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Sample records for placa basal placentaria

  1. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive than other types of basal ... to treat them early and with slightly more aggressive techniques. Excision – The basal cell carcinoma is cut ...

  3. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  4. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure rate of more than 95%, but regular examination ...

  5. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur in younger people who have had extensive sun exposure. You are more likely to get basal cell ... severe sunburns early in life Long-term daily sun exposure (such as the sun exposure received by people ...

  6. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  7. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  8. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this disorder is a type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma , that develops around the time of puberty. Other ... if: You or any family members have nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, especially if you are planning to have ...

  9. Cortical basal ganglionic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Scarmeas, N; Chin, S S; Marder, K

    2001-10-01

    In this case study, we describe the symptoms, neuropsychological testing, and brain pathology of a retired mason's assistant with cortical basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). CBGD is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disease that is categorized under both Parkinsonian syndromes and frontal lobe dementias. It affects men and women nearly equally, and the age of onset is usually in the sixth decade of life. CBGD is characterized by Parkinson's-like motor symptoms and by deficits of movement and cognition, indicating focal brain pathology. Neuronal cell loss is ultimately responsible for the neurological symptoms. PMID:14602941

  10. Paramecium tetraurelia basal body structure.

    PubMed

    Tassin, Anne-Marie; Lemullois, Michel; Aubusson-Fleury, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium is a free-living unicellular organism, easy to cultivate, featuring ca. 4000 motile cilia emanating from longitudinal rows of basal bodies anchored in the plasma membrane. The basal body circumferential polarity is marked by the asymmetrical organization of its associated appendages. The complex basal body plus its associated rootlets forms the kinetid. Kinetids are precisely oriented within a row in correlation with the cell polarity. Basal bodies also display a proximo-distal polarity with microtubule triplets at their proximal ends, surrounding a permanent cartwheel, and microtubule doublets at the transition zone located between the basal body and the cilium. Basal bodies remain anchored at the cell surface during the whole cell cycle. On the opposite to metazoan, there is no centriolar stage and new basal bodies develop anteriorly and at right angle from the base of the docked ones. Ciliogenesis follows a specific temporal pattern during the cell cycle and both unciliated and ciliated docked basal bodies can be observed in the same cell. The transition zone is particularly well organized with three distinct plates and a maturation of its structure is observed during the growth of the cilium. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses have been performed in different organisms including Paramecium to understand the ciliogenesis process. The data have incremented a multi-organism database, dedicated to proteins involved in the biogenesis, composition and function of centrosomes, basal bodies or cilia. Thanks to its thousands of basal bodies and the well-known choreography of their duplication during the cell cycle, Paramecium has allowed pioneer studies focusing on the structural and functional processes underlying basal body duplication. Proteins involved in basal body anchoring are sequentially recruited to assemble the transition zone thus indicating that the anchoring process parallels the structural differentiation of the transition zone. This feature

  11. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens. PMID:26981235

  12. [Basal and spinous cell epitheliomas].

    PubMed

    Shaw, M; Sanguinetti, O; de Kaminsky, A R; Kaminsky, C A

    1975-01-01

    A study on 502 epithelial cutaneous cancers was carried out by the authors. The study included 377 basal cell carcinomas (57,5% in males and 42,4% in females) and 125 squamous cell carcinomas (78,4% in males and 21,6% in females). The basal cell carcinomas in both sexs had an earlier onset than the squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:1241706

  13. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  14. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  15. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  16. Medición de placas astrométricas obtenidas con el telescopio Astrográfico de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R. P.; Orellana, R.

    El Observatorio de La Plata cuenta con un gran número de placas de asteroides y cometas obtenidas con el telescopio astrográfico, que cubren gran parte del cielo del hemisferio sur. En 1996 se recopilaron y clasificaron 2187 placas (Beca para estudiantes de la AAA 1996) de las cuales 2031 corresponden a asteroides. Los datos de cada placa se volcaron en una base de datos creada para facilitar su manejo y preservar la información. A partir de este trabajo se revisaron los MPC electrónicos y se identificaron aquellas placas de asteroides pertenecientes a nuestra base de datos cuyos resultados no fueron publicados en los mismos. De un total de 400 placas que no aparecían publicadas sobresalía un paquete constituído por 40 placas obtenidas en 1977. Estas últimas fueron reducidas utilizando las posiciones y movimientos propios de las estrellas de referencia obtenidas del catálogo SAO 2000 dadas para el sistema FK5. Las posiciones calculadas fueron enviadas y publicadas en los Minor Planet Circulars (MPC).

  17. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  18. Basal cell carcinoma – diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Węklar, Daria; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the Caucasian population. The cancer arises in sun exposed areas of the skin. The incidence of morbidity is high and it is still growing. The metastatic rate is low, but the enlarging tumor may cause severe tissue disfigurement and a poor cosmetic outcome. The diagnosis is usually clinical but there are many subtypes of this carcinoma and correct diagnosis is the clue to appropriate treatment of the lesion. The main problem in basal cell carcinoma management is the high recurrence rate. PMID:24592119

  19. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  20. Activated Acinus boosts basal autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K; Krämer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Acinus (Acn) is a nuclear protein that participates in the regulation of autophagy. Loss of Acn function prevents autophagy in starving cells. Conversely, Acn activation induces basal autophagy. This enhances the quality control functions of autophagy such as the removal of misfolded proteins, thereby reducing neurodegeneration and prolonging lifespan. Acn activity is enhanced by Akt1-mediated phosphorylation, which counteracts the cleavage of Acn by a caspase-3 homolog. PMID:27308482

  1. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  2. Discourse Types in Canadian Basal Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon

    This study examined the authorship and discourse types of Canadian basal anthologies to determine whether the lingering centrality of the basal anthology in Canadian programs controls students and teachers by controlling language and reading. Each selection within five Canadian basal series (Gage Expressways II, Ginn Journeys, Holt Impressions,…

  3. "Basal Cell Blanche": A Diagnostic Maneuver to Increase Early Detection of Basal Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Quach, Olivia Leigh; Barry, Megan; Roberts Cruse, Allison; Wilson, Barbara B

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas represent one of the most common skin cancers and often present initially in the primary care setting. Subtle basal cell carcinomas may be difficult to detect, and early detection of these carcinomas remains important in limiting patient morbidity. In this article, we present a simple diagnostic maneuver, "basal cell blanche," to increase early detection of basal cell carcinomas. PMID:27170799

  4. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  5. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  6. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  7. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    PubMed

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  8. sine oculis in basal Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Bebenek, Ilona G; Gates, Ruth D; Morris, Joshua; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K

    2004-07-01

    We report the recovery of homologs of Six1/2/sine oculis (so), a homeodomain-containing member of the Six-gene family, from a diverse set of basal Metazoa, including representatives of the poriferan classes Demospongia, Calcarea and Hexactinellida, the cnidarian classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa, as well as a ctenophore. so sequences were also recovered from a platyhelminth, an echiurid and two bivalve molluscs, members of the super-phyletic group Lophotrochozoa. In the case of the platyhelminth, multiple distinct so sequences were recovered, as well as a member of the related group Six4/5/D-Six4. Extended sequences of the so gene were recovered from the demosponge, Haliclona sp., and the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita via PCR, and 3' RACE. The affinities of all recovered sequences were assessed using a parsimony analysis based on both nucleic and amino acid sequence and using successive character weighting. Our results indicate that so is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Preliminary expression data for Aurelia reveal that transcripts of the so homolog are present in the manubrium as well as in the rhopalia, which contain the statocyst and eyes, in the free-swimming ephyra and juvenile stages of these jellyfish. PMID:15221378

  9. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  10. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  11. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story.

    PubMed

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another outcome measure has not only clouded the assessment of basal insulin but has also polarized opinion worldwide about the utility of the newer basal insulin. A critical review of both the pre and post FDA analysis of all the basal insulin in this article attempts to clear some of the confusion surrounding the issues of hypoglycemia and glycemic control. This article also discusses all the trials and meta-analysis done on all the current basal insulin available along with their head-to-head comparison with particular attention to glycemic control and hypoglycemic events including severe and nocturnal hypoglycemia. This in-depth analysis hopes to provide a clear interpretation of the various analyses available in literature at this point of time thereby acting as an excellent guide to the readers in choosing the most appropriate basal insulin for their patient. PMID:25364672

  12. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  13. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy. PMID:26971503

  14. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. PMID:25506011

  15. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  16. Thermodynamic significance of human basal metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuncheng

    1993-06-01

    The human basal state, a non-equilibrium steady state, is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified. The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  17. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  18. Plant basal resistance to nematodes: an update.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Julia; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2016-03-01

    Most plant-parasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs feeding on the roots of their hosts. Whereas ectoparasites remain on the root surface and feed on the outer cell layers, endoparasitic nematodes enter the host to parasitize cells around or within the central cylinder. Nematode invasion and feeding causes tissue damage which may, in turn, lead to the activation of host basal defence responses. Hitherto, research interests in plant-nematode interaction have emphasized effector-triggered immunity rather than basal plant defence responses. However, some recent investigations suggest that basal defence pathways are not only activated but also play an important role in determining interaction outcomes. In this review we discuss the major findings and point out future directions to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying plant basal defence to nematodes further. PMID:26842982

  19. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  20. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa V.; Labbok, Miriam H.; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity. PMID:17578664

  1. Schwann cell basal lamina and nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ide, C; Tohyama, K; Yokota, R; Nitatori, T; Onodera, S

    1983-12-12

    Nerve segments approximately 7 mm long were excised from the predegenerated sciatic nerves of mice, and treated 5 times by repetitive freezing and thawing to kill the Schwann cells. Such treated nerve segments were grafted into the original places so as to be in contact with the proximal stumps. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the grafting. The grafts were examined by electron microscopy in the middle part of the graft, i.e. 3-4 mm distal to the proximal end and/or near the proximal and distal ends of the graft. In other instances, the predegenerated nerve segments were minced with a razor blade after repetitive freezing and thawing. Such minced nerves were placed in contact with the proximal stumps of the same nerves. The animals were sacrificed 10 days after the grafting. Within 1-2 days after grafting, the dead Schwann cells had disintegrated into fragments. They were then gradually phagocytosed by macrophages. The basal laminae of Schwann cells, which were not attacked by macrophages, remained as empty tubes (basal lamina scaffolds). In the grafts we examined, no Schwann cells survived the freezing and thawing process. The regenerating axons always grew out through such basal lamina scaffolds, being in contact with the inner surface of the basal lamina (i.e. the side originally facing the Schwann cell plasma membrane). No axons were found outside of the scaffolds. One to two days after grafting, the regenerating axons were not associated with Schwann cells, but after 5-7 days they were accompanied by Schwann cells which were presumed to be migrating along axons from the proximal stumps. Ten days after grafting, proliferating Schwann cells observed in the middle part of the grafts had begun to sort out axons. In the grafts of minced nerves, the fragmented basal laminae of the Schwann cells re-arranged themselves into thicker strands or small aggregations of basal laminae. The regenerating axons, without exception, attached to one side

  2. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  3. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Protein Expression in Basal Cell Adenomas and Basal Cell Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tesdahl, Brennan A; Wilson, Thomas C; Hoffman, Henry T; Robinson, Robert A

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell adenomas and basal cell adenocarcinomas show marked histomorphologic similarity and are separated microscopically primarily by the invasive characteristics of the adenocarcinomas. We wished to explore potential differences in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated proteins in these two tumor types. A tissue microarray was constructed utilizing 29 basal cell adenomas and 16 basal cell adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, Twist 1 and vimentin were investigated. Both tumors expressed all proteins in a relatively similar manner. Nuclear beta-catenin was essentially limited to the abluminal cell populations in both tumor types. E-cadherin was limited largely to luminal locations but was more prevalent in the adenocarcinomas as compared to the adenomas. Primarily abluminal expression for vimentin was seen, sometimes present in an apical dot-like pattern. Distinct populations of cellular expression of these four markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition were present but were similar in locations in both tumors with no patterns discerned to separate basal cell adenoma from basal cell adenocarcinoma. Given these findings, the mechanisms by which basal cell adenocarcinoma is able to invade while its counterpart, basal cell adenoma can not, may be more complex than in other tumor types. PMID:26442856

  4. Shaping Action Sequences in Basal Ganglia Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Costa, Rui M

    2015-01-01

    Many behaviors necessary for organism survival are learned anew and become organized as complex sequences of actions. Recent studies suggest that cortico-basal ganglia circuits are important for chunking isolated movements into precise and robust action sequences that permit the achievement of particular goals. During sequence learning many neurons in the basal ganglia develop sequence-related activity - related to the initiation, execution, and termination of sequences - suggesting that action sequences are processed as action units. Corticostriatal plasticity is critical for the crystallization of action sequences, and for the development of sequence-related neural activity. Furthermore, this sequence-related activity is differentially expressed in direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways. These findings have implications for understanding the symptoms associated with movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26189204

  5. Can basal magma oceans generate magnetic fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Ziegler, L. B.; Davies, C.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is very old, with recent data now showing the field possibly extended back to 4.1 billion years ago (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). Yet, based upon our current knowledge there are difficulties in sustained a core dynamo over most of Earth's history. Moreover, recent estimates of thermal and electrical conductivity of liquid iron at core conditions from mineral physics experiments indicate that adiabatic heat flux is approximately 15 TW, nearly 3 times larger than previously thought, exacerbating difficulties for driving a core dynamo by convective core cooling alone throughout Earth history. A long-lived basal magma ocean in the lowermost mantle has been proposed to exist in the early Earth, surviving perhaps into the Archean. While the modern, solid lower mantle is an electromagnetic insulator, electrical conductivities of silicate melts are known to be higher, though as yet they are unconstrained for lowermost mantle conditions. Here we explore the geomagnetic consequences of a basal magma ocean layer for a range of possible electrical conductivities. For the highest electrical conductivities considered, we find a basal magma ocean could be a primary dynamo source region. This would suggest the proposed three magnetic eras observed in paleomagnetic data originate from distinct sources for dynamo generation: from 4.5-2.45 Ga within a basal magma ocean, from 2.25-0.4 Ga within a superadiabatically cooled liquid core, and from 0.4-present within a quasi-adiabatic core that includes a solidifying inner core. We have extended this work by developing a new code, Dynamantle, which is a model with an entropy-based approach, similar to those commonly used in core dynamics models. We present new results using this code to assess the conditions under which basal magma oceans can generate positive ohmic dissipation. This is more generally useful than just considering the early Earth, but also for many silicate exoplanets in which basal magma oceans

  6. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  7. Basal ganglia germinoma with progressive cerebral hemiatrophy.

    PubMed

    Liu, E; Robertson, R L; du Plessis, A; Pomeroy, S L

    1999-04-01

    The authors describe a 7-year-old Chinese-American female with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis and cerebral hemiatrophy. The additional finding of markedly elevated antiphospholipid antibodies suggests the possibility of an autoimmune pathogenesis for the progressive cerebral atrophy, as well as the later development of cognitive decline, tics, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. PMID:10328283

  8. Basal Ganglia Germinoma in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Vialatte de Pémille, Clément; Bielle, Franck; Mokhtari, Karima; Kerboua, Esma; Alapetite, Claire; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial germinoma is a rare primary brain cancer, usually located within the midline and mainly affecting Asian pediatric patients. Interestingly, we report here the peculiar case of a young North-African adult patient suffering from a basal ganglia germinoma without the classical ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy associated with this location. PMID:27241091

  9. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  10. How Basal Reading Texts Affect Children's Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Barbara L.

    A study investigated how children's writing reflects the syntactic complexity, style, and format of their basal readers. Subjects were 116 students drawn from 10 second, third, and fourth grade classrooms in two different schools located near Boston, Massachusetts. A matched group design was used, and students using a form of the "Ginn" basal…

  11. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  12. Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

  13. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events

  14. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mikhael, John G; Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-09-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  15. What do the basal ganglia do?

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Marsden, C D

    1998-06-13

    We propose that the basal ganglia support a basic attentional mechanism operating to bind input to output in the executive forebrain. Such focused attention provides the automatic link between voluntary effort, sensory input, and the calling up and operation of a sequence of motor programmes or thoughts. The physiological basis for this attentional mechanism may lie in the tendency of distributed, but related, cortical activities to synchronise in the gamma (30 to 50 Hz) band, as occurs in the visual cortex. Coherent and synchronised elements are more effective when convergence occurs during successive stages of processing, and in this way may come together to give the one gestalt or action. We suggest that the basal ganglia have a major role in facilitating this aspect of neuronal processing in the forebrain, and that loss of this function contributes to parkinsonism and abulia. PMID:9635969

  16. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution. PMID:26130238

  17. Active decorrelation in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C J

    2013-10-10

    The cytoarchitecturally-homogeneous appearance of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra has long been said to imply a high degree of afferent convergence and sharing of inputs by nearby neurons. Moreover, axon collaterals of neurons in the external segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata arborize locally and make inhibitory synapses on other cells of the same type. These features suggest that the connectivity of the basal ganglia may impose spike-time correlations among the cells, and it has been puzzling that experimental studies have failed to demonstrate such correlations. One possible solution arises from studies of firing patterns in basal ganglia cells, which reveal that they are nearly all pacemaker cells. Their high rate of firing does not depend on synaptic excitation, but they fire irregularly because a dense barrage of synaptic inputs normally perturbs the timing of their autonomous activity. Theoretical and computational studies show that the responses of repetitively-firing neurons to shared input or mutual synaptic coupling often defy classical intuitions about temporal synaptic integration. The patterns of spike-timing among such neurons depend on the ionic mechanism of pacemaking, the level of background uncorrelated cellular and synaptic noise, and the firing rates of the neurons, as well as the properties of their synaptic connections. Application of these concepts to the basal ganglia circuitry suggests that the connectivity and physiology of these nuclei may be configured to prevent the establishment of permanent spike-timing relationships between neurons. The development of highly synchronous oscillatory patterns of activity in Parkinson's disease may result from the loss of pacemaking by some basal ganglia neurons, and accompanying breakdown of the mechanisms responsible for active decorrelation. PMID:23892007

  18. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  19. Placas and Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  20. Basal cell nevus syndrome - close-up of palm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skeletal abnormalities. Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas. This ... close-up of the pits found in the palm of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

  1. Fractionation of a Basal Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, M.; Hernlund, J. W.; Labrosse, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is thought to be sustained by dynamo action in a convecting metallic outer core since at least 3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Convection induces an isentropic temperature gradient that drains 13±3 TW of heat from the core by thermal conduction (de Koker et al., 2012; Pozzo et al., 2012; Gomi et al., 2013), and suggests that Earth's core has cooled by ˜1,000 K or more since Earth's formation (Gomi et al., 2013). However, models of Earth's initial thermal evolution following a giant-impact predict rapid cooling to the mantle melting temperature (e.g., Solomatov, 2007). In order to understand how the core could have retained enough heat to explain the age of the geodynamo, we relax a key assumption of the basal magma ocean model of (Labrosse et al., 2007) to allow for the possibility that the magma is stably stratified. Recent giant impact simulations suggest extensive core-mantle mixing (Saitoh and Makino, 2013), which could have produced such a large stratified magma layer at the core-mantle boundary. In the presence of a stable density gradient, heat transfer through the basal magma ocean occurs through conduction and therefore delays heat loss from the core. Partitioning of iron in the liquid phase upon crystallization changes the density profile and triggers convection in the upper part of the basal magma ocean. Our hypothesis suggests that early core cooling is dominated by the diffusion timescale through the basal magma ocean, and predicts a delayed onset of the geodynamo (i.e, during the late Headean/early Archean). This model can therefore be falsified if the existence of a geomagnetic field can be inferred from magnetization of inclusions in Hadean zircons. N. de Koker et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 190, 4070-4073 (2012).H. Gomi et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 224, 88-103 (2013).S. Labrosse et al., Nature 450, 866-869 (2007).M. Pozzo et al., Nature 485, 355-358 (2012).T. Saitoh and J. Makino. Astrophys. J. 768, 44 (2013).V

  2. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma. Part 1: Basal Cell Carcinoma Has Come of Age.

    PubMed

    Deng, Min; Marsch, Amanda F; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Almost 2 centuries after its recognition, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common cancer worldwide, with a 30% overall lifetime risk in the United States and an incidence that continues to increase annually. The increasing incidence of BCC is multifactorial and likely correlates to multiple risk factors, including exposure to both ionizing and UV radiation. Despite its relatively indolent growth, what was once referred to as a rodent ulcer or basal cell epithelioma is now identified as a full-fledged malignancy. The authors describe the societal burden of this disease and characterize its malignant potential, emphasizing associated clinical and histopathologic prognostic features. PMID:26380507

  4. Basal body replication and cilogenesis in a suctorian, Tokophrya infusionum.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, L L; Rudzinska, M A

    1970-09-01

    Basal body replication and ciliogenesis in Tokophrya infusionum were studied in synchronized cultures. Basal body replication occurs during the 1st hr of reproduction, which in Tokophrya is by internal budding. The number of basal bodies increases from about 20 to over 300 within this period. New basal bodies develop in association with mature basal bodies; they are formed at right angles to the mature basal body as short "probasal" bodies, which elongate, slant upward, become parallel to the mature basal body, and elongate to the mature size. Ciliogenesis occurs only during reproduction; the nonreproducing adult is not ciliated, and has only 18-25 barren basal bodies. Cilia first appear as short bulges above the basal body. The axonemal structure is incomplete at first, with one or both central microtubules absent, and occasionally the B fibers of the outer doublets are missing. Several accessory fibers are associated with the basal bodies, both in the adult and during reproduction. One of the fibers appears only after the cilia have sprouted. The scheme of basal body replication and ciliogenesis in Tokophrya is compared to that reported in other organisms, and the role of the accessory fibers is discussed. PMID:4349131

  5. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. )

    1992-09-01

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  6. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  7. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    PubMed Central

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G.; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; Klingenspor, M.; White, C. R.; Jastroch, M.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence. PMID:21632624

  8. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  9. Radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The treatment of tinea capitis using radiotherapy was introduced at the beginning of the twentieth century. A variety of cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are seen years after this treatment. Objective: We sought to determine the clinical characteristics of BCCs among irradiated patients. Methods: The clinical records of all patients with BCC in a clinic in north of Iran were reviewed. Results: Of the 58 cases of BCC, 29 had positive history for radiotherapy in their childhood. Multiple BCCs were seen in 79.3% and 10.3% of patients with history and without history of radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusions: X-ray radiation is still a major etiologic factor in developing BCC in northern Iran. Patients with positive history for radiotherapy have higher rate of recurrence. PMID:26114066

  10. How to achieve a predictable basal insulin?

    PubMed

    Kurtzhals, P

    2005-09-01

    The development of insulin analogues over the last two decades have aimed at optimising the pharmacokinetic profile of subcutaneously injected insulin for therapeutic use in diabetes mellitus. Rapid acting analogues were successfully engineered and marketed in the late 1990's. In engineering long-acting analogues it has been a particular challenge to obtain action profiles that would be predictable from day to day in the same person. The most recent approach has been to acylate the insulin molecule with a fatty acid which provides the insulin molecule with a specific affinity for albumin. The first clinically available agent of this type is insulin detemir. Pharmacological studies have shown that reversible albumin binding will protract absorption following subcutaneous injection but still allow the insulin molecule to be recognised by the insulin receptor following dissociation from the carrier protein. Moreover, the molecular features of insulin detemir are attractive in that the molecule can be formulated as a neutral aqueous solution and does not precipitate after injection. Together with an important buffering mechanism effected by plasma albumin binding, this explains a highly significant reduction of within-subject variability of pharmacodynamic response observed in repeat isoglycaemic clamp studies where insulin detemir was compared to other basal insulin products. No safety considerations have been identified in using albumin as an insulin carrier to protract and buffer insulin action. In assessing the clinical attractiveness of insulin analogues, it is furthermore critically important to consider how the molecular modifications impact efficacy and safety. A number of pharmacological studies have shown that insulin detemir overall retains the molecular pharmacological properties of native human insulin, including a physiological balance between metabolic and mitogenic potencies. Taken together, insulin detemir provides an attractive novel approach for

  11. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    PubMed Central

    Lamos, Elizabeth M; Younk, Lisa M; Davis, Stephen N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration. PMID:27022271

  12. Fast Modulation of Visual Perception by Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Estandian, Daniel; Xu, Min; Kwan, Alex C.; Lee, Seung-Hee; Harrison, Thomas C.; Feng, Guoping; Dan, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain provides the primary source of cholinergic input to the cortex, and it plays a crucial role in promoting wakefulness and arousal. However, whether rapid changes in basal forebrain neuron spiking in awake animals can dynamically influence sensory perception is unclear. Here we show that basal forebrain cholinergic neurons rapidly regulate cortical activity and visual perception in awake, behaving mice. Optogenetic activation of the cholinergic neurons or their V1 axon terminals improved performance of a visual discrimination task on a trial-by-trial basis. In V1, basal forebrain activation enhanced visual responses and desynchronized neuronal spiking, which could partly account for the behavioral improvement. Conversely, optogenetic basal forebrain inactivation decreased behavioral performance, synchronized cortical activity and impaired visual responses, indicating the importance of cholinergic activity in normal visual processing. These results underscore the causal role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in fast, bidirectional modulation of cortical processing and sensory perception. PMID:24162654

  13. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research.

    PubMed

    Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Durand, Bénédicte; Megraw, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various types of basal bodies and cilia, which are needed for sensory neuron and sperm function. Genetics, cell biology and behaviour studies in the fruit fly have unveiled new basal body components and revealed different modes of assembly and functions of basal bodies that are conserved in many other organisms, including human, green algae and plasmodium. Here we describe the various basal bodies of Drosophila, what is known about their composition, structure and function. PMID:27382461

  14. Mechanisms of platelet adhesion to the basal lamina.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, T. W.; Benditt, E. P.

    1978-01-01

    The human glomerular basal lamina (HGBL) is composed of collagenous and noncollagenous glycoproteins. We assessed the role played by each costituent in platelet-basal-lamina interaction by selective cleavage and removal of each component by clostridial collagenase or by pepsin. When noncollagenous proteins are removed from HGBL, human platelets exhibit littel reactivity toward the residual collagen framework of the isolated basal lamina. With the noncollagen matrix of basal lamina, after removal of the bulk of the collagen, platelet adhesion and spreading proceed normally in the presence of divalent cations, similar to what occurs on intact basal lamina. No platelet degranulation or aggregation is observed. The results indicate that the basal lamina collagen, even in its native packing arrangement, lacks affinity for platelet adhesion and is incapable of triggering platelet release reactions. Platelet adhesion and spreading on the basal lamina appears to depend primarily on the presence of the noncollagen components and to require divalent cations. The data suggest the presence on platelets of receptors for basal lamina distinct from those for interstitial collagens. These receptors activate a unique modulation of platelet behavior, ie, adhesion and spreading without degranulation. A difference in biologic function of the basal lamina and interstitial collagens is apparent in these experiments. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:210672

  15. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  16. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Sami N; Reynolds, L Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5. PMID:22879797

  17. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  18. Heterogeneity of basal keratinocytes: nonrandom distribution of thymidine-labeled basal cells in confluent cultures is not a technical artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Milstone, L.M.; LaVigne, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Basal surface autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)dThd-labeled, confluent, keratinocyte cultures reveals that proliferating cells have a nonrandom, patterned distribution. Unlabeled cells, likewise, appear nonrandomly in clusters. The authors show here that failure to detect DNA synthesis in some basal cells in culture is not an artifact caused either by physical separation of the labeled nuclei from the radiographic emulsion or by a diffusion barrier that would prevent (/sup 3/H)dThd from reaching basal cells.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  20. A basal carbon concentrating mechanism in plants?

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, Eduardo; Martin, M Victoria; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2012-05-01

    Many photosynthetic organisms have developed inorganic carbon (Ci) concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) that increase the CO₂ concentration within the vicinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Several CCMs, such as four carbon (C4) and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), bicarbonate accumulation systems and capsular structures around RubisCO have been described in great detail. These systems are believed to have evolved several times as mechanisms that acclimate organisms to unfavourable growth conditions. Based on recent experimental evidence we propose the occurrence of another more general CCM system present in all plants. This basal CCM (bCCM) is supposed to be composed of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (a β-type carbonic anhydrase and the γ-type carbonic anhydrase domain of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex) and probably further unknown components. The bCCM is proposed to reduce leakage of CO₂ from plant cells and allow efficient recycling of mitochondrial CO₂ for carbon fixation in chloroplasts. PMID:22404837

  1. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  2. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies in PANDAS.

    PubMed

    Singer, Harvey S; Loiselle, Christopher R; Lee, Olivia; Minzer, Karen; Swedo, Susan; Grus, Franz H

    2004-04-01

    An autoimmune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for a variety of pediatric movement disorders that occur after a streptococcal infection. In this study, anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in 15 children with the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and compared with those in 15 controls. ELISA and Western immunoblotting (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet (P2), and synaptosomal preparations from adult postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density values did not differ between PANDAS patients and controls across all preparations. Immunoblotting identified multiple bands in all subjects with no differences in the number of bands or their total density. Discriminant analysis, used to assess mean binding patterns, showed that PANDAS patients differed from controls only for the caudate S1 fraction (Wilks' lambda = 0.0236, P < 0.0002), with PANDAS-primarily tic subjects providing the greatest discrimination. Among the epitopes contributing to differences between PANDAS and control in the caudate S1 fraction, mean binding to the epitope at 183 kDa was the most different between groups. In conclusion, ELISA measurements do not differentiate between PANDAS and controls, suggesting a lack of major antibody changes in this disorder. Further immunoblot analyses using a caudate supernatant fraction are required to completely exclude the possibility of minor antibody repertoire differences in PANDAS subjects, especially in those who primarily have tics. PMID:15077238

  3. Basal activity of GIRK5 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Carolina; Mora, Silvia I; Ordaz, Benito; Antaramian, Anaid; Vaca, Luis; Escobar, Laura I

    2003-02-14

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (GIRK or Kir3) form functional heterotetramers gated by Gbetagamma subunits. GIRK channels are critical for functions as diverse as heart rate modulation and neuronal post-synaptic inhibition. GIRK5 (Kir3.5) is the oocyte homologue of the mammalian GIRK subunits that conform the K(ACh) channel. It has been claimed that even when the oocytes express GIRK5 proteins they do not form functional channels. However, the GIRK5 gene shows three initiation sites that suggest the existence of three isoforms. In a previous work we demonstrated the functionality of homomultimers of the shortest isoform overexpressed in the own oocytes. Remarkably, the basal GIRK5-Delta25 inward currents were not coupled to the activation of a G-protein receptor in the oocytes. These results encouraged us to study this channel in another expression system. In this work we show that Sf21 insect cells can be successfully transfected with this channel. GIRK5-Delta25 homomultimers produce time-dependent inward currents only with GTPgammaS in the recording pipette. Therefore, alternative modes of stimulus input to heterotrimeric G-proteins should be present in the oocytes to account for these results. PMID:12535718

  4. The effective treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Lucy Anne

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 75% of all skin cancers and its incidence is rising by between 3-8% each year (Szeimies and Karrer, 2006). As a result, the development of new therapeutic strategies and treatment methods for the removal of BCC is crucial in combating what is a growing problem. Surgical techniques, such as Mohs micrographic surgery, cryotherapy/cryosurgery, curettage and carbon dioxide laser therapy, as well as non-surgical techniques, such as radiotherapy, are recognized as potential options. The aim of this article is to critically review some of the current literature in order to substantiate the efficacy of destructive and non-surgical techniques as reliable alternatives to surgery for the management/removal of BCCs. The success rate, cosmetic outcome, pain and discomfort, recurrence rates, and the cost associated with each method are explored and discussed. Results of the review indicate that no one treatment is completely superior. According to the research, simple excision and Mohs micrographic surgery provide the lowest recurrence rates. However, in relation to success rates, patients tolerance of the treatment and cosmetic outcomes, and depending on the type of BCC involved, other treatment methods do offer reliable alternatives. PMID:19329898

  5. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  6. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... often enough to cure basal and squamous cell skin cancers without further treatment. There are different types of skin biopsies. The ... and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Skin Cancer - ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Skin Cancer - Basal and Squamous ...

  7. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  8. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Kishore, Praveen; Bhasin, Jasjit Singh; Arya, Subhash Chand

    2015-01-01

    Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ‘mineralizing angiopathy’ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described. PMID:26019426

  9. How are Senior Citizens Portrayed in Basal Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Doris F.

    Five commonly used basal readers from grades one through three were studied to determine how they portrayed and represented older adults. It was hypothesized that older adults would be portrayed as active, contributing, and productive members of society and that they would be represented in the basals in proportion to their numbers in the…

  10. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the forehead: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjcec, Zoran; Lisica-Sikić, Natasa; Kovacić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6 cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carcinomas are rare tumors and are usually result of a long duration and patient neglect. In comparison to the ordinary basal cell carcinoma these tumors have a higher metastatic potential. Surgical resection with negative surgical margin is the best possible treatment option. PMID:22816239

  11. Basal slip and mechanical anisotropy of biotite

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, A.K. ); Kirby, S.H.; Pinkston, J. )

    1990-11-10

    The basal slip systems of biotite and their mechanical expressions have been investigated by shortening single crystals oriented to maximize and minimize shear stresses on (001). Samples loaded at 45{degree} to (001) exhibit gentle external rotations associated with dislocation glide. Samples shortened perpendicular to (001) show no evidence of nonbasal slip and fail by fracture over all conditions tested. The mechanical response of biotite shortened at 45{degree} to (001) is nearly perfectly elastic-plastic; stress-strain curves are characterized by a steep elastic slope, a sharply defined yield point, and continued deformation at low (mostly < 100 MPa), relatively constant stresses at strains >1%. Stresses measured beyond the yield point are insensitive to confining pressure over the range 200 to 500 MPa and exhibit weak dependencies upon strain rate and temperature. Assuming an exponential relationship between differential stress {sigma}{sub d} and strain rate {epsilon} = C exp({minus}Q/RT), the data collected over strain rates and temperatures of 10-7 to 10-4 s-1 and 20 to 400C, respectively, are best fit by an exponential constant {alpha} of 0.41 {plus minus} 0.08 MPa{minus}1 and an activation energy Q of 82 {plus minus} 13 kJ/mol. A power law fits the data equally well with n = 18 {plus minus} 4 and Q = 51 {plus minus} 9 kJ/mol. The strength of biotite shortened perpendicular to (001) exceeds that measured parallel to (001) and is pressure dependent. Application of the results to deformation within the continental crust suggests that biotite oriented favorably for slip is much weaker than most silicates over a wide range of geologic conditions. Its presence within foliated rocks and shear zones may limit locally the stresses that can be supported.

  12. Analysis of Basal Plane Bending and Basal Plane Dislocations in 4H-SiC Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Noboru; Katsuno, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Tatsuo; Nakabayashi, Masashi; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Hirokatsu; Aigo, Takashi; Hirano, Hosei; Hoshino, Taizo; Ohashi, Wataru

    2009-06-01

    4H-SiC single crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport (PVT) growth method under different thermoelastic stress conditions, and the degree of basal plane bending in the crystals was characterized by the peak shift measurement of X-ray rocking curves. The results indicate that the degree of basal plane bending largely depends on the magnitude of the thermoelastic stresses imposed on the crystals during PVT growth. Quantitative analysis of basal plane bending revealed that the density of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) estimated from basal plane bending is much smaller than that obtained from defect-selective etching. It was also found that the BPD density is correlated with the threading screw dislocation (TSD) density in PVT-grown SiC crystals. These aspects of BPDs were discussed in terms of the BPD multiplication process triggered by the intersection of BPDs with a forest of TSDs extending along the c-axis.

  13. Limbal Basal Cell Density Decreases in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eric H; Chen, Luxia; Rao, Jian Yu; Yu, Fei; Deng, Sophie X.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in limbal basal epithelial cell density in eyes with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy Design retrospective observational comparative study Methods A total of 43 eyes of 30 patients diagnosed with LSCD were included in the study. Ten eyes from normal subjects were included as control. Confocal imaging of the central cornea, and the superior, nasal, inferior and temporal limbus were collected using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III Rostock Corneal Module. Basal cell density in all locations was measured by two independent observers. Results The mean basal cell density of the normal group was 9264 ±598 cells/mm2 in the cornea and 7120 ±362 cells/mm2 in the limbus. In the LSCD group, the mean basal cell density in the cornea decreased 31.0% (6389 ±1820 cells/mm2, p<0.001) and in the limbus decreased 23.6% (5440 ±1123 cells/mm2, p<0.001) compared to that in the control. There was a trend of basal cell density decline in more advanced stage of LSCD. The basal cell density declined in the unaffected regions at a similar degree as that in the affected region in sectoral LSCD (p>0.05). The basal cell diameter increased by 24.6% in the cornea (14.7 μm) and by 15.7% in the limbus (15.5 μm) compared to the control. Conclusions Basal cell density in both central cornea and limbus decreases in LSCD. LSCs are affected globally and basal cell density could be used as a parameter to measure LSC function at the early stages of the disease process. PMID:26149968

  14. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-01

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made. PMID:24954674

  15. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  16. The basal ganglia-circa 1982 - A review and commentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent studies which utilize new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods in order to improve knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and to clarify their sites of origin. These studies have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and have revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Also examined are the many new histochemical techniques that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in or interconnecting with the basal ganglia.

  17. A psittacosaurid-like basal neoceratopsian from the Upper Cretaceous of central China and its implications for basal ceratopsian evolution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjie; Jin, Xingsheng; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosauridae (parrot-beaked dinosaurs) represents the first major radiation of ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs). However, psittacosaurids are divergent from the general morphology found in other ceratopsians, and this has resulted in their uncertain systematic position among ceratopsians. Here we describe a new basal neoceratopsian dinosaur, Mosaiceratops azumai gen. et sp. nov. based on a partial semi-articulated skeleton recovered from the Upper Cretaceous Xiaguan Formation of Neixiang County, Henan Province, China. Although our phylogenetic analysis supports this taxon as the most basal neoceratopsian, Mosaiceratops exhibits many features previously considered unique to the Psittacosauridae among the basal Ceratopsia. These include a relatively highly positioned external naris, a proportionally large premaxilla, the nasal extending ventral to the external naris, slender postorbital and temporal bars, a large notch between the basal tubera, and the edentulous premaxilla. Thus, the discovery of Mosaiceratops reduces the morphological disparity between the Psittacosauridae and other basal ceratopsians. Character optimization suggests that basal neoceratopsians have re-evolved premaxillary teeth; a major reversal previously unknown in any dinosaur clade. The new specimen also highlights the mosaic nature of evolution among early ceratopsians and supports the phylogenetic hypothesis that the Psittacosauridae is a relatively derived clade, rather than the most basal group of the Ceratopsia. PMID:26388024

  18. [Extensive basal cell cancer of the scalp - case reports].

    PubMed

    Olędzki, Szymon; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Department Of Surgery And Emergency Nursing Pomeranian Medical University In Szczecin Poland, Ryszard

    2016-07-01

    Basal-cell canceris a slow growing, rarely metastasizes, locally malignant skin cancer. Patients with this neoplasm usually have excellent prognosis. Potentially, in some cases, a good prognosis cause a delay in therapy. Delay or withdrawal from treatment might lead to higher local extension of tumour with the destruction of the surrounding tissue. In this article we are presenting two patients with extensive basal cell cancer. The first patient underwent plastic surgery for extensive basal-cell carcinoma located in the parietal and temporal area. The second patient was observed due to recurrence of extensive basal cell carcinoma in the parietal region. Local advancement of the primary tumor could be a reason for the lack of radicality of surgery. Such advancement is rarely seen nowadays. The cases demonstrate the need for awareness about the possible severe course of the disease. PMID:27590651

  19. [Extensive basal cell cancer of the scalp - case reports].

    PubMed

    Olędzki, Szymon; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Department Of Surgery And Emergency Nursing Pomeranian Medical University In Szczecin Poland, Ryszard

    2016-08-01

    Basal-cell canceris a slow growing, rarely metastasizes, locally malignant skin cancer. Patients with this neoplasm usually have excellent prognosis. Potentially, in some cases, a good prognosis cause a delay in therapy. Delay or withdrawal from treatment might lead to higher local extension of tumour with the destruction of the surrounding tissue. In this article we are presenting two patients with extensive basal cell cancer. The first patient underwent plastic surgery for extensive basal-cell carcinoma located in the parietal and temporal area. The second patient was observed due to recurrence of extensive basal cell carcinoma in the parietal region. Local advancement of the primary tumor could be a reason for the lack of radicality of surgery. Such advancement is rarely seen nowadays. The cases demonstrate the need for awareness about the possible severe course of the disease. PMID:27591446

  20. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher H.; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E.; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat which remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. Here we show in mice that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway. Under physiological conditions this short latency pathway is capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition this pathway relays aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  1. Origin of basal activity in mammalian olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian odorant receptors form a large, diverse group of G protein–coupled receptors that determine the sensitivity and response profile of olfactory receptor neurons. But little is known if odorant receptors control basal and also stimulus-induced cellular properties of olfactory receptor neurons other than ligand specificity. This study demonstrates that different odorant receptors have varying degrees of basal activity, which drives concomitant receptor current fluctuations and basal action potential firing. This basal activity can be suppressed by odorants functioning as inverse agonists. Furthermore, odorant-stimulated olfactory receptor neurons expressing different odorant receptors can have strikingly different response patterns in the later phases of prolonged stimulation. Thus, the influence of odorant receptor choice on response characteristics is much more complex than previously thought, which has important consequences on odor coding and odor information transfer to the brain. PMID:20974772

  2. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... in regulating phosphate levels within the body (phosphate homeostasis) by transporting phosphate across cell membranes. The SLC20A2 ... link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 12;44(3):254- ...

