: The accreditation and approval of Intertek USA, Inc..., Laboratories and Scientific Services, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW.,...

  2. 30. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 8.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  3. 31. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Pennsylvania Railroad: Newark Station. Newark, Essex Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 8.60. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  4. 13. Photocopy of Historic Photograph, Original Photograph in Pennsylvania Game ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of Historic Photograph, Original Photograph in Pennsylvania Game Commission Files, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Date and Photographer Unknown. SOUTH SIDE OF MAIN BUILDING - Ross Leffler Training School Complex, Main Building, (Synder Township), Brockway, Jefferson County, PA

  5. Mine flooding and barrier pillar hydrology in the Pittsburgh basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, B.R.

    1999-07-01

    Pennsylvania began requiring barrier pillars between mines as early as 1930. The Ashley formula, resulting from a early commission on the problem, requires 20 feet of coal plus a thickness of coal equal to four times the seam height plus an additional thickness of coal equal to one tenth of the overburden thickness, or the maximum potential hydraulic head. For a 6-foot thick coal seam under 400 feet of cover, the barrier would be 20+24+40=84 feet. The Ashley formula is intended to protect coal miners from a catastrophic failure of a barrier pillar which has a high head of water impounded behind it. The paper gives several examples of flooded and unflooded mines and the performance of their barrier pillars with respect to acid mine drainage. It is concluded that for all practical purposes, barrier pillars designed with the Ashley formula are able to hydrologically isolate mines from one another. This hydrologic isolation promotes the inundation of closed mines. Inundation effectively stops acid formation, thus, fully inundated mines do not represent a perpetual source of acid mine drainage. Infiltrating ground water improves the mine water chemistry resulting in a net alkaline discharge which has greatly lowered iron concentrations. The best locations for acid mine drainage treatment plants is at the lowest surface elevation above the mine with mine flooded to near that elevation.

  6. Progress and Problems of Pennsylvania Libraries; a Re-Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lowell A.

    Following an earlier study of public libraries in Pennsylvania, issued in 1958, this "re-survey" has two purposes: (1) to determine the extent to which the 1958 Pennsylvania library program has been achieved and (2) to propose a revised or new Pennsylvania library program. The basis for the study is 1965-66 data which was obtained from annual…

  7. An Analysis of Pennsylvania's Cyber Charter Schools. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John; Schott, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania's first cyber charter school opened in 1998, enrolling 44 full-time students. From this modest beginning, Pennsylvania's cyber charter sector has grown to 16 schools enrolling 35,000 students from all but one school district in the Commonwealth. Pennsylvania has one of the nation's most extensive cyber charter sectors, and six…

  8. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 06/24/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  9. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  10. An Attitudinal Survey of Pennsylvania's Rural Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    Telephone surveys of 844 residents in 42 rural Pennsylvania counties established baseline data on rural opinions about 14 public policy issues. Concerning government spending, respondents felt that too little was spent on job creation, aging issues, child care, education, health services, and farming and agriculture; funding was about right for…

  11. Pennsylvania Cyber School Funding: Follow the Money

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Marsh, Rose M.

    2009-01-01

    Cyber charter schools are public charter schools which are entirely online and typically serve all grades from pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. Pennsylvania implemented widespread charter school legislation as early as 1997. This has offered a great number of Pennsylvanians options in their public schooling. One of these options has been…

  12. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  13. Water Curriculum Evaluation for Educators in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruver, Joshua B.; Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented from a formal evaluation of The Pennsylvania Bureau of State Park's Watershed Education (WE) curriculum developed for students in grades 6-12. The primary research objective was to measure the impact the training and subsequent use of the WE curriculum had on teachers' behavior, confidence, and self-efficacy in teaching about…

  14. ESEA Title III 1972 - PACE in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Information Services for Education, King of Prussia, PA.

    This document is a collection of abstracts of all ESEA Title III educational innovation projects funded or operating in Pennsylvania during 1972. Each abstract contains the name of the local supporting agency, the project number, financial information, target population, major objectives, activities, evaluation design, findings to date,…

  15. "Intelligent Design" Goes on Trial in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether "intelligent design" amounts to legitimate science, pseudo-science, or religion masquerading as science has underwent a potentially historic legal test, as a federal court in Pennsylvania considered whether a public school district can require that students be exposed to the controversial concept. Eleven parents from the…

  16. 78 FR 62000 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00065

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-10

    ... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4149-DR), dated 10/01/2013. Incident: Severe Storms, Tornadoes, and Flooding. Incident Period: 06/26/2013 through 07/11/2013. Effective Date: 10/01/2013. Physical Loan Application Deadline Date: 12/02/2013. Economic Injury (EIDL) Loan Application Deadline Date: 07/01/2014....

  17. 76 FR 58327 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of... 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small...

  18. 76 FR 64419 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00045

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  19. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  20. The Pennsylvania ABLE Staff Handbook. 1998 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Tana, Ed.

    This guide contains 55 articles written by adult basic education (ABE) practitioners in Pennsylvania suggesting ways to improve teaching and program administration in the field. The guide is organized into four parts: (1) working together for program improvement, (2) teaching and learning, (3) developing as a professional and (4) appendixes (high…

  1. 77 FR 58975 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 11, 2012, (77 FR 40836) we published a proposed rule that would revise the... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ] ACTION: Proposed...

  2. COMPUTER PROGRAMING - SECONDARY SCHOOL, ALTOONA, PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHANAHAN, R.

    A HIGH SCHOOL IN ALTOONA, PENNSYLVANIA, IS USING AN ELECTRONIC COMPUTER TO TEACH COMPUTER PROGRAMING AND OPERATION AS PART OF THE THE REGULAR SCIENCE MATHEMATICS PROGRAM. NO DRASTIC CHANGES HAVE BEEN NECESSARY IN COURSE SCHEDULING OR TEACHING PERSONNEL. THE COMPUTER PERMITS MORE TIME TO BE SPENT ON THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES AND LESS TIME ON…

  3. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  4. Medication Administration Practices in Pennsylvania Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficca, Michelle; Welk, Dorette

    2006-01-01

    As a result of various health concerns, children are receiving an increased number of medications while at school. In Pennsylvania, the School Code mandates a ratio of 1 certified school nurse to 1,500 students, which may mean that 1 school nurse is covering 3-5 buildings. This implies that unlicensed personnel are administering medications, a…

  5. 21 CFR 808.88 - Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pennsylvania. 808.88 Section 808.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.88...

  6. Approaching K-12 Online Education in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadell, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how K-12 schools are addressing the need to accommodate online learners in Pennsylvania. It is built upon a review of literature focusing on educational legislation, the personalization of online learning and online learning solutions. The study posed 21 questions utilizing a mixed methods approach to…

  7. Privatizing Pennsylvania, and Then Un-Privatizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Jerel

    2007-01-01

    Nearly ten years ago, the University of Pennsylvania announced that it would outsource its facilities and real-estate operations to Trammell Crow Higher Education Services, Inc. The agreement included management of school facilities--155 buildings over 269 acres on the West Philadelphia campus. It also included construction management and…

  8. 78 FR 55210 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... regulations on the use of the Coal Refuse Disposal Control Fund (``CRDCF'') and permit and reclamation fees... approval of the Pennsylvania program in the July 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also..., 2013, Federal Register (78 FR 13002). In the same document, we opened the public comment period...

  9. 75 FR 46877 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... 30, 1982, Federal Register (47 FR 33050). You can also find later actions concerning the Pennsylvania... impoundments at coal refuse disposal sites. These amendments address the requirements set forth at 30 CFR 938... require that no noncoal waste be deposited in a coal refuse pile or impounding structure....

  10. Latinos in Pennsylvania: Summary Report & Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Governor's Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs, Harrisburg.

    This report summarizes the activities of the Pennsylvania Governor's Advisory Commission on Latino Affairs from its inception in January, 1989, to December, 1990; and makes recommendations to the Governor on policies, procedures, and legislation that would make the state more responsive to the Latin American community. Latin Americans are the…