  3. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype. PMID:26734870

  4. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  5. PERIANAL BASAL CELL CARCINOMA—AN UNUSUAL SITE OF OCCURRENCE

    PubMed Central

    Nagendra Naidu, D V; Rajakumar, V

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Its occurrence in the perianal region is very rare. Awareness of its benign behavior in this region, in contrast to the earlier reports, is vital in its management. Local excision seems to provide adequate control. We are herewith reporting an extremely rare case of a 69-year-old male with basal cell carcinoma treated adequately with local excision. PMID:20606890

  6. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

  7. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  8. The relation between dermoscopy and histopathology of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent cancer in fair-skinned populations and dermoscopy is an important, non-invasive technique that aids in the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between histopathological subtypes and dermoscopic features of Basal cell carcinoma. METHODS: This study included 98 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Basal cell carcinomas. The dermoscopic features of the lesions from each patient were analyzed before the histopathological findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Dermoscopic structures were observed in all 98 patients and irregular vascularity was identified in 78 patients (79.6%). The most common vascular pattern was the presence of arborizing vessels (42 patients, 42.9%) followed by arborizing microvessels (21 patients, 21.4%) and short fine telangiectasias (SFTs; 15 patients, 15.3%). White streaks (38 patients, 38.8%), translucency (31 patients, 31.6%), a milky-pink to red background (42 patients, 42.9%), and erosion/ulceration (29 patients, 29.6%) were also observed. Pigmented islands were seen as blue-gray globules (7 patients, 7.1%) and blue-gray ovoid nests (42 patients, 42.9%). The pigment distribution pattern was maple leaf-like areas in 9 patients (9.2 %) and spoke wheel-like areas in 6 patients (6.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Basal cell carcinomas show a wide spectrum of dermoscopic features. Arborizing vessels were the most common dermoscopic findings in Basal cell carcinomas, while superficial Basal cell carcinomas displayed mainly milky-pink to red areas, and arborizing microvessels. The most common dermoscopic features of pigmented types were islands of pigment (blue-gray globules, blue-gray ovoid nests). In conclusion, dermoscopy can be used as a valuable tool for the diagnosis of Basal cell carcinomas and prediction of their histopathological subtypes. PMID:26131865

  9. Disruption of automatic speech following a right basal ganglia lesion.

    PubMed

    Speedie, L J; Wertman, E; Ta'ir, J; Heilman, K M

    1993-09-01

    Following a right basal ganglia lesion, a right-handed man, age 75, was unable to recite familiar verses. Serial automatic speech, singing, recitation of rhymes, and swearing were impaired, and only idioms and social greetings were preserved. Speech no longer contained overused phrases and he could comprehend automatic speech. In contrast, propositional speech was preserved in both French and Hebrew. Right basal ganglia lesions may impair production but not comprehension of automatic speech. PMID:8414029

  10. Classification of Cryostructures of Basal Glacier Ice Using Tomodensitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Kanevskiy, M.; Dillon, M.; Stephani, E.; Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    In permafrost areas, the extent of former glaciations can be inferred from the occurrence of buried glacier ice (Murton et al. 2005). Buried basal glacier ice can only be distinguished from other type of massive ice if the properties and structure of contemporary basal ice are well-known. Several classifications of basal ice have been developed based on the geological facies analysis (Lawson 1979, Knight 1994, Hubbard and Sharp 1995). However, none of them have addressed basal ice descriptions in terms of cryostructures. We used conventional field descriptions and microcomputed tomodensitometry to evaluate structure and properties of sediments including basal ice. The scan images were processed using a thresholding technique which assigns gray scale values to the components of basal ice based on their density. These values were used to determine the volumetric content of each component (ice, sediment, gas). We have used the Mathworks MATLAB R2007a software to produce three-dimensional images of basal ice cryostructures. The main advantage of these is to obtain in a non-destructive manner precise average ice and sediment contents for a given volume of a particular cryostructure. These models allow for a detailed 3D visualization of the cryostructures which is a powerful tool to study their architecture and the geometric relations between ice and sediments. The technical details of these operations have been presented by Dillon et al. (2008). Our cryostructures classification of basal glacier ice and sediments includes seven types of cryostructures observed in the basal ice of the Matanuska Glacier: (1) Porous; (2) Crustal; (3) Reticulate; (4) Lenticular; (5) Layered; (6) Suspended (includes four sub-types: Suspended dispersed, Micro-suspended, Suspended- intergranular, Suspended inter-crystalline); (7) Massive ice. The classification is illustrated by detailed photographs, sketches and bi-dimensional (2D) scan images of the various cryostructures along with their

  11. Basal ganglia output reflects internally-specified movements

    PubMed Central

    Lintz, Mario J; Felsen, Gidon

    2016-01-01

    How movements are selected is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. While many studies have elucidated the sensorimotor transformations underlying stimulus-guided movements, less is known about how internal goals – critical drivers of goal-directed behavior – guide movements. The basal ganglia are known to bias movement selection according to value, one form of internal goal. Here, we examine whether other internal goals, in addition to value, also influence movements via the basal ganglia. We designed a novel task for mice that dissociated equally rewarded internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements, allowing us to test how each engaged the basal ganglia. We found that activity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a basal ganglia output, predictably differed preceding internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements. Incorporating these results into a simple model suggests that internally-specified movements may be facilitated relative to stimulus-guided movements by basal ganglia processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13833.001 PMID:27377356

  12. Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, W J

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to formulate a working hypothesis of basal-ganglia functions, arguments are considered suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in a process of response selection i.e. in the facilitation of "wanted" and in the suppression of "unwanted" behaviour. The meso-accumbal dopamine-system is considered to mediate natural and drug-induced reward and sensitization. The meso-striatal dopamine-system seems to fulfill similar functions: It may mediate reinforcement which strengthens a given behaviour when elicited subsequently, but which is not experienced as reward or hedonia. Glutamate as the transmitter of the corticofugal projections to the basal ganglia nuclei and of the subthalamic neurons is critically involved in basal ganglia functions and dysfunctions; for example Parkinson's disease can be considered to be a secondary hyperglutamatergic disease. Additionally, glutamate is an essential factor in the plasticity response of the basal-ganglia. However, opposite to previous suggestions, the NMDA-receptor blocker MK-801 does not prevent psychostimulant- nor morphine-induced day to day increase (sensitization) of locomotion. Also the day to day increase of haloperidol-induced catalepsy was not prevented by MK-801. PMID:9871434

  13. Phylogeny of Basal Iguanodonts (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): An Update

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The precise phylogenetic relationships of many non-hadrosaurid members of Iguanodontia, i.e., basal iguanodonts, have been unclear. Therefore, to investigate the global phylogeny of basal iguanodonts a comprehensive data matrix was assembled, including nearly every valid taxon of basal iguanodont. The matrix was analyzed in the program TNT, and the maximum agreement subtree of the resulting most parsimonious trees was then calculated in PAUP. Ordering certain multistate characters and omitting taxa through safe taxonomic reduction did not markedly improve resolution. The results provide some new information on the phylogeny of basal iguanodonts, pertaining especially to obscure or recently described taxa, and support some recent taxonomic revisions, such as the splitting of traditional “Camptosaurus” and “Iguanodon”. The maximum agreement subtree also shows a close relationship between the Asian Probactrosaurus gobiensis and the North American Eolambia, supporting the previous hypothesis of faunal interchange between Asia and North America in the early Late Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the phylogenetic relationships of many basal iguanodonts remain ambiguous due to the high number of taxa removed from the maximum agreement subtree and poor resolution of consensus trees. PMID:22629328

  14. Basal bodies across eukaryotes series: basal bodies in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh, Juliette; Basquin, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has recently emerged as a valuable model system to study basal bodies (BBs) and cilia. Planarians are free-living flatworms that use cilia beating at the surface of their ventral epidermis for gliding along substrates. The ventral epidermis is composed of multiciliated cells (MCCs) that are similar to the MCCs in the respiratory airways, the brain ventricles, and the oviducts in vertebrates. In the planarian epidermis, each cell assembles approximately eighty cilia that beat in a coordinate fashion across the tissue. The BBs that nucleate these cilia all assemble de novo during terminal differentiation of MCCs. The genome of the planarian S. mediterranea has been sequenced and efficient methods for targeting gene expression by RNA interference are available. Defects induced by perturbing the expression of BB proteins can be detected simply by analyzing the locomotion of planarians. BBs are present in large numbers and in predictable orientation, which greatly facilitates analyses by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The great ease in targeting gene expression and analyzing associated defects allowed to identify a set of proteins required for BB assembly and function in planarian MCCs. Future technological developments, including methods for transgenic expression in planarians and in related species, will achieve turning free-living flatworms into powerful model systems to study MCCs and the associated human pathologies. PMID:26998257

  15. Prostatic inflammation enhances basal-to-luminal differentiation and accelerates initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Zhang, Li; Ittmann, Michael M.; Xin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been shown to promote the initiation and progression of diverse malignancies by inducing genetic and epigenetic alterations. In this study, we investigate an alternative mechanism through which inflammation promotes the initiation of prostate cancer. Adult murine prostate epithelia are composed predominantly of basal and luminal cells. Previous studies revealed that the two lineages are largely self-sustained when residing in their native microenvironment. To interrogate whether tissue inflammation alters the differentiation program of basal cells, we conducted lineage tracing of basal cells using a K14-CreER;mTmG model in concert with a murine model of prostatitis induced by infection from the uropathogenic bacteria CP9. We show that acute prostatitis causes tissue damage and creates a tissue microenvironment that induces the differentiation of basal cells into luminal cells, an alteration that rarely occurs under normal physiological conditions. Previously we showed that a mouse model with prostate basal cell-specific deletion of Phosphatase and tensin homolog (K14-CreER;Ptenfl/fl) develops prostate cancer with a long latency, because disease initiation in this model requires and is limited by the differentiation of transformation-resistant basal cells into transformation-competent luminal cells. Here, we show that CP9-induced prostatitis significantly accelerates the initiation of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in this model. Our results demonstrate that inflammation results in a tissue microenvironment that alters the normal prostate epithelial cell differentiation program and that through this cellular process inflammation accelerates the initiation of prostate cancer with a basal cell origin. PMID:24367088

  16. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  17. New therapeutic options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sligh, James E

    2014-06-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common premalignant skin lesion that is frequently treated by cryosurgery. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of man, and early-stage lesions are usually cured via surgery. Advanced basal cell carcinoma may require more extensive surgery resulting in deformity, and many advanced lesions cannot be treated surgically. Several recent developments have improved therapeutic options for both conditions. Cryosurgery is still a mainstay of treatment for AK, but the introduction of effective topical agents, imiquimod cream and ingenol mebutate, has provided alternatives to cryosurgery. For advanced basal cell carcinoma, the small-molecule inhibitor vismodegib has proven to be an effective therapy for lesions that are not amenable to surgery and has demonstrated ability to achieve dramatic improvement in advanced, potentially disfiguring cancer. PMID:25268601

  18. Deep-Brain Stimulation for Basal Ganglia Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R.

    2011-01-01

    The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of ‘motor’ portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the ‘limbic’ basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21804953

  19. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  20. Oscillations and the basal ganglia: Motor control and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, John-Stuart; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oscillations form a ubiquitous feature of the central nervous system. Evidence is accruing from cortical and sub-cortical recordings that these rhythms may be functionally important, although the precise details of their roles remain unclear. The basal ganglia share this predilection for rhythmic activity which, as we see in Parkinson’s disease, becomes further enhanced in the dopamine depleted state. While certain cortical rhythms appear to penetrate the basal ganglia, others are transformed or blocked. Here, we discuss the functional association of oscillations in the basal ganglia and their relationship with cortical activity. We further explore the neural underpinnings of such oscillatory activity, including the important balance to be struck between facilitating information transmission and limiting information coding capacity. Finally, we introduce the notion that synchronised oscillatory activity can be broadly categorised as immutability promoting rhythms that reinforce incumbent processes, and mutability promoting rhythms that favour novel processing. PMID:23711535

  1. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  2. Removal of craniopharyngioma via fronto-basal interhemispheric approach

    PubMed Central

    XING, HONGSHUN; XING, HONGBO; HUI, PEIQUAN; YANG, BIN

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of fronto-basal interhemispheric approach in treating craniopharyngioma were evaluated. In this retrospective study, the safety and effectiveness of fronto-basal interhemispheric approach for surgical resection of craniopharyngioma in 20 patients was analyzed. Of the 20 patients, 12 were men and 8 were women, aged 15–65 years, with an average age of 42.5 years. The course of disease ranged from 1 to 36 months. The craniopharyngioma tumor was completely removed through surgical resection in 18 patients (90%) and partially removed in 2 patients. The pituitary stalk was preserved in 18 patients and 1 patient succumbed during the study period due to large area pulmonary embolism. In conclusion, fronto-basal interhemispheric approach provides better access to the tumor that grows in the sella-hypothalamus and anterior third ventricle region. Using this approach, tumors can be resected while preserving the vital structures such as the pituitary stalk and hypothalamus. PMID:27347116

  3. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  4. Cell cycle of globose basal cells in rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huard, J M; Schwob, J E

    1995-05-01

    The olfactory epithelium of adult mammals has the unique property of generating olfactory sensory neurons throughout life. Cells of the basal compartment, which include horizontal and globose basal cells, are responsible for the ongoing process of neurogenesis in this system. We report here that the globose basal cells in olfactory epithelium of rats, as in mice, are the predominant type of proliferating cell, and account for 97.6% of the actively dividing cells in the basal compartment of the normal epithelium. Globose basal cells have not been fully characterized in terms of their proliferative properties, and the dynamic aspects of neurogenesis are not well understood. As a consequence, it is uncertain whether cell kinetic properties are under any regulation that could affect the rate of neurogenesis. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have determined the duration of both the synthesis phase (S-phase) and the full cell cycle of globose basal cells in adult rats. The duration of the S-phase was found to be 9 hr in experiments utilizing sequential injections of either IdU followed by BrdU or 3H-thy followed by BrdU. The duration of the cell cycle was determined by varying the time interval between the injections of 3H-thy and BrdU and tracking the set of cells that exit S shortly after the first injection. With this paradigm, the interval required for these cells to traverse G2, M, G1, and a second S-phase, is equivalent to the duration of one mitotic cycle and equals 17 hr. These observations serve as the foundation to assess whether the cell cycle duration is subject to regulation in response to experimental injury, and whether such regulation is partly responsible for changes in the rate of neurogenesis in such settings. PMID:7647371

  5. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  6. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  7. Production of Basal Bodies in bulk for dense multicilia formation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiumin; Zhao, Huijie; Zhu, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Centriole number is normally under tight control and is directly linked to ciliogenesis. In cells that use centrosomes as mitotic spindle poles, one pre-existing mother centriole is allowed to duplicate only one daughter centriole per cell cycle. In multiciliated cells, however, many centrioles are generated to serve as basal bodies of the cilia. Although deuterosomes were observed more than 40 years ago using electron microscopy and are believed to produce most of the basal bodies in a mother centriole-independent manner, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unknown until recently. From these findings arise more questions and a call for clarifications that will require multidisciplinary efforts. PMID:27408696

  8. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  9. Basal Ganglia Plus Insula Damage Yields Stronger Disruption of Smoking Addiction Than Basal Ganglia Damage Alone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of the basal ganglia (BG) and insula (INS) for nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. Methods: We used a lesion study examining the effects of BG and INS damage on changes in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time in a prospective manner. We studied whether combined BG and INS damage yields more substantial disruption of smoking and nicotine dependence than damage to the BG alone and compared with damage to other brain regions outside the BG and INS (brain-damaged comparison [BDC] group). We obtained neuroanatomical and behavioral data for 63 neurological patients with stroke at 1 month after onset and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. All patients were smokers at lesion onset. Results: The BG and BG + INS groups had significantly higher and more sustained rates of smoking cessation than patients with damage elsewhere. By 12 months after onset, only 14.3% of the patients in the BDC group were classified as nonsmokers. In the BG group, 37% were not smoking by the 12-month follow-up, and in the BG + INS group, smoking cessation was even more pronounced, as 75% of this group was not smoking at the 12-month epoch. Conclusions: The findings show that damage to the BG alone can cause disruption of smoking addiction, and when BG damage is combined with INS damage, the disruption increases. The latter finding is consistent with the proposal that the INS has a key role in smoking addiction. PMID:24169814

  10. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    PubMed

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (< 0. 1 mm), and 17 healthy and six atretic antral follicles (0.5-12 mm in diameter) were processed for light and electron microscopy to investigate the relationship the between follicular basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles basal cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles basal laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually < 1 microm long and had vesicles (20-30 nm) attached to the inner aspect. Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  11. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Hoonakker, Amanda H.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters presynaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the postsynaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and postsynaptic D1-like and D2-like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1-like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1-like and D2-like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  13. Writing with Basals: A Sentence Combining Approach to Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Merrill, Jimmie D.

    Sentence combining techniques can be used with basal readers to help students develop writing skills. The first technique is addition, characterized by using the connecting word "and" to join two or more base sentences together. The second technique is called "embedding," and is characterized by putting parts of two or more base sentences together…

  14. Task-phase-specific dynamics of basal forebrain neuronal ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Tingley, David; Alexander, Andrew S.; Kolbu, Sean; de Sa, Virginia R.; Chiba, Andrea A.; Nitz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases. PMID:25309352

  15. Basal cell carcinomas in a young woman with Steinert's disease.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, E; Cantisani, C; Giustini, S; Ambrifi, M; Soda, G; Calvieri, S

    2014-08-01

    Steinert's disease or Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by myotonia, muscular dystrophy, cataracts, hypogonadism, frontal balding, and electrocardiographic alterations.Several tumors have been associated with DM1 such as pilomatricoma, thymomas and insulinomas. Herein, we describe the unusual onset of multiple basal cell carcinomas in a young woman with DM1. PMID:25148278

  16. Basal ganglia morphology links the metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Onyewuenyi, Ikechukwu C.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Christie, Israel C.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Gianaros, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors that are often comorbid with depressive symptoms. Individual components of the MetS also covary with the morphology of basal ganglia regions that are altered by depression. However, it remains unknown whether the covariation between the MetS and depressive symptomatology can be accounted for in part by morphological changes in the basal ganglia. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that increased depressive symptoms among individuals with the MetS might be statistically mediated by reduced grey matter volume in basal ganglia regions. The presence of the MetS was determined in 147 middle-aged adults using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Basal ganglia volumes were determined on an a priori basis by automated segmentation of high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Even after controlling for demographic and other confounding factors, having the MetS and meeting more MetS criteria covaried with reduced globus pallidus volume. Meeting more MetS criteria and reduced pallidal volume were also related to depressive symptoms. Moreover, the MetS-depression association was statistically mediated by pallidal volume. In summary, reduced globus pallidus volume is a neural correlate of the MetS that may partly account for its association with depressive symptoms. PMID:24096008

  17. Decodable Texts for Beginning Reading Instruction: The Year 2000 Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, James V.; Sailors, Misty; Patterson, Elizabeth U.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the features of the first grade texts included in basal readers used for beginning reading instruction in Texas in 2000. Investigates the general features of student texts with respect to the instructional design of the text, the accessibility of the text for beginning readers, and the engaging qualities of the text. Suggests that policy…

  18. [Parkinson's disease and cortico-Basal Ganglia circuits].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ming-Kai; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Kuo, Chung-Chin

    2010-09-01

    Cortico-basal ganglia circuit model has been studied extensively after it was first proposed by Alexander and Crutcher in 1990. This model accurately predicted the hyperactivity of indirect pathway and subthalamic nucleus(STN) in the dopamine deficiency state of Parkinson's disease (PD), prompting the experimental approaches of lesioning STN in parkinsonian primates. Application of these successful experiences with STN lesions in the reversal of parkinsonian symptoms to human PD patients facilitates the development of STN deep brain stimulation (DBS), which has become one of the most important therapies for PD in recent years. Although the classical model of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits by Alexander and Crutcher has provided many important insights into the basal ganglia function, the functional role of cortico-subthalamic "hyperdirect" pathway in the circuits has been relatively neglected. The first part of this article summarizes recent development concerning the cortico-basal ganglia circuits, especially emphasizing the importance of the hyperdirect pathway. In the second part of this article, we would describe the analyses of gross corticobasal ganglia circuit electrophysiological findings, especially emphasizing the coherence between two oscillating signals. We would also discuss the correlation between these parameters and the motor dysfunction, and its pathophysiological implications in PD. PMID:20824544

  19. Sexism in Basal Readers: An Analysis of Male Main Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn-Roberson, Courtney; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated whether positive female traits were attributed to male main characters in six basal readers. Although positive female traits appeared in the male characters, the overall composite and depiction of individual characters indicate that male personalities are dominated by male-linked virtues such as independence and a willingness to take…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 links) Encyclopedia: Basal Ganglia Dysfunction Health Topic: B Vitamins Health Topic: Brain Diseases Health Topic: Movement Disorders ... doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1128152. Epub 2009 Mar 17. Review. Citation on PubMed GeneReview: Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive ...

  1. Marine ice sheet profiles and stability under Coulomb basal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Victor; Stewart, Andrew; Thompson, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The behavior of marine-terminating ice sheets, like the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is of interest due to the possibility of rapid grounding line retreat and consequent catastrophic loss of ice. Critical to modeling this behavior is a choice of basal rheology, where the most popular approach is to relate the ice sheet velocity to a power-law function of basal stress. Recent experiments, however, suggest that near-grounding line tills exhibit Coulomb friction behavior. Here we address how Coulomb conditions modify ice sheet profiles and stability criteria. The basal rheology necessarily transitions to Coulomb friction near the grounding line due to low effective stresses, leading to changes in ice sheet properties within a narrow boundary layer. Ice sheet profiles 'taper off' towards a flatter upper surface, compared to the power-law case, and basal stresses vanish at the grounding line, consistent with observations. In the Coulomb case, the grounding line ice flux also depends more strongly on flotation ice thickness, which implies that ice sheets are more sensitive to climate perturbations. Furthermore, with Coulomb friction, the ice sheet grounds stably in shallower water than with a power-law rheology. This implies that smaller perturbations are required to push the grounding line into regions of negative bed slope, where it would become unstable. These results have important implications for ice sheet stability in a warming climate.

  2. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are α_Eβ_4 (also called α_6β_4) and α_2β_1/α_3β_1. The α_Eβ_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas α_2β_1/ α_3β_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-β_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-β_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-β_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that α_Eβ_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the β_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  3. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stephanie J; Begaz, T

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:21686449

  4. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    PubMed

    Wagner, S J; Begaz, T

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:18573972

  5. Bilateral basal ganglia activation associated with sensorimotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Seidler, R D; Noll, D C; Chintalapati, P

    2006-11-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation tasks can be classified into two types. When subjects adapt movements to visual feedback perturbations such as in prism lens adaptation, they perform kinematic adaptations. When subjects adapt movements to force field perturbations such as with robotic manipulanda, they perform kinetic adaptations. Neuroimaging studies have shown basal ganglia involvement in kinetic adaptations, but have found little evidence of basal ganglia involvement in kinematic adaptations, despite reports of deficits in patients with diseases of the basal ganglia, such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, in these. In an effort to resolve such apparent discrepancy, we used FMRI to focus on the first few minutes of practice during kinematic adaptation. Human subjects adapted to visuomotor rotations in the context of a joystick aiming task while lying supine in a 3.0 T MRI scanner. As demonstrated previously, early adaptive processes were associated with BOLD activation in the cerebellum and the sensory and motor cortical regions. A novel finding of this study was bilateral basal ganglia activation. This suggests that, at least for early learning, the neural correlates of kinematic adaptation parallel those of other types of skill learning. We observed activation in the right globus pallidus and putamen, along with the right prefrontal, premotor and parietal cortex, which may support spatial cognitive processes of adaptation. We also observed activation in the left globus pallidus and caudate nucleus, along with the left premotor and supplementary motor cortex, which may support the sensorimotor processes of adaptation. These results are the first to demonstrate a clear involvement of basal ganglia activation in this type of kinematic motor adaptation. PMID:16794848

  6. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  7. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Yang, Lei; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp.) we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values). Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0). The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences. PMID:22558409

  8. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  9. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  10. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (<1 ice thickness) features may be artifacts of overfitting our solution to measurement errors, we tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  11. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  12. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  13. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  14. Is Broca's area part of a basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit?

    PubMed

    Ullman, Michael T

    2006-05-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized "channels" via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia project to Broca's area. This circuitry is further posited to encompass at least two channels. One channel can be characterized as subserving procedural memory, while the other underlies the retrieval of knowledge from declarative memory. These hypotheses are supported by both anatomical and functional evidence. Implications and issues for further investigation are discussed. PMID:16881254

  15. Solute effect on basal and prismatic slip systems of Mg.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Amitava; Kim, Seong-Gon; Horstemeyer, M F

    2014-11-01

    In an effort to design novel magnesium (Mg) alloys with high ductility, we present a first principles data based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT was employed to calculate the generalized stacking fault energy curves, which can be used in the generalized Peierls-Nabarro (PN) model to study the energetics of basal slip and prismatic slip in Mg with and without solutes to calculate continuum scale dislocation core widths, stacking fault widths and Peierls stresses. The generalized stacking fault energy curves for pure Mg agreed well with other DFT calculations. Solute effects on these curves were calculated for nine alloying elements, namely Al, Ca, Ce, Gd, Li, Si, Sn, Zn and Zr, which allowed the strength and ductility to be qualitatively estimated based on the basal dislocation properties. Based on our multiscale methodology, a suggestion has been made to improve Mg formability. PMID:25273695

  16. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate.

    PubMed

    Petros, Timothy J; Bultje, Ronald S; Ross, M Elizabeth; Fishell, Gord; Anderson, Stewart A

    2015-11-10

    Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination. PMID:26526999

  17. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  18. Basal forebrain neuronal inhibition enables rapid behavioral stopping

    PubMed Central

    Mayse, Jeffrey D.; Nelson, Geoffrey M.; Avila, Irene; Gallagher, Michela; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive inhibitory control, the ability to rapidly suppress responses inappropriate for the context, is essential for flexible and adaptive behavior. While most studies on inhibitory control have focused on the fronto-basal-ganglia circuit, here we explore a novel hypothesis and show that rapid behavioral stopping is enabled by neuronal inhibition in the basal forebrain (BF). In rats performing the stop signal task, putative noncholinergic BF neurons with phasic bursting responses to the go signal were inhibited nearly completely by the stop signal. The onset of BF neuronal inhibition was tightly coupled with and temporally preceded the latency to stop, the stop signal reaction time. Artificial inhibition of BF activity in the absence of the stop signal was sufficient to reproduce rapid behavioral stopping. These results reveal a novel subcortical mechanism of rapid inhibitory control by the BF, which provides bidirectional control over the speed of response generation and inhibition. PMID:26368943

  19. Basal cell adenoma of maxillary sinus mimicking ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bhagde, Priya Anil; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Humbe, Jayanti G

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare basaloid tumor, with only 20% of cases occurring in minor salivary glands. Histologically, BCA is characterized by the presence of basaloid cells and may frequently be mistaken with canalicular adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry may aid in arriving at a final diagnosis as in the present case. Reported here is a case of locally aggressive BCA. Histologically, the lesion mimicked ameloblastoma and other entities which posed a diagnostic challenge. There are no reports of BCA presenting as an aggressive lesion available in English literature so far; moreover, merely a single case of BCA of maxillary sinus has been previously reported to the best of our cognition. This case report highlights the rarity of this tumor with regards to its site of origin, clinical behavior and histopathological mimics. PMID:27194878

  20. Basal cell adenoma of maxillary sinus mimicking ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhagde, Priya Anil; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Humbe, Jayanti G

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare basaloid tumor, with only 20% of cases occurring in minor salivary glands. Histologically, BCA is characterized by the presence of basaloid cells and may frequently be mistaken with canalicular adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry may aid in arriving at a final diagnosis as in the present case. Reported here is a case of locally aggressive BCA. Histologically, the lesion mimicked ameloblastoma and other entities which posed a diagnostic challenge. There are no reports of BCA presenting as an aggressive lesion available in English literature so far; moreover, merely a single case of BCA of maxillary sinus has been previously reported to the best of our cognition. This case report highlights the rarity of this tumor with regards to its site of origin, clinical behavior and histopathological mimics. PMID:27194878

  1. Investigational agents in metastatic basal cell carcinoma: focus on vismodegib

    PubMed Central

    Batty, Nicolas; Kossoff, Ellen; Dy, Grace K

    2012-01-01

    Vismodegib (GDC-0449, 2-chloro-N-(4-chloro-3-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide, Erivedge™) is a novel first-in-human, first-in class, orally bio-available Hedgehog pathway signaling inhibitor of the G-protein coupled receptor-like protein smoothened (SMO) which was approved in the United States on January 2012. This signaling pathway is involved in the carcinogenesis of several types of tumor, as exemplified by basal cell carcinoma. This review focuses on the role of the Hedgehog pathway in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma, the pharmacology and the clinical activity of vismodegib, as well as a brief summary of investigational agents in development targeting this pathway.

  2. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2014-01-01

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations. PMID:25307086

  3. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  4. Multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Sapdhare, Swati; Pujar, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is of particular interest because its recurrence rate is high and its behavior is aggressive. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), which is also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and with a predisposition to neoplasms. These multiple KCOTs have warranted an aggressive treatment at the earliest because of the damage and possible complications. Recurrence of these lesions is a characteristic feature that has to be considered while explaining the prognosis to the patient. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old boy with clinical features of basal cell nevus syndrome and multiple KCOTs. In addition to the other common features, congenitally missing third molars in all the four quadrants is a feature which has not been previously reported in association with NBCCS in Indian patients. PMID:26981489

  5. Neural representation of time in cortico-basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Dezhe Z.; Fujii, Naotaka; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    Encoding time is universally required for learning and structuring motor and cognitive actions, but how the brain keeps track of time is still not understood. We searched for time representations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits by recording from thousands of neurons in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of macaque monkeys performing a routine visuomotor task. We found that a subset of neurons exhibited time-stamp encoding strikingly similar to that required by models of reinforcement-based learning: They responded with spike activity peaks that were distributed at different time delays after single task events. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the population activity allowed robust decoding of task time by perceptron models. We suggest that time information can emerge as a byproduct of event coding in cortico-basal ganglia circuits and can serve as a critical infrastructure for behavioral learning and performance. PMID:19850874

  6. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kim, D I; Yoon, P H; Ryu, Y H; Jeon, P; Hwang, G J

    1998-08-01

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. PMID:9763338

  7. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2013-05-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent findings from neuroanatomical, behavioral, and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that cerebellar output reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Taken together, these findings elucidate the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  8. Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.

    PubMed

    Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

    2005-01-01

    The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected. PMID:15750744

  9. Observing ice-shelf channels and basal melting from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard; Helm, Veit; Rack, Wolfgang; Lenaerts, Jan; Ligtenberg, Stefan; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf channels (along-flow lineations in which ice is thinner) are ubiquitous in Antarctic ice shelves. Although these features are readily visible in satellite imagery, ice-thickness and ice-velocity variations in their surrounding are typically heavily undersampled. Ice-shelf channels focus channelized melting and significantly alter the basal mass balance (and hence ice-shelf stability) on short horizontal scales. Here we use interferometrically-derived TandDEM-X digital elevation models and ice-flow velocities with a horizontal gridding of 125 m illustrating the ice-shelf dynamics of the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) in unprecedented detail. Using ground-based GPS surface elevation, we demonstrate that TanDEM-X is an ideal sensor to map the channel morphology at the ice-shelf surface. We find velocity anomalies surrounding the channels along the entire ice shelf potentially indicating the presence of locally elevated basal melt rates. Using mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework, we find basal melt rates averaging 0.4 m/a in the middle of the ice shelf and peaking at 12 m/a inside some channels. We illustrate the sensitivity of the method with respect to systematic biases in elevation/velocity and also with respect to lateral variations of the depth-density relationship. With the increased availability of high-resolution radar satellites (such as Sentinel1), the techniques presented here could be applied on an pan-Antarctic scale to map basal melting both in space and time at high-resolution.

  10. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  11. Pure psychic akinesia with bilateral lesions of basal ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Laplane, D; Baulac, M; Widlöcher, D; Dubois, B

    1984-01-01

    Three patients showed dramatic psychic akinesia after recovery from toxic encephalopathy. They had no or only mild motor disorders. The spontaneous psychic akinesia was reversible when the patient was stimulated, as if there was a loss of self psychic activation. Intellectual capacities were normal. Two patients had stereotyped behaviours resembling compulsions. In all patients CT cans showed bilateral lesions in the basal ganglia, mainly within the globus pallidus. Images PMID:6726263

  12. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  13. Autoimmunity and the basal ganglia: new insights into old diseases.

    PubMed

    Dale, R C

    2003-03-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) occurs weeks or months after Group A streptococcal infection, and is characterized by involuntary, purposeless movements of the limbs, in addition to behavioural alteration. There is a body of evidence which suggests that SC is an immune-mediated brain disorder with regional localization to the basal ganglia. Recent reports have suggested that the spectrum of post-streptococcal CNS disease is broader than chorea alone, and includes other hyperkinetic movement disorders (tics, dystonia and myoclonus). In addition, there are high rates of behavioural sequelae, particularly emotional disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression. These findings have lead to the hypothesis that similar immune-mediated basal ganglia processes may be operating in common neuropsychiatric disease such as tic disorders, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This review analyses the historical aspects of post-streptococcal CNS disease, and the recent immunological studies which have addressed the hypothesis that common neuropsychiatric disorders may be secondary to basal ganglia autoimmunity. PMID:12615982

  14. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    PubMed Central

    N'Guyen, Steve; Thurat, Charles; Girard, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The Basal Ganglia (BG) is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks. We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based on our previous BG and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of the saccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks. The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not). Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate. PMID:24795615

  15. Neuroimaging in basal ganglia disorders: perspectives for transcranial ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Becker, G; Berg, D

    2001-01-01

    Transcranial sonography is a new diagnostic tool, allowing not only the evaluation of cerebral arteries but also the two-dimensional display of the brain parenchyma. In this review we will summarize basics of the application, the ultrasound anatomy of the brain and sonographic findings in some movement disorders. While in normal adults basal ganglia nuclei are hypoechogenic, they are hyperechogenic in certain basal ganglia disorders. In Parkinson's disease, for example, the substantia nigra can be depicted as a distinctly echogenic area. An elevated echogenicity of the lentiform nuclei was noticed in patients with primary adult-onset dystonia. In both disorders the altered echogenicity may arise from higher heavy metal tissue content (i.e. iron in Parkinson's disease and copper in primary dystonia). Our findings converge to the hypothesis that transcranial ultrasound sensitively detects pathological metal accumulation not identified by other neuroimaging techniques (CT and MRI) and therefore provides new insights in the diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. The implications of these findings for the understanding of the pathogenesis and its usefulness for the early diagnosis of movement disorders are outlined. PMID:11215589

  16. Basal fat oxidation decreases with aging in women.

    PubMed

    Calles-Escandón, J; Arciero, P J; Gardner, A W; Bauman, C; Poehlman, E T

    1995-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that a decrease in basal fat oxidation in aging women is related to a loss of fat-free mass. Thirty-two nonsmoking women with a wide range of age (18-73 yr) were characterized for body composition (underwater weight), maximal aerobic capacity, and basal fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry). Results showed that fat oxidation was negatively correlated with age (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.017) but was positively correlated with the fat-free mass (r2 = 0.48, P < 0.0001) and with the level of aerobic fitness (maximal aerobic capacity) (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.007). Unexpectedly, fat oxidation had no relationship with fat mass (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.136). Partial correlation analysis showed that the decline in fat-free mass, and not the age or maximal O2 consumption, was the best single predictor of the decline in basal fat oxidation. These results support the theory that a decrease in fat oxidation with advancing age in healthy women is associated with a decrease in the fat-free mass and not age per se. Interventions that increase or preserve the quantity of fat-free mass (e.g., exercise training) may enhance fat oxidation and thus lessen the age-associated adiposity in women. PMID:7713822

  17. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinse

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  18. Basal ganglia correlates of fatigue in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Seishu; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Shinada, Takamitsu; Maruyama, Tsukasa; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Magistro, Daniele; Sakaki, Kohei; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sasaki, Yukako; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of chronic fatigue is approximately 20% in healthy individuals, there are no studies of brain structure that elucidate the neural correlates of fatigue outside of clinical subjects. We hypothesized that fatigue without evidence of disease might be related to changes in the basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex and be implicated in fatigue with disease. We aimed to identify the white matter structures of fatigue in young subjects without disease using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Healthy young adults (n = 883; 489 males and 394 females) were recruited. As expected, the degrees of fatigue and motivation were associated with larger mean diffusivity (MD) in the right putamen, pallidus and caudate. Furthermore, the degree of physical activity was associated with a larger MD only in the right putamen. Accordingly, motivation was the best candidate for widespread basal ganglia, whereas physical activity might be the best candidate for the putamen. A plausible mechanism of fatigue may involve abnormal function of the motor system, as well as areas of the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia that are associated with motivation and reward. PMID:26893077

  19. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  20. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in basal and squamous cell skin cancer research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  1. Basal body structure and cell cycle-dependent biogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sue; Gull, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Basal bodies are microtubule-based organelles that assemble cilia and flagella, which are critical for motility and sensory functions in all major eukaryotic lineages. The core structure of the basal body is highly conserved, but there is variability in biogenesis and additional functions that are organism and cell type specific. Work carried out in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has arguably produced one of the most detailed dissections of basal body structure and biogenesis within the context of the flagellar pocket and associated organelles. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the basic basal body structure in T. brucei along with the accessory structures and show how basal body movements during the basal body duplication cycle orchestrate cell and organelle morphogenesis. With this in-depth three-dimensional knowledge, identification of many basal body genes coupled with excellent genetic tools makes it an attractive model organism to study basal body biogenesis and maintenance. PMID:26862392

  2. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  3. Basal cell carcinoma develops in contact with the epidermal basal cell layer - a three-dimensional morphological study.

    PubMed

    Pirici, Ionica; Ciurea, Marius Eugen; Mîndrilă, Ion; Avrămoiu, Ioan; Pirici, Alexandru; Nicola, Monica Georgiana; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the skin, and it develops most frequently on the areas of the body that make its treatment and care extremely difficult, especially in cases of neglecting or aggressive growth and invasion. Both typical mild cases as well as locally aggressive tumor types do not tend to metastasize, and it has been postulated that they should share some common biological and morphological features that might explain this behavior. In this study, we have utilized a high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction technique on pathological samples from 15 cases of common aggressive (fibrosing and adenoid types) and mild (superficial type) basal cell carcinomas, and showed that all these types shared contact points and bridges with the underlying basal cell layer of the epidermis or with the outmost layer of the hair follicle. The connections found had in fact the highest number for fibrosing type (100%), compared to the superficial (85.71%) and adenoid (55%) types. The morphology of the connection bridges was also different, adjacent moderate to abundant inflammatory infiltrate seeming to lead to a loss of basaloid features in these areas. For the adenoid type, tumor islands seemed to be connected also to each other more strongly, forming a common "tumor lace", and while it has been showed that superficial and fibrosing types have higher recurrence risks, all together these data might iterate a connection between the number of bridging points and the biological and clinical manifestation of this skin tumor. PMID:27151694

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Roewe, R. J.; Uhlman, Matthew A.; Bockholt, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is an extremely rare entity, accounting for less than 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas. Fortunately, wide local excision of such lesions is generally curative. Fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the literature describing penile basal cell carcinoma. Here we report a case of penile basal cell carcinoma cured with wide local excision. PMID:25298901

  5. A patient centred approach to basal insulin choice for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-03-01

    Basal insulins are first line injectable therapy by all international guidelines. Basal insulins can be used alone, in combination with metformin, dual or triple oral therapy, glucagon-like peptide receptor agonists, or prandial insulin. However, all basal insulins are not similar. This article proposes objective parameters, and suggests a simple checklist, using history, physical examination, and investigations, to help choose the appropriate preparation, viz degludec, detemir, glargine or NPH insulin, for persons requiring basal insulin. PMID:26968297

  6. Two Cases of Nevoid Basal Cell CarcinomaSyndrome in One Family

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dong Jin; Kwon, Yeon Sook; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2008-01-01

    The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is an autosomal dominant multiple system disorder with high penetrance and variable expressions, although it can also arise spontaneously. The diagnostic criteria for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome include multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, multiple odontogenic keratocysts, skeletal anomalies, positive family history, ectopic calcification and neurological anomalies. We report a brother and sister who were both diagnosed with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. PMID:27303197

  7. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  8. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews. PMID:23572369

  9. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  10. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome. PMID:26778776

  11. Understanding Parkinsonian handwriting through a computational model of basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Gangadhar, Garipelli; Joseph, Denny; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2008-10-01

    Handwriting in Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically characterized by micrographia, jagged line contour, and unusual fluctuations in pen tip velocity. Although PD handwriting features have been used for diagnostics, they are not based on a signaling model of basal ganglia (BG). In this letter, we present a computational model of handwriting generation that highlights the role of BG. When PD conditions like reduced dopamine and altered dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus externa subsystems are simulated, the handwriting produced by the model manifested characteristic PD handwriting distortions like micrographia and velocity fluctuations. Our approach to PD modeling is in tune with the perspective that PD is a dynamic disease. PMID:18386983

  12. Neglected basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hassan A; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Nunery, William R

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients with mental disorders can be a complicated and involved process, potentially resulting in decisions contrary to the advice of physicians. We present a schizophrenic patient with an invasive basal cell carcinoma involving the periocular structures and the right orbit. Exenteration was recommended with en bloc resection of the tumor. The ethical and legal committees decided against surgical intervention. Rather, the patient was admitted for medical treatment of his mental illness. A multidisciplinary approach with consultation of a psychiatrist, social worker, and ethical and legal committees is often necessary in the care of patients with mental illness. PMID:19033856

  13. Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis in basal ganglia and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Opeskin, K; Burke, M P

    2000-12-01

    Hypotensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the basal ganglia and brainstem has only occasionally been described. Three such cases are reported. Cardiac arrest had occurred in all cases, and it took at least 1 hour to restore adequate circulation. The patients remained comatose for 2 days to 2 weeks until death. Persistent hypotension causing ischemia in the distribution of deep perforating arteries is considered to have been the key underlying mechanism. Hemorrhage is thought to have been caused by extravasation of red blood cells through damaged blood vessels. PMID:11111807

  14. A Case of Axillary Adenoid Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Ho; Ko, Woo Tae; Lee, Jong Im

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer with a steadily increasing incidence. Ultraviolet radiation is considered the single most important risk factor for BCC, because the tumor occurs most frequently in sun-exposed areas of the body, with approximately four of five BCCs occurring on the face. BCC occurs infrequently in non-sun-exposed skin. The axilla is one of the most sun-protected areas of the body, and BCC arising at this site is very rare. We herein report a case of adenoid BCC which arose from the axilla in a 33-year-old woman. PMID:27303153

  15. Dermoscopic features of small size pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Asuka; Hara, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Miwa; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2016-05-01

    Dermoscopic images of histologically proven pigmented basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were retrospectively assessed to compare the dermoscopic features of BCC of 3 mm or less in diameter (n = 6) with BCC of 4-6 mm in diameter (n = 11). All lesions lacked the presence of a pigment network. BCC with a diameter of 3 mm or less had fewer positive dermoscopic features compared with the 4-6 mm in diameter BCC. Multiple blue-gray globules and large blue-gray ovoid nests were frequently present. Dermoscopy is a useful tool for early diagnosis of pigmented BCC, even when they are small. PMID:26458728

  16. Pedunculopontine nucleus and basal ganglia: distant relatives or part of the same family?

    PubMed

    Mena-Segovia, Juan; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2004-10-01

    The basal ganglia are more highly interconnected with the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) than with any other brain region. Regulation and relay of basal ganglia activity are two key functions of the PPN. The PPN provides an interface for the basal ganglia to influence sleep and waking, and the two structures are similarly implicated in learning, reward and other cognitive functions. Perturbations of basal ganglia activity have consequences for the PPN and vice versa, exemplified by their interdependencies in motor function and Parkinson's disease. Thus, close anatomical and physiological links between the PPN and basal ganglia make it increasingly difficult to consider the two as separate functional entities. PMID:15374668

  17. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  18. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Malaki, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  19. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  20. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Alburges, Mario E.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pre-treatment with D1-like (SCH-23380) or D2-like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. PMID:25155699

  1. Basal Plane Affinity of an Insect Antifreeze Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaya, N.; Gauthier, S. Y.; Davies, P. L.; Braslavsky, I.

    2007-03-01

    sbwAFP is a powerful antifreeze protein (AFP) with high thermal hysteresis activity that protects spruce budworm (sbw) from freezing during harsh winters in the spruce and fir forests of USA and Canada. Different types of antifreeze proteins have been found in many other species and have potential applications in cryomedicine and cryopreservation. When an ice crystal is cooled in the presence of AFP below the non-equilibrium freezing point the crystal will suddenly and rapidly grow in specific directions. Hyperactive antifreezes like sbwAFP expand perpendicular to the c-axis (in the plane of the a-axes), whereas moderately active AFPs, like type III from fish, grow in the direction parallel to the c-axis. It has been proposed that the basis for hyperactivity of certain AFPs is that they bind and accumulate on the basal plane to inhibit c-axial growth. By putting fluorescent tags on these two types of AFPs we have been able to directly visualize the binding of different types of AFPs to ice surfaces. We do indeed find that the insect AFP accumulates on the basal plane of an ice crystal while type III AFP does not. Supported by CIHR and BNTI.

  2. Energy intake and basal metabolic rate during maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bond, S A; Han, A M; Wootton, S A; Kohler, J A

    1992-02-01

    Energy intakes and basal metabolic rates were determined in 26 children receiving chemotherapy in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or solid tumours and 26 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Body weight and height on the two groups were comparable, although one patient was stunted (height for age) and three others wasted (weight for height). Energy intake in the patients at 7705 kJ/day (1842 kcal) and controls at 7773 kJ/day (1866 kcal)) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the patients at 4873 kJ/day (1172 kcal) and controls 4987 kJ/day (1196 kcal) for the two groups were not significantly different. Although the energy intake:BMR ratio for both groups was 1.59, the range of values for the patient group was large (0.96-2.73) and appeared to be greater than that observed in the control group (1.23-2.46). These results demonstrated that during this period of chemotherapy there was no evidence of raised energy expenditure at rest or reduced energy intake in the patient group. No indication of undernutrition in the patients as a group was evident, although some individuals might require further clinical nutritional assessment. PMID:1543386

  3. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    PubMed Central

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  4. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  5. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P.Martin

    2007-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, ‘aquatic’ turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record. PMID:17519193

  6. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  7. Energy intake and basal metabolic rate during maintenance chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, S A; Han, A M; Wootton, S A; Kohler, J A

    1992-01-01

    Energy intakes and basal metabolic rates were determined in 26 children receiving chemotherapy in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or solid tumours and 26 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Body weight and height on the two groups were comparable, although one patient was stunted (height for age) and three others wasted (weight for height). Energy intake in the patients at 7705 kJ/day (1842 kcal) and controls at 7773 kJ/day (1866 kcal)) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the patients at 4873 kJ/day (1172 kcal) and controls 4987 kJ/day (1196 kcal) for the two groups were not significantly different. Although the energy intake:BMR ratio for both groups was 1.59, the range of values for the patient group was large (0.96-2.73) and appeared to be greater than that observed in the control group (1.23-2.46). These results demonstrated that during this period of chemotherapy there was no evidence of raised energy expenditure at rest or reduced energy intake in the patient group. No indication of undernutrition in the patients as a group was evident, although some individuals might require further clinical nutritional assessment. PMID:1543386

  8. TBP domain symmetry in basal and activated archaeal transcription.

    PubMed

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2009-01-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in the Methanococcales and Thermoplasmatales, including complete conservation of their N- and C-terminal stirrups; along with helix H'1, the C-terminal stirrup of TBP forms the main interface with TFB/TFIIB. Here, we show that, in stark contrast to its eukaryotic counterparts, multiple substitutions in the C-terminal stirrup of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) TBP do not completely abrogate basal transcription. Using DNA affinity cleavage, we show that, by assembling TFB through its conserved N-terminal stirrup, Mja TBP is in effect ambidextrous with regard to basal transcription. In contrast, substitutions in either its N- or the C-terminal stirrup abrogate activated transcription in response to the Lrp-family transcriptional activator Ptr2. PMID:19007415

  9. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  10. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  11. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matei, C; Tampa, M; Poteca, T; Panea-Paunica, G; Georgescu, SR; Ion, RM; Popescu, SM; Giurcaneanu, C

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology. PMID:23599819

  12. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kirsty Y; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-05-17

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae. PMID:27140605

  13. Basal ganglia and thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Womer, Fay Y.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn; Smith, Matthew J.; Csernansky, John G.; Barch, Deanna; Mamah, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the morphology of the basal ganglia and thalamus in bipolar disorder (BP), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SCZ-S), and healthy controls (HC) with particular interest in differences related to the absence or presence of psychosis. Volumetric and shape analyses of the basal ganglia and thalamus were performed in 33 BP individuals [12 without history of psychotic features (NPBP) and 21 with history of psychotic features (PBP)], 32 SCZ-S individuals [28 with SCZ and 4 with schizoaffective disorder], and 27 HC using FreeSurfer-initiated large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Significant volume differences were found in the caudate and globus pallidus, with volumes smallest in the NPBP group. Shape abnormalities showing inward deformation of superior regions of the caudate were observed in BP (and especially in NPBP) compared with HC. Shape differences were also found in the globus pallidus and putamen when comparing the BP and SCZ-S groups. No significant differences were seen in the nucleus accumbens and thalamus. In summary, structural abnormalities in the caudate and globus pallidus are present in BP and SCZ-S. Differences were more apparent in the NPBP subgroup. The findings herein highlight the potential importance of separately examining BP subgroups in neuroimaging studies. PMID:24957866

  14. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Kirsty Y.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae. PMID:27140605

  15. Basal shear stress of debris flow in the runout phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bettella, F.; Cesca, M.

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory device is proposed to assess the basal shear stresses generated by debris-flow mixtures during their runout phase. The device consists of an inclinable box with a gate facing a deposition plane. The box is filled with a selected debris-flow mixture, and after sudden opening of the gate, the features of the dam-break deposit can be measured. Based on some simplified assumptions of the energy balance, a methodology is proposed to assess basal shear stresses. The device has been tested using sediment samples from debris-flow deposits generated by two catchments of the Dolomites (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Belluno, Italy) by carrying out runout tests for different sediment concentrations by volume. The results show how the static Coulomb friction law is valid in the runout phase, with friction angles on the order of the angle of repose of the same material in dry conditions. The data elaboration also yields an innovative constitutive equation for shear stresses. This relation merges the Coulomb mixture approach with the concept of a one-phase flow with a certain rheology. This integration offers a useful insight into the weaknesses of the rheological approach if it is not properly scaled up to the ambient pressure of interest.

  16. Spatial Variation of Basal Conditions on Kamb Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Welch, B. C.; Osterhouse, D.; Pettersson, R.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Radar profiles of bed echo intensity provide a way to survey conditions at the ice-bed interface and test for the presence or absence of water. However, extracting information about bed properties from bed echo intensities requires an estimate of the dielectric attenuation loss through the ice. A recent survey [MacGregor et al., 2007] found that the few reported values of depth-averaged attenuation rates in West Antarctica vary by a factor of 3, presumably due to spatial variations in the chemistry and temperature profiles of the ice. Thus, a single value for depth-averaged ice-sheet attenuation cannot be assumed, even over a relatively small region. We measured attenuation rates at several locations on and near Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) by examining basal echo intensity values as a function of ice thickness from constant-offset radar data acquired in 2004-2006. Our values obtained for Siple Dome of 29 dB/km agree with previous measurements [Gades et al., 2000] and the recent calculations and model results of MacGregor et al. [2007]. On KIS, we measured attenuation values of 20 dB/km over the "sticky spot", where ice has become stagnant. This value is consistent with an attenuation model over the sticky spot calculated using borehole temperature data [Engelhardt, 2005] and chemistry data from the Siple Dome ice core. Our radar profiles in the main trunk region of KIS yield a slightly lower value of 15 dB/km, presumably because colder ice is still being advected from inland West Antarctica. Using these values of attenuation, we calculated the basal radar reflectivity at the ice-bed interface in the regions of all our surveys. We found that most regions of the bed in the trunk of KIS have high basal reflectivities and that these values are similar to those obtained in locations where water was found in the Caltech boreholes [Engelhardt, 2005]. Areas of lower bed reflectivity are limited to the sticky spot, where a borehole found a dry bed, and along the margins of KIS

  17. Queuing of concurrent movement plans by basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Neha; Sureshbabu, Ramakrishnan; Farooqui, Ausaf A; Behari, Madhuri; Goyal, Vinay; Murthy, Aditya

    2013-06-12

    How the brain converts parallel representations of movement goals into sequential movements is not known. We tested the role of basal ganglia (BG) in the temporal control of movement sequences by a convergent approach involving inactivation of the BG by muscimol injections into the caudate nucleus of monkeys and assessing behavior of Parkinson's disease patients, performing a modified double-step saccade task. We tested a critical prediction of a class of competitive queuing models that explains serial behavior as the outcome of a selection of concurrently activated goals. In congruence with these models, we found that inactivation or impairment of the BG unmasked the parallel nature of goal representations such that a significantly greater extent of averaged saccades, curved saccades, and saccade sequence errors were observed. These results suggest that the BG perform a form of competitive queuing, holding the second movement plan in abeyance while the first movement is being executed, allowing the proper temporal control of movement sequences. PMID:23761894

  18. A dystonic syndrome associated with anti-basal ganglia antibodies.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J; Dale, R C; Church, A J; Giovannoni, G; Bhatia, K P

    2004-06-01

    Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) have been associated with movement disorders (usually tics and chorea) and psychiatric disturbance in children. This report describes five adult and adolescent patients (one male, four females; mean age of onset, 16 years (range, 13-35)) who presented subacutely with a clinical syndrome dominated by dystonia and had ABGA binding to antigens of similar molecular weights to those seen in Sydenham's chorea. Three patients had a clear history of respiratory infection before the onset of their symptoms. Three patients received immunosuppressive treatment, with three showing a notable reduction in symptoms. It is hypothesised that dystonia in adults or adolescents may be part of the clinical spectrum of the post-infectious syndrome associated with ABGA. PMID:15146015

  19. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs. PMID:27433734

  20. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-μm thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph

  1. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  2. The metabolic and mitogenic properties of basal insulin analogues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Retrospective, observational studies have reported an association between diabetes treatment with insulin and a higher incidence of cancer. Objective Overview the literature for in vitro and in vivo studies of the metabolic and mitogenic properties of basal insulin analogues and assess the implications for clinical use. Methods Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and congress abstract database searches; data on metabolic and mitogenic signalling in relation to insulin treatment of diabetes are included in this review. Results The balance of evidence shows that although some analogues have demonstrated mitogenic potency in some in vitro studies in cancer cell lines, these findings do not translate to the in vivo setting in animals or to the clinical setting in humans. Conclusions The current consensus is that there is no clinical or in vivo evidence to indicate that any commercially available insulin analogue has carcinogenic effects. Large-scale, prospective clinical and observational studies will further establish any potential link. PMID:23373726

  3. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  4. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  5. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms.

    PubMed

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P; Ferrari, Loris L; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  6. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J; Alpert, Michael H; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-04-26

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson's disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine's role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  7. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR. However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as to how selection acts on BMR. Here, we examine this variation in BMR in a broad sample of mammals and we test the hypothesis that, across mammals, body composition explains differences in BMR at a given body mass. Variation in BMR is strongly correlated with variation in muscle mass, and both of these variables are correlated with latitude and ambient temperature. These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation. PMID:19730868

  8. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  9. Ancestral reproductive structure in basal kelp Aureophycus aleuticus

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Ridgway, L. Michelle; Holser, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Laminarialean species (so-called kelps) are the largest photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments, constituting significant ecological components of coastal ecosystems. The largest kelps such as Macrocystis exhibit differentiation between stipe and blade, as well as buoyancy to maintain the distal portion at the water's surface for photosynthesis, while bearing reproductive structures only near the base on special blades (sporophylls). There is a considerable gap between basic kelps such as Chorda and derived kelps, and the evolution of kelp specialization remains unclear. Here we report novel reproductive adaptations in the recently discovered species Aureophycus aleuticus; unlike any known kelps, A. aleuticus forms zoidangia only on the expanded, disc-shaped holdfast. Molecular phylogeny suggests that A. aleuticus is most basal among derived kelps. Because Aureophycus lacks any of the elaborate anatomical structures found in other derived kelps, we suggest that it exhibits some of the most ancestral morphological features of kelps. PMID:23966101

  10. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  11. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  12. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  13. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  14. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

  15. The Nervous Systems of Basally Branching Nemertea (Palaeonemertea)

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks. PMID:23785478

  16. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    PubMed

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks. PMID:23785478

  17. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue < 0.021) and Huang et al. (Pvalue ≤ 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate. PMID:25436144

  18. Enzyme Activities of Starch and Sucrose Pathways and Growth of Apical and Basal Maize Kernels 1

    PubMed Central

    Ou-Lee, Tsai-Mei; Setter, Tim Lloyd

    1985-01-01

    Apical kernels of maize (Zea mays L.) ears have smaller size and lower growth rates than basal kernels. To improve our understanding of this difference, the developmental patterns of starch-synthesis-pathway enzyme activities and accumulation of sugars and starch was determined in apical- and basal-kernel endosperm of greenhouse-grown maize (cultivar Cornell 175) plants. Plants were synchronously pollinated, kernels were sampled from apical and basal ear positions throughout kernel development, and enzyme activities were measured in crude preparations. Several factors were correlated with the higher dry matter accumulation rate and larger mature kernel size of basal-kernel endosperm. During the period of cell expansion (7 to 19 days after pollination), the activity of insoluble (acid) invertase and sucose concentration in endosperm of basal kernels exceeded that in apical kernels. Soluble (alkaline) invertase was also high during this stage but was the same in endosperm of basal and apical kernels, while glucose concentration was higher in apical-kernel endosperm. During the period of maximal starch synthesis, the activities of sucrose synthase, ADP-Glc-pyrophosphorylase, and insoluble (granule-bound) ADP-Glc-starch synthase were higher in endosperm of basal than apical kernels. Soluble ADP-Glc-starch synthase, which was maximal during the early stage before starch accumulated, was the same in endosperm from apical and basal kernels. It appeared that differences in metabolic potential between apical and basal kernels were established at an early stage in kernel development. PMID:16664503

  19. Foot formation in Hydra: a novel gene, anklet, is involved in basal disk formation.

    PubMed

    Amimoto, Yasuko; Kodama, Rie; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2006-05-01

    We isolated a novel gene by a differential-display RT-PCR method comparing basal disk tissue and peduncle tissue in a species of Hydra, Pelmatohydra robusta, and we referred to it as anklet. The putative anklet product has a signal sequence in its N-terminus, and it has one MAC/PF domain and one EGF domain. In normal hydra, the expression of anklet was restricted in the periphery of the basal disk and the lowest region of the peduncle. In foot-regenerating animals, anklet was first expressed in the newly differentiated basal disk gland cells at the regenerating basal end, and then expression became restricted at the periphery of the regenerated basal disk and in the lowest region of the peduncle. This spatially specific expression pattern suggested that the product of the anklet gene plays a role in basal disk formation. We therefore examined the role played by the protein product of the anklet gene by suppressing the transcription level of anklet using an RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) method. Suppression of the level of expression of the anklet gene led to a decrease in basal disk size in normal hydra, and to a delay in basal disk regeneration in foot-amputated animals. These results suggested that anklet is involved in the formation and maintenance of the basal disk in hydra. PMID:16644190

  20. Entosiphon sulcatum (Euglenophyceae): flagellar roots of the basal body complex and reservoir region

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, J.A.; Walne, P.L.; Kivic, P.A.

    1987-03-01

    The flagellar root system of Entosiphon sulcatum (Dujardin) Stein (Euglenophyceae) is described and compared with kinetoplastid and other euglenoid systems. An asymmetric pattern of three microtubular roots, one between the two flagellar basal bodies and one on either side (here called the intermediate, dorsal, and ventral roots), is consistent within the euglenoid flagellates studied thus far. The dorsal root is associated with the basal body of the anterior flagellum (F1) and lies on the left dorsal side of the basal body complex. Originating between the two flagellar basal bodies, and associated with the basal body of the trailing flagellum (F2), the intermediate root is morphologically distinguished by fibrils interconnecting the individual microtubules to one another and to the overlying reservoir membrane. The intermediate root is often borne on a ridge projecting into the reservoir. The ventral root originates near the F2 basal body and lies on the right ventral side of the cell. Fibrillar connections link the membrane of F2 with the reservoir membrane at the reservoir-canal transition level. A large cross-banded fiber joins the two flagellar basal bodies, and a series of smaller striated fibers links the anterior accessory and flagellar basal bodies. Large nonstriated fibers extend from the basal body complex posteriorly into the cytoplasm.

  1. Is Hazardous Waste Injection into Basal Aquifers a Good Idea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Person, M. A.; Rupp, J.; Celia, M. A.; Gable, C. W.; Bowen, B. B.; Mozley, P. S.; Evans, J. P.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The recent induced M3.8 - M5.5 seismic events across the midcontinent, USA have raised concern regarding regulations for hazardous waste injection. It is also important to note that in the midcontinent region, the Illinois Basin is the main target for storing CO2 up to 1 million metric tons over a 3-year period in the CCS project of DOE. Here we present a hydrogeologic-geomechanical sensitivity study using a hybrid analytic-numerical cross-sectional model to assess a wide variety of possible failure scenarios within crystalline rocks. The hydrostratigraphic framework model we used in this study is based on the geology of the Illinois Basin. The model includes 2.8 km thick Paleozoic sedimentary aquifers and confining units underlain by 4 km of bedrock. We represented injection at 1000 gallons per minute (3785 liters per minute) into a basal sandstone aquifer (Mt. Simon Sandstone) as well as the overlying carbonate and siliciclastic reservoirs (middle aquifer: Knox Dolomite, St. Peter Sandstone, upper Ordovician Carbonates). In some scenarios, we included high/low permeability vertical and sub-horizontal thrust faults. Deviatoric pore pressures from the model were used to estimate failure along critically stressed faults within the bedrock. For a basement permeability between 10-15 m2 to 10-16 m2, injection into the basal aquifer (Mt. Simon sandstone) resulted in a failure envelop within the crystalline basement to depths of about 1.4 - 4 km and extending laterally up to 6 km. Including a transmissive vertical normal fault increased the depth of the failure envelope to 4 km below the base of the sedimentary pile. If a 108 order of magnitude permeability contrast exists between the thrust fault (10-10 m2) and basement rocks (10-18 m2), then pore pressures can propagate along a sub-horizontal fault about 12 km from the injection well. For middle aquifer injection, the presence of a bottom seal (Eau Claire Formation) has a prophylactic effect, preventing downward

  2. Basal entrainment by Newtonian gravity-driven flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Belinda; Andreini, Nicolas; Ancey, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Gravity-driven flows can erode the bed along which they descend and increase their mass by a factor of 10 or more. This process is called basal entrainment. Although documented by field observations and laboratory experiments, it remains poorly understood. We look into this issue by studying eroding dam-break waves. More specifically we would like to determine what happens when a viscous gravity-driven flow generated by releasing a fixed volume of incompressible Newtonian fluid encounters a stationary erodible layer (composed of fluid with the same density and viscosity). Models based on depth-averaged mass and momentum balance equations deal with bed-flow interfaces as shock waves. In contrast, we use an approach involving the long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations (lubrication theory), and in this context, bed-flow interfaces are acceleration waves that move quickly across thin stationary layers. The incoming flow digs down into the bed, pushing up downstream material, thus advancing the flow front. Extending the method used by Huppert [J. Fluid Mech. 121, 43--58 (1982)] for modelling viscous dam-break waves, we end up with a nonlinear diffusion equation for the flow depth, which is solved numerically. Theory is compared with experimental results. Excellent agreement is found in the limit of low Reynolds numbers (i.e., for flow Reynolds numbers lower than 20) for the front position over time and flow depth profile. The Newtonian model has sometimes been used to describe the flow behaviour of natural materials such as snow and debris suspensions, but the majority of existing approaches rely on more elaborate constitutive equations. So there is no direct application of the results presented here to real flow conditions. Yet, our study sheds light on the mechanisms involved in basal entrainment. We provide evidence that the whole layer of loose material is entrained quickly once the flow makes contact with the erodible layer. As this process occurs

  3. Hydrologically Induced Basal Slip Triggers Greenland Supraglacial Lake Drainages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, L. A.; Behn, M. D.; McGuire, J. J.; Das, S. B.; Joughin, I. R.; Herring, T.; Shean, D. E.; King, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate what triggers the rapid drainage of a large supraglacial lake on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet using a Network Inversion Filter (NIF) (Segall and Matthews, 1997) to invert a dense local network of GPS observations over three summers (2011-2013). The NIF is used to determine the spatiotemporal variability in ice sheet behavior (1) prior to lake drainage, and in response to (2) vertical hydro-fracture crack propagation and closure, (3) the opening of a horizontal cavity at the ice-sheet bed that accommodates the rapid injection of melt-water, and (4) extra basal slip due to enhanced lubrication. The NIF also allows us to infer the distribution of melt-water at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after drainage. Our data show that the opening and propagation of each summer's lake-draining hydro-fracture is preceded by a local stress perturbation associated with ice sheet uplift and enhanced slip above pre-drainage background velocities. Within <1 day after the onset of each precursor, a vertical crack propagates through the lake basin and the lake drains rapidly (<5 hours). The NIF shows that the precursors are not associated with slow propagation of the lake draining hydrofracture, but rather pre-existing crevasses and/or moulins, which allow substantial amounts of melt-water to reach the bed and activate enhanced basal slip up to a day before hydro-fracture crack initiation. Identification of these precursors combined with the fact that drainages are observed to occur across a range of lake volumes and geometries, suggests that lakes do not spontaneously hydro-fracture once they surpass a specific threshold despite the numerous healed hydro-fracture cracks present within the lake basin from the prior years' drainage events. These results have implications for rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes in less crevassed, interior regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the rapid collapse of Antarctic ice shelves through melt pond

  4. Protracted Crystallization of a Dense Basal Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrosse, S.; Hernlund, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    The presence of silicate melt in a thin layer at the base of Earth's mantle was proposed by Williams and Garnero (1996) to explain the ultralow-velocity zone. Recent ab initio calculations by Stixrude and Karki (2005) suggest that an Fe-enriched silicate melt will be gravitationally stable at the bottom of the mantle. Using energy balances and regional-scale numerical models of convection in the lowermost mantle, we investigate the conditions necessary for the survival of such a melt layer in a cooling earth and its implications for core-mantle thermal coupling. The lifetime of a basal melt layer τ_c is controlled by the balance between heat transfer across the solid mantle and heat capacity of the core times the temperature decrement Δ T_c required to entirely freeze the melt layer. Δ T_c depends on the phase diagram and can also change depending upon whether the layer undergoes bulk or fractional crystallization. In contrast to the short lifetime of the surface magma ocean (~ 10 \\mathrm{Myr}), τ_c is plausibly of order several billion years, with longer lifetimes permitted if the layer undergoes fractional crystallization. Fluctuations of heat flow by mantle convection induce fluctuations in the rate of crystallization which in turn buffers core-mantle heat transfer due to the diffusive adjustment time of the boundary layer at the base of the solid mantle. This could help the dynamo to survive periods of low heat flow across the mantle. Fractional crystallization of the basal melt layer (and subsequent Fe enrichment) could lead to a correlated chemical evolution in the crystallizing solids which, after some time, may become too dense to be entrained by solid state convection in the overlying mantle. This denser material tends to accumulate at the base of up-welling mantle currents and is underlain by material that is naturally buffered to the solidus temperature throughout the lifetime of the melt layer, perhaps providing a simple way to explain the presence

  5. Landslide Basal Friction as Measured by Seismic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Gordeev, E.

    2004-12-01

    Dynamical predictions of landslide runout require measurements of the basal friction. We present the first seismically determined bounds on the frictional coefficients for three large volcanic landslides. A landslide generates seismic waves by both shearing and loading the surface as the mass moves from a steep to a shallow slope. The effective force system is a horizontal single force. The amplitude of the seismic waves is proportional to the force drop during the landslide, just as during an earthquake the seismic wave amplitude is proportional to the seismic moment, i.e., the force drop multiplied by the source dimension. For landslides we know an additional variable that is unknown for the earthquake case. We know the gravitational driving force of the landslide while the magnitude of the tectonic forces that drive earthquakes are generally unknown. Therefore, we can find the absolute value of the frictional force for landslides whereas we are unable to perform this calculation for earthquakes. We studied three landslides (Bezymianny, Russia 1956, Sheveluch, Russia 1964 and Mount St. Helens, USA 1980) that were all followed immediately by eruptions. The landslide masses vary by a factor of 5. We test the data against the hypothesis of a constant value of apparent friction. The apparent friction μ app is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the horizontal single force to the weight of the landslide. Since the Mount St. Helens seismic source is very well-constrained, we use the amplitude of this landslide force drop as a starting point. We calculated the value of μ app for Mount St. Helens using previous seismic results and the geological data. We then test whether or not the other two landslides are consistent with the same value of μ app. We use teleseismic and regional seismic data to show that all three landslides are consistent with an apparent coefficient of friction of 0.2 which corresponds to an actual areally-averaged frictional coefficient of 0

  6. Channelised Subglacial Hydrology Modulates West Antarctic Ice Stream Basal Conditions and Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.; Ross, N.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ice-sheet models show a coincidence between ice flux and basal water-flow maxima, as water at the bed of an ice sheets acts generally to lubricate the basal interface. Hydrological flow paths support this view with ice and basal-water drainage basins being well-aligned. At the scale of an individual ice stream, however, we reveal a significant offset of this alignment. Airborne geophysical data across the trunk of the Institute Ice Stream reveal how subglacial hydrology acts to subdue ice flow in two ways: first, by removing basal sediment, which decreases opportunity for the deformation of basal material and increases basal roughness; and, second, by reducing basal water pressures. The macro flow of basal water beneath the ice stream is known well from high-resolution bed elevation data and satellite imagery, which reveal well-organised water flow along the Robin Subglacial Basin, terminating at the grounding line as a channel carving upwards into the adjacent ice shelf. The highest ice flow is offset from this channelized zone, however. Maximum velocities are located where the bed is very smooth and radio-echo returns are strong; consistent with a dilated weak sedimentary material at the ice stream bed. The geophysical evidence is consistent with the removal of basal sediment from the deepest regions of the Robin Subglacial Basin by the action of water and illustrates how accumulation of sedimentary material from ice streams is not necessary a precise locator for maximum ice-flow velocities at the scale of individual ice streams. The figure shows a radar section across the Institute Ice Stream, West Antarctica, revealing two modes of basal environment. One is flat and smooth, indicative of a soft wet bed. The other is rougher, as a consequence of the removal of basal material and water channelisation. This latter region is located in the deepest regions of the Robin Subglacial Basin. The former region is located beneath the highest ice flow speeds.

  7. Plasticity of basal cells during postnatal development in the rat epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Winnie W C; Hill, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that basal cells sense luminal factors by forming a narrow body projection that can cross epithelial tight junctions. As a first step toward characterizing the structural plasticity of basal cells, in this study, we followed their appearance and morphology in the rat epididymis and vas deferens (VD) during postnatal development and examined their modulation by androgens in adulthood. Immunofluorescence labeling for cytokeratin 5 showed that basal cells are absent at birth. They progressively appear in a retrograde manner from the VD and cauda epididymis to the initial segments during the postnatal weeks PNW1–3. At the onset of differentiation, basal cells are in contact with the lumen and their nucleus is located at the same level as that of adjacent epithelial cells. Basal cells then position their nucleus to the base of the epithelium, and while some are still in contact with the lumen, others have a ‘dome-shaped’ appearance. At PNW5–6, basal cells form a loose network at the base of the epithelium, and luminal-reaching basal cells are rarely detected. The arrival of spermatozoa during PNW7–8 did not trigger the development of projections in basal cells. However, cells with a narrow luminal-reaching projection began to reappear between PNW8 and PNW12 in the corpus and the cauda. Treatment with flutamide from PNW10 to PNW12 significantly reduced the number of luminal-reaching basal cell projections. In summary, basal cells exhibit significant structural plasticity during differentiation. Fewer apical-reaching projections were detected after flutamide treatment in adulthood, indicating the role of androgens in the luminal-sensing function of basal cells. PMID:23960170

  8. Basal Murphy belt and Chilhowee Group -- Sequence stratigraphic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Aylor, J.G. Jr. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The lower Murphy belt in the central western Blue Ridge is interpreted to be correlative to the Early Cambrian Chilhowee Group of the westernmost Blue Ridge and Appalachian fold and thrust belt. Basal Murphy belt depositional sequence stratigraphy represents a second-order, type-2 transgressive systems tract initiated with deposition of lowstand turbidites of the Dean Formation. These transgressive deposits of the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations are interpreted as middle to outer continental shelf deposits. Cyclic and stacked third-order regressive, coarsening upwards sequences of the Nantahala Formation display an overall increase in feldspar content stratigraphically upsection. These transgressive siliciclastic deposits are interpreted to be conformably overlain by a carbonate highstand systems tract of the Murphy Marble. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the Nantahala and Brasstown Formations possibly represent a basinward extension of up to 3 km thick siliciclastic wedge. The wedge tapers to the southwest along the strike of the Murphy belt at 10[degree] and thins northwestward to 2 km in the Tennessee depocenter where it is represented by the Chilhowee Group. The Murphy belt basin is believed to represent a transitional rift-to-drift facies deposited on the lower plate of the southern Blue Ridge rift zone.

  9. Discovery of alpha-defensins in basal mammals.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David J; Bradley, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-defensins are essential molecules of the innate immune system that have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and viruses. To date, alpha-defensins have only been identified in the Euarchontoglires branch of the mammals. This has led to speculation that alpha-defensins may be specific to this group, a somewhat surprising finding, given their importance in the immune system. The mammalian genome project provided us with the opportunity to search for alpha-defensins in previously unexamined mammalian superorders. Using hidden Markov model (HMM) profile searching, we report the discovery of alpha-defensins in the African savanna elephant, the lesser hedgehog tenrec, and the nine-banded armadillo genomes representing two of the most basal mammalian superorders, Afrotheria and Xenarthra. Furthermore, we identify an alpha-defensin-like gene in the gray short-tailed opossum, suggesting that alpha-defensins may have evolved much earlier than previously thought, before the divergence of placental mammals and marsupials approximately 130 mya. PMID:17367857

  10. Antipathetic magnesium-manganese relationship in basal metalliferous sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Basal metalliferous sediments from sites 77B, 80 and 81 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project represent mixtures of pelagic clay, biogenic ooze, and a metalliferous component of hydrothermal origin. The metalliferous end-member of the sediments displays a strong inverse relationship (r = -0.88) between Mg and Mn. Mg is most likely tied up in an X-ray amorphous Mg-silicate ("sepiolite"), whereas Mn occurs almost exclusively in an oxide phase. Precipitation of the Mg-rich phase is favored by high flow rates and limited mixing of the hydrothermal end-member (source of silica) with seawater (source of Mg). Under those conditions much of the hydrothermal Mn2+, with its slow oxidation kinetics, may escape to the free water column. In contrast, in highly-diluted hydrothermal fluids, which provide a source solution for Mn-rich sediments, dissolved silica is diluted below saturation with respect to "sepiolite". The separation of the Mn and Mg phases may be further compounded by hydraulic fractionation. ?? 1981.

  11. Sonic hedgehog signaling in Basal cell nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Athar, Mohammad; Li, Changzhao; Kim, Arianna L; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Bickers, David R

    2014-09-15

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is considered to be a major signal transduction pathway during embryonic development, but it usually shuts down after birth. Aberrant Sonic hedgehog (Shh) activation during adulthood leads to neoplastic growth. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is driven by this pathway. Here, we summarize information related to the pathogenesis of this neoplasm, discuss pathways that crosstalk with Shh signaling, and the importance of the primary cilium in this neoplastic process. The identification of the basic/translational components of Shh signaling has led to the discovery of potential mechanism-driven druggable targets and subsequent clinical trials have confirmed their remarkable efficacy in treating BCCs, particularly in patients with nevoid BCC syndrome (NBCCS), an autosomal dominant disorder in which patients inherit a germline mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene Patched (Ptch). Patients with NBCCS develop dozens to hundreds of BCCs due to derepression of the downstream G-protein-coupled receptor Smoothened (SMO). Ptch mutations permit transposition of SMO to the primary cilium followed by enhanced expression of transcription factors Glis that drive cell proliferation and tumor growth. Clinical trials with the SMO inhibitor, vismodegib, showed remarkable efficacy in patients with NBCCS, which finally led to its FDA approval in 2012. PMID:25172843

  12. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated human cutaneous basal cell carcinoma ex-vivo samples by combined time resolved two photon intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between malignant skin and corresponding healthy skin tissues. In comparison with normal healthy skin, cancer tissue showed a different morphology and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution slightly shifted towards higher values. Topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid to the lesion four hours before excision resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal arising from malignant tissue, due to the accumulation of protoporphyrines inside tumor cells. Contrast enhancement was prevalent at tumor borders by both two photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence-based images showed a good correlation with conventional histopathological analysis, thereby supporting the diagnostic accuracy of this novel method. Combined morphological and lifetime analysis in the study of ex-vivo skin samples discriminated benign from malignant tissues, thus offering a reliable, non-invasive tool for the in-vivo analysis of inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions.

  13. Modeling basal ganglia for understanding Parkinsonian reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Magdoom, K N; Subramanian, D; Chakravarthy, V S; Ravindran, B; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Meenakshisundaram, N

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia (BG) in generating simple reaching movements. The model is cast within the reinforcement learning (RL) framework with correspondence between RL components and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra pars compacta as the temporal difference error, striatum as the substrate for the critic, and the motor cortex as the actor. A key feature of this neurobiological interpretation is our hypothesis that the indirect pathway is the explorer. Chaotic activity, originating from the indirect pathway part of the model, drives the wandering, exploratory movements of the arm. Thus, the direct pathway subserves exploitation, while the indirect pathway subserves exploration. The motor cortex becomes more and more independent of the corrective influence of BG as training progresses. Reaching trajectories show diminishing variability with training. Reaching movements associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are simulated by reducing dopamine and degrading the complexity of indirect pathway dynamics by switching it from chaotic to periodic behavior. Under the simulated PD conditions, the arm exhibits PD motor symptoms like tremor, bradykinesia and undershooting. The model echoes the notion that PD is a dynamical disease. PMID:21105828

  14. Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori

    2014-01-01

    Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

  15. Subregional Basal Forebrain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Kilimann, Ingo; Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopez; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; dos Santos, Gláucia Aparecida Bento; da Silva, Rafael Emídio; Mitchell, Alex J.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Teipel, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest severe and region-specific neurodegeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Here, we studied the between-center reliability and diagnostic accuracy of MRI-based BFCS volumetry in a large multicenter data set, including participants with prodromal (n = 41) or clinically manifest AD (n = 134) and 148 cognitively healthy controls. Atrophy was determined using voxel-based and region-of-interest based analyses of high-dimensionally normalized MRI scans using a newly created map of the BFCS based on postmortem in cranio MRI and histology. The AD group showed significant volume reductions of all subregions of the BFCS, which were most pronounced in the posterior nucleus basalis Meynert (NbM). The mild cognitive impairment-AD group showed pronounced volume reductions in the posterior NbM, but preserved volumes of anterior-medial regions. Diagnostic accuracy of posterior NbM volume was superior to hippocampus volume in both groups, despite higher multicenter variability of the BFCS measurements. The data of our study suggest that BFCS morphometry may provide an emerging biomarker in AD. PMID:24503619

  16. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Erika; Korom, Irma; Raskó, Zoltán; Kis, Erika; Varga, János; Oláh, Judit; Kemény, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect. PMID:21151693

  17. Clinical outcome of surgical treatment for periorbital basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kakudo, Natsuko; Ogawa, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kenji; Kushida, Satoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has a predilection for the periorbital region, which is a special, prominent, cosmetic, functional area to protect the eyeball. For squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, extensive resection with reconstruction is performed. In contrast, for BCC, resection is often confined to a small to medium-sized area, necessitating higher-quality reconstructive surgery. We analyze the surgical outcomes of treatment for periorbital BCC, and evaluate reconstruction method after resection. Forty-nine patients with periorbital BCC had surgery in our hospital over 20 years. Age, gender of the patients, and size, localization, and histology of the tumor, and surgical procedures, and their early and late complications were analyzed retrospectively. BCC was most frequently occurred in the lower lid (55%), followed by inner canthus (19%), upper lid (17%), and outer canthus (9%). The histologic classifications were solid (80%), morphea (7%), mix (7%), superficial (2%), keratotic (2%), and adenoid (2%). Recurrence of the tumor was observed in 2 advanced cases in patients treated with resection of the tumor including surrounding tissue 5 mm from the margin. A rotation advancement cheek flap procedure was most frequently applied. Horizontal shift of the skin was most effective to prevent postoperative lagophthalmos. BCC occurred most frequently in the lower lid within the periorbital area. Rotation advancement of cheek flap with horizontal shift of the skin is most effective procedure in both appearance and function of the eyelid. PMID:19801921

  18. Morphological Spectrum of Basal Cell Carcinoma in Southern Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Flora Dorothy; Naik, Ramdas; Khadilkar, Urmila Niranjan; Kini, Hema; Kini, Ullal Anand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer worldwide, which appears over sun-exposed skin as slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Many phenotypic presentations are possible. BCCs are more common in males and tend to occur in older people. Majority is found on the head and neck. Many histopathological subtypes have been defined including nodular, micronodular, cystic, superficial, pigmented, adenoid, infiltrating, sclerosing, keratotic, infundibulocystic, metatypical, basosquamous and fibroepitheliomatous. Mixed patterns are common. Aim The aim was to study morphological spectrum of BCC in a tertiary care hospital in southern Karnataka. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 100 cases of BCCs reported in the Department of Pathology over a 9-year period from 2006 to 2014. Results The mean age of presentation was 62 years. There was slight female preponderance (56%). The most common location was face (65%) and the most common presentation was ulceration (45%). Of the 100 BCCs, 50% were nodular, 13% infiltrating, 6% basosquamous, 4% superficial, 3% keratotic, 3% multinodular and 1% mixed. Conclusion BCC, besides being the commonest cutaneous cancer, is also known for its numerous histological patterns which are shown to have prognostic implications. This study reveals the frequency of the various histological patterns of BCC in southern Karnataka, where it has been rarely studied before. PMID:27504291

  19. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  20. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  1. Basal glucosuria is ubiquitous in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Richard; Kurz, Annabella; Adelsmayr, Gabriel; Holzinger, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    The 'renal threshold for glucose' has never been evaluated in critically ill patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the renal glucose threshold in this patient group using high-sensitivity urine glucose assays. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, we analysed 100 consecutive critically ill patients from a medical intensive care unit (ICU). Arterial blood glucose and spot urine glucose were simultaneously quantified daily during the first week after ICU admission. Three hundred seventy-three pairs of blood/urine glucose were plotted in five pre-defined categories of blood glucose (<80, 80-109, 110-139, 140-179 and ≥180 mg/dL). Urine glucose values of the five categories were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test to assess the relation with blood glucose. Urine glucose was detected in virtually all of the urine samples. Urine glucose showed a positive nonlinear correlation with blood glucose and was significantly elevated at blood glucose levels of 140-179 and ≥180 mg/dL compared with lower blood glucose ranges. Basal glucosuria is ubiquitous in critically ill patients. A 'soft' renal threshold for glucose is present at blood glucose levels in the range of 140-179 mg/dL. PMID:25810226

  2. What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, V S; Joseph, Denny; Bapi, Raju S

    2010-09-01

    Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including: action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc. In spite of the immense amount of data available today, researchers continue to wonder how a single deep brain circuit performs such a bewildering range of functions. Computational models of BG have focused on individual functions and fail to give an integrative picture of BG function. A major breakthrough in our understanding of BG function is perhaps the insight that activities of mesencephalic dopaminergic cells represent some form of 'reward' to the organism. This insight enabled application of tools from 'reinforcement learning,' a branch of machine learning, in the study of BG function. Nevertheless, in spite of these bright spots, we are far from the goal of arriving at a comprehensive understanding of these 'mysterious nuclei.' A comprehensive knowledge of BG function has the potential to radically alter treatment and management of a variety of BG-related neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, etc.) and neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, etc.) also. In this article, we review the existing modeling literature on BG and hypothesize an integrative picture of the function of these nuclei. PMID:20644953

  3. Endoscopic surgery for congenital basal meningoencephaloceles in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuewen; Zhang, Junyi; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Zhihai; Fan, Ruohao; Liu, Yong; Wu, Bei; Sun, Hong; Jiang, Weihong

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Endoscopic surgery is safe and effective for children with congenital basal meningoencephaloceles (CBMs); it provides an acceptable operative outcome with a short recovery time and fewer complications and may be considered as a primary approach. Objectives To explore the safety and effectiveness of using transnasal or transoral endoscopic surgery on children with CBMs. Methods The clinical data of eight CBMs children who underwent transnasal or transoral endoscopic surgery in a hospital from January 2011 to January 2015 were collected. The presenting symptoms, lesion locations, surgical outcomes, and complications were examined retrospectively. Results Of the eight children, five (62.5%) patients were male, and their ages ranged from 1 year and 6 months to 14 years (median of 9 years). Six patients presented with the transethmoidal sub-type, and two presented with the transsphenoidal sub-type. The average hospital stay of all patients was 8.6 ± 2.6 days. There were neither intra-operative nor post-operative complications observed in any of the cases during the follow-ups that occurred between 6-54 months (mean of 15.5 months). PMID:26848970

  4. Observation of sonified movements engages a basal ganglia frontocortical network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Producing sounds by a musical instrument can lead to audiomotor coupling, i.e. the joint activation of the auditory and motor system, even when only one modality is probed. The sonification of otherwise mute movements by sounds based on kinematic parameters of the movement has been shown to improve motor performance and perception of movements. Results Here we demonstrate in a group of healthy young non-athletes that congruently (sounds match visual movement kinematics) vs. incongruently (no match) sonified breaststroke movements of a human avatar lead to better perceptual judgement of small differences in movement velocity. Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhanced activity in superior and medial posterior temporal regions including the superior temporal sulcus, known as an important multisensory integration site, as well as the insula bilaterally and the precentral gyrus on the right side. Functional connectivity analysis revealed pronounced connectivity of the STS with the basal ganglia and thalamus as well as frontal motor regions for the congruent stimuli. This was not seen to the same extent for the incongruent stimuli. Conclusions We conclude that sonification of movements amplifies the activity of the human action observation system including subcortical structures of the motor loop. Sonification may thus be an important method to enhance training and therapy effects in sports science and neurological rehabilitation. PMID:23496827

  5. Chemopreventive opportunities to control basal cell carcinoma: Current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Cynthia; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a major health problem with approximately 2.8 million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. BCC incidences have continued to rise due to lack of effective chemopreventive options. One of the key molecular characteristics of BCC is the sustained activation of hedgehog signaling through inactivating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene patch (Ptch) or activating mutations in Smoothened. In the past, several studies have addressed targeting the activated hedgehog pathway for the treatment and prevention of BCC, although with toxic effects. Other studies have attempted BCC chemoprevention through targeting the promotional phase of the disease especially the inflammatory component. The compounds that have been utilized in pre-clinical and/or clinical studies include green and black tea, difluoromethylornithine, thymidine dinucleotide, retinoids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin D3, and silibinin. In this review, we have discussed genetic and epigenetic modifications that occur during BCC development as well as the current state of BCC pre-clinical and clinical chemoprevention studies. PMID:26053157

  6. Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Basal Cell Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shanley, Susan; McCormack, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in Caucasians worldwide and its incidence is rising. It is generally considered a sporadic tumour, most likely to affect fair-skinned individuals exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This chapter focusses on the approach to recognising the relatively few individuals in whom a high-risk hereditary susceptibility may be present. Gorlin syndrome is the main consideration and the gene most commonly mutated is PTCH1, a key regulator of the Hedgehog developmental pathway. Recently, loss of function of another gene in the same pathway, SUFU, has been found to explain a subset of families. Understanding the pathogenesis of familial BCCs has advanced the understanding of the biology of sporadic tumours and led to targeted therapy trials. The management of familial BCCs remains a challenge due to significant unmet needs for non-surgical treatments and a high burden of disease for the individual. Together with the prospect of advances in gene discovery and translation, these challenges highlight the need for ongoing review of at-risk and affected individuals by a multidisciplinary team. PMID:27075355

  7. Basal ganglia cholinergic and dopaminergic function in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Warren, Naomi M; Piggott, Margaret A; Greally, Elizabeth; Lake, Michelle; Lees, Andrew J; Burn, David J

    2007-08-15

    Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. In contrast to Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), replacement therapy with dopaminergic and cholinergic agents in PSP has been disappointing. The neurochemical basis for this is unclear. Our objective was to measure dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors in the basal ganglia of PSP and control brains. We measured, autoradiographically, dopaminergic (dopamine transporter, 125I PE2I and dopamine D2 receptors, 125I epidepride) and cholinergic (nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors, 125I 5IA85380 and muscarinic M1 receptors, 3H pirenzepine) parameters in the striatum and pallidum of pathologically confirmed PSP cases (n=15) and controls (n=32). In PSP, there was a marked loss of dopamine transporter and nicotinic alpha4beta2 binding in the striatum and pallidum, consistent with loss of nigrostriatal neurones. Striatal D2 receptors were increased in the caudate and muscarinic M1 receptors were unchanged compared with controls. These results do not account for the poor response to dopaminergic and cholinergic replacement therapies in PSP, and suggest relative preservation of postsynaptic striatal projection neurones bearing D2/M1 receptors. PMID:17534953

  8. Neuropsychological impairment after hemorrhagic stroke in basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Chwen-Yng; Chen, Hui-Mei; Kwan, Aij-Lie; Lin, Yueh-Hsieh; Guo, Nai-Wen

    2007-05-01

    We aimed to determine the severity and pattern of cognitive dysfunction in patients with basal ganglia (BG) hemorrhage within the first 6 months after stroke and to identify its clinical correlates. The study samples consisted of 30 patients with BG hemorrhage and 37 healthy controls. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, memory, language, visuospatial function, and executive function was administered to all participants. Relative to healthy controls, BG patients performed significantly worse across different cognitive domains after controlling for age, sex, and education. 96.7% of patients displayed defective performance on at least three neuropsychological tests. Discriminant function analysis showed that visuospatial function and memory were the best predictors of group membership (patient/control), with an overall classification rate of 95.5%. Only side of stroke and admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score correlated significantly with some of the cognitive domains. The widespread pattern of cognitive deficits seen in BG patients provides evidence for the substantial involvement of the BG in many neuronal pathways connecting cortical and subcortical brain areas responsible for various cognitive functions. PMID:17336034

  9. Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2015-02-01

    Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

  10. Basal entrainment by Newtonian gravity-driven flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Belinda M.; Andreini, Nicolas; Ancey, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Gravity-driven flows can erode the bed along which they descend and increase their mass by a factor of 10 or more. This process is called "basal entrainment." Although documented by field observations and laboratory experiments, it remains poorly understood. This paper examines what happens when a viscous gravity-driven flow generated by releasing a fixed volume of incompressible Newtonian fluid encounters a stationary layer (composed of fluid with the same density and viscosity). Models based on depth-averaged mass and momentum balance equations deal with bed-flow interfaces as shock waves. In contrast, we use an approach involving the long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations (lubrication theory), and in this context, bed-flow interfaces are acceleration waves that move quickly across thin stationary layers. The incoming flow digs down into the bed, pushing up downstream material, thus advancing the flow front. Extending the method used by Huppert ["The propagation of two-dimensional and axisymmetric viscous gravity currents over a rigid horizontal surface," J. Fluid Mech. 121, 43-58 (1982)] for modeling viscous dam-break waves, we end up with a nonlinear diffusion equation for the flow depth, which is solved numerically. Theory is compared with experimental results. Excellent agreement is found in the limit of low Reynolds numbers (i.e., for flow Reynolds numbers lower than 20) for the front position over time and flow depth profile.

  11. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  12. Arginine kinase from Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids.

    PubMed

    Yano, Daichi; Mimura, Sayo; Uda, Kouji; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2016-08-01

    We assembled a phosphagen kinase gene from the Expressed Sequence Tags database of Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids. The assembled gene sequence was synthesized using an overlap extension polymerase chain reaction method and was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (355 residues) exhibited monomeric behavior on a gel filtration column and showed strong activity only for l-arginine. Thus, the enzyme was identified as arginine kinase (AK). The two-substrate kinetic parameters were obtained and compared with other AKs. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of phosphagen kinases indicated that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage differed from that of the polychaete Sabellastarte spectabilis AK, which is a dimer of creatine kinase (CK) origin. It is likely that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage was lost at an early stage of annelid evolution and that Sabellastarte AK evolved secondarily from the CK gene. This work contributes to our understanding of the evolution of phosphagen kinases of annelids with marked diversity. PMID:27095694

  13. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    PubMed

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  14. Basal Ganglia Outputs Map Instantaneous Position Coordinates during Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Barter, Joseph W.; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A.; Bartholomew, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions. PMID:25673860

  15. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Soriano, Virtudes; Juberias, Pablo; Saez, Berta; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Grasa, Matilde; Höiom, Veronica; Lindblom, Annika; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; van Rossum, Michelle M; Aben, Katja K H; de Vries, Esther; Santinami, Mario; Di Mauro, Maria G; Maurichi, Andrea; Wendt, Judith; Hochleitner, Pia; Pehamberger, Hubert; Gudmundsson, Julius; Magnusdottir, Droplaug N; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Holm, Hilma; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Frigge, Michael L; Blondal, Thorarinn; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Bjarnason, Hjördis; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Okamoto, Ichiro; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hansson, Johan; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Karagas, Margaret R; Nelson, Heather H; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Olafsson, Jon H; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-08-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 x 10(-9)), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 x 10(-10)). The effect of rs157935[T] is dependent on the parental origin of the risk allele. None of these variants were found to be associated with melanoma or fair-pigmentation traits. A melanoma- and pigmentation-associated variant in the SLC45A2 gene, L374F, is associated with risk of both BCC and squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we report conclusive evidence that rs401681[C] in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus confers susceptibility to BCC but protects against melanoma. PMID:19578363

  16. Clinicopathological analysis of recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Zieliński, Tomasz; Antoszewski, Bogusław; Sporny, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the eyelids and surrounding structures, usually developing in the area of the lower lid and medial canthus. Invasive forms of BCC are connected with a high risk of recurrence, often due to incomplete excision of these lesions. Aim Clinical and pathological analysis of recurrent BCCs of the eyelids and surrounding structures. Material and methods We present clinical and pathological analysis including immunohistochemical reaction to Ki-67 antigen of 19 patients (11 women, 8 men) operated for recurrent BCCs of the eyelids in 2000–2012. Results In most cases, recurrences were present on the lower lid and in the medial canthus. In 15 patients the histopathological type did not change and in 4 cases it transformed into more invasive forms. The values of Ki-67 index for primary BCCs ranged between 1% and 20%, and for relapsing lesions between 11% and 48%. Conclusions Proper clinical and pathological evaluation to determine the risk of relapse in BCCs of the eyelids and surrounding structures should include the analysis of prognostic factors, in particular location and size, histopathological type and radicalness of surgical treatment of primary BCCs. Clinical and pathological analysis of patients with recurrent BCC of the eyelids and surrounding structures should be combined with the evaluation of proliferation index Ki-67, which is essential for prognosis and choice of the appropriate therapeutic method. PMID:26985178

  17. Sonidegib phosphate: new approval for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tibes, R

    2016-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), although mostly locally confined, is the most common cancer. Most BCCs harbor inactivating mutations in the membrane receptor/gene Ptch, thereby activating the Hedgehog signaling pathway (Hh) via the essential signaling molecule Smoothened (SMO). Novel small-molecule inhibitors or antagonists of SMO have shown excellent response rates in patients with locally advanced, unresectable and metastatic BCC in roughly 35-60% of patients, with disease control rates and clinical benefit being even higher. Sonidegib is the second-in-class SMO inhibitor approved for locally advanced, unresectable and metastatic BCC. Sonidegib is given once daily continuously, with specific side effects as listed in the label indication. Resistance develops over time and knowledge gleaned from other SMO inhibitors indicates that SMO mutations preventing drug binding as well as mechanisms activating the Hh pathway downstream of SMO are responsible, ultimately reactivating Hh pathway signaling. The next challenge will be to define novel salvage and SMO combination strategies for BCC and other tumors. PMID:27376162

  18. Comparisons of Young Children's Syntax to the Syntax of Their Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnert, Linda; Johnson, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Reveals that in the average number of words per T-unit, the complexity of basal reader passages generally exceeds that of children's oral language, and that none of the basal series studied exhibited a graduated increase in average number of words per T-unit among passages in the same reader. (FL)

  19. Dick and Jane Are Dead: Basal Reader Takes a Back Seat to Student Writings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxendine, Linda

    A second grade teacher in a rural Appalachian school draws heavily on familiar regional literature and the children's own rich mountain heritage and culture to teach reading to her students, covering the required basal readings in only one day per week. Students use the basals on Mondays and retell the texts on paper. They spend the rest of the…

  20. Intraparenchymal meningioma within the basal ganglia of a child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Boland, Michael R; Arias, Eric J; Farrell, Michael; Javadpour, Mohsen; Caird, John

    2016-06-01

    Intraparenchymal meningiomas are rare. To date, no such lesion has been reported within the basal ganglia of a paediatric patient. Here, we describe the case of a 15-year-old-boy who presented with symptoms referable to a cystic, calcified, left basal ganglia intraparenchymal meningioma and discuss the surgical management of this lesion. PMID:26466020

  1. An Analysis of Reading Questions in Basal Reading Series Based on Bloom's Taxonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habecker, James Edward

    A scheme based on Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives was developed for classifying questions asked in basal reading manuals. A total of 6,988 questions from 144 lesson plans selected from basal readers from four major publishers were analyzed; 2,754 questions were from the 1950-1959 time period, and 4,234 were from the 1966-1975 time…

  2. A New Look at the Journey from Basal to Whole Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Judith N.

    1995-01-01

    Reexamines the pros and cons of traditional basal reader and literature-based reading programs and those based on the whole language approach. Compares and contrasts classroom teaching methods, goals, and some outcomes. Includes Venn diagram showing overlap and divergence of whole language, literature-based, and traditional basal methods. (ET)

  3. Do Current Basal Series Use Clear Explanations and Correct Exemplars in Teaching Prefixes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Myra Elaine

    A study (replicating a similar 1977 study by S. Stotsky), examined whether current basal series teach prefixion clearly. Teacher's guides, student texts, and workbooks of nine popular basal reader series were examined to ascertain whether they offered a clear definition of the term "prefix" and whether that definition was reinforced by the use of…

  4. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Thompson, Jeremy G.; Mason, Helen D.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined follicles from human ovaries (n = 18) by electron microscopy and found that many follicles had additional layers of basal lamina. Oocytes (n = 222) from bovine follicles with normal or unusual basal laminas were isolated and their ability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture to blastocyst was compared. Healthy bovine follicles with a single layer of basal lamina had oocytes with significantly (P < 0.01) greater developmental competence than healthy follicles with additional layers of follicular basal lamina (65% versus 28%). CONCLUSIONS These findings provide direct evidence that the phenotype of the follicular basal lamina is related to oocyte competence. PMID:19095662

  5. The Relevance of Illustration in Basal Readers as It Relates to Contextual Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesnov, Wendy Beth

    A study examined the hypothesis that illustrations found in first-grade basal texts do not always relate to context. Six texts were analyzed to determine the percentage of illustration miscues appearing in each story. The basal readers used were: "Story Clouds," Scott Foresman Reading: An American Tradition (1987); "Red Rock," Rand McNally Reading…

  6. The effect of basal channels on oceanic ice-shelf melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millgate, Thomas; Holland, Paul R.; Jenkins, Adrian; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of ice-shelf basal channels has been noted in a number of Antarctic and Greenland ice shelves, but their impact on basal melting is not fully understood. Here we use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model to investigate the effect of ice-shelf basal channels on oceanic melt rate for an idealized ice shelf resembling the floating tongue of Petermann Glacier in Greenland. The introduction of basal channels prevents the formation of a single geostrophically balanced boundary current; instead the flow is diverted up the right-hand (Coriolis-favored) side of each channel, with a return flow in the opposite direction on the left-hand side. As the prescribed number of basal channels is increased the mean basal melt rate decreases, in agreement with previous studies. For a small number of relatively wide channels the subice flow is found to be a largely geostrophic horizontal circulation. The reduction in melt rate is then caused by an increase in the relative contribution of weakly melting channel crests and keels. For a larger number of relatively narrow channels, the subice flow changes to a vertical overturning circulation. This change in circulation results in a weaker sensitivity of melt rates to channel size. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Rossby radius of deformation. Our results explain why basal channels play an important role in regulating basal melting, increasing the stability of ice shelves.

  7. Distinct Hippocampal and Basal Ganglia Contributions to Probabilistic Learning and Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Daphna; Myers, Catherine E.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Sage, Jake; Gluck, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The hippocampus and the basal ganglia are thought to play fundamental and distinct roles in learning and memory, supporting two dissociable memory systems. Interestingly, however, the hippocampus and the basal ganglia have each, separately, been implicated as necessary for reversal learning--the ability to adaptively change a response when…

  8. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han; Bertello, Luca E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  9. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Curettage Followed by Imiquimod 3.75% Cream

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita V.; Birge, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Treatment modalities include both surgical, medical, or combination therapy. In the following case, the authors report the successful treatment of a basal cell carcinoma on the nose with curettage followed by topical imiquimod 3.75% cream. PMID:21607193

  10. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Tang, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features. PMID:26924072

  11. Towards a Biopsychological Understanding of Costly Punishment: The Role of Basal Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24416441

  12. Cell cycle-dependent regulation of RNA polymerase II basal transcription activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yonaha, M; Chibazakura, T; Kitajima, S; Yasukochi, Y

    1995-01-01

    Regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II) in eukaryotic cells requires both basal and regulatory transcription factors. In this report we have investigated in vitro pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle by using nuclear extracts from synchronized HeLa cells. It is shown that pol II basal transcription activity is low in the S and G2 phases and high in early G1 phase and TFIID is the rate limiting component of pol II basal transcription activity during the cell cycle. Further analyses reveal that TFIID exists as a less active form in the S and G2 phases and nuclear extracts from S and G2 phase cells contain a heat-sensitive repressor(s) of TATA box binding protein (TBP). These results suggest that pol II basal transcription activity is regulated by a qualitative change in the TFIID complex, which could involve repression of TBP, during the cell cycle. Images PMID:7479063

  13. Injury induces direct lineage segregation of functionally distinct airway basal stem/progenitor cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Law, Brandon M; Tata, Purushothama Rao; Villoria, Jorge; Saez, Borja; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-02-01

    Following injury, stem cells restore normal tissue architecture by producing the proper number and proportions of differentiated cells. Current models of airway epithelial regeneration propose that distinct cytokeratin 8-expressing progenitor cells, arising from p63(+) basal stem cells, subsequently differentiate into secretory and ciliated cell lineages. We now show that immediately following injury, discrete subpopulations of p63(+) airway basal stem/progenitor cells themselves express Notch pathway components associated with either secretory or ciliated cell fate commitment. One basal cell population displays intracellular Notch2 activation and directly generates secretory cells; the other expresses c-myb and directly yields ciliated cells. Furthermore, disrupting Notch ligand activity within the basal cell population at large disrupts the normal pattern of lineage segregation. These non-cell-autonomous effects demonstrate that effective airway epithelial regeneration requires intercellular communication within the broader basal stem/progenitor cell population. These findings have broad implications for understanding epithelial regeneration and stem cell heterogeneity. PMID:25658372

  14. Focal expression of mutant huntingtin in the songbird basal ganglia disrupts cortico-basal ganglia networks and vocal sequences.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masashi; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Murugan, Malavika; Mooney, Richard

    2016-03-22

    The basal ganglia (BG) promote complex sequential movements by helping to select elementary motor gestures appropriate to a given behavioral context. Indeed, Huntington's disease (HD), which causes striatal atrophy in the BG, is characterized by hyperkinesia and chorea. How striatal cell loss alters activity in the BG and downstream motor cortical regions to cause these disorganized movements remains unknown. Here, we show that expressing the genetic mutation that causes HD in a song-related region of the songbird BG destabilizes syllable sequences and increases overall vocal activity, but leave the structure of individual syllables intact. These behavioral changes are paralleled by the selective loss of striatal neurons and reduction of inhibitory synapses on pallidal neurons that serve as the BG output. Chronic recordings in singing birds revealed disrupted temporal patterns of activity in pallidal neurons and downstream cortical neurons. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the cortical neurons rescued the disorganized vocal sequences in transfected birds. These findings shed light on a key role of temporal patterns of cortico-BG activity in the regulation of complex motor sequences and show how a genetic mutation alters cortico-BG networks to cause disorganized movements. PMID:26951661

  15. Focal expression of mutant huntingtin in the songbird basal ganglia disrupts cortico-basal ganglia networks and vocal sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masashi; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Murugan, Malavika; Mooney, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) promote complex sequential movements by helping to select elementary motor gestures appropriate to a given behavioral context. Indeed, Huntington’s disease (HD), which causes striatal atrophy in the BG, is characterized by hyperkinesia and chorea. How striatal cell loss alters activity in the BG and downstream motor cortical regions to cause these disorganized movements remains unknown. Here, we show that expressing the genetic mutation that causes HD in a song-related region of the songbird BG destabilizes syllable sequences and increases overall vocal activity, but leave the structure of individual syllables intact. These behavioral changes are paralleled by the selective loss of striatal neurons and reduction of inhibitory synapses on pallidal neurons that serve as the BG output. Chronic recordings in singing birds revealed disrupted temporal patterns of activity in pallidal neurons and downstream cortical neurons. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the cortical neurons rescued the disorganized vocal sequences in transfected birds. These findings shed light on a key role of temporal patterns of cortico-BG activity in the regulation of complex motor sequences and show how a genetic mutation alters cortico-BG networks to cause disorganized movements. PMID:26951661

  16. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxidative injury is a prominent cytotoxic mechanism. This effect could be exerted, at least in part, through mechanisms independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors and involving the control of endogenous antioxidant defences. On the other hand, the activation of CB2 receptors leads to a slower progression of neurodegeneration in both disorders. This effect would be exerted by limiting the toxicity of microglial cells for neurons and, in particular, by reducing the generation of proinflammatory factors. It is important to mention that CB2 receptors have been identified in the healthy brain, mainly in glial elements and, to a lesser extent, in certain subpopulations of neurons, and that they are dramatically up-regulated in response to damaging stimuli, which supports the idea that the cannabinoid system behaves as an endogenous neuroprotective system. This CB2 receptor up-regulation has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders including HD and PD, which supports the beneficial effects found for CB2 receptor agonists in both disorders. In conclusion, the evidence reported so far supports that those cannabinoids having antioxidant properties and/or capability to activate CB2 receptors may represent promising therapeutic agents in HD and PD, thus deserving a prompt clinical evaluation. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21545415

  17. Long-noncoding RNAs in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sand, Michael; Bechara, Falk G; Sand, Daniel; Gambichler, Thilo; Hahn, Stephan A; Bromba, Michael; Stockfleth, Eggert; Hessam, Schapoor

    2016-08-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are fundamental regulators of pre- and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Over 35,000 different lncRNAs have been described with some of them being involved in cancer formation. The present study was initiated to describe differentially expressed lncRNAs in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Patients with BCC (n = 6) were included in this study. Punch biopsies were harvested from the tumor center and nonlesional epidermal skin (NLES, control, n = 6). Microarray-based lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles were identified through screening for 30,586 lncRNAs and 26,109 protein-coding transcripts (mRNAs). The microarray data were validated by RT-PCR in a second set of BCC versus control samples. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses of mRNAs were performed to assess biologically relevant pathways. A total of 1851 lncRNAs were identified as being significantly up-regulated, whereas 2165 lncRNAs were identified as being significantly down-regulated compared to nonlesional skin (p < 0.05). Oncogenic and/or epidermis-specific lncRNAs, such as CASC15 or ANRIL, were among the differentially expressed sequences. GO analysis showed that the highest enriched GO targeted by up-regulated transcripts was "extracellular matrix." KEGG pathway analysis showed the highest enrichment scores in "Focal adhesion." BCC showed a significantly altered lncRNA and mRNA expression profile. Dysregulation of previously described lncRNAs may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of BCC and should be subject of further analysis. PMID:26861560

  18. Facial dermis grafts after removal of basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Kyu; Yoon, Won-Young; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2012-11-01

    Selecting a proper reconstruction method is the key to success in skin cancer management, especially for lesions involving the face. Using a skin graft is usually straightforward when covering a skin defect; however, major concerns in skin grafting include a poor color match in the recipient-site and donor-site morbidity. To overcome these limitations, the authors have developed a dermis graft, which utilizes a de-epithelialized split-thickness skin graft method. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report reliability of dermis grafts after removal of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) on the face by presenting our clinical experience with them. This study included 38 patients who were treated for facial defects created by resection of BCCs. The locations of the defects were as follows: nose (n = 17), orbital area (n = 14), cheek (n = 4), temple area (n = 2), and forehead (n = 1). The defects ranged in size from 3.3 to 6.5 cm. Functional and cosmetic outcomes, postoperative complications, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The patients were followed up for 12 to 36 months. The entire dermis graft re-epithelialized after grafting within 17 to 27 days. Most of the patients had satisfactory results in both functional and cosmetic matters with high-quality skin characteristics. There were no significant complications and no recurrences were observed during the follow-up period. Patient satisfaction with the dermis graft was also excellent. The dermis graft may be used reliably for covering defects after removal of BCCs on the face. PMID:23172436

  19. Basal forebrain projections to the lateral habenula modulate aggression reward.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sam A; Heshmati, Mitra; Flanigan, Meghan; Christoffel, Daniel J; Guise, Kevin; Pfau, Madeline L; Aleyasin, Hossein; Menard, Caroline; Zhang, Hongxing; Hodes, Georgia E; Bregman, Dana; Khibnik, Lena; Tai, Jonathan; Rebusi, Nicole; Krawitz, Brian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Walsh, Jessica J; Han, Ming-Hu; Shapiro, Matt L; Russo, Scott J

    2016-06-30

    Maladaptive aggressive behaviour is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and is thought to result partly from the inappropriate activation of brain reward systems in response to aggressive or violent social stimuli. Nuclei within the ventromedial hypothalamus, extended amygdala and limbic circuits are known to encode initiation of aggression; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms that directly modulate the motivational component of aggressive behaviour. Here we established a mouse model to measure the valence of aggressive inter-male social interaction with a smaller subordinate intruder as reinforcement for the development of conditioned place preference (CPP). Aggressors develop a CPP, whereas non-aggressors develop a conditioned place aversion to the intruder-paired context. Furthermore, we identify a functional GABAergic projection from the basal forebrain (BF) to the lateral habenula (lHb) that bi-directionally controls the valence of aggressive interactions. Circuit-specific silencing of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of aggressors with halorhodopsin (NpHR3.0) increases lHb neuronal firing and abolishes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Activation of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of non-aggressors with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) decreases lHb neuronal firing and promotes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Finally, we show that altering inhibitory transmission at BF-lHb terminals does not control the initiation of aggressive behaviour. These results demonstrate that the BF-lHb circuit has a critical role in regulating the valence of inter-male aggressive behaviour and provide novel mechanistic insight into the neural circuits modulating aggression reward processing. PMID:27357796

  20. Erosion and basal forces in granular flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extreme mass wasting avalanche events such as rock, snow and ice avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows are among the most hazardous geological phenomena. These events driven by gravity, can travel for long distance and high speed, increasing their volumes as they can entertain material along their path. The erosion of material and its entrainment can greatly affect the overall dynamics of transportation, either enhancing or impeding the avalanche mobility depending on flow dynamics and characteristics of the substrate. However, the mechanisms and processes acting at the base as they travel over deformable or erodible substrates are still poor understood. Experiments, simulations and field measurements indicate that large fluctuations can occur in basal forces and stresses, which may be the result of non-uniform load transfer within the mass, and rolling, bouncing and sliding of the particles along the bed. In dense granular materials, force distributions can propagate through filamentary chain structures that carry a large fraction of the forces within the system. Photoelastic experiments on two-dimensional, monodisperse, gravity-driven flows have shown that force chains can transmit high localized forces to the boundary of dense granular flows. Here we describe the preliminary setup and results of 2D experiments on polydisperse granular flows of photoelastic disks down a small flume designed to acquire the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow and to analyze their effects on an erodible bed. The intended outcome of this research is to provide better information on the complex mechanism of erosion and its effects on avalanche behaviour.

  1. Basal ganglia—thalamus and the “crowning enigma”

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Arbuthnott, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    When Hubel (1982) referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as “… a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come …” he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1), the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU) input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory (S1) cortex before focusing on motor cortex. PMID:26582979

  2. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A.R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D.R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A.L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M.Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L.B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ???3S to ???70N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr -1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Laboratory Study of the Frictional Properties of Simulated Basal ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, L.; Rempel, A.

    2006-12-01

    Sediment entrained in ice modifies the shear traction beneath warm-based glaciers. In an attempt to understand how entrained sediment affects the frictional behavior of melting ice against hard, impermeable substrates, we conducted a series of constant-velocity sliding experiments. We simulate basal ice by freezing sediment particles with controlled size distributions and concentrations into ice disks. Our sliding apparatus is driven by a motor coupled to a lead ball screw which displaces a carriage secured by two additional bearing rods. This design increases apparatus stiffness. The normal force was applied with a series of dead weights and the shear force was recorded with a gauge linked to the sliding carriage. The ratio of the measured shear force to the applied normal force produces an effective friction coefficient. Two regimes of frictional behavior are observed. The first, we call slippery, exhibits effective friction coefficients approaching zero and is indistinguishable from the debris free ice used as a control. The second, we call sandy, is indistinguishable from a sand block used as a control, has friction coefficients near 0.3, and high variability. Our results demonstrate that at higher particle loadings, the transition between these regimes occurs when the particle diameter approaches the thickness of the water layer between the ice and sliding surface. The thickness of the water layer is inferred from lubrication theory as a function of the melt rate and normal force, both measured experimental parameters. A similar transition from sandy to slippery with larger particle sizes is observed at low particle concentrations. This effect is likely related to the inability of the fluid above the particle to maintain a pressure gradient sufficient to transmit the imposed normal load to the particles and thus produce high effective friction coefficients.

  4. Vestigial prototroch in a basal nemertean, Carinoma tremaphoros (Nemertea; Palaeonemertea).

    PubMed

    Maslakova, S A; Martindale, M Q; Norenburg, J L

    2004-01-01

    Nemerteans have been alleged to belong to a protostome clade called the Trochozoa that includes mollusks, annelids, sipunculids, echiurids, and kamptozoans and is characterized by, among other things, the trochophore larva. The trochophore possesses a prototroch, a preoral belt of specialized ciliary cells, derived from the trochoblast cells. Nemertea is the only trochozoan phylum for which presence of the trochophore larva possessing a prototroch had never been shown. However, so little is known about nemertean larval development that comparing it with development of other trochozoans is difficult. Development in the nemertean clade Pilidiophora is via a highly specialized planktonic larva, the pilidium, and most of the larval body is lost during a drastic metamorphosis. Other nemerteans (hoplonemerteans and palaeonemerteans) lack a pilidium, and their development is direct, forming either an encapsulated or planktonic "planuliform" larva, producing a juvenile without a dramatic change in body plan. We show that early in the development of a member of a basal nemertean assemblage, the palaeonemertean Carinoma tremaphoros, large squamous cells cover the entire larval surface except for the apical and posterior regions. Although apical and posterior cells continue to divide, the large surface cells cleavage arrest and form a contorted preoral belt. Based on its position, cell lineage, and fate, we suggest that this belt corresponds to the prototroch of other trochozoans. Lack of differential ciliation obscures the presence of the prototroch in Carinoma, but differentiation of the trochoblasts is clearly manifested in their permanent cleavage arrest and ultimate degenerative fate. Our results allow a meaningful comparison between the development of nemerteans and other trochozoans. We review previous hypotheses of the evolution of nemertean development and suggest that a trochophore-like larva is plesiomorphic for nemerteans while a pilidium type of development with

  5. Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bendriem, B.; Dewey, S.L.; Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was {minus}0.7 (BG < Background). The RC was also affected by the size and the shape of the region of interest (ROI) used (RC from 0.75 to 0.67 with ROI size from 0.12 to 1.41 cm{sup 2}). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Laser ablation of basal cell carcinomas guided by confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Heidy; Cordova, Miguel; Nehal, Kishwer; Rossi, Anthony; Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Laser ablation offers precise and fast removal of superficial and early nodular types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Nevertheless, the lack of histological confirmation has been a limitation. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging combined with a contrast agent can offer cellular-level histology-like feedback to detect the presence (or absence) of residual BCC directly on the patient. We conducted an ex vivo bench-top study to provide a set of effective ablation parameters (fluence, number of passes) to remove superficial BCCs while also controlling thermal coagulation post-ablation to allow uptake of contrast agent. The results for an Er:YAG laser (2.9 um and pulse duration 250us) show that with 6 passes of 25 J/cm2, thermal coagulation can be effectively controlled, to allow both the uptake of acetic acid (contrast agent) and detection of residual (or absence) BCCs. Confirmation was provided with histological examination. An initial in vivo study on 35 patients shows that the uptake of contrast agent aluminum chloride) and imaging quality is similar to that observed in the ex vivo study. The detection of the presence of residual tumor or complete clearance was confirmed in 10 wounds with (additional) histology and in 25 lesions with follow-up imaging. Our results indicate that resolution is sufficient but further development and use of appropriate contrast agent are necessary to improve sensitivity and specificity. Advances in RCM technology for imaging of lateral and deep margins directly on the patient may provide less invasive, faster and less expensive image-guided approaches for treatment of BCCs.

  7. Basal melt beneath whillans ice stream and ice streams A and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joughin, I.; Teluezyk, S.; Engelhardt, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have used a recently derived map of the velocity of Whillans Ice Stream and Ice Streams A and C to help estimate basal melt. Temperature was modeled with a simple vertical advection-diffusion equation, 'tuned' to match temperature profiles. We find that most of the melt occurs beneath the tributaries where larger basal shear stresses and thicker ice favors greater melt (e.g., 10-20 mm/yr). The occurrence of basal freezing is predicted beneath much of the ice plains of Ice Stream C and Whillans Ice Stream. Modelled melt rates for when Ice Stream C was active suggest there was just enough melt water generated in its tributaries to balance basal freezing on its ice plain. Net basal melt for Whillans Ice Stream is positive due to smaller basal temperature gradients. Modelled temperatures on Whillans Ice Stream, however, were constrained by a single temperature profile at UpB. Basal temperature gradients for Whillans B1 and Ice Stream A may have conditions more similar to those beneath Ice Streams C and D, in which case, there may not be sufficient melt to sustain motion. This would be consistent with the steady deceleration of Whillans stream over the last few decades.

  8. Retrieving Ice Basal Motion Using the Hydrologically Coupled JPL/UCI Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakbaz, B.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.

    2011-12-01

    The study of basal sliding in ice sheets requires coupling ice-flow models with subglacial water flow. In fact, subglacial hydrology models can be used to model basal water-pressure explicitly and to generate basal sliding velocities. This study addresses the addition of a thin-film-based subglacial hydrologic module to the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) developed by JPL in collaboration with the University of California Irvine (UCI). The subglacial hydrology model follows the study of J. Johnson (2002) who assumed a non-arborscent distributed drainage system in the form of a thin film beneath ice sheets. The differential equation that arises from conservation of mass in the water system is solved numerically with the finite element method in order to obtain the spatial distribution of basal water over the study domain. The resulting sheet water thickness is then used to model the basal water-pressure and subsequently the basal sliding velocity. In this study, an introduction and preliminary results of the subglacial water flow and basal sliding velocity will be presented for the Pine Island Glacier west Antarctica.This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Modeling, Analysis and Prediction (MAP) Program.

  9. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-07-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:25981958

  10. Are the basal cells of the mammalian epididymis still an enigma?

    PubMed

    Arrighi, S

    2014-10-01

    Basal cells are present in the columnar pseudostratified epithelium covering the epididymis of all mammalian species, which regulates the microenvironment where the functionally incompetent germ cells produced by the testis are matured and stored. Striking novelties have come from investigations on epididymal basal cells in the past 30-40 years. In addition to an earlier hypothesised scavenger role for basal cells, linked to their proven extratubular origin and the expression of macrophage antigens, basal cells have been shown to be involved in cell-cell cross-talk, as well as functioning as luminal sensors to regulate the activity of principal and clear cells. Involvement of basal cells in the regulation of electrolyte and water transport by principal cells was hypothesised. This control is suggested to be mediated by the local formation of prostaglandins. Members of the aquaporin (AQP) and/or aquaglyceroporin family (AQP3, AQP7 and AQP8) are also specifically expressed in the rat epididymal basal cells. Transport of glycerol and glycerylphosphorylcholine from the epithelium of the epididymis to the lumen in relation to sperm maturation may be mediated by AQP. Most probably basal cells collaborate to the building up of the blood-epididymis barrier through cell adhesion molecules, implying an involvement in immune control exerted towards sperm cells, which are foreigners in the environment in which they were produced. PMID:24138802

  11. Ultrastructural observations on the basal lamina in the normal human breast.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R J; Eyden, B P; Howell, A; Sellwood, R A

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the basal lamina of histologically normal human breast tissue was determined in 19 women undergoing operations for removal of a fibroadenoma or reduction mammoplasty. The day of the menstrual cycle was determined by hormone assay and direct questioning. Previously documented ultrastructural appearances were confirmed: in addition, three morphological variants were found. In all tissue examined, there was reduplication of basal lamina in some areas, which has been described previously as a pathological feature. Also, there was complex branching of the basal lamina into the periductular connective tissue. Some projections contained cytoplasmic processes and, in almost all, hemidesmosomes were seen. The third variant consisted of loops of basal lamina thrown up in folds into the collagenous stromal cuff. Reduplication of basal lamina was detected in breast tissue removed at all stages of the menstrual cycle, looping was not and could not be related to any particular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, complex branching was seen predominantly in the periovulatory and early luteal phase. We conclude that these appearances are normal variants of basal lamina. The appearance of branching basal lamina in the luteal phase suggests that this may be produced in response to endocrine stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3417540

  12. Basal Forebrain Atrophy Contributes to Allocentric Navigation Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kerbler, Georg M.; Nedelska, Zuzana; Fripp, Jurgen; Laczó, Jan; Vyhnalek, Martin; Lisý, Jiří; Hamlin, Adam S.; Rose, Stephen; Hort, Jakub; Coulson, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain degenerates in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and this process is believed to contribute to the cognitive decline observed in AD patients. Impairment in spatial navigation is an early feature of the disease but whether basal forebrain dysfunction in AD is responsible for the impaired navigation skills of AD patients is not known. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between basal forebrain volume and performance in real space as well as computer-based navigation paradigms in an elderly cohort comprising cognitively normal controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and those with AD. We also tested whether basal forebrain volume could predict the participants’ ability to perform allocentric- vs. egocentric-based navigation tasks. The basal forebrain volume was calculated from 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and navigation skills were assessed using the human analog of the Morris water maze employing allocentric, egocentric, and mixed allo/egocentric real space as well as computerized tests. When considering the entire sample, we found that basal forebrain volume correlated with spatial accuracy in allocentric (cued) and mixed allo/egocentric navigation tasks but not the egocentric (uncued) task, demonstrating an important role of the basal forebrain in mediating cue-based spatial navigation capacity. Regression analysis revealed that, although hippocampal volume reflected navigation performance across the entire sample, basal forebrain volume contributed to mixed allo/egocentric navigation performance in the AD group, whereas hippocampal volume did not. This suggests that atrophy of the basal forebrain contributes to aspects of navigation impairment in AD that are independent of hippocampal atrophy. PMID:26441643

  13. The Basal Onaping Intrusion in the North Range: Roof rocks of the Sudbury Igneous Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Denise; Osinski, Gordon R.; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Brillinger, Derek T. M.

    2015-09-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact structure is one of the largest impact structures on Earth. Igneous bodies—the so-called "Basal Onaping Intrusion"—occur at the contact between the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) and the overlying Onaping Formation and occupy ~50% of this contact zone. The Basal Onaping Intrusion is presently considered part of the Onaping Formation, which is a complex series of breccias. Here, we present petrological and geochemical data from two drill cores and field data from the North Range of the Sudbury structure, which suggests that the Basal Onaping Intrusion is not part of the Onaping Formation. Our observations indicate that the Basal Onaping Intrusion crystallized from a melt and has a groundmass comprising a skeletal intergrowth of feldspar and quartz that points to simultaneous cooling of both components. Increasing grain size and decreasing amounts of clasts with increasing depth are general features of roof rocks of coherent impact melt rocks at other impact structures and the Basal Onaping Intrusion. Planar deformation features within quartz clasts of the Basal Onaping Intrusion are indicators for shock metamorphism and, together with the melt matrix, point to the Basal Onaping Intrusion as being an impact melt rock, by definition. Importantly, the contact between Granophyre of the SIC and Basal Onaping Intrusion is transitional and we suggest that the Basal Onaping Intrusion is what remains of the roof rocks of the SIC and, thus, is a unit of the SIC and not the Onaping Formation. We suggest henceforth that this unit be referred to as the "Upper Contact Unit" of the SIC.

  14. Basal Forebrain Atrophy Contributes to Allocentric Navigation Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Kerbler, Georg M; Nedelska, Zuzana; Fripp, Jurgen; Laczó, Jan; Vyhnalek, Martin; Lisý, Jiří; Hamlin, Adam S; Rose, Stephen; Hort, Jakub; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain degenerates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this process is believed to contribute to the cognitive decline observed in AD patients. Impairment in spatial navigation is an early feature of the disease but whether basal forebrain dysfunction in AD is responsible for the impaired navigation skills of AD patients is not known. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between basal forebrain volume and performance in real space as well as computer-based navigation paradigms in an elderly cohort comprising cognitively normal controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and those with AD. We also tested whether basal forebrain volume could predict the participants' ability to perform allocentric- vs. egocentric-based navigation tasks. The basal forebrain volume was calculated from 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and navigation skills were assessed using the human analog of the Morris water maze employing allocentric, egocentric, and mixed allo/egocentric real space as well as computerized tests. When considering the entire sample, we found that basal forebrain volume correlated with spatial accuracy in allocentric (cued) and mixed allo/egocentric navigation tasks but not the egocentric (uncued) task, demonstrating an important role of the basal forebrain in mediating cue-based spatial navigation capacity. Regression analysis revealed that, although hippocampal volume reflected navigation performance across the entire sample, basal forebrain volume contributed to mixed allo/egocentric navigation performance in the AD group, whereas hippocampal volume did not. This suggests that atrophy of the basal forebrain contributes to aspects of navigation impairment in AD that are independent of hippocampal atrophy. PMID:26441643

  15. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Victor A; Soltis, Douglas E; Carlson, John E; Farmerie, William G; Wall, P Kerr; Ilut, Daniel C; Solow, Teri M; Mueller, Lukas A; Landherr, Lena L; Hu, Yi; Buzgo, Matyas; Kim, Sangtae; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Frohlich, Michael W; Perl-Treves, Rafael; Schlarbaum, Scott E; Bliss, Barbara J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tanksley, Steven D; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2005-01-01

    Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04) generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i) proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii) many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii) phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage-specific gene duplication and

  16. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92%) to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%). Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However, myxospores could not be isolated

  17. [Basal cell carcinoma of prostate: a report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Ma, L L; Zhang, S D; Lu, M; Tian, Y; He, Q; Jin, J

    2016-02-18

    To explore the clinical pathological characteristics and improve the recognition in the diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of prostate. Three cases of BCC of prostate were reported and the relevant literature was reviewed to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. We analyzed three cases of prostatic BCC. Their ages were within a range of 57 to 83 years. One of them complained of hematuria and two complained of dysuria. All of them presented with prostatic hyperplasia. Two of them presented with high prostate specific antigen (PSA) and one with normal PSA. Case 1 had prostate cancer invasion of bladder, rectal fascia, with lymph node metastasis, bone metastasis and lung metastases. The patient received bladder resection+bilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy+lymph node dissection on November 2, 2014 . Postoperative pathological diagnosis showed BCC. Reexamination of pelvic enhanced MRI in January 8, 2015 suggested pelvic recurrence. Abdominal enhanced CT showed multiple liver metastases and pancreatic metastasis on July 11, 2015. Prostate cancer specific death occurred in October 2015. Case 2 was diagnosed as BCC in prostate biopsy on March 27, 2015. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) showed pulmonary metastasis and bone metastasis. Then the patient received chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and local radiation therapy. Reexamination of PET-CT on January 11, 2016 showed that the lung metastase tumors and bone metastase tumors were larger than before. Up to January 10, 2016, the patient was still alive. Postoperative pathological changes of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in case 3 showed BCC might be considered. The PET-CT suggested residual prostate cancer, which might be associated with bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. In April 20, 2016, the review of PET-CT showed pelvic huge irregular hybrid density shadow, about 14.5 cm×10.0 cm×12.9 cm in size, and tumor recurrence was

  18. The Basal Ganglia as a Substrate for the Multiple Actions of Amphetamines

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Reka; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs with high abuse potential. Acute and chronic doses of amphetamines affect dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei that are anatomically positioned to integrate cognitive, motor and sensorimotor inputs from the cortex. Amphetamines can differentially alter the functioning of specific BG circuits to produce neurochemical changes that affect cognition, movement, and drug seeking behavior through their effects on DA neurotransmission. This review focuses on how alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission within distinct basal ganglia pathways can modify their functional output to predict and explain the acute and long term behavioral consequences of amphetamine exposure. PMID:21804952

  19. PD-L1 Expression Is Increased in a Subset of Basal Type Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hatem; Khalil, Farah; Antonia, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor cells express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and is a key immune evasion mechanism. PD-L1 expression in multiple breast cancer cell lines was evaluated to identify intrinsic differences that affect their potential for immune evasion. Methods PD-L1 expression was analyzed in six breast cancer cell lines: AU565&MCF7 (luminal), BT20&HCC1143 (basal A), MDA231&HCC38 (basal B). Surface and intracellular PD-L1 expression +/− interferon γ for 48 hours was measured by flow cytometry. PD-L1 gene expression data for all breast cancer cell lines in the Comprehensive Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) was analyzed. Correlation between PD-L1 levels and clinicopathologic parameters was analyzed within Oncomine datasets. A tissue microarray containing 61 invasive breast cancer primary tumor cores was stained for PD-L1 expression and analyzed. Results Basal breast cancer cells constitutively express the highest levels of PD-L1. All cell lines increased PD-L1 expression with interferon γ, but basal B cells (MDA-231 and HCC38) demonstrated the largest increases. There were no differences in protein localization between cell lines. In the CCLE data, basal cell lines demonstrated higher mean PD-L1 expression compared to luminal cell lines. High PD-L1 expressing basal cell lines over-express genes involved in invasion, proliferation, and chemoresistance compared to low PD-L1 basal cell lines. High PD-L1 basal cell lines had lower expression of IRF2BP2 and higher STAT1 levels compared to low PD-L1 expressing cell lines. Within Oncomine datasets PDL1 mRNA levels were higher in basal type tumors. The TMA analysis demonstrated that lymph node positive cases had higher levels of PD-L1 protein expression compared to lymph node negative cases. Conclusions Basal type breast cancer (especially basal B) express greater levels of PD-L1 constitutively and with IFN γ. High PD-L1 basal cells over-express genes involved in invasion, motility, and chemoresistance. Targeting PD-L1

  20. Basal buoyancy and fast-moving glaciers: in defense of analytic force balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric approach to force balance advocated by T. Hughes in a series of publications has challenged the analytic approach by implying that the latter does not adequately account for basal buoyancy on ice streams, thereby neglecting the contribution to the gravitational driving force associated with this basal buoyancy. Application of the geometric approach to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, yields physically unrealistic results, and it is argued that this is because of a key limiting assumption in the geometric approach. A more traditional analytic treatment of force balance shows that basal buoyancy does not affect the balance of forces on ice streams, except locally perhaps, through bridging effects.

  1. Reversible Acute Parkinsonism and Bilateral Basal Ganglia Lesions in a Diabetic Uremic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Sá, Francisca; Capela, Carlos; Ferreira, Fátima; Basílio, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The syndrome of bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uremic patients is a rare disorder mostly reported in Asians. There are few reports of the syndrome in Caucasians. It manifests as an acute hyperkinetic or hypokinetic extrapyramidal disorder in association with uniform neuroimaging findings of bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia changes in diabetics undergoing hemodialysis. Its pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Thus, we report a typical case of the syndrome in a Caucasian patient who developed an acute and reversible akinetic rigid parkinsonism secondary to bilateral basal ganglia lesions. PMID:23185167

  2. Heat-transfer analysis of the basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Minale, M.; Astarita, G.

    1993-12-01

    Basal melting of Antarctic ice shelves is an important element in the overall balance of Antarctic ice. A heat-transfer model for the basal melting of the Drygalski Ice Tongue is presented. The model does not contain any adjustable parameter. The calculated basal melting rate agrees very well with the value estimated from an overall ice balance on the ice tongue. It is concluded that relatively simple concepts of transport phenomena may be used to model some important features of the dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheet.

  3. Comparison of computer-integrated patient-controlled epidural analgesia with no initial basal infusion versus moderate basal infusion for labor and delivery: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sng, Ban Leong; Woo, David; Leong, Wan Ling; Wang, Hao; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Sia, Alex TH

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Computer-integrated patient-controlled epidural analgesia (CIPCEA) is a novel epidural drug delivery system. It automatically adjusts the basal infusion based on the individual's need for analgesia as labor progresses. Materials and Methods: This study compared the time-weighted local anesthetic (LA) consumption by comparing parturients using CIPCEA with no initial basal infusion (CIPCEA0) with CIPCEA with initial moderate basal infusion of 5 ml/H (CIPCEA5). We recruited 76 subjects after ethics approval. The computer integration of CIPCEA titrate the basal infusion to 5, 10, 15, or 20 ml/H if the parturient required respectively, one, two, three, or four patient demands in the previous hour. The basal infusion reduced by 5 ml/H if there was no demand in the previous hour. The sample size was calculated to show equivalence in LA consumption. Results: The time-weighted LA consumption between both groups were similar with CIPCEA0 group (mean [standard deviation (SD)] 8.9 [3.5] mg/H) compared to the CIPCEA5 group (mean [SD] 9.9 [3.5] mg/H), P = 0.080. Both groups had a similar incidence of breakthrough pain, duration of the second stage, mode of delivery, and patient satisfaction. However, more subjects in the CIPCEA0 group required patient self-bolus. There were no differences in fetal outcomes. Discussion: Both CIPCEA regimens had similar time-weighted LA consumption and initial moderate basal infusion with CIPCEA may not be required. PMID:25425774

  4. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity. PMID:16505803

  5. Estimating basal friction in accretionary wedges from the geometry and spacing of frontal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Bertram; Koyi, Hemin A.

    2001-12-01

    Elastic theory applied to the deformation in accretionary wedges is used to calculate the condition for slip along an active frontal fault and the basal décollement. The equations for calculating the stresses can be solved for the coefficient of basal friction in the situation of the formation of a new frontal thrust fault. This allows us to calculate the efficient coefficient of basal friction, which includes the weakening effect of pore-fluid pressure, from geometric parameters and material properties only. The geometric parameters, like fault dip and layer thickness, can be derived from high-resolution seismic cross-sections. Application of our analysis to the Makran and the Nankai accretionary wedge allows us to estimate the upper limit of the effective coefficient of basal friction, μb≈0.16 and μb≈0.2, in these two areas respectively.

  6. Bilateral Traumatic Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage Associated With Epidural Hematoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Calderon-Miranda, Willem Guillermo; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; M. Rubiano, Andres; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is a rare condition defined as presence of hemorrhagic lesions in basal ganglia or adjacent structures suchas internal capsule, putamen and thalamus. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma are among the devastating and rare condition. We herein report a 28-year old man, a victim of car-car accident who was brought to our surgical emergency room by immediate loss of consciousness and was diagnosed to have hyperdense lesion in the basal ganglia bilaterally, with the presence of right parietal epidural hematoma. Craniotomy and epidural hematoma drainage were considered, associated to conservative management of gangliobasal traumatic contusions. On day 7 the patient had sudden neurologic deterioration, cardiac arrest unresponsive to resuscitation. Management of these lesions is similar to any other injury in moderate to severe traumatic injury. The use of intracranial pressure monitoring must be guaranteed. PMID:27162882

  7. Bilateral Traumatic Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage Associated With Epidural Hematoma: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Miranda, Willem Guillermo; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; M Rubiano, Andres; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-07-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is a rare condition defined as presence of hemorrhagic lesions in basal ganglia or adjacent structures suchas internal capsule, putamen and thalamus. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma are among the devastating and rare condition. We herein report a 28-year old man, a victim of car-car accident who was brought to our surgical emergency room by immediate loss of consciousness and was diagnosed to have hyperdense lesion in the basal ganglia bilaterally, with the presence of right parietal epidural hematoma. Craniotomy and epidural hematoma drainage were considered, associated to conservative management of gangliobasal traumatic contusions. On day 7 the patient had sudden neurologic deterioration, cardiac arrest unresponsive to resuscitation. Management of these lesions is similar to any other injury in moderate to severe traumatic injury. The use of intracranial pressure monitoring must be guaranteed. PMID:27162882

  8. Imaging of basal cell carcinoma tissue using en-face OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penmetsa, Bhanu Rakesh; Khandwala, Mona; Bradu, Adrian; Hughes, Michael; Jones, Carole A.; Schofield, John; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-09-01

    We have investigated the applicability of en-face OCT in imaging freshly excised biopsies of Basal Cell Carcinoma. Encouraging results have been obtained in identifying tumor features and abnormal skin architecture.

  9. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  10. Anatomy of a songbird basal ganglia circuit essential for vocal learning and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Samuel D.; Perkel, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Vocal learning in songbirds requires an anatomically discrete and functionally dedicated circuit called the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP). The AFP is homologous to cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops in mammals. The basal ganglia portion of this pathway, Area X, shares many features characteristic of the mammalian striatum and pallidum, including cell-types and connectivity. The AFP also deviates from mammalian basal ganglia circuits in fundamental ways. In addition, the microcircuitry, role of neuromodulators, and function of Area X are still unclear. Elucidating the mechanisms by which both mammalian-like and unique features of the AFP contribute to vocal learning may help lead to a broad understanding of the sensorimotor functions of basal ganglia circuits. PMID:19596062

  11. Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Watson, Julie K; Rulands, Steffen; Wilkinson, Adam C; Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Göttgens, Berthold; Blanpain, Cédric; Simons, Benjamin D; Rawlins, Emma L

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial lineages have been studied at cellular resolution in multiple organs that turn over rapidly. However, many epithelia, including those of the lung, liver, pancreas, and prostate, turn over slowly and may be regulated differently. We investigated the mouse tracheal epithelial lineage at homeostasis by using long-term clonal analysis and mathematical modeling. This pseudostratified epithelium contains basal cells and secretory and multiciliated luminal cells. Our analysis revealed that basal cells are heterogeneous, comprising approximately equal numbers of multipotent stem cells and committed precursors, which persist in the basal layer for 11 days before differentiating to luminal fate. We confirmed the molecular and functional differences within the basal population by using single-cell qRT-PCR and further lineage labeling. Additionally, we show that self-renewal of short-lived secretory cells is a feature of homeostasis. We have thus revealed early luminal commitment of cells that are morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells. PMID:26119728

  12. ATG12–ATG3 connects basal autophagy and late endosome function

    PubMed Central

    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    In addition to supporting cell survival in response to starvation or stress, autophagy promotes basal protein and organelle turnover. Compared to our understanding of stress-induced autophagy, little is known about how basal autophagy is regulated and how its activity is coordinated with other cellular processes. We recently identified a novel interaction between the ATG12–ATG3 conjugate and the ESCRT-associated protein PDCD6IP/Alix that promotes basal autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Moreover, ATG12–ATG3 is required for diverse PDCD6IP-mediated functions including late endosome distribution, exosome secretion, and viral budding. Our results highlight the importance of late endosomes for basal autophagic flux and reveal distinct roles for the core autophagy proteins ATG12 and ATG3 in controlling late endosome function. PMID:25998418

  13. Cytokine effects on the basal ganglia and dopamine function: the subcortical source of inflammatory malaise.

    PubMed

    Felger, Jennifer C; Miller, Andrew H

    2012-08-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

  14. Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells.

    PubMed

    Mou, Hongmei; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Tata, Purushothama Rao; Brazauskas, Karissa; Choi, Soon H; Crooke, Adrianne K; Zhang, Bing; Solomon, George M; Turner, Brett; Bihler, Hermann; Harrington, Jan; Lapey, Allen; Channick, Colleen; Keyes, Colleen; Freund, Adam; Artandi, Steven; Mense, Martin; Rowe, Steven; Engelhardt, John F; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2016-08-01

    Functional modeling of many adult epithelia is limited by the difficulty in maintaining relevant stem cell populations in culture. Here, we show that dual inhibition of SMAD signaling pathways enables robust expansion of primary epithelial basal cell populations. We find that TGFβ/BMP/SMAD pathway signaling is strongly activated in luminal and suprabasal cells of several epithelia, but suppressed in p63+ basal cells. In airway epithelium, SMAD signaling promotes differentiation, and its inhibition leads to stem cell hyperplasia. Using dual SMAD signaling inhibition in a feeder-free culture system, we have been able to expand airway basal stem cells from multiple species. Expanded cells can produce functional airway epithelium physiologically responsive to clinically relevant drugs, such as CFTR modulators. This approach is effective for the clonal expansion of single human cells and for basal cell populations from epithelial tissues from all three germ layers and therefore may be broadly applicable for modeling of epithelia. PMID:27320041

  15. Basal foot MTOC organizes pillar MTs required for coordination of beating cilia

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Daniel K.; Magescas, Jérémy; Piolot, Tristan; Dumoux, Maud; Vesque, Christine; Pichard, Evelyne; Dang, Tien; Duvauchelle, Boris; Poirier, Françoise; Delacour, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Coordination of ciliary beating is essential to ensure mucus clearance in the airway tract. The orientation and synchronization of ciliary motion responds in part to the organization of the underlying cytoskeletal networks. Using electron tomography on mouse trachea, we show that basal bodies are collectively hooked at the cortex by a regular microtubule array composed of 4-5 microtubules. Removal of Galectin-3, one of basal body components, provokes misrecruitment of γ-tubulin, disorganization of this microtubule framework emanating from the basal foot cap, together with loss of basal body alignment and cilium orientation, defects in cilium organization and reduced fluid flow in the tracheal lumen. We conclude that Galectin-3 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the microtubule organizing center of the cilium and the “pillar” microtubules, and that this network is instrumental for the coordinated orientation and stabilization of motile cilia. PMID:25215410

  16. Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise

    PubMed Central

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Miller, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described. This multiplicity of changes in the basal ganglia and dopamine function suggest fundamental effects of inflammatory cytokines on dopamine synthesis, packaging, release and/or reuptake, which may sabotage and circumvent the efficacy of current treatment approaches. Thus, examination of the mechanisms by which cytokines alter the basal ganglia and dopamine function will yield novel insights into the treatment of cytokine-induced behavioral changes and inflammatory malaise. PMID:23000204

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review of Existing and Emerging Nonsurgical Therapies.

    PubMed

    Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  18. Disturbed basal ice seen in radio echo images coincide with zones of big interlocking ice crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Panton, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Improvement of the depth sounding radio echo sounding (RES) over Antarctica and Greenland Ice Sheet has made it possible to map the near basal layers that have not been 'seen' earlier due to the very high demand of attenuation needed to reach through more than 3000m of ice. The RES internal reflectors show that the near basal ice at many locations has disturbed layering. At the locations where ice cores reach the bedrock both in Greenland and Antarctica studies of the ice crystal size and orientation show that the near basal ice has big and interlocking ice crystals which suggests the ice is not actively deforming. These observations challenge the often used constitutive equations like Glens flow law in ice sheet modelling. A discussion of the impact of the RES findings on ice sheet modeling and the quest to find the oldest ice in Antarctic based on the anisotropy of the basal ice will follow.

  19. Basal Ganglia Subcircuits Distinctively Encode the Parsing and Concatenation of Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral sequence at the neural level. Using a task where mice learn rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire sequences as single actions in basal ganglia circuits. Besides start/stop activity signaling sequence parsing, we found neurons displaying inhibited or sustained activity throughout the execution of an entire sequence. This sustained activity covaried with the rate of execution of individual sequence elements, consistent with motor concatenation. Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia were concomitantly active during sequence initiation, but behaved differently during sequence performance, revealing a more complex functional organization of these circuits than previously postulated. These results have important implications for understanding the functional organization of basal ganglia during the learning and execution of action sequences. PMID:24464039

  20. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  1. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  2. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Thomas; Sapart, Celia Julia; Popp, Trevor; El Amri, Saïda; Tison, Jean-louis

    2015-04-01

    Basal ice is a common expression to describe debris-laden ice layers found close to the ice-bedrock interface under glaciers and ice sheets. The study of basal ice properties provides us with the unique opportunity of improving our understanding of subglacial environments and processes and refine ice sheet behaviour modelling. Here, we present and discuss the results of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD), ice fabrics, debris weight and gas content of the basal part of the NEEM (North Eemian Ice Drilling Program) ice core. Below 2533.85 m deep, almost 10 m of basal debris-rich material were retrieved from the borehole. The situation at NEEM is different from the previously well-documented GRIP core where the basal ice corresponds to pre ice sheet ice overridden by the growing ice sheet. At NEEM, the basal debris-rich material presents δ18O values from -39.89 to -34.36 permil within the range of the above last 300 m of meteoric ice from -44.86 to -30.59 permil. The sequence is however composed of an alternation of three visually contrasting types of ice : clear ice with specks of particulate inclusions, stratified debris-rich layers, and ice containing dispersed debris. Using water stable isotopes (δ18O and δ D) signatures, each of these ice types are discriminated and clues are given for their conditions of formation and transformation processes. The proposed interpretation is then refined in the light of the other available parameters. While clear basal ice with specks corresponds to altered meteoric glacial ice, stratified debris-rich layer and ice containing dispersed debris present a melting/refreezing signature, somewhat blurred by mixing processes. Based on the identified origins of the different ice types, the present study proposes a first interpretative framework for the build-up of the NEEM basal ice sequence.

  3. The basal ganglia within a cognitive system in birds and mammals.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Christopher I; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-12-01

    The primate basal ganglia are fundamental to Ackermann et al.'s proposal. However, primates and rodents are models for human cognitive functions involving basal ganglia circuits, and links between striatal function and vocal communication come from songbirds. We suggest that the proposal is better integrated in cognitive and/or motor theories on spoken language origins and with more analogous nonhuman animal models. PMID:25514958

  4. Sequential development of apical-basal and planar polarities in aggregating epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra.

    PubMed

    Seybold, Anna; Salvenmoser, Willi; Hobmayer, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Apical-basal and planar cell polarities are hallmarks of metazoan epithelia required to separate internal and external environments and to regulate trans- and intracellular transport, cytoskeletal organization, and morphogenesis. Mechanisms of cell polarization have been intensively studied in bilaterian model organisms, particularly in early embryos and cultured cells, while cell polarity in pre-bilaterian tissues is poorly understood. Here, we have studied apical-basal and planar polarization in regenerating (aggregating) clusters of epitheliomuscular cells of Hydra, a simple representative of the ancestral, pre-bilaterian phylum Cnidaria. Immediately after dissociation, single epitheliomuscular cells do not exhibit cellular polarity, but they polarize de novo during aggregation. Reestablishment of the Hydra-specific epithelial bilayer is a result of short-range cell sorting. In the early phase of aggregation, apical-basal polarization starts with an enlargement of the epithelial apical-basal diameter and by the development of belt-like apical septate junctions. Specification of the basal pole of epithelial cells occurs shortly later and is linked to synthesis of mesoglea, development of hemidesmosome-like junctions, and formation of desmosome-like junctions connecting the basal myonemes of neighbouring cells. Planar polarization starts, while apical-basal polarization is already ongoing. It is executed gradually starting with cell-autonomous formation, parallelization, and condensation of myonemes at the basal end of each epithelial cell and continuing with a final planar alignment of epitheliomuscular cells at the tissue level. Our findings reveal that epithelial polarization in Hydra aggregates occurs in defined steps well accessible by histological and ultrastructural techniques and they will provide a basis for future molecular studies. PMID:26921448

  5. Successful imiquimod treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, Mirjam; Urosevic, Mirjana; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Dummer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who developed five basal cell carcinomas 23 years after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease. In 1980 he received radiation therapy twice. Due to relapses, he was treated with aggressive polychemotherapy and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, which then led to complete remission. Until now he is in complete remission. However, multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas have developed on irradiation fields that have been successfully treated by imiquimod. PMID:15701596

  6. Identification of Microdochium bolleyi Associated with Basal Rot of Creeping Bent Grass in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Choi, Hyo Weon; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of basal rot occurred sporadically on creeping bent grasses growing at a golf course in Hampyeong, Korea in April 2007. Ten isolates of Microdochium sp. were obtained from leaves and crowns of the diseased bent grasses. All isolates were identified as Microdochium bolleyi based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report on M. bolleyi associated with basal rot on creeping bent grass in Korea. PMID:23990737

  7. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  8. Origin and characteristics of the Mars north polar basal unit and implications for polar geologic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E.; Head, James W.

    2005-04-01

    Building upon previous studies, we have used Mars Orbiter Camera and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data to characterize in detail the newly discovered north polar basal unit. Lying stratigraphically between the polar layered deposits, from which it is likely separated by an unconformity, and the Vastitas Borealis Formation, this unit has introduced new complexity into north polar stratigraphy and has important implications for polar history. Exposures of the basal unit in Olympia Planitia and Chasma Boreale reveal relatively dark layers which exhibit differential erosion. Eroded primarily by wind, the basal unit may be the major if not sole source for the north polar dunes and ergs and has contributed material to the lower polar cap layers. We investigate four possible origins for the basal unit (outflow channel/oceanic deposits, basal ice, paleopolar deposits, and eolian deposits). The patchy layering within the unit, its likely sandy grain size, and presence only in the north polar basin suggest that it is primarily an eolian deposit, supporting Byrne and Murray's 2002 earlier conclusion. This implies that at some time during the Early to Late Amazonian, migrating sand was mixed with water ice, forming a relatively dark, sandy deposit. During this time, either no classic polar layered deposits were forming or smaller caps were growing and shrinking, possibly adding material to the basal unit.

  9. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks. PMID:26956115

  10. Low level of basal testosterone: a significant risk factor for poor oocyte yield after ovulation induction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Qingxue; Li, Yu; Wang, Wenjun; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to further investigate the association of low androgen levels and poor ovarian response or negative pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilisation treatment using a retrospective cohort study. Chinese women (n=1950) of relatively young age, with normal range of basal FSH and antral follicle count undergoing an in vitro fertilisation cycle were selected and testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were measured on Day 3 of the menstrual cycle before subsequent in vitro fertilisation treatment. The main outcome measures of the study were ovarian stimulation parameters and clinical pregnancy. Basal testosterone levels of poor responders and non-pregnant women were significantly lower than normal responders and pregnant women, respectively. Patients with low basal testosterone levels had significantly lower number of mature oocytes, cleavage-stage embryos, frozen embryos, lower fertilisation and pregnancy rates and required higher doses of gonadotrophins. Androgen levels had no correlation with early spontaneous abortion rates. Multivariable logistic analysis revealed that low basal testosterone (<0.88nmolL(-1)) was an independent risk factor for poor oocyte yield (odds ratio: 1.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.57; P=0.045). In conclusion, a low level of basal testosterone was a significant risk factor for poor oocyte yield after ovarian stimulation and might negatively influence pregnancy chances with in vitro fertilisation. Basal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were not predictive for poor ovarian response or negative pregnancy outcome in this population. PMID:25023952

  11. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Profile of genetic and environmental factors in oncogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.B.

    1984-07-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinomas (NBCCs) are a prototype of a genetic form of basal cell carcinoma. These basal cell cancers, rather than being caused by genetic factors alone, are most likely the product of genetic and environmental factors. The NBCC syndrome provides a model for studying tumors induced by ionizing radiation and for viewing carcinogenesis as a multistage process explainable by a minimum of two steps. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors in producing tumors to which an individual is predisposed can be studied in patients with the NBCC syndrome and childhood medulloblastoma that was treated by radiation therapy. Individuals with the NBCC syndrome represent a special subgroup with a hereditary predisposition to basal cell carcinoma in whom ionizing radiation may supply the subsequent mutation necessary for tumor development. The genetically altered epidermis underlying the palm and sole pits found in patients with the syndrome represents basal cell carcinoma in situ from which basal cell carcinomas develop, albeit infrequently. The restrained biologic behavior of most of these tumors contrasts with the usual destructive behavior of the NBCCs of the head and neck in the same patient.

  12. NIMA-related kinase TbNRKC is involved in basal body separation in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Pradel, Lydie C; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Landrein, Nicolas; Robinson, Derrick R

    2006-05-01

    The NIMA-related kinase 2 (NEK 2) has important cell cycle functions related to centriole integrity and splitting. Trypanosoma brucei does not possess centrioles, however, cytokinesis is coupled to basal body separation events. Here we report the first functional characterisation of a T. brucei basal body-cytoskeletal NIMA-related kinase (NRK) protein, TbNRKC. The TbNRKC kinase domain has high amino acid identity with the human NEK1 kinase domain (50%) but also shares 42% identity with human NEK2. TbNRKC is expressed in bloodstream and procyclic cells and functions as a bona fide kinase in vitro. Remarkably, RNAi knockdown of TbNRKC and overexpression of kinase-dead TbNRKC in procyclic forms induces the accumulation of cells with four basal bodies, whereas overexpression of active protein produces supernumary basal bodies and blocks cytokinesis. TbNRKC is located on mature and immature basal bodies and is the first T. brucei NRK to be found associated with the basal body cytokinesis pathway. PMID:16608878

  13. Basal Lamina Scaffold-Anatomy and Significance for Maintenance of Orderly Tissue Structure

    PubMed Central

    Vracko, Rudolf

    1974-01-01

    The basal lamina is an extracellular scaffold positioned between parenchymal cells and connective tissue. Parenchymal cells attach to one of its surfaces and the other is anchored to connective tissue. By its presence it defines the spatial relationships among similar and dissimilar types of cells and between these cells and the space occupied by connective and supportive tissues. Replenishment of cells which have died during normal functioning or have become damaged in course of injury occurs with new cells in an orderly way along the framework of the basal lamina scaffold. This process appears to be aided by the polarity of the basal lamina and by an apparent specificity for cell types, and it enables multicellular organisms to reconstitute histologic structures of most tissues and organs to what they were prior to loss of cells. If the basal lamina is destroyed, the healing in most tissues results in formation of scar and loss of function. The properties of the basal lamina concerned with maintenance of histologic order in organs and tissues offer new ways to interpret the pathogenesis of several common disorders, including emphysema, scars, adhesions, cirrhosis of liver and excessive accumulation of basal lamina material as, for example, it occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 1Fig 2Fig 8 PMID:4614671

  14. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, Prasad S.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M .J.; Paden, John D; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state.

  15. The Basal NPO crh Fluctuation is Sustained Under Compromised Glucocorticoid Signaling in Diurnal Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min

    2015-01-01

    The circadian activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis is crucial for maintaining vertebrate homeostasis. In mammals, both the principle regulator, corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the final effector, the glucocorticoids show daily rhythmic patterns. While glucocorticoids are the main negative regulator of PVN crh under stress, whether they modulate the PVN crh rhythm under basal condition is unclear in diurnal animals. Using zebrafish larvae, a recently-established diurnal model organism suited for the HPA/I axis and homeostasis research, we ask if glucocorticoid changes are required to maintain the daily variation of PVN crh. We first characterized the development of the HPI axis overtime and showed that the basal activity of the HPI axis is robust and tightly regulated by circadian cue in 6-day old larvae. We demonstrated a negative correlation between the basal cortisol and neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO) crh variations. To test if cortisol drives NPO crh variation, we analyzed the NPO crh levels in glucorcorticoid antagonist-treated larvae and mutants lacking circadian cortisol variations. We showed that NPO crh basal fluctuation is sustained although the level was decreased without proper cortisol signaling in zebrafish. Our data indicates that glucocorticoids do not modulate the basal NPO crh variations but may be required for maintaining overall NPO crh levels. This further suggests that under basal and stress conditions the HPA/I axis activity is modulated differently by glucocorticoids. PMID:26696807

  16. Lesions of the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System in Mice Disrupt Idiothetic Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Adam S.; Windels, Francois; Boskovic, Zoran; Sah, Pankaj; Coulson, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer’s disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer’s disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic) or uncued (idiothetic) recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze), and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23320088

  17. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior. PMID:27372205

  18. Localization and Function of GABA Transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-Tao; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Smith, Yoland

    2011-01-01

    GABA transporter type 1 and 3 (GAT-1 and GAT-3, respectively) are the two main subtypes of GATs responsible for the regulation of extracellular GABA levels in the central nervous system. These transporters are widely expressed in neuronal (mainly GAT-1) and glial (mainly GAT-3) elements throughout the brain, but most data obtained so far relate to their role in the regulation of GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic tonic and phasic inhibition in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Taking into consideration the key role of GABAergic transmission within basal ganglia networks, and the importance for these systems to be properly balanced to mediate normal basal ganglia function, we analyzed in detail the localization and function of GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the globus pallidus of normal and Parkinsonian animals, in order to further understand the substrate and possible mechanisms by which GABA transporters may regulate basal ganglia outflow, and may become relevant targets for new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of basal ganglia-related disorders. In this review, we describe the general features of GATs in the basal ganglia, and give a detailed account of recent evidence that GAT-1 and GAT-3 regulation can have a major impact on the firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons through pre- and post-synaptic GABAA- and GABAB-receptor-mediated effects. PMID:21847373

  19. New Basal Iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and the Evolution of Thumb-Spiked Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Andrew T.; Kirkland, James I.; DeBlieux, Donald D.; Madsen, Scott K.; Cavin, Jennifer; Milner, Andrew R. C.; Panzarin, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Background Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. Conclusions/Significance Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia. PMID:21124919

  20. Simulating feedback cycles induced by basal water in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of liquid water at the base of an ice sheet is believed to be a crucial component in its dynamic evolution. If temperatures at the base locally reach the pressure melting point, basal melt water lubricates the base and thus supports basal sliding. Faster basal sliding in turn reduces internal deformation and thus the internal heat production due to strain heating. If this loss of strain heating is not counterbalanced by frictional heat due to sliding or the advection of warm ice, the base of the ice will freeze to the bedrock again. Thus the presence of liquid water can lead to a cooling and a subsequent stagnation of fast ice flow, posing a negative feedback cycle. In addition, strain heating within a temperate ice layer generates a liquid water fraction in the ice, leading to a softer material and enhanced deformation. If the horizontal or vertical advection of cold ice to the base is weak, this will lead to a positive feedback. These feedback cycles are studied along numerical simulations of the present day ice flow in the area of the western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, including the adjacent Brunt and Riiser- Larsen ice shelves. To investigate the influence of basal water on basal sliding and ice rheology we use the three-dimensional thermo-coupled full-Stokes model TIM-FD3 on a 2.5 km horizontal grid. We use the enthalpy gradient method to compute the thermal evolution, including the microscopic water content, in temperate ice areas. Three different flux routing algorithms for the subglacial melt water and a modified Weertman-type sliding relation are implemented in the model to account for higher sliding velocities under wet basal conditions. We present our analysis of the involved feedback mechanisms between sliding, ice deformation, temperature and rheology, which are related to the occurrence of basal water.

  1. Radar-Inference of the Basal Properties and Englacial Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, J. L.; Jordan, T.; Williams, C.; Paden, J. D.; Siegert, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the basal properties (primarily the presence of basal melting, and bed roughness) are important for defining the lower boundary condition for thermomechanical models of ice sheets. Additionally, constraining the englacial temperature provides a test of the steady state solution of such models. Whilst direct measurements of the basal properties and temperature can only be made at a limited number of borehole sights, radio echo sounding provides a means to infer the spatial distribution of both throughout entire ice sheets. The radar-inference of basal melt is possible due to a wet basal interface having a ~10-15 decibel higher reflection coefficient than an ice-bedrock interface, and the radar-inference of englacial temperature is possible due to there being an exponential Arrhenius relationship with the radar attenuation rate. In our study we use ~10 years of radio echo sounding data to map the spatial distribution of basal melt and depth-averaged temperature for the Greenland ice sheet. A necessary precursor to our investigation has been the development of a refined algorithm to infer the radar attention rate using the variation in bed-returned power with ice thickness. The algorithm is conditioned using a prior Arrhenius model calculation of the attenuation rate, and enables sample regions to be selected that are not significantly biased by an inhomogeneous bed. We demonstrate that, for the first time, this algorithm approaches the necessary accuracy to distinguish basal melt directly, with the uncertainty for the radar-inferred attenuation loss less than the decibel separation in reflection coefficients for wet and dry beds. We further cross-validate our method by using the radar-inferred attenuation loss as a constraint to predict the spatial distribution of geothermal heat flux, and to reconstruct temperature profiles that are closer to borehole measurements than zeroth order thermomechanical ice sheet models.

  2. Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

    2015-01-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

  3. The effect of basal friction on melting and freezing in ice shelf-ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyther, David E.; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin K.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Roberts, Jason L.; Hunter, John R.

    2015-11-01

    The ocean is an important control on the mass budget of the Antarctic ice sheet, through basal melting and refreezing underneath the floating extensions of the ice sheet known as ice shelves. The effect of the ice surface roughness (basal roughness) on melting and refreezing is investigated with idealised ice shelf-ocean numerical simulations. Both "hot" ocean forcing (e.g. Pine Island Glacier; high basal melting) and "cold" ocean forcing (e.g. Amery Ice Shelf; low basal melting, stronger refreezing) environments are investigated. The interaction between the ocean and ice shelf is further explored by examining the contributions to melt from heat exchange across the ice-ocean interface and across the boundary layer-ocean interior, with a varying drag coefficient. Simulations show increasing drag strengthens melting. Refreezing increases with drag in the cold cavity environment, while in the hot cavity environment, refreezing is small in areal extent and decreases with drag. Furthermore, melting will likely be focussed where there are strong boundary layer currents, rather than at the deep grounding line. The magnitude of the thermal driving of the basal melt decreases with increasing drag, except for in cold cavity refreeze zones where it increases. The friction velocity, a function of the upper layer ocean velocity and the drag coefficient, monotonically increases with drag. We find friction-driven mixing into the boundary layer is important for representing the magnitude and distribution of refreezing and without this effect, refreezing is underestimated. Including a spatially- and temporally-varying basal roughness (that includes a more realistic, rougher refreezing drag coefficient) alters circulation patterns and heat and salt transport. This leads to increased refreezing, altered melt magnitude and distribution, and a pattern of altered vertical flow across the entire ice shelf. These results represent a summary of melting and freezing beneath ice shelves and

  4. Influence of montmorillonites exchange capacity on the basal spacing of cation–anion organo-montmorillonites

    SciTech Connect

    Sanqin, Wu; Zepeng, Zhang; Yunhua, Wang; Libing, Liao; Jiansheng, Zhang

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: This picture shows the distribution of organic modifier (CTAB and SDS) in Mt interlayer and the basal spacing changes of Mt modified by CTAB and SDS. Organic modifier molecule in Mt interlayer is more and more orderly. The basal spacing of Mt is from 1.5 nm to 5 nm as modifier added. - Highlights: • The d{sub 001} of Ca-Mt, R-Na-Mt, Na-Mt modified by CTAB and SDS can reach 5 nm. • It is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater d{sub 001} if CEC is lower. • The organic molecules distribution in cation–anion OMt was analyzed. • The influence mechanism of Ca-Mt CEC on the d{sub 001} was discussed. - Abstract: With cationic and anionic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as modifiers, Ca-montmorillonites (Ca-Mt), artificial Na-montmorillonites (R-Na-Mt) and natural Na-montmorillonites (Na-Mt) with different cation exchange capacity (CEC) were modified by solution intercalation method, respectively. Then cation–anion organo-montmorillonites (OMt) were prepared. The influence of CEC on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt and the influence mechanism were discussed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential testing. The results indicate that the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt is related to CEC. For the same type montmorillonites, the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt decreases with the increase of CEC and it is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater basal spacing when CEC is lower. Moreover, the CEC of Na-Mt has the greatest influence on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt.

  5. Lagrangian analysis of ICESat altimetry reveals patterns of ice shelf basal melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moholdt, G.; Fricker, H. A.; Padman, L.

    2012-12-01

    Iceberg calving and ice shelf basal melting are normal mass-loss processes that over time roughly balance the outflow of ice from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Most basal melting is thus compensated by ice advection and is not detected by the traditional methods of analyzing surface elevation changes in a fixed geographic coordinate system (Eulerian). Here we present a new method that derive elevation changes in a "Lagrangian" sense from repeat-track ICESat laser altimetry, where specific locations are followed on the advancing ice shelf surface. We use a published ice shelf velocity field to correct for ice advection between consecutive repeats, and then convert the Lagrangian dh/dt estimates into ice thickness changes based on a model of the firn layer. In some locations, the derived ice thickness changes are much larger the Eulerian approach. The Lagrangian approach reduces the noise level of the derived ice thickness changes and reveals clear spatial patterns that we interpret as variations in basal melting. For the largest Antarctic ice shelves (Ross and Filchner-Ronne), we find that the Lagrangian thinning rates increase progressively towards the fronts, which is consistent with oceanographic models that suggest higher basal melt rates in the frontal zone. There are few examples of localized Lagrangian thickening, suggesting that basal melting is likely dominating over basal freezing in the interior of most ice shelves. Combined with data on surface mass balance and firn compaction, our Lagrangian approach can provide new insights into the magnitude and extent of basal melting, as well as being an important validation for models of ice-ocean interaction.

  6. Characterization of the basal angiosperm Aristolochia fimbriata: a potential experimental system for genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies in basal angiosperms have provided insight into the diversity within the angiosperm lineage and helped to polarize analyses of flowering plant evolution. However, there is still not an experimental system for genetic studies among basal angiosperms to facilitate comparative studies and functional investigation. It would be desirable to identify a basal angiosperm experimental system that possesses many of the features found in existing plant model systems (e.g., Arabidopsis and Oryza). Results We have considered all basal angiosperm families for general characteristics important for experimental systems, including availability to the scientific community, growth habit, and membership in a large basal angiosperm group that displays a wide spectrum of phenotypic diversity. Most basal angiosperms are woody or aquatic, thus are not well-suited for large scale cultivation, and were excluded. We further investigated members of Aristolochiaceae for ease of culture, life cycle, genome size, and chromosome number. We demonstrated self-compatibility for Aristolochia elegans and A. fimbriata, and transformation with a GFP reporter construct for Saruma henryi and A. fimbriata. Furthermore, A. fimbriata was easily cultivated with a life cycle of just three months, could be regenerated in a tissue culture system, and had one of the smallest genomes among basal angiosperms. An extensive multi-tissue EST dataset was produced for A. fimbriata that includes over 3.8 million 454 sequence reads. Conclusions Aristolochia fimbriata has numerous features that facilitate genetic studies and is suggested as a potential model system for use with a wide variety of technologies. Emerging genetic and genomic tools for A. fimbriata and closely related species can aid the investigation of floral biology, developmental genetics, biochemical pathways important in plant-insect interactions as well as human health, and various other features present in early angiosperms

  7. A subzero microbial habitat in the basal ice of an Antarctic glacier (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, B. C.; Doyle, S. M.; Montross, S. N.; Skidmore, M. L.; Samyn, D.; Lorrain, R.; Tison, J.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2010-12-01

    Expanding perspectives on the tenacity of microbial life have motivated research to determine if microbial ecosystems exist at the base of the Antarctic ice sheets that are uniquely adapted to the conditions. To date, these efforts have focused primarily on subglacial locations where there is abundant liquid water (e.g., subglacial lakes and water-saturated sediments). Recent studies of cold-adapted microorganisms indicate that metabolism remains functional under frozen conditions, supporting the notion that active biogeochemical processes occur within the frozen matrix of ice. Our investigations of debris-rich basal ice from the Taylor Glacier, Antarctic revealed trends in the entrapped gas and microbiological data that are consistent with this hypothesis. When compared to the low-debris englacial facies, debris-rich stratified facies of the Taylor Glacier basal ice exhibited elevated CO2 and depleted O2 concentrations. Cell and total dissolved solute concentrations were low in the englacial facies, increasing by an order of magnitude or greater in the debris-rich laminated sub-facies. Cells in the thawed basal ice samples respired 14C-acetate to 14CO2 at 2oC, with maximum respiration rates observed in samples with sediment contents > 1% (wt/vol). Molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal (SSU) RNA gene diversity within the basal ice revealed a low diversity bacterial assemblage dominated by members of the phylum Firmicutes (87% of the cloned sequences), and the most abundant phylotype (38%) was affiliated with species in the genus Sporosarcina. Enrichment culturing of the basal ice on various defined and complex heterotrophic media at 4 to 15oC resulted in the growth and isolation of bacteria, nearly all of which (92% of the isolates) were closely related to the Sporosarcina-related SSU RNA gene sequences identified in the culture-independent analysis. All of the isolates characterized are cold-tolerant and experiments on selected strains have demonstrated

  8. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    The basal ganglia occupy a commanding place in neuroscience research, in clinical neurology and in biomedical education. The paucity of our understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in normal everyday life combined with our more extensive knowledge of their deficiencies in a variety of clinical syndromes is a potent spur to continuing investigation. That some of these neurodegenerative syndromes-such as Parkinson's disease-are already common only heightens the need for insight in the face of a population with increasing expectations of longevity. About a decade ago an explosion of information on the connectivity and immunocytochemistry of forebrain structures gave rise to concepts which have shaped the fabric of basal ganglia theory-'patch and matrix', 'disinhibition', 'parallel circuits'. Some of these ideas seemed to facilitate an understanding of the basal ganglia, others to render them more complex and impenetrable. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the work of the last decade has tended towards consolidation and refinement. However, several new developments are receiving attention, many of them related to disorders of the basal ganglia. The realisation that some forms of Parkinson's disease have a genetic determinant is gaining strength. The molecular biology of the dopaminergic synapse on the one hand and of the production of insoluble proteins on the other will clearly influence future research into therapeutic options and neuroprotection. The importance of apoptosis, neural plasticity and free radical formation remains unresolved but these are potential areas of promise. Meanwhile, scanning techniques for brain imaging are allowing real time investigation of the working striatum in normal and disordered humans and animals.We believe that the time is opportune for a broad review of current thinking on the basal ganglia in health and disease. The following articles are based on presentations given at a Symposium on the Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia held at

  9. Debris-Rich Basal Ice Layer Effects on Polar Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whorton, E. N.; Pettit, E. C.; Waddington, E. D.; Sletten, R.; Hallet, B.

    2008-12-01

    Many cold-based glaciers have a debris-rich basal ice layer, which may deform more easily than the overlying clean ice. We present results from a study exploring the importance of these debris-rich basal ice layers to the flow dynamics in the terminus region of Taylor Glacier, a cold-based outlet glacier of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Observed surface velocities are 20 times greater than that predicted by laminar flow for clean, homogenous, isotropic ice at the field site. We hypothesize that a soft basal-ice layer near the bed is accommodating the large strain rates. A two-layer two-dimensional flowband model is used to investigate the relative contributions from the debris- rich basal ice and the overlying clean ice to the ice flow rates. The model unknowns are the softness parameters for the clean (EC) and debris-rich ice (EB), and the thickness of the basal layer, which is spatially variable along the flowband. We constrain the model inputs and outputs using 2 years of field observations and previous tunnel studies into the glacier margin (Samyn and others, 2005), which include ground penetrating radar, ablation, ice temperature, basal ice thickness, and surface velocity measurements. The thickness of the debris-rich basal ice is solved for in the model for each chosen softness parameter combination. Analysis of two shallow ice cores in the clean ice indicate that the ice crystals are small and have a distinct preferred orientation; they have a strong, vertical, single-maximum fabric. The clean ice fabric data provides the best ice rheology constraint, and allows four plausible softness parameter combinations in the range 6 ≤ EC ≤ 9 and 38 ≤ EB ≤ 50 to be identified. The relative contribution of the basal ice to the total flow rates in the terminus region of Taylor for these four solutions ranges from 63-76%. This weak layer, therefore, significantly affects the glacier dynamics and suggests the importance of incorporating rheologically distinct

  10. Lacustrine Basal Ages Constrain the Last Deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Jeffrey; Laabs, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Basal radiocarbon ages from 21 high-elevation lakes limit the timing of final Pleistocene deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, USA. The lakes are located in glacial valleys and cirques 5 to 20 km upstream from LGM terminal moraines at elevations from 2830 to 3475 m. Many are impounded behind recessional moraines. Cores were retrieved from a floating platform with a percussion corer driven to the point of refusal. All penetrated inorganic silty clay beneath gyttja. AMS radiocarbon analyses were made on terrestrial macrofossils, daphnia ephippia, pollen concentrates, and bulk sediment retrieved from the base of each core. No radiocarbon reservoir effect was observed when bulk dates were checked against terrestrial material. Radiocarbon results were converted to calendar years using the IntCal09 calibration curve in OxCal 4.1. Given the stratigraphy observed in the cores, these calibrated basal ages are considered close limits on the timing of the local deglaciation and lake formation. The oldest three lakes have basal radiocarbon ages that calibrate to a few centuries after the Bölling/Alleröd warming, indicating that the landscape was becoming ice free at this time. These are followed by an overlapping group of five lakes with basal ages between 13.5 and 13.0 ka BP. Five more cores, from four separate lakes, have basal ages tightly clustered between 13.0 and 12.5 ka BP. Three of these lakes are dammed by moraines, suggesting glacial activity during the early part of the Younger Dryas interval. The lone kettle lake in the study yielded a basal age of 12.3 ka BP, considerably younger than the basal age of 13.9 ka BP from a nearby lake filling a bedrock basin, indicating that buried ice may have been locally stable for more than a millennium after deglaciation. The remaining seven lakes have basal ages between 12.0 and 11.0 ka BP. Four of these lakes are also dammed by moraines. These two non-overlapping clusters of basal ages for moraine

  11. A neural model of basal ganglia-thalamocortical relations in normal and parkinsonian movement.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Vidal, J L; Stelmach, G E

    1995-10-01

    Anatomical, neurophysiological, and neurochemical evidence supports the notion of parallel basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor systems. We developed a neural network model for the functioning of these systems during normal and parkinsonian movement. Parkinson's disease (PD), which results predominantly from nigrostriatal pathway damage, is used as a window to examine basal ganglia function. Simulations of dopamine depletion produce motor impairments consistent with motor deficits observed in PD that suggest the basal ganglia play a role in motor initiation and execution, and sequencing of motor programs. Stereotaxic lesions in the model's globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus suggest that these lesions, although reducing some PD symptoms, may constrain the repertoire of available movements. It is proposed that paradoxical observations of basal ganglia responses reported in the literature may result from regional functional neuronal specialization, and the non-uniform distributions of neurochemicals in the basal ganglia. It is hypothesized that dopamine depletion produces smaller-than-normal pallidothalamic gating signals that prevent rescalability of these signals to control variable movement speed, and that in PD can produce smaller-than-normal movement amplitudes. PMID:7578481

  12. The evolution of basal progenitors in the developing non-mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tadashi; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Yamashita, Wataru; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Murakami, Yasunori; Calegari, Federico; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2(+) cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution. PMID:26732839

  13. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Basal Ganglia and Thalamus in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Khema R.; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Maudsley, Andrew; Govind, Varan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the involvement of basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method. Methods Fourteen definite-ALS patients and 12 age-matched controls underwent whole brain DTI on a 3T scanner. Mean-diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were obtained bilaterally from the basal ganglia and thalamus in the regions-of-interest (ROI). Results The MD was significantly higher (p < 0.02) in basal ganglia and thalamus in patients with ALS compared with controls. Correspondingly, the FA was significantly lower (p < 0.02) in these structures, except in caudate (p =0.04) and putamen (p = 0.06) in patients compared with controls. There were mild to strong correlations (r: 0.3 – 0.7) between the DTI measures of basal ganglia and finger–tap, foot-tap, and lip-and-tongue-movement-rate. Conclusions The increased MD in basal ganglia and thalamus, and decreased FA in globus pallidus and thalamus are indicative of neuronal loss or dysfunction in these structures. PMID:22273090

  14. Clinical, Histopathological and Therapeutical Analysis of Inferior Eyelid Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Alexandrescu, C; Pirvulescu, R; Gradinaru, S; Costache, M

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Eyelids are very susceptible area for non-melanoma skin cancers; among that, basal cell carcinoma has the highest incidence (almost 90% of malignant eyelid tumors) and 50-60% of eyelid basal cell carcinomas appear on inferior eyelid. Objective: To analyze clinical features of inferior eyelid basal cell carcinoma and to determine the efficacy of surgical treatment with frozen sectioncontrolled margins and methods of primary reconstruction of defects. Methods: A review of medical records of cases with primary inferior eyelid basal cell carcinoma treated by surgical excision with urgent histopathology controlled margins by FS technique, doubled by paraffin examination from October 2011 to October 2014. After histopathology confirmation of tumor free margins, proper inferior eyelid reconstruction was performed. Results: The review resulted in 36 patients with 36 lesions analyzed by clinical, histopatological and therapeuticalaspectswith a mean follow-up of 20 months. All lesions were primary BCC affecting inferior eyelid. There were no recurrence in the follow-up period. Inferior eyelid reconstruction techniques were direct closure for small defects and complex techniques for defects more than one third of eyelid length. Discussion: Appropriate eyelid examination is mandatory in any routine ophthalmic check-up. Clinical signs suggestive of BCC should be familiar to ophthalmologist in order to have an early diagnosis and treatment for these tumors. Surgical treatment with FS controlled excision followed by eyelid reconstruction is an efficient treatment for inferior eyelid BCC. Abbreviations: basal cell carcinoma (BCC); frozen section (FS);Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). PMID:27057245

  15. [New findings on the morphology and motor function of basal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Marković, L; Berić, A; Marinković, R

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results of new investigations on morphology and motor function of basal ganglia, which point to the fact that their dimensions are individual and not correlated with the dimension of the corresponding hemisphere. Basal ganglia motor function is studied on the basis of disturbances which occur if they are damaged, both in sick people and experimental animals. Analysis of recorded single-neuron activity, in animals and in patients undergoing special surgical procedures, is especially instructive for understanding this function. According to new insights there are at least five multiple neuronal regions: motor, oculomotor, limbic, dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal region. Morphologic and functional studies partly disagree in interpreting connections among these regions. On the basis of functional studies it is considered that parallelism and functional separation exist, while on the basis of morphologic studies it is considered that at the level of basal ganglia output convergence occurs. New insights speak about parallelism and convergence at the same time. It is thought that inside basal ganglia motor region there are two divided systems, direct and indirect, which direct the output impulses towards talamus. The direct leads to facilitation of cortically started movements, and the indirect to suppression of unwanted motor behavior. On the basis of literature data we can conclude that basal ganglia support cortically generated movements, participate in sequential movements, suppress unwanted motor activity and in altered circumstances stop the course of started motor sequences allowing new, adequate motor activity. PMID:8926943

  16. Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala’s nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan J.; Flatz, Wilhelm; Ackl, Nibal; Grothe, Michel; Kilimann, Ingo; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Kljajevic, Vanja; Alho, Eduardo; Knels, Christina; Ebert, Anne; Heinsen, Helmut; Danek, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam’s nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference space based on histological sections and the MRI scan of a post-mortem brain in cranio. Using voxel-based analysis, we found left hemispheric cortical atrophy in PPA patients compared with controls, including prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobe areas. We detected cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in left predominant localizations of Ch4p, Ch4am, Ch4al, Ch3 and NSP. For the first time, we have described the pattern of basal forebrain atrophy in PPA and confirmed the involvement of NSP that had been predicted based on theoretical considerations. Our findings may enhance understanding of the role of cholinergic degeneration for the regional specificity of the cortical destruction leading to the syndrome of PPA. PMID:24434193

  17. Combining Basal Insulin Analogs with Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Basal insulin analogs are recognized as an effective method of achieving and maintaining glycemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the progressive nature of the disease means that some individuals may require additional ways to maintain their glycemic goals. Intensification in these circumstances has traditionally been achieved by the addition of short-acting insulin to cover postprandial glucose excursions that are not targeted by basal insulin. However, intensive insulin regimens are associated with a higher risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain, which can contribute to a greater burden on patients. The combination of basal insulin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic is a potentially attractive solution to this problem for some patients with type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 mimetics target postprandial glucose and should complement the activity of basal insulins; they are also associated with a relatively low risk of associated hypoglycemia and moderate, but significant, weight loss. Although the combination has not been approved by regulatory authorities, preliminary evidence from mostly small-scale studies suggests that basal insulins in combination with GLP-1 mimetics do provide improvements in A1c and postprandial glucose with concomitant weight loss and no marked increase in the risk of hypoglycemia. These results are promising, but further studies are required, including comparisons with basal–bolus therapy, before the complex value of this association can be fully appreciated. PMID:21711120

  18. Exercise-induced changes in basal ganglia volume and cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Niemann, C; Godde, B; Staudinger, U M; Voelcker-Rehage, C

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity has been demonstrated to diminish age-related brain volume shrinkage in several brain regions accompanied by a reduction of age-related decline in cognitive functions. Most studies investigated the impact of cardiovascular fitness or training. Other types of fitness or training are less well investigated. In addition, little is known about exercise effects on volume of the basal ganglia, which, however, are involved in motor activities and cognitive functioning. In the current study (1) we examined the relationships of individual cardiovascular and motor fitness levels with the volume of the basal ganglia (namely caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus) and selected cognitive functions (executive control, perceptual speed). (2) We investigated the effect of 12-month training interventions (cardiovascular and coordination training, control group stretching and relaxation) on the volume of the respective basal ganglia nuclei. Results revealed that motor fitness but not cardiovascular fitness was positively related with the volume of the putamen and the globus pallidus. Additionally, a moderating effect of the volume of the basal ganglia (as a whole, but also separately for putamen and globus pallidus) on the relationship between motor fitness and executive function was revealed. Coordination training increased caudate and globus pallidus volume. We provide evidence that coordinative exercise seems to be a favorable leisure activity for older adults that has the potential to improve volume of the basal ganglia. PMID:25255932

  19. Two appendages homologous between basal bodies and centrioles are formed using distinct Odf2 domains

    PubMed Central

    Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Tomoki; Watanabe, Shin; Kunimoto, Koshi; Ishikawa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Ciliogenesis is regulated by context-dependent cellular cues, including some transduced through appendage-like structures on ciliary basal bodies called transition fibers and basal feet. However, the molecular basis for this regulation is not fully understood. The Odf2 gene product, ODF2/cenexin, is essential for both ciliogenesis and the formation of the distal and subdistal appendages on centrioles, which become basal bodies. We examined the effects of Odf2 deletion constructs on ciliogenesis in Odf2-knockout F9 cells. Electron microscopy revealed that ciliogenesis and transition fiber formation required the ODF2/cenexin fragment containing amino acids (aa) 188–806, whereas basal foot formation required aa 1–59 and 188–806. These sequences also formed distal and subdistal appendages, respectively, indicating that the centriole appendages are molecularly analogous to those on basal bodies. We used the differential formation of appendages by Odf2 deletion constructs to study the incorporation and function of molecules associated with each appendage type. We found that transition fibers and distal appendages were required for ciliogenesis and subdistal appendages stabilized the centrosomal microtubules. PMID:24189274

  20. An Unusual Basal Therizinosaur Dinosaur with an Ornithischian Dental Arrangement from Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Lü, Junchang; Xu, Li; Wu, Yanhua; Chang, Huali; Zhang, Jiming; Jia, Songhai

    2013-01-01

    Therizinosauria are an unusual group of theropod dinosaurs, found mostly in the Cretaceous deposits in Mongolia, China and western USA. The basal forms of this group are represented by incomplete or disarticulated material. Here, we report a nearly complete, articulated skeleton of a new basal therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Jianchang County, western part of Liaoning Province, which sheds light on our understanding of anatomy of basal therizinosaurs. This new dinosaur shows some typical therizinosaur features, such as neural spines of the anterior caudal vertebrae that possess anterior and posterior alae, a rectangular buttress on the ventrolateral side of the proximal end of metacarpal I, and appressed metatarsal shafts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a basal therizinosaur (sister taxon to Therizinosauroidea) because it bears many basal therizinosaur characters in the dentition, pelvis and hind limbs. The new therizinosaur described here has unique tooth and jaw characters such as the offsetting of the tooth row by a shelf and dentary teeth with labially concave and lingually convex dentary teeth, similar to ornithopods and ceratopsians. PMID:23734177

  1. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  2. Repression of Igf1 expression by Ezh2 prevents basal cell differentiation in the developing lung.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Laura A; Holik, Aliaksei Z; Short, Kieran M; Pasquet, Julie; Lun, Aaron T L; Blewitt, Marnie E; Smyth, Ian M; Ritchie, Matthew E; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse

    2015-04-15

    Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the establishment of lung epithelial cell lineage identities during development are largely unknown. Here, we explored the role of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 during lung lineage determination. Loss of Ezh2 in the lung epithelium leads to defective lung formation and perinatal mortality. We show that Ezh2 is crucial for airway lineage specification and alveolarization. Using optical projection tomography imaging, we found that branching morphogenesis is affected in Ezh2 conditional knockout mice and the remaining bronchioles are abnormal, lacking terminally differentiated secretory club cells. Remarkably, RNA-seq analysis revealed the upregulation of basal genes in Ezh2-deficient epithelium. Three-dimensional imaging for keratin 5 further showed the unexpected presence of a layer of basal cells from the proximal airways to the distal bronchioles in E16.5 embryos. ChIP-seq analysis indicated the presence of Ezh2-mediated repressive marks on the genomic loci of some but not all basal genes, suggesting an indirect mechanism of action of Ezh2. We found that loss of Ezh2 de-represses insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) expression and that modulation of IGF1 signaling ex vivo in wild-type lungs could induce basal cell differentiation. Altogether, our work reveals an unexpected role for Ezh2 in controlling basal cell fate determination in the embryonic lung endoderm, mediated in part by repression of Igf1 expression. PMID:25790853

  3. The Extent of Channelized Basal Water Flow Under the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, J.; Johnson, J. V.; Harper, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial ice flows due to a combination of deformation and basal sliding, with sliding accounting for most of the fastest ice flow. Basal sliding is controlled by the transport of water at the glacier's bed, which can be accomplished through both high pressure, low discharge, distributed flow, or low pressure, high discharge, channelized flow. Higher pressures are generally associated with more complete decoupling of a glacier from its bed and faster flow. As the intensity of summer melt in Greenland has increased, our poor understanding of the drainage network's discharge capacity and its coupling to sliding has generated fundamental questions, such as: will larger fluxes of liquid water promote or inhibit basal sliding? To investigate this question we have implemented a model of distributed and channelized flow developed by Werder et. al 2013. The sensitivity of the modeled channel network to basal and surface geometry, melt rate, boundary conditions, and other parameters is examined in a sequence of experiments using synthetic geometries. Expanding on these experiments, we run the model with realistic surface and bedrock data from Issunguata Sermia in Western Central Greenland. These experiments benefit from a wealth of in-situ data, including observations of basal water pressure. Our results suggest that the development of large channels is limited to the margins of the ice sheet, and that higher pressures continue to prevail in the interior.

  4. Surface and Basal Roughness in Radar Sounding Data: Obstacle and Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, D. M.; Grima, C.; Haynes, M.

    2015-12-01

    The surface and basal roughness of glaciers, ice sheets, and ice shelves can pose a significant obstacle to the visual interpretation and quantitative analysis of radar sounding data. Areas of high surface roughness - including grounding zones, shear margins, and crevasse fields - can produce clutter and side-lobe signals that obscure the interpretation of englacial and subglacial features. These areas can also introduce significant variation in bed echo strength profiles as a result of losses from two-way propagation through rough ice surfaces. Similarly, reflections from rough basal interfaces beneath ice sheets and ice shelves can also result in large, spatially variable losses in bed echo power. If unmitigated and uncorrected, these effects can degrade or prevent the definitive interpretation of material and geometric properties at the base of ice sheets and ice shelves using radar reflectivity and bed echo character. However, these effects also provide geophysical signatures of surface and basal interface character - including surface roughness, firn density, subglacial bedform geometry, ice shelf basal roughness, marine-ice/brine detection, and crevasse geometry - that can be observed and constrained by exploiting roughness effects in radar sounding data. We present a series of applications and approaches for characterizing and correcting surface and basal roughness effects for airborne radar sounding data collected in Antarctica. We also present challenges, insights, and opportunities for extending these techniques to the orbital radar sounding of Europa's ice shell.

  5. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  6. The evolution of basal progenitors in the developing non-mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Tadashi; Ohtaka-Maruyama, Chiaki; Yamashita, Wataru; Wakamatsu, Yoshio; Murakami, Yasunori; Calegari, Federico; Suzuki, Kunihiro; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Ono, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The amplification of distinct neural stem/progenitor cell subtypes during embryogenesis is essential for the intricate brain structures present in various vertebrate species. For example, in both mammals and birds, proliferative neuronal progenitors transiently appear on the basal side of the ventricular zone of the telencephalon (basal progenitors), where they contribute to the enlargement of the neocortex and its homologous structures. In placental mammals, this proliferative cell population can be subdivided into several groups that include Tbr2+ intermediate progenitors and basal radial glial cells (bRGs). Here, we report that basal progenitors in the developing avian pallium show unique morphological and molecular characteristics that resemble the characteristics of bRGs, a progenitor population that is abundant in gyrencephalic mammalian neocortex. Manipulation of LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched protein) and Cdk4/cyclin D1, both essential regulators of neural progenitor dynamics, revealed that basal progenitors and Tbr2+ cells are distinct cell lineages in the developing avian telencephalon. Furthermore, we identified a small population of subapical mitotic cells in the developing brains of a wide variety of amniotes and amphibians. Our results suggest that unique progenitor subtypes are amplified in mammalian and avian lineages by modifying common mechanisms of neural stem/progenitor regulation during amniote brain evolution. PMID:26732839

  7. Changes in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation in Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Tischler, Hadass; Moran, Anan; Belelovsky, Katya; Bronfeld, Maya; Korngreen, Alon; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2012-12-01

    Parkinsonism is associated with major changes in neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Current measures quantify changes in baseline neuronal and network activity but do not capture alterations in information propagation throughout the system. Here, we applied a novel non-invasive magnetic stimulation approach using a custom-made mini-coil that enabled us to study transmission of neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia loop in both normal and parkinsonian primates. By magnetically perturbing cortical activity while simultaneously recording neuronal responses along the cortico-basal ganglia loop, we were able to directly investigate modifications in descending cortical activity transmission. We found that in both the normal and parkinsonian states, cortical neurons displayed similar multi-phase firing rate modulations in response to magnetic stimulation. However, in the basal ganglia, large synaptically driven stereotypic neuronal modulation was present in the parkinsonian state that was mostly absent in the normal state. The stimulation-induced neuronal activity pattern highlights the change in information propagation along the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Our findings thus point to the role of abnormal dynamic activity transmission rather than changes in baseline activity as a major component in parkinsonian pathophysiology. Moreover, our results hint that the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in human patients of different disorders may result in different neuronal effects than the one induced in normal subjects. PMID:22885186

  8. Measured basal water pressure variability of the western Greenland Ice Sheet: Implications for hydraulic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Patrick J.; Harper, Joel T.; Humphrey, Neil F.; Meierbachtol, Toby W.

    2016-06-01

    The gradient of the hydraulic potential field at the ice-bedrock interface beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) dictates the routing and energetics of subglacial water, thereby influencing drainage system characteristics and sliding dynamics. In the ablation zone of the GrIS, variable water pressure due to an active subglacial drainage system and basal topography with high relief potentially interact to drive unknown spatial patterns and temporal changes in the hydraulic potential field. Here we present a suite of water pressure measurements collected in 13 boreholes along a 46 km transect on the western GrIS to investigate the role of spatial and temporal basal water pressure adjustments in hydraulic potential gradient dynamics. All borehole sites show pressures with similar seasonality, having relatively steady and high values during winter, variable and irregular behavior during spring and fall, and diurnal cycles that can persist for multiple weeks during the peak melt season. Despite much higher variability during the melt season, the median pressure of the summer period is nearly the same as the median pressure of the winter period. However, time variability of water pressure due to basal drainage processes can force changes in the magnitude and orientation of the hydraulic potential field over diurnal periods. We find that the basal water pressure across the transect generally mimics the ice thickness field but with superimposed large pressure gradients that develop at shorter scales within the basal drainage system. This leads to a complex hydraulic potential field across regions of similar ice thickness.

  9. Basal crevasses on the Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctica: Implications for meltwater ponding and hydrofracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Daniel; Steffen, Konrad; Rajaram, Harihar; Scambos, Ted; Abdalati, Waleed; Rignot, Eric

    2012-08-01

    A key mechanism for the rapid collapse of both the Larsen A and B Ice Shelves was meltwater-driven crevasse propagation. Basal crevasses, large-scale structural features within ice shelves, may have contributed to this mechanism in three important ways: i) the shelf surface deforms due to modified buoyancy and gravitational forces above the basal crevasse, creating >10 m deep compressional surface depressions where meltwater can collect, ii) bending stresses from the modified shape drive surface crevassing, with crevasses reaching 40 m in width, on the flanks of the basal-crevasse-induced trough and iii) the ice thickness is substantially reduced, thereby minimizing the propagation distance before a full-thickness rift is created. We examine a basal crevasse (4.5 km in length, ∼230 m in height), and the corresponding surface features, in the Cabinet Inlet sector of the Larsen C Ice Shelf using a combination of high-resolution (0.5 m) satellite imagery, kinematic GPS and in situ ground penetrating radar. We discuss how basal crevasses may have contributed to the breakup of the Larsen B Ice Shelf by directly controlling the location of meltwater ponding and highlight the presence of similar features on the Amery and Getz Ice Shelves with high-resolution imagery.

  10. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A; Berezovskii, Vladimir K; Johnson, Caroline A; Kingery, Nathan D; Elliott, Hunter L; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-05-01

    The basal ganglia are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning. Current models postulate that the basal ganglia modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by direct- and indirect-pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs, respectively). The basal ganglia thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the basal ganglia, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT(+) cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis, as well as ChAT(-) cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus, GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signalling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the basal ganglia to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  11. Drosophila chibby is required for basal body formation and ciliogenesis but not for Wg signaling.

    PubMed

    Enjolras, Camille; Thomas, Joëlle; Chhin, Brigitte; Cortier, Elisabeth; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Soulavie, Fabien; Kernan, Maurice J; Laurençon, Anne; Durand, Bénédicte

    2012-04-16

    Centriole-to-basal body conversion, a complex process essential for ciliogenesis, involves the progressive addition of specific proteins to centrioles. CHIBBY (CBY) is a coiled-coil domain protein first described as interacting with β-catenin and involved in Wg-Int (WNT) signaling. We found that, in Drosophila melanogaster, CBY was exclusively expressed in cells that require functional basal bodies, i.e., sensory neurons and male germ cells. CBY was associated with the basal body transition zone (TZ) in these two cell types. Inactivation of cby led to defects in sensory transduction and in spermatogenesis. Loss of CBY resulted in altered ciliary trafficking into neuronal cilia, irregular deposition of proteins on spermatocyte basal bodies, and, consequently, distorted axonemal assembly. Importantly, cby(1/1) flies did not show Wingless signaling defects. Hence, CBY is essential for normal basal body structure and function in Drosophila, potentially through effects on the TZ. The function of CBY in WNT signaling in vertebrates has either been acquired during vertebrate evolution or lost in Drosophila. PMID:22508513

  12. Drosophila chibby is required for basal body formation and ciliogenesis but not for Wg signaling

    PubMed Central

    Enjolras, Camille; Thomas, Joëlle; Chhin, Brigitte; Cortier, Elisabeth; Duteyrat, Jean-Luc; Soulavie, Fabien; Kernan, Maurice J.; Laurençon, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Centriole-to–basal body conversion, a complex process essential for ciliogenesis, involves the progressive addition of specific proteins to centrioles. CHIBBY (CBY) is a coiled-coil domain protein first described as interacting with β-catenin and involved in Wg-Int (WNT) signaling. We found that, in Drosophila melanogaster, CBY was exclusively expressed in cells that require functional basal bodies, i.e., sensory neurons and male germ cells. CBY was associated with the basal body transition zone (TZ) in these two cell types. Inactivation of cby led to defects in sensory transduction and in spermatogenesis. Loss of CBY resulted in altered ciliary trafficking into neuronal cilia, irregular deposition of proteins on spermatocyte basal bodies, and, consequently, distorted axonemal assembly. Importantly, cby1/1 flies did not show Wingless signaling defects. Hence, CBY is essential for normal basal body structure and function in Drosophila, potentially through effects on the TZ. The function of CBY in WNT signaling in vertebrates has either been acquired during vertebrate evolution or lost in Drosophila. PMID:22508513

  13. Penile arterial Doppler evaluation in basal condition and after intracavernous injection of papaverine.

    PubMed

    Colpi, G M; Annoni, F; Negri, L; Fanciullacci, F; Zanollo, A

    1988-01-01

    In diagnostic screening, 73 impotent patients were submitted to a Doppler study of the deep penile arteries under basal conditions and after oral nitroglycerin (Basal-DOPPLER) and after intracavernosal injection of 30 mg of papaverine (ICIP-DOPPLER), as well as other tests. The results of the Basal-DOPPLER and the erectile response to intracavernosal administration of 30 mg papaverine (ICIP-30), indicative of the condition of the deep penile arteries, were in total agreement for 33 cases, partial agreement for 29 cases and totally in disagreement for 11 cases. The agreement between the results of the ICIP-DOPPLER and the ICIP-30 was total for 40 cases, partial for 24 and totally lacking for 9. In many of the cases for whom the response to ICIP-30 was less than would have been expected from the ICIP-DOPPLER, abnormal venous outflow was later shown. Our data support the hypothesis that papaverine acts on the venous component of erection. The ICIP-DOPPLER was found to be apparently more reliable than the Basal-DOPPLER for evaluating the arterial component of erection, but Basal-DOPPLER is still the basic screening test before any such invasive test as the ICIP are used, since these latter are not always accepted immediately by the patients. PMID:3133961

  14. RIP1 negatively regulates basal autophagic flux through TFEB to control sensitivity to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Tohru; Gamez, Graciela; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Thorburn, Jackie; Gump, Jacob; Thorburn, Andrew; Morgan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In a synthetic lethality/viability screen, we identified the serine–threonine kinase RIP1 (RIPK1) as a gene whose knockdown is highly selected against during growth in normal media, in which autophagy is not critical, but selected for in conditions that increase reliance on basal autophagy. RIP1 represses basal autophagy in part due to its ability to regulate the TFEB transcription factor, which controls the expression of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes. RIP1 activates ERK, which negatively regulates TFEB though phosphorylation of serine 142. Thus, in addition to other pro-death functions, RIP1 regulates cellular sensitivity to pro-death stimuli by modulating basal autophagy. PMID:25908842

  15. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events. PMID:26850723

  16. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Fumihiko; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath. PMID:26955331

  17. Regulation of cerebral cortex size and folding by expansion of basal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka-Kinoshita, Miki; Reillo, Isabel; Artegiani, Benedetta; Ángeles Martínez-Martínez, Maria; Nelson, Mark; Borrell, Víctor; Calegari, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Size and folding of the cerebral cortex increased massively during mammalian evolution leading to the current diversity of brain morphologies. Various subtypes of neural stem and progenitor cells have been proposed to contribute differently in regulating thickness or folding of the cerebral cortex during development, but their specific roles have not been demonstrated. We report that the controlled expansion of unipotent basal progenitors in mouse embryos led to megalencephaly, with increased surface area of the cerebral cortex, but not to cortical folding. In contrast, expansion of multipotent basal progenitors in the naturally gyrencephalic ferret was sufficient to drive the formation of additional folds and fissures. In both models, changes occurred while preserving a structurally normal, six-layered cortex. Our results are the first experimental demonstration of specific and distinct roles for basal progenitor subtypes in regulating cerebral cortex size and folding during development underlying the superior intellectual capability acquired by higher mammals during evolution. PMID:23624932

  18. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  19. Cognition and the basal ganglia: a possible substrate for procedural knowledge.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A G; Carr, G D

    1987-08-01

    Disruption of neural activity within the basal ganglia of experimental animals causes selective learning deficits in tasks requiring switching between response strategies. These data along with reports of both general and specific intellectual impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, appear to support the theory of cognitive functions of the basal ganglia. Recent studies have failed to confirm general cognitive or memory deficits in parkinsonian patients, but have identified deficiencies in devising and executing certain cognitive strategies. Following the lead of theorists such as Squire and Mishkin, this brief review emphasizes the distinction between procedural and declarative knowledge and examines the possible role of the basal ganglia in the acquisition and retention of procedural knowledge. PMID:3315145

  20. [Clinical importance of basal insulin analogues and insulin Toujeo® 300 units/ml].

    PubMed

    Adamíková, Alena

    2015-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease that requires a personalized approach to treatment with goals tailored to capabilities and abilities of the patient, his other diseases so as to ensure good diabetes control without the risk of hypoglycemic events and the development or progression of late diabetic complications. Recommendations for treatment of diabetes is classified in second-line as a one of the possibilities of treatment of basal insulin immediately after the failure of therapy with metformin and diet. The new generation of basal insulin analogues provides its effect profile and features a completely new quality to the treatment of diabetes. Toujeo® 300 units/ml is a new long-acting basal insulin glargine concentration of 300 units/ ml with a low glycemic variability, which in studies has demonstrated consistent control of diabetes in a significant reduction in the risk of hypoglycemia especially at night compared with insulin glargin of concentration 100 units/ml. PMID:26652788

  1. Chibby promotes ciliary vesicle formation and basal body docking during airway cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael C; Li, Feng-Qian; Cyge, Benjamin; Arashiro, Takeshi; Brechbuhl, Heather M; Chen, Xingwang; Siller, Saul S; Weiss, Matthew A; O'Connell, Christopher B; Love, Damon; Westlake, Christopher J; Reynolds, Susan D; Kuriyama, Ryoko; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi

    2014-10-13

    Airway multiciliated epithelial cells play crucial roles in the mucosal defense system, but their differentiation process remains poorly understood. Mice lacking the basal body component Chibby (Cby) exhibit impaired mucociliary transport caused by defective ciliogenesis, resulting in chronic airway infection. In this paper, using primary cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells, we show that Cby facilitates basal body docking to the apical cell membrane through proper formation of ciliary vesicles at the distal appendage during the early stages of ciliogenesis. Cby is recruited to the distal appendages of centrioles via physical interaction with the distal appendage protein CEP164. Cby then associates with the membrane trafficking machinery component Rabin8, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab8, to promote recruitment of Rab8 and efficient assembly of ciliary vesicles. Thus, our study identifies Cby as a key regulator of ciliary vesicle formation and basal body docking during the differentiation of airway ciliated cells. PMID:25313408

  2. Basal cell carcinoma and the carcinogenic role of aberrant Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Saran, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent cancer in the white population and its incidence appears to be increasing worldwide. While the majority of BCCs arise sporadically, many cases are attributable to basal cell nevus syndrome, or Gorlin syndrome, an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by the occurrence of multiple BCCs and by extracutaneous tumors. Genetic studies on patients with basal cell nevus syndrome indicate deregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in epidermal keratinocytes as the primary event in the pathogenesis of BCC. This article summarizes the recent progress in understanding Hh-dependent BCC tumorigenesis, as well as evidence for deregulation of other molecular pathways, primarily the Wnt developmental pathway. Understanding the molecular genetics of BCC development has provided new opportunities for molecular therapy of this cancer by targeting Hh and other signaling pathways. PMID:20528237

  3. Basal cell nevus syndrome: clinical and molecular review and case report.

    PubMed

    Pino, Livia Cristina de Melo; Balassiano, Laila Klotz de Almeida; Sessim, Marlene; de Almeida, Ana Paula Moura; Empinotti, Vinicius Dequech; Semenovitch, Ivan; Treu, Curt; Lupi, Omar

    2016-04-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), also referred to as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, was first described by Gorlin and Goltz in 1960 as an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the early appearance of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), keratocysts of the jaw, ectopic calcifications, palmar and plantar pits, and anomalies of the ocular, skeletal, and reproductive systems. The genesis of this cancer's etiology in relation to BCNS was unclear until a few years ago when molecular analysis studies suggested a relationship between BCC and the loss-of-function mutations of the patched gene (PTCH) found on chromosome arm 9q. PTCH inhibits signaling by the membrane protein Smoothened (Smo), and this inhibition is relieved by binding sonic hedgehog (SHH) to PTCH. We describe a patient with multiple BCCs associated with x-ray anomalies of BCNS and review the basis of the SHH signaling pathway and clinical aspects of BCNS. PMID:26356331

  4. Basal cell carcinoma in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Tell, L A; Woods, L; Mathews, K G

    1997-01-01

    Tumors of the integumentary system are relatively common in companion birds. Dermal tumors in pet birds can be epithelial, mesenchymal, or vascular in origin. Basal cell carcinomas appear to be extremely rare in birds. An adult female blue-fronted Amazon parrot was examined because it exhibited bilateral cervical masses that extended from the base of the skull to the ingluvial region. The tumors were removed by surgical excision. Microscopic examination of the masses revealed neoplastic epithelial cells that extended to all borders of the sections; scattered vessels with neoplastic cells within their lumens were also found. The histopathologic diagnosis was basal cell carcinoma. Six weeks postoperatively, the masses recurred and the bird was euthanatized. This report suggests that basal cell carcinomas should be considered as a differential for avian dermal tumors. This neoplastic condition can be aggressive and has the potential to metastasize. PMID:9356728

  5. KRT14 marks a subpopulation of bladder basal cells with pivotal role in regeneration and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Papafotiou, George; Paraskevopoulou, Varvara; Vasilaki, Eleni; Kanaki, Zoi; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Klinakis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The urothelium is a specialized epithelium that lines the urinary tract. It consists of three different cell types, namely, basal, intermediate and superficial cells arranged in relatively distinct cell layers. Normally, quiescent, it regenerates fast upon injury, but the regeneration process is not fully understood. Although several reports have indicated the existence of progenitors, their identity and exact topology, as well as their role in key processes such as tissue regeneration and carcinogenesis have not been clarified. Here we show that a minor subpopulation of basal cells, characterized by the expression of keratin 14, possesses self-renewal capacity and also gives rise to all cell types of the urothelium during natural and injury-induced regeneration. Moreover, these cells represent cells of origin of urothelial cancer. Our findings support the hypothesis of basally located progenitors with profound roles in urothelial homoeostasis. PMID:27320313

  6. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. PMID:26767416

  7. A Case of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Outer Hair Follicle Sheath Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Masazumi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Fumihiko; Akasaka, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old Japanese man presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic, blackish, irregularly shaped plaque with a gray nodule in the periphery on his left lower leg. The lesion had been present for 10 years and had recently enlarged, associated with bleeding. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of three distinct parts: The first part showed massive aggregation of basophilic basaloid cells with peripheral palisading and abundant melanin granules, and was diagnosed as solid-type basal cell carcinoma. The second part showed aggregation of clear cells with squamous eddies, and was diagnosed as proliferating trichilemmal tumor. The third part showed reticular aggregation of basaloid cells with infundibular cysts in the papillary dermis, and was diagnosed as infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma. We diagnosed this tumor as basal cell carcinoma with various forms of hair follicle differentiation, including differentiation into the outer root sheath. PMID:26955331

  8. Global analysis of cellular protein flux quantifies the selectivity of basal autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Ghaemmaghami, Sina

    2016-08-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the macroautophagy pathway has been implicated in the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. Although it has been demonstrated that macroautophagy can selectively degrade specific targets, its contribution to the basal turnover of cellular proteins had previously not been quantified on proteome-wide scales. In a recent study, we utilized dynamic proteomics to provide a global comparison of protein half-lives between wild-type and autophagy-deficient cells. Our results indicated that in quiescent fibroblasts, macroautophagy contributes to the basal turnover of a substantial fraction of the proteome. However, the contribution of macroautophagy to constitutive protein turnover is variable within the proteome. The methodology outlined in the study provides a global strategy for quantifying the selectivity of basal macroautophagy. PMID:27248575

  9. The edge- and basal-plane-specific electrochemistry of a single-layer graphene sheet

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wenjing; Zhou, Yu; Li, Yingru; Li, Chun; Peng, Hailin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Zhongfan; Dai, Liming; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has a unique atom-thick two-dimensional structure and excellent properties, making it attractive for a variety of electrochemical applications, including electrosynthesis, electrochemical sensors or electrocatalysis, and energy conversion and storage. However, the electrochemistry of single-layer graphene has not yet been well understood, possibly due to the technical difficulties in handling individual graphene sheet. Here, we report the electrochemical behavior at single-layer graphene-based electrodes, comparing the basal plane of graphene to its edge. The graphene edge showed 4 orders of magnitude higher specific capacitance, much faster electron transfer rate and stronger electrocatalytic activity than those of graphene basal plane. A convergent diffusion effect was observed at the sub-nanometer thick graphene edge-electrode to accelerate the electrochemical reactions. Coupling with the high conductivity of a high-quality graphene basal plane, graphene edge is an ideal electrode for electrocatalysis and for the storage of capacitive charges. PMID:23896697

  10. A general view on the reactivity of the oxygen-functionalized graphene basal plane.

    PubMed

    Dobrota, Ana S; Pašti, Igor A; Mentus, Slavko V; Skorodumova, Natalia V

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution we inspect the adsorption of H, OH, Cl and Pt on oxidized graphene using DFT calculations. The introduction of epoxy and hydroxyl groups on the graphene basal plane significantly alters its chemisorption properties, which can be attributed to the deformation of the basal plane and the type and distribution of these groups. We show that a general scaling relation exists between the hydrogen binding energies and the binding energies of other investigated adsorbates, which allows for a simple probing of the reactivity of oxidized graphene with only one adsorbate. The electronic states of carbon atoms located within the 2 eV interval below the Fermi level are found to be responsible for the interaction of the basal plane with the chosen adsorbates. The number of electronic states situated in this energy interval is shown to correlate with hydrogen binding energies. PMID:26866995

  11. Effects of hypocretin (orexin) neuronal loss on sleep and extracellular adenosine levels in the basal forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Liu, Meng; Blanco-Centurion, Carlos; Shiromani, Priyattam J.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin (orexin) are localized only in the lateral hypothalamus from where they innervate multiple regions implicated in arousal, including the basal forebrain. HCRT activation of downstream arousal neurons is likely to stimulate release of endogenous factors. One such factor is adenosine (AD), which in the basal forebrain increases with waking and decreases with sleep, and is hypothesized to regulate the waxing and waning of sleep drive. Does loss of HCRT neurons affect AD levels in the basal forebrain? Is the increased sleep that accompanies HCRT loss a consequence of higher AD levels in the basal forebrain? In the present study, we investigate these questions by lesioning the HCRT neurons (hypocretin-2-saporin) and measuring sleep and extracellular levels of AD in the basal forebrain. In separate groups of rats, the neurotoxin HCRT2-SAP or saline were administered locally to the lateral hypothalamus and 80 days later AD and sleep were assessed. Rats given the neurotoxin had a 94% loss of the HCRT neurons. These rats awake less at night, and had more REM sleep, which is consistent with a HCRT hypofunction. These rats also had more sleep after brief periods of sleep deprivation. However, in the lesioned rats, AD levels did not increase with 6h sleep deprivation, whereas such an increase in AD occurred in rats without lesion of the HCRT neurons. These findings indicate that AD levels do not increase with waking in rats with a HCRT lesion, and that the increased sleep in these rats occurs independently of AD levels in the basal forebrain. PMID:18783368

  12. Primary Cilia on Horizontal Basal Cells Regulate Regeneration of the Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Joiner, Ariell M.; Green, Warren W.; McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Schwob, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few tissues to undergo constitutive neurogenesis throughout the mammalian lifespan. It is composed of multiple cell types including olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are readily replaced by two populations of basal stem cells, frequently dividing globose basal cells and quiescent horizontal basal cells (HBCs). However, the precise mechanisms by which these cells mediate OE regeneration are unclear. Here, we show for the first time that the HBC subpopulation of basal stem cells uniquely possesses primary cilia that are aligned in an apical orientation in direct apposition to sustentacular cell end feet. The positioning of these cilia suggests that they function in the detection of growth signals and/or differentiation cues. To test this idea, we generated an inducible, cell type-specific Ift88 knock-out mouse line (K5rtTA;tetOCre;Ift88fl/fl) to disrupt cilia formation and maintenance specifically in HBCs. Surprisingly, the loss of HBC cilia did not affect the maintenance of the adult OE but dramatically impaired the regeneration of OSNs following lesion. Furthermore, the loss of cilia during development resulted in a region-specific decrease in neurogenesis, implicating HBCs in the establishment of the OE. Together, these results suggest a novel role for primary cilia in HBC activation, proliferation, and differentiation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show for the first time the presence of primary cilia on a quiescent population of basal stem cells, the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Importantly, our data demonstrate that cilia on HBCs are necessary for regeneration of the OE following injury. Moreover, the disruption of HBC cilia alters neurogenesis during the development of the OE, providing evidence that HBCs participate in the establishment of this tissue. These data suggest that the mechanisms of penetrance for ciliopathies in the OE extend beyond that of defects in olfactory sensory

  13. Prostate cancer stem cells: do they have a basal or luminal phenotype?

    PubMed

    Maitland, Norman J; Frame, Fiona M; Polson, Euan S; Lewis, John L; Collins, Anne T

    2011-02-01

    The prostate is a luminal secretory tissue whose function is regulated by male sex hormones. Castration produces involution of the prostate to a reversible basal state, and as the majority of prostate cancers also have a luminal phenotype, drug-induced castration is a front line therapy. It has therefore been assumed that the tumor arises from transformation of a luminal progenitor cell. Here, we demonstrate that a minority basal "cancer stem cell" (CSC) population persists in primary human prostate cancers, as in normal prostate, serving as a reservoir for tumor recurrence after castration therapy. While the CSCs exhibit a degree of phenotypic fluidity from different patients, the tumor-initiating cells in immunocompromised mice express basal markers (such as p63), but do not express androgen receptor (AR) or markers of luminal differentiation (PSA, PAP) when freshly fractionated from human tissues or following culture in vitro. Estrogen receptors α and β and AR are transcriptionally active in the transit amplifying (TA) cell (the progeny of SC). However, AR protein is consistently undetectable in TA cells. The prostate-specific TMPRSS2 gene, while upregulated by AR activity in luminal cells, is also transcribed in basal populations, confirming that AR acts as an expression modulator. Selected cells with basal phenotypes are tumor initiating, but the resultant tumors are phenotypically intermediate, with focal expression of AR, AMACR, and p63. In vitro differentiation experiments, employing lentivirally transduced SCs with a luminal (PSA-probasin) promoter regulating a fluorescent indicator gene, confirm that the basal SCs are the source of luminal progeny. PMID:21761340

  14. The role of the basal ganglia in beat perception: neuroimaging and neuropsychological investigations.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Jessica A

    2009-07-01

    Perception of musical rhythms is culturally universal. Despite this special status, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of rhythm perception, particularly with respect to beat processing. Findings are presented here from a series of studies that have specifically examined the neural basis of beat perception, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and studying patients with Parkinson's disease. fMRI data indicate that novel beat-based sequences robustly activate the basal ganglia when compared to irregular, nonbeat sequences. Furthermore, although most healthy participants find it much easier to discriminate changes in beat-based sequences compared to irregular sequences, Parkinson's disease patients fail to show the same degree of benefit. Taken together, these data suggest that the basal ganglia are performing a crucial function in beat processing. The results of an additional fMRI study indicate that the role of the basal ganglia is strongly linked to internal generation of the beat. Basal ganglia activity is greater when participants listen to rhythms in which internal generation of the beat is required, as opposed to rhythms with strongly externally cued beats. Functional connectivity between part of the basal ganglia (the putamen) and cortical motor areas (premotor and supplementary motor areas) is also higher during perception of beat rhythms compared to nonbeat rhythms. Increased connectivity between cortical motor and auditory areas is found in those with musical training. The findings from these converging methods strongly implicate the basal ganglia in processing a regular beat, particularly when internal generation of the beat is required. PMID:19673753

  15. p16 expression correlates with basal-like triple-negative breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Bakr, Amany A; Eldweny, Hany I

    2013-01-01

    Background: Basal-like breast carcinoma (BLBC) has attracted considerable attention over the past few years. It has been suggested that tumours expressing basal markers have a more aggressive clinical behaviour. However, a molecular basis for this disease remains unclear, and it lacks currently used therapeutic targets. Therefore developing a novel treatment strategy is crucial for improving the prognosis. The aim of this study was to characterise the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p16 in patients with BLBC compared with non-BLBC. Materials and methods: Eighty-five cases of grade-3 invasive ductal carcinomas not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) were analyzed. Immunohistochemical stains for oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and p16 were performed. BLBC was defined as ER-, PR-, Her2- and CK5/6+, and/or EGFR+. Results: Twenty cases were categorised as BLBC versus 65 as non-basal. High mitotic count and presence of necrosis were associated with basal-like phenotype. Distant metastasis developed in 40% of cases of BLBC with frequent spread to brain and lung. p16 had significantly higher expression in the basal subgroup (80% versus 50.8%, P = 0.04). Patients with BLBCs were found to have a lower disease-free survival (DFS) rate (60% versus 70.8%, P = 0.03). Conclusion: BLBC typically demonstrates a unique profile. p16 is frequently expressed in breast cancers with basal-like phenotype; this suggests that p16 may play a role in the poor prognosis of this tumour, and it may be used in the development of a targeted therapy that will result in improved patient prognostication and outcome. PMID:23717338

  16. Basal and inducible levels of Hsp70 in patients with acute heat illness induced during training

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chengfeng; Wu, Tangchun; Ren, Aiming; Pan, Qin; Chen, Sheng; Wu, Fen; Li, Xiaoying; Wang, Ruibo; Hightower, Lawrence E.; Tanguay, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) or stress proteins, and, in particular, the inducible, cytosolic Hsp70, represent a highly conserved response to heat exposure and to a variety of noxious stimuli. Many investigations have shown correlations between the aberrant expression of Hsps and disease states. Whether the basal and inducible levels of Hsp70 are of any biological significance in patients with heat-induced diseases remains unknown. In the present study, we compared the basal and inducible levels of Hsp70 by flow cytometry in lymphocytes of patients with heat-induced diseases and after recovery from this disease, and in matched controls. Both groups comprised individuals who exercised by running in the same hot environment. The level of inducible Hsp70 was also measured after a heat treatment of lymphocytes in vitro. The results show that there is variation of basal and inducible Hsp70 levels among individuals. However, the group of patients suffering from heat-induced illnesses in May shows a significantly higher basal (P = 0.02) level of Hsp70 than does the control group. Individuals who have an increased level of Hsp70 may be more sensitive to heat or may respond differently. The level of Hsp70 may represent a biomarker to evaluate whether they are more susceptible to stresses than other individuals. Interestingly, the basal level of Hsp70 is higher in both the patient group and the control group in November than in May. In fact, the basal levels of Hsp70 in the patient and control groups are essentially the same in November, perhaps reflecting the successful stress conditioning of both groups. PMID:12820658

  17. Origin of Ameloblastoma From Basal Cells of the Oral Epithelium- Establishing the Relation Using Neuroectodermal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Suneela, S; Narayan, T V; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Mohanty, Leeky; Shenoy, Sadhana; Swaminathan, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Basal cell layer of the oral epithelium has been rightfully regarded as a potential source of odontogenic tumours and cysts, but, without substantial evidence. Also, whether the basal cell layer retains within it, some properties of ectomesenchyme, which was imbibed during the early embryogenesis and hence its neuroectodermal relation, is not known. Here, an attempt is made to establish the hidden neuroectodermal potential of the oral epithelium, especially the basal layer, by observing the expression of known neuroectodermal markers, NSE (Neuron Specific Enolase), Synaptophysin and CD99. The expression of the same markers has also been studied in Ameloblastoma, connecting it with oral epithelium, in turn establishing basal cell layer as a potential source of Ameloblastoma. Materials and Methods: Sections of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples of 20 cases of Ameloblastoma and 10 cases of Normal Retromolar mucosa, were stained immunohistochemically with NSE, Synaptophysin, CD99 and also with CK-19 and evaluated for positive expression. Results: Positive reaction was obtained in all the cases of Ameloblastoma and NRM (Normal Retromolar mucosa) with NSE, all the cases of Ameloblastoma and eight cases of NRM with Synaptophysin and in six cases of Ameloblastoma and NRM with CD99. The staining was diffuse and more marked in case of NSE than Synaptophysin and CD99. CK19 staining done to assure that the tissue antigenicity was maintained was positive in all the samples. Interpretation and Conclusion: A strong relationship between the neuroectoderm, Ameloblastoma and the basal layer of the oral epithelium is established by the study. It favours the hypothesis that the basal cell layer of oral mucosa may be the sought out culprit in most cases of the Ameloblastomas, especially those occurring in the non-tooth bearing area. This would call for the need to incorporate additional therapy in the form of mucosal striping along with the

  18. Coupling in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit is aberrant in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cordon, Ivan; Nicolás, María Jesús; Arrieta, Sandra; Lopetegui, Eneko; López-Azcárate, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Artieda, Julio; Valencia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). Spectral estimates of the oscillatory activity, phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling interactions (CFC) and imaginary event-related coherence together with animals׳ behavior were analyzed. Oscillatory patterns in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit were highly altered by the effect of ketamine. CFC between the phases of low-frequency activities (delta, 1-4; theta 4-8Hz) and the amplitude of high-gamma (~80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) (~150Hz) increased dramatically and correlated with the movement increment shown by the animals. Between-structure analyses revealed that ketamine had also a massive effect in the low-frequency mediated synchronization of the HFO's across the whole circuit. Our findings suggest that ketamine administration results in an aberrant hypersynchronization of the whole cortico-basal circuit where the tandem theta/HFO seems to act as the main actor in the hyperlocomotion shown by the animals. Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. PMID:25910422

  19. High frequency of spinal involvement in patients with basal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Callacondo, D.; Garcia, H.H.; Gonzales, I.; Escalante, D.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gonzalez, Armando; Lopez, Maria T.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Martinez, Manuel; Alvarado, Manuel; Porras, Miguel; Saavedra, Herbert; Rodriguez, Silvia; Verastegui, Manuela; Mayta, Holger; Herrera, Genaro; Lescano, Andres G.; Zimic, Mirko; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Diaz, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC) in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC compared with that in individuals with viable limited intraparenchymal NCC (≤20 live cysts in the brain). Methods: We performed a prospective observational case-control study of patients with NCC involving the basal cisterns or patients with only limited intraparenchymal NCC. All patients underwent MRI examinations of the brain and the entire spinal cord to assess spinal involvement. Results: Twenty-seven patients with limited intraparenchymal NCC, and 28 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC were included in the study. Spinal involvement was found in 17 patients with basal subarachnoid NCC and in only one patient with limited intraparenchymal NCC (odds ratio 40.18, 95% confidence interval 4.74–340.31; p < 0.0001). All patients had extramedullary (intradural) spinal NCC, and the lumbosacral region was the most frequently involved (89%). Patients with extensive spinal NCC more frequently had ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (7 of 7 vs 3 of 11; p = 0.004) and tended to have a longer duration of neurologic symptoms than those with regional involvement (72 months vs 24 months; p = 0.062). Conclusions: The spinal subarachnoid space is commonly involved in patients with basal subarachnoid NCC, compared with those with only intraparenchymal brain cysts. Spinal cord involvement probably explains serious late complications including chronic meningitis and gait disorders that were described before the introduction of antiparasitic therapy. MRI of the spine should be performed in basal subarachnoid disease to document spinal involvement, prevent complications, and monitor for recurrent disease. PMID:22517102

  20. Bilateral basal ganglia calcification and recurrent generalized seizures as initial presentation of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manzoor Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Mustafa, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Pathological calcification of basal ganglia has been encountered in children since long back and is associated with various disease entities both acute and chronic. Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism is an important cause of basal ganglia calcification and can account for up to 73.8% of cases. The pathogenesis of basal ganglia calcification in hypoparathyroidism is not clear, however, a high calcium-phosphorus product and poor calcium control are believed to be directly related to calcification. Besides, a direct correlation is seen with the duration of hypocalcemia; the critical duration being ≥4 years. In the presented patient, basal ganglia calcification was seen at a very young age of 6 months. To best of our knowledge, this is probably the youngest case of bilateral basal ganglia calcification in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism in literature. This suggests that besides duration of hypocalcemia, certain genetic factors and the intrauterine milieu may have a role in the pathogenesis of basal ganglia calcification. PMID:26167230

  1. Terrace-like morphology of the boundary created through basal-prismatic transformation in magnesium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Bo -Yu; Wan, Liang; Wang, Jian; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi -Wei

    2015-01-24

    Here, the boundaries created through basal-prismatic transformation in submicron-sized single crystal magnesium have been investigated systematically using in situ transmission electron microscopy. We found that these boundaries not only deviated significantly from the twin plane associated with {101¯2} twin, but also possessed a non-planar morphology. After the sample was thinned to be less than 90 nm, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy observation found that the basic components of these boundaries are actually terrace-like basal-prismatic interfaces.

  2. The effect of loxiglumide (CR-1505) on basal and bombesin-stimulated gallbladder volume in man.

    PubMed

    Douglas, B R; Jebbink, M C; Tjon a Tham, R T; Jansen, J B; Lamers, C B

    1989-07-18

    This study was undertaken in 5 normal subjects to determine the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the regulation of basal gallbladder volume and gallbladder contraction stimulated by infusion of bombesin. Administration of the CCK-receptor antagonist, loxiglumide (CR-1505), led to doubling of the gallbladder volume (increase 104 +/- 26%; P less than 0.05) and reduced the bombesin-stimulated gallbladder contraction from 69 +/- 17 to 19 +/- 17% (P less than 0.05). The findings provide evidence suggesting that CCK plays an important role in the regulation of basal gallbladder tone and in mediating the gallbladder contraction induced by the administration of bombesin. PMID:2792196

  3. Bifurcation phenomena in an impulsive model of non-basal testosterone regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Churilov, Alexander N.; Medvedev, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Complex nonlinear dynamics in a recent mathematical model of non-basal testosterone regulation are investigated. In agreement with biological evidence, the pulsatile (non-basal) secretion of testosterone is modeled by frequency and amplitude modulated feedback. It is shown that, in addition to already known periodic motions with one and two pulses in the least period of a closed-loop system solution, cycles of higher periodicity and chaos are present in the model in hand. The broad range of exhibited dynamic behaviors makes the model highly promising in model-based signal processing of hormone data.

  4. Effect of Photofrin on skin reflection of basal cell nevus syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossweiner, Leonard I.; Jones, Linda R.; Koehler, Irmgard K.; Bilgin, Mehmet D.

    1996-04-01

    Skin reflection spectra were measured before and 24 hours after administration of Photofrin (Reg. TM) to basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) patients. The drug reduced the reflectivity of uninvolved BCNS skin and increased the reflectivity of basal cell cancers. Photofrin (Reg. TM) absorption in normal rat skin and uninvolved BCNS skin was resolved by the diffusion approximation. Optical constants calculated with a two-layer skin model indicate that the drug increased light scattering in tumor tissues. The possible use of reflection spectra for PDT light dosimetry is discussed.

  5. Basal Crevasses at the Ice-Ocean Interface of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Christianson, K. A.; Wood, A. C.; Dalla Santa, K. L.; Gobel, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The transition from limited- or no-slip conditions at the base of grounded ice to free-slip conditions beneath floating ice occurs across the few-kilometers-wide grounding zone of ice sheets. This transition is either an elastic flexural transition from bedrock to hydrostatically supported elevations (often tidally influenced), or a transition from thicker to thinner ice over a flat bed, or some combination of these processes. In either case, ice must flow across a changing stress field, often resulting in brittle deformation, which is manifested as basal crevassing at the ice sheet base and tidal strand cracking on the ice sheet surface. Thus the position and morphology of basal crevasses reveal important information about the stress state across this transition where ice and ocean interact. We acquired gridded ground-based radar surveys at two locations of the Whillans Ice Stream grounding zone, one over a subglacial peninsula where the transition to floatation is abrupt and the second over a subglacial embayment where several dynamic subglacial lakes drain to the ocean, likely resulting in episodic high sediment and water flux across the grounding line. Our surveys indicate a complex pattern of basal crevasses; some are related to basal topography, but others are more likely associated with ice flexure across the basal channel carrying water and sediment to the ocean. Due to the high reflectivity of seawater and the relatively shallow ice thickness, we image many off-nadir crevasses where the radar energy is first reflected from the ice-water interface and then from the crevasse, producing an echo signature with a reversed phase due to the second reflection. In several cases these crevasse echoes appear to mimic the geometry of a sub-ice 'wedge' dipping into the sediment, while in reality the radar never penetrates below the basal interface. Elsewhere we image pairs of crevasses from either side of a channel incised into the bed that produce curious signatures

  6. Neddylation controls basal MKK7 kinase activity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T; Wang, J; Pei, Y; Wang, Q; Wu, Y; Qiu, G; Zhang, D; Lv, M; Li, W; Zhang, J

    2016-05-19

    The c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway has been implicated in mammary tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating JNK activity in breast cancer cells remain unclear. Here, we report that the inhibition of ubiquitination-like post-translational modification neddylation through different strategies results in enhanced basal JNK phosphorylation in human breast cancer cells. The upregulation of basal JNK phosphorylation upon neddylation inhibition is independent of the deneddylation of Cullins, the well-characterized neddylation substrates. Since augmented basal JNK phosphorylation via ectopic MKK7 expression impedes proliferation and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, the neddylation system might contribute to mammary tumor development partially through limiting basal JNK phosphorylation. Further exploration reveals that MKK7, a JNK-specific MAP2K, undergoes neddylation in human breast cancer cells. MKK7 co-precipitates with a fragment of Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2), a large multimodular and pleiotropic protein that has been recognized as a SUMO E3 ligase. Knockdown of RanBP2 attenuates MKK7 neddylation and augments basal JNK phosphorylation without affecting the neddylation of Cullins, whereas ectopic expression of a RanBP2 fragment possessing SUMO E3 activity (RanBP2ΔFG) manifests the opposite effects. In vitro neddylation assays confirm that RanBP2ΔFG works as the neddylation E3 ligase for MKK7. The basal kinase activity of endogenous MKK7 increases upon RanBP2 knockdown but decreases upon the ectopic expression of RanBP2ΔFG. Furthermore, purified MKK7 shows reduced basal kinase activity after in vitro neddylation by RanBP2ΔFG. Consistently, RanBP2 knockdown leads to reduced proliferation and impaired EMT phenotype in human breast cancer cells and the effects of RanBP2 knockdown are reversed by simultaneous MKK7 knockdown. Taken together, our data suggest that MKK7 undergoes neddylation in human breast

  7. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Silapunt, Sirunya; Chen, Leon; Migden, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss. PMID:27583029

  8. Coexistence of Solid (Nodular) and Differentiated (Adenoid) Basal Cell Carcinoma at the Same Anatomical Site

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of two different histopathological types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the same anatomical site is rare and interesting. Herein, we report a case of coexistence of nodular and adenoid BCC in a 78-year-old peasant who presented with a plaque and a globular swelling on left paranasal region of few years duration. Histopathology of skin biopsy with immunohistochemistry study using antibodies to S100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and cytokeratin 7 (CK 7) from the margin of the ulcer and globular swelling confirmed the diagnosis that revealed features of nodular and adenoid basal cell carcinoma, respectively. Investigative work up did not reveal evidence of metastasis. PMID:26538745

  9. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Silapunt, Sirunya; Chen, Leon; Migden, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss. PMID:27583029

  10. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma in the Elderly: What Nondermatologists Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Lauren E; Federman, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    As the population ages and incidence of basal cell carcinoma continues to increase, we will be faced more frequently with difficult treatment decisions for basal cell carcinoma in the elderly. Different treatment options, including surgical excision, electrodessication and curettage, cryosurgery, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy, 5-fluorouracil, radiation therapy, vismodegib, combination therapy, and observation, may be considered on the basis of tumor characteristics. Given the wide range of therapeutic options, treatments can be tailored to achieve patients' goals of care within their anticipated life expectancy. PMID:27046242

  11. [Anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung with anomalous return of V6].

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Hiroshi; Shibuya, Jotaro; Handa, Masashi; Yamada, Takehiro

    2014-11-01

    The patient was 52-year-old woman. Her chief compliant was bloody sputum. The computed tomography revealed an anomalous artery from descending aorta running into left lung basal segment and anomalous left V6 return to superior pulmonary vein. The bronchoscopic examination showed normal bronchial branches. Under the diagnosis of anomalous systemic arterial supply to left basal lung without sequestration, left lower lobectomy was performed. Microscopically, the pulmonary artery showed intimal thickening and alveolar collapse with interstitial fibrosis were seen. The postoperative course was uneventful and she discharged at 6th postoperative day. PMID:25391467

  12. Acitretin systemic and retinoic acid 0.1% cream supression of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Bao; Zhang, San-Quan; Li, Chang-Xing; Huang, Zhen-Ming; Luo, Yu-Wu

    2010-01-01

    Retinoids have been used for years as monotherapy and/or in combination for treatment and suppression of cutaneous malignancies in patients with basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We report 4 cases with BCC confirmed by histopathology who were treated by short-term systemic acitretin combined with retinoic acid 0.1% cream. The 4 cases with BCC showed good response to the treatment without severe adverse effects during treatment and follow-up. The finding suggests that acitretin may be an appropriate treatment option for elderly patients who require less invasive treatment for BCC. PMID:25386240

  13. The scaling of maximum and basal metabolic rates of mammals and birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Lauro A.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Allometric scaling is one of the most pervasive laws in biology. Its origin, however, is still a matter of dispute. Recent studies have established that maximum metabolic rate scales with an exponent larger than that found for basal metabolism. This unpredicted result sets a challenge that can decide which of the concurrent hypotheses is the correct theory. Here, we show that both scaling laws can be deduced from a single network model. Besides the 3/4-law for basal metabolism, the model predicts that maximum metabolic rate scales as M, maximum heart rate as M, and muscular capillary density as M, in agreement with data.

  14. Imaging Basal Crevasses at the Grounding Line of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Dawson, E. C.; Christianson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We acquired gridded ground-based radar data at the WIS grounding zone where the transition from limited- or no-slip conditions at the base of grounded ice to free-slip conditions beneath floating ice occurs across a region only a few kilometers wide. This transition is either an elastic-flexural transition from bedrock to hydrostatically-supported elevations (often tidally influenced), a transition from thicker to thinner ice over a flat bed, or some combination of these. In either case, the stress field of the ice changes as it flows across the grounding zone, often resulting in brittle deformation, which is manifested as basal crevassing at the ice-sheet base and sometimes as strand cracks at the surface. The position and morphology of these features reveal important information about the stress state across this transition where ice and ocean interact. Our surveys indicate a complex pattern of basal crevassing with many imaged in two or more profile segments as a linear feature at the bed, usually trending oblique to flow and often extending for several kilometers. Due to the wide beam pattern of our antennas, we image many of the crevasses from off-nadir reflections. Thus their arrival times are later than the primary basal reflection and segments of the crevasse appear "below" the bed, when in fact they are merely trending oblique to the profile. Often these returns have a reversed phase relative to the bed echo because the high dielectric contrast of seawater and a favorable geometry enable reflections with little loss (but a second phase reversal) from the ice-water interface near the crevasse base. In a few cases, these crevasse echoes from targets trending oblique to the profile appear to mimic the geometry of a sub-ice sediment "wedge", while in reality the radar never penetrates below the basal interface. Only about 25% of the crevasses appear to extend any significant distance upward into the basal ice, typically at low angles. A subset of these are

  15. [Effect of prednisolone on the basal gastric secretion in laboratory rats depending on functional state of the stomach adrenoreceptors].

    PubMed

    Trefilov, A B

    2002-04-01

    Activation of the stomach adrenoreceptors with adrenaline resulting in inhibition of fundal glands promotes stimulating effect of prednisolone glucocorticosteroid action on basal gastric secretion. PMID:12058541

  16. Association Between Invisible Basal Ganglia and ZNF335 Mutations: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Rieko; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Takahashi, Takao

    2016-09-01

    ZNF335 was first reported in 2012 as a causative gene for microcephaly. Because only 1 consanguineous pedigree has ever been reported, the key clinical features associated with ZNF335 mutations remain unknown. In this article, we describe another family harboring ZNF335 mutations. The female proband was the first child of nonconsanguineous Japanese parents. At birth, microcephaly was absent; her head circumference was 32.0 cm (-0.6 SD). At 3 months, microcephaly was noted, (head circumference, 34.0 cm [-4.6 SD]). Brain MRI showed invisible basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, brainstem hypoplasia, and cerebellar atrophy. At 33 months, (head circumference, 41.0 cm [-5.1 SD]), she had severe psychomotor retardation. After obtaining informed consent from her parents, we performed exome sequencing in the proband and identified 1 novel and 1 known mutation in ZNF335, namely, c.1399T>C (p.C467R) and c.1505A>G (p.Y502C), respectively. The mutations were individually transmitted by her parents, indicating that the proband was compound heterozygous for the mutations. Her brain imaging findings, including invisible basal ganglia, were similar to those observed in the previous case with ZNF335 mutations. We speculate that invisible basal ganglia may be the key feature of ZNF335 mutations. For infants presenting with both microcephaly and invisible basal ganglia, ZNF335 mutations should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27540107

  17. How may the basal ganglia contribute to auditory categorization and speech perception?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Listeners must accomplish two complementary perceptual feats in extracting a message from speech. They must discriminate linguistically-relevant acoustic variability and generalize across irrelevant variability. Said another way, they must categorize speech. Since the mapping of acoustic variability is language-specific, these categories must be learned from experience. Thus, understanding how, in general, the auditory system acquires and represents categories can inform us about the toolbox of mechanisms available to speech perception. This perspective invites consideration of findings from cognitive neuroscience literatures outside of the speech domain as a means of constraining models of speech perception. Although neurobiological models of speech perception have mainly focused on cerebral cortex, research outside the speech domain is consistent with the possibility of significant subcortical contributions in category learning. Here, we review the functional role of one such structure, the basal ganglia. We examine research from animal electrophysiology, human neuroimaging, and behavior to consider characteristics of basal ganglia processing that may be advantageous for speech category learning. We also present emerging evidence for a direct role for basal ganglia in learning auditory categories in a complex, naturalistic task intended to model the incidental manner in which speech categories are acquired. To conclude, we highlight new research questions that arise in incorporating the broader neuroscience research literature in modeling speech perception, and suggest how understanding contributions of the basal ganglia can inform attempts to optimize training protocols for learning non-native speech categories in adulthood. PMID:25136291

  18. Discovery of Genes Expressed In Basal Endosperm Transfer Cells in Maize Using 454 Transcriptome Sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basal endosperm transfer cells (BETCs) constitute one of the four cell types in an endosperm with a major role in solute acquisition and transport functions from the mother plant. The BETCs with their wall-in-growth (WIG) feature that greatly increase plasma membrane area of each cell are critical f...

  19. BMP signaling and cellular dynamics during regeneration of airway epithelium from basal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Tomomi; Gao, Xia; Hong, Charles C.; Hotten, Danielle; Hogan, Brigid L. M.

    2016-01-01

    The pseudostratified epithelium of the lung contains ciliated and secretory luminal cells and basal stem/progenitor cells. To identify signals controlling basal cell behavior we screened factors that alter their self-renewal and differentiation in a clonal organoid (tracheosphere) assay. This revealed that inhibitors of the canonical BMP signaling pathway promote proliferation but do not affect lineage choice, whereas exogenous Bmp4 inhibits proliferation and differentiation. We therefore followed changes in BMP pathway components in vivo in the mouse trachea during epithelial regeneration from basal cells after injury. The findings suggest that BMP signaling normally constrains proliferation at steady state and this brake is released transiently during repair by the upregulation of endogenous BMP antagonists. Early in repair, the packing of epithelial cells along the basal lamina increases, but density is later restored by active extrusion of apoptotic cells. Systemic administration of the BMP antagonist LDN-193189 during repair initially increases epithelial cell number but, following the shedding phase, normal density is restored. Taken together, these results reveal crucial roles for both BMP signaling and cell shedding in homeostasis of the respiratory epithelium. PMID:26811382

  20. Metacognitive Theory Applied: Strategic Reading Instruction in the Current Generation of Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Hopkins, Carol J.

    A study examined the content of eight 1989 editions of the major basal reading series--those of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; D.C. Heath and Co.; Holt Rinehart and Winston; Houghton Mifflin; Macmillan; McGraw-Hill; Scott, Foresman and Co.; and Silver Burdett and Ginn. The study determined how and the extent to which lessons and activities that…

  1. Yeast GAL11 protein is a distinctive type transcription factor that enhances basal transcription in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, H; Hiraoka, Y; Fukasawa, T

    1993-01-01

    The yeast auxiliary transcription factor GAL11, a candidate for the coactivator, was partially purified from yeast cells, and its function was characterized in a cell-free transcription system. The partially purified GAL11 protein stimulated basal transcription from the CYC1 core promoter by a factor of 4-5 at the step of preinitiation complex formation. GAL11 protein also enhanced transcription activated by general regulatory factor 1, GAL4-AH, or GAL4-VP16 to the same extent as the basal transcription. Therefore, the apparent potentiation of the activators by GAL11 was attributable to the stimulation of basal transcription. The wild-type GAL11 protein (but not a mutant-type protein) produced in bacteria stimulated transcription as effectively as GAL11 from yeast. These results suggest that GAL11 functions as a positive cofactor of basal and activator-induced transcription in a cell-free transcription system. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8378310

  2. Basal enrichment within neuroepithelia suggests novel function(s) for Celsr1 protein.

    PubMed

    Formstone, Caroline J; Moxon, Christopher; Murdoch, Jennifer; Little, Peter; Mason, Ivor

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the 7TM-cadherins, Flamingo and Celsr1, is their asymmetric protein distribution and polarized activity at neighboring epithelial cell interfaces along defined axes of planar cell polarity. Here, we describe a novel distribution of Celsr1 protein to the basal surface of neuroepithelial cells within both the early neural tube and a less well-defined group of ventricular zone cells at the midline of the developing spinal cord. Importantly, this basal enrichment is lost in embryos homozygous for a mutant Celsr1 allele. We also demonstrate an intimate association between basal enrichment of Celsr1 protein and dorsal sensory tract morphogenesis, an intriguing spatio-temporal organization of Celsr1 protein along the apico-basal neuroepithelial axis suggestive of multiple Celsr1 protein isoforms and the existence of distinct cell surface Celsr1 protein species with direct signaling potential. Together, these data raise compelling new questions concerning the role of Celsr1 during neural development. PMID:20353824

  3. Basal debris entrainment and transport in glaciers of southwestern Bylot Island, Canadian Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zdanowicz, C.M.; Michel, F.A.; Shilts, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    Glaciers on southwestern Bylot Island in the Canadian Arctic flow from an alpine setting in high-grade crystalline Archean terrane, on to coastal lowlands underlain by clastic sedimentary strata of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. We have used the contrasting mineralogy of the substrate as a tool to study subglacial entrainment and transport of debris in two large piedmont glaciers on Bylot Island. High chlorite/ and mica-illite/smectite ratios indicate that most basal debris is derived from crystalline rocks underlying the upper reaches of the glaciers. The subglacial accretion of Cretaceous-Tertiary sediments appears restricted to the lowermost part of the basal zone and is most noticeable near the glaciers' termini. Ice associated with discrete silty-sandy debris layers is characterized by an isotopic signature indicative of refreezing of meltwater at the glacier sole. The compositional, textural and isotopic characteristics of basal sediment and ice lead us to conclude that subglacial entrainment through basal ice accretion occurs in both the upper and marginal parts of the glaciers.

  4. Basal cell nevus syndrome. Presentation of six cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fernández, José María; Infante-Cossío, Pedro; Belmonte-Caro, Rodolfo; Ruiz-Laza, Luis; García-Perla-García, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome, also known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder which is characterised by the presence of multiple maxillary keratocysts and facial basal cell carcinomas, along with other less frequent clinical characteristics such us musculo-skeletal disturbances (costal and vertebrae malformations), characteristic facies, neurological (calcification of the cerebral falx, schizophrenia, learning difficulties), skin (cysts, lipomas, fibromas), sight, hormonal, etc. On occasions it can be associated with aggressive basal cell carcinomas and malignant neoplasias, for which early diagnosis and treatment is essential, as well as family detection and genetic counselling. Currently there are new lines of investigation based on biomolecular studies, which aim at identifying the molecules responsible for these cysts and thus allowing an early diagnosis of these patients. In its clinical management and follow up, the odonto-stomatologist, the maxillofacial surgeon and several other medical specialists are involved. In this paper a review of the literature, and six cases of patients affected by multi-systemic and varied clinical expression of basal cell nevus syndrome, are presented. PMID:15800468

  5. Pain sensitivity following loss of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vierck, C J; Yezierski, R P; Wiley, R G

    2016-04-01

    Flexion/withdrawal reflexes are attenuated by spinal, intracerebroventricular (ICV) and systemic delivery of cholinergic agonists. In contrast, some affective reactions to pain are suppressed by systemic cholinergic antagonism. Attention to aversive stimulation can be impaired, as is classical conditioning of fear and anxiety to aversive stimuli and psychological activation of stress reactions that exacerbate pain. Thus, in contrast to the suppressive effects of cholinergic agonism on reflexes, pain sensitivity and affective reactions to pain could be attenuated by reduced cerebral cholinergic activation. This possibility was evaluated in the present study, using an operant test of escape from nociceptive thermal stimulation (10 °C and 44.5 °C) before and after destruction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. ICV injection of 192 IgG-saporin produced widespread loss of basal forebrain cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Post-injection, escape from thermal stimulation was decreased with no indication of recovery for upto 19 weeks. Also, the normal hyperalgesic effect of sound stress was absent after ICV 192-sap. Effects of cerebral cholinergic denervation or stress on nociceptive licking and guarding reflexes were not consistent with the effects on operant escape, highlighting the importance of evaluating pain sensitivity of laboratory animals with an operant behavioral test. These results reveal that basal forebrain cholinergic transmission participates in the cerebral processing of pain, which may be relevant to the pain sensitivity of patients with Alzheimer's disease who have prominent degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. PMID:26812034

  6. Stuttering and the Basal Ganglia Circuits: A Critical Review of Possible Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Per A.

    2004-01-01

    The possible relation between stuttering and the basal ganglia is discussed. Important clues to the pathophysiology of stuttering are given by conditions known to alleviate dysfluency, like the rhythm effect, chorus speech, and singing. Information regarding pharmacologic trials, lesion studies, brain imaging, genetics, and developmental changes…

  7. Bidirectional Plasticity in Striatonigral Synapses: A Switch to Balance Direct and Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceves, Jose J.; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Hernandez-Martinez, Ricardo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2011-01-01

    There is no hypothesis to explain how direct and indirect basal ganglia (BG) pathways interact to reach a balance during the learning of motor procedures. Both pathways converge in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) carrying the result of striatal processing. Unfortunately, the mechanisms that regulate synaptic plasticity in striatonigral…

  8. Evolution of basal crevasses links ice shelf stability to ocean forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, J. N.; Ma, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Iceberg calving is one of the primary mechanisms responsible for transferring ice from the Antarctic ice shelves to the ocean, but remains poorly understood. Previous theories of calving have sought to explain the calving process as a brittle phenomenon that occurs rapidly when surface or basal crevasses penetrate the entire ice thickness. Here we show that the strain-rate-weakening nature of ice permits initially narrow basal crevasses to seed an instability that gives rise to locally enhanced ductile deformation and thinning over length scales that are large compared to the ice thickness. This ductile failure process, called necking, amplifies long wavelength features of bottom topography and allows basal crevasses to penetrate an increasing fraction of the ice thickness as they advect downstream. Application of the model to the four largest Antarctic ice shelves shows that necking occurs downstream of pinning points and sharp protrusions in the ice shelf embayment where stress is highly concentrated. However, model predictions are sensitive to assumptions about basal melting and refreezing within crevasses, suggesting that the combination of mechanical instability and ice-ocean interaction on the scale of an individual crevasse may play a leading role in controlling ice shelf stability.

  9. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  10. Black Dialect and Elementary Reading Texts: A Linguistic Analysis of Three Basal Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Carolyn Louise

    Children who speak the black dialect usually are low classroom achievers. Teachers must understand differences between Black English (BE) and the reading text. This paper shows how black children experience difficulties with reading programs. Three basal reading series are analyzed. Initial Teaching Alphabet - phonics; Scientific Research…

  11. Visuo-Motor and Cognitive Procedural Learning in Children with Basal Ganglia Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor-Dubois, C.; Maeder, P.; Zesiger, P.; Roulet-Perez, E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated procedural learning in 18 children with basal ganglia (BG) lesions or dysfunctions of various aetiologies, using a visuo-motor learning test, the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task, and a cognitive learning test, the Probabilistic Classification Learning (PCL) task. We compared patients with early (less than 1 year old, n=9), later…

  12. Angiotensin AT1 and AT2 Receptors Regulate Basal Skeletal Muscle Microvascular Volume and Glucose Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Weidong; Wang, Wenhui; Liu, Jia; Barrett, Eugene J.; Carey, Robert M.; Cao, Wenhong; Liu, Zhenqi

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction via the type 1 receptor (AT1R) and vasodilatation through the type 2 receptor (AT2R). Both are expressed in muscle microvasculature where substrate exchanges occur. Whether they modulate basal muscle microvascular perfusion and substrate metabolism is not known. We measured microvascular blood volume (MBV), a measure of microvascular surface area and perfusion, in rats during systemic infusion of angiotensin II at either 1 or 100 ng/kg/min. Each caused a significant increase in muscle MBV. Likewise, administration of AT1R blocker losartan increased muscle MBV by >3-fold (p<0.001). Hindleg glucose extraction and muscle interstitial oxygen saturation simultaneously increased by 2–3-fold. By contrast, infusing AT2R antagonist PD123319 significantly decreased muscle MBV by up to 80% (p<0.001). This was associated with a significant decrease in hindleg glucose extraction and muscle oxygen saturation. AT2R antagonism and inhibition of nitric oxide synthase each blocked the losartan-induced increase in muscle MBV and glucose uptake. In conclusion, angiotensin II acts on both AT1R and AT2R to regulate basal muscle microvascular perfusion. Basal AT1R tone restricts muscle MBV and glucose extraction while basal AT2R activity increases muscle MBV and glucose uptake. Pharmacologic manipulation of the balance of AT1R and AT2R activity affords the potential to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:19996061

  13. Anhedonia in the psychosis risk syndrome: associations with social impairment and basal orbitofrontal cortical activity

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Victoria L; Schobel, Scott A; Steinfeld, Sara; Ben-David, Shelly; Thompson, Judy L; Small, Scott A; Moore, Holly; Corcoran, Cheryl M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Anhedonia is associated with poor social function in schizophrenia. Here, we examined this association in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, taking into account social anxiety. We then explored correlations between anhedonia and basal metabolic activity in selected forebrain regions implicated in reward processing. Methods: In 62 CHR individuals and 37 healthy controls, we measured social adjustment (Social Adjustment Self-Report Scale), social and physical anhedonia (Chapman Revised Anhedonia Scales), and social anxiety (Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents) in cross-section. In a subgroup of 25 CHR individuals for whom high-spatial-resolution basal-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were available, we also assessed correlations of these socio-affective constructs with basal cerebral blood volume in orbitofrontal cortex and related regions involved in reward processing. Results: Relative to controls, CHR individuals reported social impairment, greater social and physical anhedonia, and more social anxiety, exhibiting impairments comparable to schizophrenia. Regression analyses showed that anhedonia predicted social impairment and correlated negatively with basal cerebral blood volume within the orbitofrontal cortex (all P’s<0.05). Conclusions: Anhedonia and social anxiety are prominent in CHR individuals. Trait-like anhedonia may be a core phenotype related to orbitofrontal cortical function that, independent of symptoms, predicts social impairment. These data provide a rationale for interventions that target anhedonia and related activity in orbitofrontal cortical circuits in CHR individuals. PMID:27336033

  14. Basal forebrain moderates the magnitude of task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Knodt, Annchen R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that the amygdala promotes attention and emotional memory, in part, by driving activity in downstream target regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Prior work has demonstrated that the amygdala influences these regions directly through monosynaptic glutamatergic signaling, and indirectly by driving activity of the cholinergic basal forebrain and subsequent downstream acetylcholine release. Yet to date, no work has addressed the functional relevance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in facilitating signaling from the amygdala in humans. We set out to determine how blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and cholinergic basal forebrain interact to predict neural responses within downstream targets. Here, we use functional connectivity analyses to demonstrate that the cholinergic basal forebrain moderates increased amygdala connectivity with both the PFC and the hippocampus during the processing of biologically salient stimuli in humans. We further demonstrate that functional variation within the choline transporter gene predicts the magnitude of this modulatory effect. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence for the importance of cholinergic signaling in modulating neural pathways supporting arousal, attention and memory in humans. Further, our results may shed light on prior association studies linking functional variation within the choline transporter gene and diagnoses of major depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24847112

  15. Effects of basal insulin application on serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI-DONG; XING, LIN; TENG, JUN-RU; LI, SHUO; MI, NA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of basal insulin application on the serum visfatin and adiponectin (APN) levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 200 patients with T2DM, who were diagnosed in The Third People's Hospital of Jinan (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥7%), were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The patients used only oral hypoglycemic drugs and had never received insulin therapy. In the treatment group, basal insulin was administered in combination with the original application of oral hypoglycemic drugs, whereas the control group maintained the original use of oral hypoglycemic drugs or took other oral hypoglycemic agents. The body mass index and fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, visfatin, APN and blood lipid levels of the patients were examined prior to the treatment and six months later. The drug and insulin doses in the treatment group were adjusted according to the patients' blood glucose, which allowed the fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels to attain the standards. The fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels in the control group also achieved the standards. It was found that the six-month application of basal insulin could significantly decrease the glycosylated hemoglobin and significantly increase the serum APN levels; the serum visfatin levels, however, remained unchanged. The immediate application of basal insulin could facilitate the attainment of glycosylated hemoglobin standards in T2DM and could increase the plasma APN levels, preventing diabetic vascular complications. PMID:26136963

  16. The Awesome Power of Dikaryons for Studying Flagella and Basal Bodies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Dutcher, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Cilia/flagella and basal bodies/centrioles play key roles in human health and homeostasis. Among the organisms used to study these microtubule-based organelles, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has several advantages. One is the existence of a temporary phase of the life cycle, termed the dikaryon. These cells are formed during mating when the cells fuse and the behavior of flagella from two genetically distinguishable parents can be observed. During this stage, the cytoplasms mix allowing for a defect in the flagella of one parent to be rescued by proteins from the other parent. This offers the unique advantage of adding back wild-type gene product or labeled protein at endogenous levels that can used to monitor various flagellar and basal body phenotypes. Mutants that show rescue and ones that fail to show rescue are both informative about the nature of the flagella and basal body defects. When rescue occurs, it can be used to determine the mutant gene product and to follow the temporal and spatial patterns of flagellar assembly. This review describes many examples of insights into basal body and flagellar proteins’ function and assembly that have been discovered using dikaryons and discusses the potential for further analyses. PMID:24272949

  17. Taylor Glacier basal ice, Antarctica; a biogeochemical hot-spot in a glacial environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M.; Christner, B.; Samyn, D.; Lorrain, R.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing evidence points to a significant role for microbes in mediating the dissolution and oxidation of minerals in sediments beneath ice masses (i.e., subglacial weathering). Subglacial microbial ecosystems are local hotspots of microbial activity relative to the glacial ice overlying them due to the presence of liquid water and finely comminuted rock debris, providing nutrients and chemical energy sources. Eight different ice units from a 4 m basal ice sequence (ice temperature, -17°C) at the Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, were identified and sampled for microbiological and geochemical analysis. The vertical profile of cell and gas concentration in basal ice from Taylor Glacier indicates that the debris-rich ice layers have higher CO2 and cell concentrations relative to the glacier ice, but are depleted in O2 relative to atmospheric values. Acetate mineralization experiments were undertaken on a subset of glacial and basal ice samples with varying debris content, CO2 concentration, and cell biomass to assess heterotrophic activity at 2°C. Our results show that 14C-acetate was respired to CO2 in all the melted debris-rich ice samples analyzed, but little activity was observed in glacial ice samples of meteoric origin. Together, these data suggest that microorganisms entrapped within the debris-rich basal ice may be metabolically active in situ.

  18. ALD1 Regulates Basal Immune Components and Early Inducible Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Nicolás M; Jung, Ho Won; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-04-01

    Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also upregulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here, we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to the wild type and ald1 mutants yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that, in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces non-Pip metabolites that play roles in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively. PMID:25372120

  19. [Distinct roles of the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia circuit mechanism].

    PubMed

    Morita, Makiko; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2015-11-01

    The basal ganglia are key neural substrates that control not only motor balance but also emotion, motivation, cognition, learning, and decision-making. Dysfunction of the basal ganglia leads to neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease) and psychiatric disorders (e.g. drug addiction, schizophrenia, and depression). In the basal ganglia circuit, there are two important pathways: the direct and indirect striatal pathways. Recently, new molecular techniques that activate or inactive selectively the direct or indirect pathway neurons have revealed the function of each pathway. Here we review the distinct roles of the direct and indirect striatal pathways in brain function and drug addiction. We have developed a reversible neurotransmission blocking technique, in which transmission of each pathway is selectively blocked by specific expression of transmission-blocking tetanus toxin, and revealed that the activation of D1 receptors in the direct pathway is critical for reward learning/cocaine addiction, and that the inactivation of D2 receptors is critical for aversive learning/learning flexibility. We propose a new circuit mechanism by which the dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area can switch the direct and indirect pathways in the nucleus accumbens. These basal ganglia circuit mechanisms will give us insights into the pathophysiology of mental diseases. PMID:26785520

  20. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  1. Clonal Dynamics Reveal Two Distinct Populations of Basal Cells in Slow-Turnover Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Julie K.; Rulands, Steffen; Wilkinson, Adam C.; Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Göttgens, Berthold; Blanpain, Cédric; Simons, Benjamin D.; Rawlins, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epithelial lineages have been studied at cellular resolution in multiple organs that turn over rapidly. However, many epithelia, including those of the lung, liver, pancreas, and prostate, turn over slowly and may be regulated differently. We investigated the mouse tracheal epithelial lineage at homeostasis by using long-term clonal analysis and mathematical modeling. This pseudostratified epithelium contains basal cells and secretory and multiciliated luminal cells. Our analysis revealed that basal cells are heterogeneous, comprising approximately equal numbers of multipotent stem cells and committed precursors, which persist in the basal layer for 11 days before differentiating to luminal fate. We confirmed the molecular and functional differences within the basal population by using single-cell qRT-PCR and further lineage labeling. Additionally, we show that self-renewal of short-lived secretory cells is a feature of homeostasis. We have thus revealed early luminal commitment of cells that are morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells. PMID:26119728

  2. Basal Readers: The Lost Opportunity To Build the Knowledge that Propels Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Presents three examples of how basal reading programs miss opportunities to build word and world knowledge: lack of focus on systematically building essential knowledge and vocabulary during teacher read-alouds and discussions aimed at building background knowledge; wasting time by including too many lessons on formal reading comprehension skills;…

  3. The Differential Effects of Thalamus and Basal Ganglia on Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Crystal C. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Yip, James T. H.; King, Kristin E.; Li, Leonard S. W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined if subcortical stroke was associated with impaired facial emotion recognition. Furthermore, the lateralization of the impairment and the differential profiles of facial emotion recognition deficits with localized thalamic or basal ganglia damage were also studied. Thirty-eight patients with subcortical strokes and 19 matched…

  4. Emergence of context-dependent variability across a basal ganglia network

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah C.; Rajan, Raghav; Joshua, Mati; Doupe, Allison J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Context-dependence is a key feature of cortical-basal ganglia circuit activity, and in songbirds, the cortical outflow of a basal ganglia circuit specialized for song, LMAN, shows striking increases in trial-by-trial variability and bursting when birds sing alone rather than to females. To reveal where this variability and its social regulation emerge, we recorded stepwise from cortico-striatal (HVC) neurons and their target spiny and pallidal neurons in Area X. We find that cortico-striatal and spiny neurons both show precise singing-related firing across both social settings. Pallidal neurons, in contrast, exhibit markedly increased trial-by-trial variation when birds sing alone, created by highly variable pauses in firing. This variability persists even when recurrent inputs from LMAN are ablated. These data indicate that variability and its context-sensitivity emerge within the basal ganglia network, suggest a network mechanism for this emergence, and highlight variability generation and regulation as basal ganglia functions. PMID:24698276

  5. Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in continuity with nodular basal cell carcinoma: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Dongre, Atul M.; Khopkar, Uday S.; Kalyanpad, Yogesh N.; Gole, Prachi V.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are different morphological variants of BCC. It is very rare to see both the variants together in a single lesion. Here we report a case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a nodule on the trunk, which on biopsy showed features of both nodular BCC and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. PMID:27559504

  6. Correlating chemical sensitivity and basal gene expression reveals mechanism of action | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Changes in cellular gene expression in response to small-molecule or genetic perturbations have yielded signatures that can connect unknown mechanisms of action (MoA) to ones previously established. We hypothesized that differential basal gene expression could be correlated with patterns of small-molecule sensitivity across many cell lines to illuminate the actions of compounds whose MoA are unknown.

  7. Alteration of basal metabolic rate in Holstein steers during fescue toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of this study indicate that consumption of E+ tall fescue by cattle results in a reduction in basal metabolic rate. Six ruminally cannulated steers were weight-matched and pair-fed during a two period crossover experiment. Each period consisted of two temperatures (22°C and 30°C). During...

  8. Effects of Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions on Timing and Force Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, P.; Diedrichsen, J.; Ivry, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of basal ganglia dysfunction in humans have generally involved patients with degenerative disorders, notably Parkinson's disease. In many instances, the performance of these patients is compared to that of patients with focal lesions of other brain structures such as the cerebellum. In the present report, we studied the performance of…

  9. The Role of the Basal Ganglia in Implicit Contextual Learning: A Study of Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Asselen, Marieke; Almeida, Ines; Andre, Rui; Januario, Cristina; Goncalves, Antonio Freire; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Implicit contextual learning refers to the ability to memorize contextual information from our environment. This contextual information can then be used to guide our attention to a specific location. Although the medial temporal lobe is important for this type of learning, the basal ganglia might also be involved considering its role in many…

  10. Prickle3 synergizes with Wtip to regulate basal body organization and cilia growth

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chih-Wen; Ossipova, Olga; Ioannou, Andriani; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2016-01-01

    PCP proteins maintain planar polarity in many epithelial tissues and have been implicated in cilia development in vertebrate embryos. In this study we examine Prickle3 (Pk3), a vertebrate homologue of Drosophila Prickle, in Xenopus gastrocoel roof plate (GRP). GRP is a tissue equivalent to the mouse node, in which cilia-generated flow promotes left-right patterning. We show that Pk3 is enriched at the basal body of GRP cells but is recruited by Vangl2 to anterior cell borders. Interference with Pk3 function disrupted the anterior polarization of endogenous Vangl2 and the posterior localization of cilia in GRP cells, demonstrating its role in PCP. Strikingly, in cells with reduced Pk3 activity, cilia growth was inhibited and γ-tubulin and Nedd1 no longer associated with the basal body, suggesting that Pk3 has a novel function in basal body organization. Mechanistically, this function of Pk3 may involve Wilms tumor protein 1-interacting protein (Wtip), which physically associates with and cooperates with Pk3 to regulate ciliogenesis. We propose that, in addition to cell polarity, PCP components control basal body organization and function. PMID:27062996

  11. Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in continuity with nodular basal cell carcinoma: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Atul M; Khopkar, Uday S; Kalyanpad, Yogesh N; Gole, Prachi V

    2016-01-01

    Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are different morphological variants of BCC. It is very rare to see both the variants together in a single lesion. Here we report a case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a nodule on the trunk, which on biopsy showed features of both nodular BCC and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. PMID:27559504

  12. TERT Promoter Mutations Are Frequent in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Griewank, Klaus G.; Murali, Rajmohan; Schilling, Bastian; Schimming, Tobias; Möller, Inga; Moll, Iris; Schwamborn, Marion; Sucker, Antje; Zimmer, Lisa; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hillen, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the TERT promoter were recently identified in up to 71% of cutaneous melanoma. Subsequent studies found TERT promoter mutations in a wide array of other major human cancers. TERT promoter mutations lead to increased expression of telomerase, which maintains telomere length and genomic stability, thereby allowing cancer cells to continuously divide, avoiding senescence or apoptosis. TERT promoter mutations in cutaneous melanoma often show UV-signatures. Non-melanoma skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are very frequent malignancies in individuals of European descent. We investigated the presence of TERT promoter mutations in 32 basal cell carcinomas and 34 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas using conventional Sanger sequencing. TERT promoter mutations were identified in 18 (56%) basal cell carcinomas and in 17 (50%) cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. The recurrent mutations identified in our cohort were identical to those previously described in cutaneous melanoma, and showed a UV-signature (C>T or CC>TT) in line with a causative role for UV exposure in these common cutaneous malignancies. Our study shows that TERT promoter mutations with UV-signatures are frequent in non-melanoma skin cancer, being present in around 50% of basal and squamous cell carcinomas and suggests that increased expression of telomerase plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors. PMID:24260374

  13. Opponent and bidirectional control of movement velocity in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Yttri, Eric A; Dudman, Joshua T

    2016-05-19

    For goal-directed behaviour it is critical that we can both select the appropriate action and learn to modify the underlying movements (for example, the pitch of a note or velocity of a reach) to improve outcomes. The basal ganglia are a critical nexus where circuits necessary for the production of behaviour, such as the neocortex and thalamus, are integrated with reward signalling to reinforce successful, purposive actions. The dorsal striatum, a major input structure of basal ganglia, is composed of two opponent pathways, direct and indirect, thought to select actions that elicit positive outcomes and suppress actions that do not, respectively. Activity-dependent plasticity modulated by reward is thought to be sufficient for selecting actions in the striatum. Although perturbations of basal ganglia function produce profound changes in movement, it remains unknown whether activity-dependent plasticity is sufficient to produce learned changes in movement kinematics, such as velocity. Here we use cell-type-specific stimulation in mice delivered in closed loop during movement to demonstrate that activity in either the direct or indirect pathway is sufficient to produce specific and sustained increases or decreases in velocity, without affecting action selection or motivation. These behavioural changes were a form of learning that accumulated over trials, persisted after the cessation of stimulation, and were abolished in the presence of dopamine antagonists. Our results reveal that the direct and indirect pathways can each bidirectionally control movement velocity, demonstrating unprecedented specificity and flexibility in the control of volition by the basal ganglia. PMID:27135927

  14. A biologically constrained model of the whole basal ganglia addressing the paradoxes of connections and selection.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Jean; Girard, Benoît

    2014-06-01

    The basal ganglia nuclei form a complex network of nuclei often assumed to perform selection, yet their individual roles and how they influence each other is still largely unclear. In particular, the ties between the external and internal parts of the globus pallidus are paradoxical, as anatomical data suggest a potent inhibitory projection between them while electrophysiological recordings indicate that they have similar activities. Here we introduce a theoretical study that reconciles both views on the intra-pallidal projection, by providing a plausible characterization of the relationship between the external and internal globus pallidus. Specifically, we developed a mean-field model of the whole basal ganglia, whose parameterization is optimized to respect best a collection of numerous anatomical and electrophysiological data. We first obtained models respecting all our constraints, hence anatomical and electrophysiological data on the intrapallidal projection are globally consistent. This model furthermore predicts that both aforementioned views about the intra-pallidal projection may be reconciled when this projection is weakly inhibitory, thus making it possible to support similar neural activity in both nuclei and for the entire basal ganglia to select between actions. Second, we predicts that afferent projections are substantially unbalanced towards the external segment, as it receives the strongest excitation from STN and the weakest inhibition from the striatum. Finally, our study strongly suggests that the intrapallidal connection pattern is not focused but diffuse, as this latter pattern is more efficient for the overall selection performed in the basal ganglia. PMID:24077957

  15. Impacts of warm water on Antarctic ice shelf stability through basal channel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Karen E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Fricker, Helen Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves provide resistance to the flow of grounded ice towards the ocean. If this resistance is decreased as a result of ice shelf thinning or disintegration, acceleration of grounded ice can occur, increasing rates of sea-level rise. Loss of ice shelf mass is accelerating, especially in West Antarctica, where warm seawater is reaching ocean cavities beneath ice shelves. Here we use satellite imagery, airborne ice-penetrating radar and satellite laser altimetry spanning the period from 2002 to 2014 to map extensive basal channels in the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica. The highest density of basal channels is found in West Antarctic ice shelves. Within the channels, warm water flows northwards, eroding the ice shelf base and driving channel evolution on annual to decadal timescales. Our observations show that basal channels are associated with the development of new zones of crevassing, suggesting that these channels may cause ice fracture. We conclude that basal channels can form and grow quickly as a result of warm ocean water intrusion, and that they can structurally weaken ice shelves, potentially leading to rapid ice shelf loss in some areas.

  16. Basal insulin delivery reduction for exercise in type 1 diabetes: finding the sweet spot.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Hood; Leelarathna, Lalantha

    2016-08-01

    Exercise poses significant challenges to glucose management in type 1 diabetes. In spite of careful planning and manipulation of subcutaneous insulin administration, increased risk of hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability during and after exercise may occur as a result of inherent delays in insulin action and impaired counter-regulatory hormone responses. Various strategies to mitigate this issue have been advocated in clinical practice, including ingestion of supplementary carbohydrate prior to exercise, reducing background and pre-meal insulin bolus and performing bouts of resistance/high intensity exercise before aerobic exercise. Insulin pump therapy, considered the most physiological form of insulin replacement for type 1 diabetes allows modulation of basal insulin delivery before, during and after exercise. However uncertainty remains regarding the optimal strategy to reduce basal insulin delivery and its efficacy. In this issue of Diabetologia, McAuley and colleagues (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3981-9 ) report on the impact of a 50% reduction of basal insulin delivery before, during and after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Results from this study may contribute to a better understanding of the effects of basal insulin delivery manipulation and may aid in devising therapeutic approaches for glucose management during exercise. PMID:27287376

  17. Integrating Borehole Measurements with Modeling of Englacial and Basal Conditions, Western Greenland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, J. T.; Humphrey, N. F.; Johnson, J. V.; Meierbachtol, T. W.; Brinkerhoff, D. J.; Landowski, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from a project combining flow-line ice sheet modeling and a borehole drilling campaign focused on Isunnguata Sermia, a terrestrial terminating outlet glacier in western Greenland. Our work focuses on this glacier in order to isolate non-marine influenced ice dynamic processes, particularly those related to hydrologic conditions and basal sliding. During summer of 2010 we hot-water drilled 13 boreholes to the bed or near the bed of this outlet glacier. We installed sensors in the boreholes for extended-term measurement of ice temperature, internal ice deformation, and subglacial water pressure. We also performed other borehole experiments including hydrologic slug tests, injection tests, video logging of englacial ice and basal conditions, and time lapse photography of basal sliding. The subglacial hydrological system of the ice sheet demonstrates numerous similarities to observations from mountain glaciers. For example, during the summer season the subglacial drainage system can have complex and changing englacial and subglacial connections, can undergo diurnal water pressure swings from 30% to 105% of overburden pressure, and the residence time of basal waters is relatively short. The ice temperature in the upper 100-200 m is warmer than expected or predicted by ice sheet modeling, however, perhaps due to the addition of latent heat.

  18. INDIVIDUALIZED READING VERSUS A BASAL READER PROGRAM AT FIRST GRADE LEVEL, IN RURAL COMMUNITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOQUIN, L. DORIS; SPENCER, DORIS U.

    THIS STUDY COMPARED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A STANDARD BASAL READING PROGRAM WITH AN INDIVIDUALIZED READING PROGRAM WHICH INCORPORATED (1) A PROGRAM OF PHONETIC SKILLS, (2) WORD RECOGNITION, (3) COMPREHENSION SKILLS, AND (4) A PROGRAM OF STORY READING. TWELVE COMBINATION FIRST- AND SECOND-GRADE INDIVIDUALIZED READING CLASSES WERE PAIRED WITH 12 BASAL…

  19. Enrichment of Mammary Basal and Luminal Cells for Cell-of-Origin Metastasis Studies.

    PubMed

    Kabeer, Farhia; Podsypanina, Katrina; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is an important model system in metastasis research. Mammary epithelial stem cells are of particular interest because of their capacity for regeneration and their role in cancer initiation. This protocol describes how to enrich for mammary basal and luminal epithelial cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). PMID:26832681

  20. Look What They've Done to Judy Blume!: The "Basalization" of Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kenneth S.

    1988-01-01

    Uses one basalized revision of Judy Blume's "The One in the Middle is the Green Kangaroo" to illustrate how publishers change literature to fit their self-imposed constraints. Criticizes publishers' emphasis on learning words and skills, which causes them to fracture and narrow language, and results in adapted and synthetic texts instead of…

  1. Full and Constrained Moment Tensor Inversions of Basal Icequakes Beneath Gornergletscher, Switzerland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, F.; Dreger, D. S.; Clinton, J. F.; Deichmann, N.

    2009-12-01

    A solid understanding of glacier flow dynamics is fundamental to accurate predictions of changes in the cryosphere in response to a changing climate. For Alpine glaciers, such as Gornergletscher in southern Switzerland, basal hydrological processes are a controlling factor in the ice dynamics. The drastically varying basal water pressures can either enhance or inhibit glacier sliding. In the case of Gornergletscher, basal water pressure variations are mainly due to the diurnal melt-cycle as well as yearly drainage events of a nearby ice-marginal lake. The latter phenomenon is an example for glacier outburst floods, which can potentially occur in all glaciated areas throughout the world and pose the most significant hazard related to glaciers. In order to attain a better understanding of Gornergletscher’s flow dynamics in response to the lake drainages the ETH Zurich deployed campaign seismic networks covering four lake drainage sequences. The instruments were placed directly on glacier ice near the lake and detected seismic signals of well over 100,000 icequakes. Although the vast majority of these seismic events occurs at the glacier surface, a small subset was confidently located near the glacier bed. The temporal occurrence of these basal icequakes correlates strongly with variations in subglacial water pressure, which in turn controls basal sliding. Here we present the results of full and constrained moment tensor inversions of seismograms of an icequake cluster at Gornergletscher’s bed. As the glacier bed near the icequake hypocenters is strongly inclined we calculate Green’s Functions for a 3D medium. In order to estimate the effect of errors in Green’s Functions on the determined source mechanisms we perform a set of sensitivity studies. We use Green’s Functions for velocity models of different complexity, ranging from a homogeneous halfspace to a model that includes the three-dimensional basal topography and a basal intermediate layer. The results

  2. Evolution of basal crevasses links ice shelf stability to ocean forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassis, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    Basal melting and iceberg calving are the primary mechanisms responsible for transferring mass from the ice shelves to the ocean. Although the connection between basal melting and ocean forcing is clear, the effect of ocean forcing on iceberg calving remains more controversial with conflicting hypothesis about whether a warming ocean will increase or decrease iceberg production. Previous theories of iceberg calving have often relied on various flavors of fracture mechanics, assuming that iceberg calving is a brittle process. Here I use a perturbation analysis to show that the strain weakening nature of ice allows initially narrow basal crevasses with width much smaller than the ice thickness to seed a visco-plastic instability that gives rise to locally enhanced ductile deformation and ice shelf thinning over length scales that are compared to the ice thickness. This process, called plastic necking, widens crevasses and allows crevasses to penetrate an increasing fraction of the ice thickness as they advect downstream. This instability progresses slowly, however, and enhanced melting or accretion of marine ice within crevasses as they advect downstream will either enhance or decrease crevasse penetration depth thereby exerting a strong control on ice shelf stability. Despite large uncertainty in ice-ocean interaction on the scale of individual crevasses, this model is able to explain the difference between the quasi-steady short (<15 km long) Erebus Glacier Tongue and much longer (>80 km long) Drygalski Ice Tongue. Moreover, application of the model to the four largest Antarctic ice shelves predicts that without marine ice accumulation in basal crevasses, deep crevasses form downstream of the grounding line that correspond to locations of fractures visible in satellite imagery. However, accumulation of marine ice within basal crevasses can substantially decrease crevasse penetration heights, increasing ice shelf stability, providing a strong link between iceberg

  3. Trangenic misexpression of the differentiation-specific desmocollin isoform 1 in basal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Henkler, F; Strom, M; Mathers, K; Cordingley, H; Sullivan, K; King, I

    2001-01-01

    Keratinocytes undergoing terminal differentiation are characterized by well-defined changes in protein expression, which contribute towards the transformation of cytoarchitecture and epithelial morphology. Characteristic patterns of desmosomal cadherins are tightly regulated and distinct isoforms are expressed during development and differentiation of epithelial tissues. Desmocollin-1 is strictly confined to suprabasal layers of epidermis, but it is absent in mitotically active, basal keratinocytes. This raises the question of whether basal desmocollin-1 could alter desmosomal functions and compromise keratinocyte proliferation, stratification, or early differentiation in skin. In this study, we misexpressed human desmocollin-1 in mouse epidermis, under control of the keratin-14 promoter. Transgenic animals were generated, which showed a specific expression of transgenic human desmocollin-1 in epidermal basal cells. High level transgenic expression, which was equal to or greater than endogenous protein levels, was observed in mice with multiple copy integration of the transgene. A punctate distribution of desmocollin-1 was demonstrated at the cell membrane by indirect immunofluorescence. Transgenic human desmocollin-1 colocalized with endogenous desmosomal marker proteins, indicating efficient incorporation into desmosomes. Transgenic mice did not display any obvious abnormalities, either in the histology of skin and hair follicles, or in the ultrastructure of desmosomes. These observations suggest that desmocollin-1 can function as a desmosomal cadherin both in basal and suprabasal cells. We propose that the differentiation-specific desmocollin isoforms desmocollin-1 and desmocollin-3 are functionally equivalent in basal epidermal cells and suggest that their changing expression patterns are markers, but not regulators, of the initial steps in keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:11168810

  4. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Intelligence in Healthy Young Adults: The Role of Basal Ganglia Volume

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. Conclusions/Significance The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia

  5. Reducing the uncertainty in projections of future ice shelf basal melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Ralph; Kauker, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Simulations of ice shelf basal melting in future climate scenarios from the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) have revealed a large uncertainty and the potential of a rapidly increasing basal mass loss particularly for the large cold-water ice shelves in the Ross and Weddell Seas. The large spread in model results was traced back to uncertainties in the freshwater budget on the continental shelf, which is governed by sea ice formation. Differences in sea ice formation, in turn, follow the regional differences between the atmospheric heat fluxes imprinted by the climate models. A more recent suite of BRIOS and FESOM model experiments was performed with output from two members of the newer generation of climate models enganged in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Comparing simulations forced with output from the AR5/CMIP5 models HadGem2 and MPI-ESM, we find that uncertainties arising from inter-model differences in high latitudes have reduced considerably. Projected heat fluxes and thus sea ice formation over the Southern Ocean continental shelves have converged to an ensemble with a much smaller spread than between the AR4 experiments. For most of the ten larger ice shelves in Antarctica, a gradual (but accelerating) increase of basal melt rates during the 21st century is a robust feature throughout the various realisations. Both with HadGem2 and with MPI-ESM forcing, basal melt rates for Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf in FESOM increase by a factor of two by the end of the 21st century in the RCP85 scenario. For the smaller, warm-water ice shelves, inter-model differences in ice shelf basal mass loss projections are still slightly larger than differences between the scenarios RCP45 and RCP85; compared to AR4 projections, however, the model-dependent spread has been strongly reduced.

  6. Stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the magnocellular cell groups in human basal forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Zaborszky, L.; Hoemke, L.; Mohlberg, H.; Schleicher, A.; Amunts, K.; Zilles, K.

    2008-01-01

    The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the globus pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Among the cell populations, the magnocellular, cholinergic corticopetal projection neurons have received particular attention due to their loss in Alzheimer’s disease. In MRI images, the precise delineation of these structures is difficult due to limited spatial resolution and contrast. Here, using microscopic delineations in ten human postmortem brains, we present stereotaxic probabilistic maps of the basal forebrain areas containing the magnocellular cell groups. Cytoarchitectonic mapping was performed in silver stained histological serial sections. The positions and the extent of the magnocellular cell groups within the septum (Ch1-2), the horizontal limb of the diagonal band (Ch3), and in the sublenticular part of the basal forebrain (Ch4) were traced in high-resolution digitized histological sections, 3D reconstructed, and warped to the reference space of the MNI single subject brain. The superposition of the cytoarchitectonic maps in the MNI brain shows the intersubject variability of the various Ch compartments and their stereotaxic position relative to other brain structures. Both the right and left Ch4 regions showed significantly smaller volumes when age was considered as a covariate. Probabilistic maps of compartments of the basal forebrain magnocellular system are now available as an open source reference for correlation with fMRI, PET, and structural MRI data of the living human brain. PMID:18585468

  7. Human and murine prostate basal/stem cells are not direct targets of prolactin.

    PubMed

    Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Angelergues, Antoine; Boutillon, Florence; d'Acremont, Bruno; Maidenberg, Marc; Oudard, Stéphane; Goffin, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    Local overexpression of prolactin (PRL) in the prostate of Pb-PRL transgenic mice induces benign prostate tumors exhibiting marked amplification of the epithelial basal/stem cell compartment. However, PRL-activated intracellular signaling seems to be restricted to luminal cells, suggesting that basal/stem cells may not be direct targets of PRL. Given their described role as prostate cancer-initiating cells, it is important to understand the mechanisms that regulate basal/stem cells. In this study, we evaluated whether PRL can act directly on these cells, by growing them as prostaspheres. For this, primary 3D prostasphere cultures were prepared from unfractionated cells isolated from freshly harvested human and mouse benign prostate tissues and subjected to PRL stimulation in vitro. None of the various concentrations of PRL tested showed any effects on the sizes or numbers of the prostaspheres generated. In addition, neither activation of canonical PRL-induced signaling pathways (Stat5, Stat3 or Erk1/2) nor increased expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 were detected by immunostaining in PRL-stimulated prostaspheres. Consistent with the absence of response, PRL receptor mRNA levels were generally undetectable in mouse sphere cells. We conclude that human and mouse prostate basal/stem cells are not direct targets of PRL action. The observed amplification of basal/stem cells in Pb-PRL prostates might be due to paracrine mechanisms originating from PRL action on other cell compartments. Our current efforts are aimed at unraveling these mechanisms. PMID:25888939

  8. Rho-associated protein kinase inhibition enhances airway epithelial Basal-cell proliferation and lentivirus transduction.

    PubMed

    Horani, Amjad; Nath, Aditya; Wasserman, Mollie G; Huang, Tao; Brody, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    The identification of factors that regulate airway epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation are essential for understanding the pathophysiology of airway diseases. Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) are downstream effector proteins of RhoA GTPase that direct the functions of cell cytoskeletal proteins. ROCK inhibition with Y27632 has been shown to enhance the survival and cloning of human embryonic stem cells and pluripotent cells in other tissues. We hypothesized that Y27632 treatment exerts a similar effect on airway epithelial basal cells, which function as airway epithelial progenitor cells. Treatment with Y27632 enhanced basal-cell proliferation in cultured human tracheobronchial and mouse tracheal epithelial cells. ROCK inhibition accelerated the maturation of basal cells, characterized by a diminution of the cell size associated with cell compaction and the expression of E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. Transient treatment of cultured basal cells with Y27632 did not affect subsequent ciliated or mucous cell differentiation under air-liquid interface conditions, and allowed for the initial use of lower numbers of human or mouse primary airway epithelial cells than otherwise possible. Moreover, the use of Y27632 during lentivirus-mediated transduction significantly improved posttransduction efficiency and the selection of a transduced cell population, as determined by reporter gene expression. These findings suggest an important role for ROCKs in the regulation of proliferation and maturation of epithelial basal cells, and demonstrate that the inhibition of ROCK pathways using Y27632 provides an adjunctive tool for the in vitro genetic manipulation of airway epithelial cells by lentivirus vectors. PMID:23713995

  9. Magnetic Fabrics and their Application to Basal Crevasse Fills, Flàajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, W. R., Jr.; Hooyer, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long, linear features consisting of sediment and ice, approximately 100 m long and 20 cm wide, run transverse to the margin of Flàajökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull Ice Cap. These features, interpreted as basal crevasse fills, are thought to have formed by debris and water injected into a void under pure tension or a combination of tension and shear in response to an ice pressure drop at the bed. The debris content of these basal crevasse fills are between 5 to 10% by volume. The formation of these basal crevasse fills is uncertain, because direct observation is difficult. To study these basal crevasse fills, we used the orientation of magnetic grains using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to guide us in understanding their kinematics. The AMS technique is superior over other fabric methods because a three-dimensional susceptibility ellipsoid is used to determine strain. We sampled two basal crevasse fills and obtained 86 ice core samples for AMS analyses. We also cut nine blocks of ice to determine the magnetic mineralogy, grain size of the magnetic carrier and c-axis orientation of the ice. The AMS results demonstrate that at one fill, the fabric was most likely formed by a combination of pure shear and simple shear. At the second site the AMS results were not well clustered possibly due to insufficient strain. Hysteresis and high temperature susceptibility tests indicate a magnetite carrier that was silt-sized or smaller. Thin sections used to evaluate c-axis fabrics display several multi-maximums that suggested that the fabric developed through recrystallization during deformation. It is inferred that grain scale processes reveal deformation by grain-boundary migration and grain nucleation. Magnetic particles appear to have behaved as passive markers following the March model (1932). Given this data set, we argue that the crevasse fills were formed by multiple processes including injection of turbid waters followed by in situ-freezing and

  10. G protein–dependent basal and evoked endothelial cell vWF secretion

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Luiza; Andreeva, Alexandra; Visintine, David J.; Kim, Kyungho; Vogel, Stephen M.; Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra; Chernaya, Olga; Liu, Guoquan; Bakhshi, Farnaz R.; Haberichter, Sandra L.; Iwanari, Hiroko; Kusano-Arai, Osamu; Suzuki, Nobuchika; Hamakubo, Takao; Kozasa, Tohru; Cho, Jaehyung; Du, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) secretion by endothelial cells (ECs) is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Interestingly, we observed increased bleeding in EC-Gα13−/−;Gα12−/− mice that could be normalized by infusion of human vWF. Blood from Gα12−/− mice exhibited significantly reduced vWF levels but normal vWF multimers and impaired laser-induced thrombus formation, indicating that Gα12 plays a prominent role in EC vWF secretion required for hemostasis and thrombosis. In isolated buffer-perfused mouse lungs, basal vWF levels were significantly reduced in Gα12−/−, whereas thrombin-induced vWF secretion was defective in both EC-Gαq−/−;Gα11−/− and Gα12−/− mice. Using siRNA in cultured human umbilical vein ECs and human pulmonary artery ECs, depletion of Gα12 and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-fusion factor attachment protein α (α-SNAP), but not Gα13, inhibited both basal and thrombin-induced vWF secretion, whereas overexpression of activated Gα12 promoted vWF secretion. In Gαq, p115 RhoGEF, and RhoA-depleted human umbilical vein ECs, thrombin-induced vWF secretion was reduced by 40%, whereas basal secretion was unchanged. Finally, in vitro binding assays revealed that Gα12 N-terminal residues 10-15 mediated the binding of Gα12 to α-SNAP, and an engineered α-SNAP binding-domain minigene peptide blocked basal and evoked vWF secretion. Discovery of obligatory and complementary roles of Gα12 and Gαq/11 in basal vs evoked EC vWF secretion may provide promising new therapeutic strategies for treatment of thrombotic disease. PMID:24081657

  11. Optogenetic Dissection of the Basal Forebrain Neuromodulatory Control of Cortical Activation, Plasticity, and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Hussain Shuler, Marshall G.; Petersen, Carl C.H.; Kepecs, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) houses major ascending projections to the entire neocortex that have long been implicated in arousal, learning, and attention. The disruption of the BF has been linked with major neurological disorders, such as coma and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in normal cognitive aging. Although it is best known for its cholinergic neurons, the BF is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific BF cell types have led to a renaissance in the study of the BF and are beginning to yield new insights about cell-type-specific circuit mechanisms during behavior. These approaches enable us to determine the behavioral conditions under which cholinergic and noncholinergic BF neurons are activated and how they control cortical processing to influence behavior. Here we discuss recent advances that have expanded our knowledge about this poorly understood brain region and laid the foundation for future cell-type-specific manipulations to modulate arousal, attention, and cortical plasticity in neurological disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the basal forebrain is best known for, and often equated with, acetylcholine-containing neurons that provide most of the cholinergic innervation of the neocortex, it is in fact an anatomically and neurochemically complex structure. Recent studies using transgenic mouse lines to target specific cell types in the basal forebrain have led to a renaissance in this field and are beginning to dissect circuit mechanisms in the basal forebrain during behavior. This review discusses recent advances in the roles of basal forebrain cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in cognition via their dynamic modulation of cortical activity. PMID:26468190

  12. Evidence for a glutamatergic projection from the zona incerta to the basal ganglia of rats.

    PubMed

    Heise, Claire E; Mitrofanis, John

    2004-01-19

    This study explores the organisation and neurochemical nature of the projections from the zona incerta (ZI) to the basal ganglia. Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetised with ketamine (100 mg/kg) and Rompun (10 mg/kg), and injections of cholera toxin subunit B were made into each of the following nuclei: the ZI, the substantia nigra (SN), the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PpT), and the entopeduncular nucleus (Ep). Brains were aldehyde fixed, sectioned, and processed using standard methods. Tracer-labelled sections were then doubly labelled with antibodies to glutamate (Glu), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), parvalbumin (Pv), or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; the latter two are markers for GABAergic cells); these neurochemicals characterise most types of ZI cells. After ZI injections, labelling was nonuniform across the different basal ganglia nuclei. The bulk of labelling, both anterograde and retrograde, was seen in the SN and PpT and, to a lesser extent, within the other nuclei of the basal ganglia (e.g., caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamus, Ep). In the SN, labelling was found in both major parts of the nucleus, the pars compacta and pars reticulata. Within the PpT, however, the bulk of labelling was limited to only one of the two sectors of the nucleus, namely, the pars dissipata (PpTd). The pars compacta of the PpT (PpTc) remained largely free of labelled profiles. After CTb injections into three basal ganglia nuclei (SN, PpT, Ep), most labelled cells in the ZI were glutamate+ and very few were NOS+ or gamma-aminobutyric acidergic. Overall, the results indicate that the ZI is in a position to influence preferentially the activity of the SN and PpTd of the basal ganglia via an excitatory, glutamatergic input. PMID:14689481

  13. Loss of Dickkopf 3 Promotes the Tumorigenesis of Basal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lorsy, Eva; Topuz, Aylin Sophie; Geisler, Cordelia; Stahl, Sarah; Garczyk, Stefan; von Stillfried, Saskia; Hoss, Mareike; Gluz, Oleg; Hartmann, Arndt; Knüchel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Dickkopf 3 (DKK3) has been associated with tumor suppression of various tumor entities including breast cancer. However, the functional impact of DKK3 on the tumorigenesis of distinct molecular breast cancer subtypes has not been considered so far. Therefore, we initiated a study analyzing the subtype-specific DKK3 expression pattern as well as its prognostic and functional impact with respect to breast cancer subtypes. Based on three independent tissue cohorts including one in silico dataset (n = 30, n = 463 and n = 791) we observed a clear down-regulation of DKK3 expression in breast cancer samples compared to healthy breast tissue controls on mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, most abundant reduction of DKK3 expression was detected in the highly aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Analyzing a large in silico dataset comprising 3,554 cases showed that low DKK3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with reduced recurrence free survival (RFS) of luminal and basal-like breast cancer cases. Functionally, DKK3 re-expression in human breast cancer cell lines led to suppression of cell growth possibly mediated by up-regulation of apoptosis in basal-like but not in luminal-like breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic DKK3 expression in mesenchymal basal breast cancer cells resulted in partial restoration of epithelial cell morphology which was molecularly supported by higher expression of epithelial markers like E-Cadherin and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers such as Snail 1. Hence, we provide evidence that down-regulation of DKK3 especially promotes tumorigenesis of the aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Further studies decoding the underlying molecular mechanisms of DKK3-mediated effects may help to identify novel targeted therapies for this clinically highly relevant breast cancer subtype. PMID:27467270

  14. Airway basal stem cells: a perspective on their roles in epithelial homeostasis and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Rock, Jason R; Randell, Scott H; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2010-01-01

    The small airways of the human lung undergo pathological changes in pulmonary disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis obliterans and cystic fibrosis. These clinical problems impose huge personal and societal healthcare burdens. The changes, termed 'pathological airway remodeling', affect the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and the reciprocal trophic interactions that occur between these tissues. Most of the normal human airway is lined by a pseudostratified epithelium of ciliated cells, secretory cells and 6-30% basal cells, the proportion of which varies along the proximal-distal axis. Epithelial abnormalities range from hypoplasia (failure to differentiate) to basal- and goblet-cell hyperplasia, squamous- and goblet-cell metaplasia, dysplasia and malignant transformation. Mesenchymal alterations include thickening of the basal lamina, smooth muscle hyperplasia, fibrosis and inflammatory cell accumulation. Paradoxically, given the prevalence and importance of airway remodeling in lung disease, its etiology is poorly understood. This is due, in part, to a lack of basic knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation, maintenance and repair of the airway epithelium. Specifically, little is known about the proliferation and differentiation of basal cells, a multipotent stem cell population of the pseudostratified airway epithelium. This Perspective summarizes what we know, and what we need to know, about airway basal cells to evaluate their contributions to normal and abnormal airway remodeling. We contend that exploiting well-described model systems using both human airway epithelial cells and the pseudostratified epithelium of the genetically tractable mouse trachea will enable crucial discoveries regarding the pathogenesis of airway disease. PMID:20699479

  15. CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration is an independent favorable prognostic indicator in basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes may indicate an immune response to cancer development, but their significance remains controversial in breast cancer. We conducted this study to assess CD8+ (cytotoxic T) lymphocyte infiltration in a large cohort of invasive early stage breast cancers, and to evaluate its prognostic effect in different breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. Methods Immunohistochemistry for CD8 staining was performed on tissue microarrays from 3992 breast cancer patients. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were counted as intratumoral when in direct contact with tumor cells, and as stromal in adjacent locations. Kaplan-Meier functions and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to examine the associations between tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and breast cancer specific survival. Results Among 3403 cases for which immunohistochemical results were obtained, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were identified in an intratumoral pattern in 32% and stromal pattern in 61% of the cases. In the whole cohort, the presence of intratumoral tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly correlated with young age, high grade, estrogen receptor negativity, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positivity and core basal intrinsic subtype, and was associated with superior breast cancer specific survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that the favorable prognostic effect of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes was significant only in the core basal intrinsic subgroup (Hazard ratio, HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.23-0.54). No association with improved survival was present in those triple negative breast cancers that lack expression of basal markers (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.48-2.04) nor in the other intrinsic subtypes. Conclusions CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are an independent prognostic factor associated with better patient survival in basal-like breast cancer, but not in non-basal triple negative breast cancers nor in other intrinsic

  16. Basal ice flow regime influenced by glacial lake formation in Rhonegletscher, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, D.; Tsutaki, S.; Sugiyama, S.

    2010-12-01

    After the retreat of glacier terminus over a bedrock bump, a glacial lake has formed in front of Rhonegletscher, Switzerland. It is suspected that ice flow regime is now significantly influenced by the lake water. To investigate the impact of lake formation on glacier dynamics, we carried out surface and borehole observations in the terminus region of Rhonegletscher. In 2008 and 2009 summer seasons, we drilled more than 20 boreholes to measure borehole deformation by repeated inclinometry. Ice surface speed was measured by surveying stakes installed nearby the boreholes. We used a borehole televiewer to measure basal sliding speed by tracking stones and markers at the bottom of the boreholes. We also measured basal sediment layer thickness by hammering a penetrometer at the bottom of the boreholes. Our measurements showed clear decrease in the ice deformation rate near the lake (Fig. 1). Ice deformation accounted for 60-80% in the upper part of our study site (e.g. boreholes 1 and 5), whereas it is less than 10% near the lake (e.g. boreholes 7, 10 and 11). This result suggests that the basal ice flow near the lake is enhanced by the lake water. According to the basal sliding speed measurement in borehole 2, sliding accounted for less than 10% of basal flow speed from 2 to 31 August 2009. Deformation of a subglacial sediment layer is thus important in this region. The penetrometer measurement confirmed that the study site is underlain by a subglacial sediment layer whose thickness was in a range of 0-70 m. Fig.1 Terminus of Rhonegletscher and proglacial lakes indicated by the shaded areas. The columns show ice surface and deformation speeds measured at each borehole site from 9 July to 5 September in 2009. Ice deformation speed was negligibly small at boreholes 7, 10, and 11. Surface contour spacing is 20 m.

  17. TEM study on relationship between stacking faults and non-basal dislocations in Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dalong; Jiang, Lin; Schoenung, Julie M.; Mahajan, Subhash; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent interest in the study of stacking faults and non-basal slip in Mg alloys is partly based on the argument that these phenomena positively influence mechanical behaviour. Inspection of the published literature, however, reveals that there is a lack of fundamental information on the mechanisms that govern the formation of stacking faults, especially I1-type stacking faults (I1 faults). Moreover, controversial and sometimes contradictory mechanisms have been proposed concerning the interactions between stacking faults and dislocations. Therefore, we describe a fundamental transmission electron microscope investigation on Mg 2.5 at. % Y (Mg-2.5Y) processed via hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and extrusion at 623 K. In the as-HIPed Mg-2.5Y, many and dislocations, together with some dislocations were documented, but no stacking faults were observed. In contrast, in the as-extruded Mg-2.5Y, a relatively high density of stacking faults and some non-basal dislocations were documented. Specifically, there were three different cases for the configurations of observed stacking faults. Case (I): pure I2 faults; Case (II): mixture of I1 faults and non-basal dislocations having component, together with basal dislocations; Case (III): mixture of predominant I2 faults and rare I1 faults, together with jog-like dislocation configuration. By comparing the differences in extended defect configurations, we propose three distinct stacking fault formation mechanisms for each case in the context of slip activity and point defect generation during extrusion. Furthermore, we discuss the role of stacking faults on deformation mechanisms in the context of dynamic interactions between stacking faults and non-basal slip.

  18. Mirror-writing and reversed repetition of digits in a right-handed patient with left basal ganglia haematoma.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, L G; Kinsbourne, M

    1987-01-01

    A 57 year old right-handed Chinese man sustained a left basal ganglia haemorrhage resulting in speech disorder and right hemiplegia. He mirror-wrote with his left hand and during speech recovery repeated digits in reverse sequence. The abnormal right to left directionality possibly reflected release of right basal ganglia from left-sided control. Images PMID:3612156

  19. Conditional Routing of Information to the Cortex: A Model of the Basal Ganglia's Role in Cognitive Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Andrea; Lebiere, Christian; Anderson, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a central role in cognition and are involved in such general functions as action selection and reinforcement learning. Here, we present a model exploring the hypothesis that the basal ganglia implement a conditional information-routing system. The system directs the transmission of cortical signals between pairs of regions…

  20. Basal gaps in long-term (25 years) ungrazed and heavy grazed northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil/site stability is one of three interrelated attributes of rangeland health. A quantitative assessment indicator of this attribute is the proportion of soil surface exposed by basal gaps between perennial plants. The amount and distribution of basal gaps is a direct indication of site susceptibi...